News: Centre: Physics Centrehttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyFri, 06 Jul 2018 13:22:35 +0200http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Now-the-quantum-computer-will-become-reality.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Now-the-quantum-computer-will-become-reality.aspxNow the quantum computer will become reality<p><b>​A billion-dollar research effort will make Sweden a world leader in quantum technology. Now, Chalmers researchers have begun work on developing a quantum computer with far greater computational power than today&#39;s best supercomputers.​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">The days are currently full of interviews. Per Delsing, Professor of quantum device physics at Chalmers, is busy recruiting high-level researchers and doctoral students to help pull through a very challenging project: building a quantum computer that far exceeds today's best computers.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;To get the right staff is the alpha and omega of it all. But it looks promising, we have received many good applications&quot;, says Per Delsing.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The development of the quantum computer is the main project in the ten-year research program Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology, launched at the turn of the year, thanks to a donation of SEK 600 million from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. With additional funds from Chalmers, industry and other universities, the total budget is landing nearly SEK 1 billion.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The goal is to make Sweden a leading player in quantum technology. Indeed, recent research in quantum technology has placed the world on the verge of a new technology revolution – the second quantum revolution.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="http://www.chalmers.se/SiteCollectionDocuments/Centrum/WACQT/Grafik%20kvantteknologi.pdf"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/WACQT/Grafik%20kvantteknolgi_liten.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:300px;height:178px" />​</a>The first quantum revolution took place in the 20th century, when one learned to utilize quantum mechanical properties of light and material. This led, among other things, to the laser and transistor – inventions that underpin information technology that largely shape today's society.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Now scientists have also learned to control individual quantum systems as individual atoms, electrons and photons, which opens up new opportunities. In sight, there are extremely fast quantum computers, interception-proof communication and hyper-sensitive measurement methods.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Interest is big worldwide. Decision makers and business leaders begin to realize that quantum technology has the potential to greatly change our society, for instance through improved artificial intelligence, secure encryption and more effective design of drugs and materials. Several countries are investing heavily and the EU is launching a scientific flagship in the area next year.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;If Sweden will continue to be a top level nation, we must be at the forefront here&quot;, says Peter Wallenberg Jr.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Several universities and major computer companies, like Google and IBM, are aiming to try to build a quantum computer. The smallest building block of the quantum computer – the quantum bit – is based on completely different principles than today's computers (see graphic). This means that you can handle huge amounts of information with relatively few quantum bits. To surpass the computational power of today's supercomputers, it's enough with 50-60 quantum bits. The Chalmers researchers aim at reaching at least one hundred quantum bits within ten years.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Such a quantum computer could, for example, be used to solve optimization problems, advanced machine learning and heavy calculations of molecule properties,&quot; says Per Delsing, who heads the research program.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/WACQT/Kvantdator_180518_11_340.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The Chalmers researchers have chosen to base their quantum computer on superconducting circuits. They have worked with single superconducting quantum bits for almost 20 years and delivered many contributions to knowledge building within the field. Now they are going to scale up and get many quantum bits to work together.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At the lab, they are currently working to improve the lifetime of single quantum bits. Quantum physiological conditions are extremely sensitive, and collapse if they are exposed to disturbances. Among other things, the researchers paint the inside of the experimental chamber black, so that disturbing microwaves that succeed in slipping through cables are quickly absorbed. They are also investigating and evaluating different strategies for linking quantum bits to each other, which is necessary to be able to perform proper calculations.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;In addition to the lifetime and the relationship between quantum bits, the number of quantum bits is an important piece of puzzle to solve. Making many of them is easy, but we need to find smart ways to utilize the equipment to control each of them. Otherwise, it will be very expensive,&quot; explains Per Delsing.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In order for the project to get initiated councils, they are in the process of setting up a scientific board. Per Delsing is currently waiting for answers from eight quantum experts who were asked to be board members.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;They become a sounding board that we can discuss complex issues with, for instance how fast we will be able to scale the number of quantum bits. The technology we need to build the quantum computer is constantly evolving, and it's difficult to determine when it's time to buy it,&quot; he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>On the theory side, the recruitment of competent staff is at the focus right now. Theoretical physicist Giulia Ferrini, expert on quantitative calculations in continuous variables, was in place already in January and the recruitment process is ongoing with a number of applicants. A total of 15 people will be employed at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;We have received great response and good applicants. Getting the right people is the most important thing – the project does not get any better than the employees,&quot; says Göran Johansson, professor of applied quantum physics and one of the main researchers in the quantum computer project.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The theoretical efforts will initially focus on developing a computer model of the quantum computer experiment so that they can help experimentalists forward through simulations.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/WACQT/Kvantdator_180518_16.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:350px;height:234px" />&quot;A challenge is to identify early properties which are important in the model, so we do not include too many details when scaling up. Otherwise, we'll hit the ceiling for what a supercomputer can simulate before we reach up to 40 quantum bits,&quot; says Göran Johansson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Another important task for the theorists is to explore what a smaller quantum computer model can do. With eight-digit well-functioning quantum bits, one could drive the so-called Shors algorithm – which aroused the world's interest in building quantum computers - and crack today's encryption system. But the first quantum computers, which can do anything beyond what a regular computer can, will be significantly smaller.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;The question is what becomes the breakthrough application for a small quantum computer. We need to find out what a hundred bit quantum computer can solve for problems that someone is interested in knowing the answer to,&quot; says Göran Johansson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Here, collaboration with companies comes into the picture - from them, researchers can get tips for real-life and urgent applications to investigate. The Chalmers researchers have conducted discussions with Astrazeneca, who would have a lot to gain if they could calculate the characteristics of large molecules in their drug development, and Jeppesen who works to optimize aircraft crews and routes. The interest in becoming part of the quantum technology initiative is generally large among companies that have challenges that would be appropriate to solve with a quantum computer.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;They are keen to not miss the train. This can go quite quickly when it's getting started, and then it's important to have skills and be able to get up at the right pace,&quot; says Per Delsing.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Ingela Roos</div> <div>Photo: Johan Bodell</div> <div>Graphics: Yen Strandqvist</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheter/magasin/Sidor/default.aspx">This is a text from Chalmers magasin #1 2018​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Facts about the Wallenberg Center for Quantum Technology</h5> <div>• Wallenberg Center for Quantum Technology is a ten-year initiative aimed at bringing Swedish research and industry to the front of the second quantum revolution.</div> <div>• The research program will develop and secure Swedish competence in all areas of quantum technology.</div> <div>• The research program includes a focus project aimed at developing a quantum computer, as well as an excellence program covering the four sub-areas.</div> <div>• The Wallenberg Center for Quantum Technology is led by and largely located at Chalmers. The areas of quantum communication and quantum sensors are coordinated by KTH and Lund University.</div> <div>• The program includes a research school, a postdoctoral program, a guest research program and funds for recruiting young researchers. It will ensure long-term Swedish competence supply in quantum technology, even after the end of the program.</div> <div>• Collaboration with several industry partners ensures that applications are relevant to Swedish industry.</div>Fri, 06 Jul 2018 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Fibre-optic-transmission-of-4000-km-made-possible-by-ultra-low-noise-optical-amplifiers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Fibre-optic-transmission-of-4000-km-made-possible-by-ultra-low-noise-optical-amplifiers.aspxFibre-optic transmission of 4000 km made possible by ultra-low-noise optical amplifiers<p><b>​Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. This is a reach improvement of almost six times what is possible when using conventional optical amplifiers.​ The results are published in Nature Communications.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/figure_amplifier_comparison_eng_adj_180628_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Video streaming, cloud storage and other online services have created an insatiable demand for higher transmission capacity. To meet this demand, new technologies capable of significant improvements over existing solutions are being explored worldwide.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The reach and capacity in today’s fibre optical transmission links are both limited by the accumulation of noise, originating from optical amplifiers in the link, and by the signal distortion from nonlinear effects in the transmission fibre. In this ground-breaking demonstration, the researchers showed that the use of phase-sensitive amplifiers can significantly, and simultaneously, reduce the impact of both of these effects. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“While there remain several engineering challenges before these results can be implemented commercially, the results show, for the first time, in a very clear way, the great benefits of using these amplifiers in optical communication”, says Professor Peter Andrekson, who leads the research on optical communication at Chalmers University of Technology. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/peter_andrekson_170112_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The amplifiers can provide a very significant reach improvement over conventional approaches, and could potentially improve the performance of future fibre-optical communication systems.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Such amplifiers may also find applications in quantum informatics and related fields, where generation and processing of quantum states are of interest, as well as in spectroscopy or any other application which could benefit from ultra-low-noise amplification”, says Professor Peter Andrekson (tpo the left).</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research has been funded by the European Research Council (ERC), the Swedish Research Council, and the Wallenberg Foundation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Caption, figure in top of page:</strong> Recovered signal constellation diagrams comparing conventional amplification and phase-sensitive amplification in an amplifier noise limited regime (-2 dBm launch power) and a fibre nonlinearity limited regime (8 dBm launch power). Illustration: Samuel Olsson</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Photo of Peter Andrekson:</strong> Henrik Sandsjö</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Read the paper &gt;&gt;&gt;</h5> <div>Olsson et al., Long-haul optical transmission link using low-noise phase-sensitive amplifiers, Nature Communications 9, 2513 (2018). DOI 10.1038/s41467-018-04956-5​</div> Thu, 05 Jul 2018 04:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Josef-Hansson-awarded-by-Chalmers-Foundation.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Josef-Hansson-awarded-by-Chalmers-Foundation.aspxJosef Hansson awarded by Chalmers Foundation<p><b>​​Josef Hansson, PhD student at the Electronics Materials and Systems Laboratory and chair of the MC2 PhD student council, has recently been awarded with a travel grant from &quot;Alice och Lars Erik Landahls stipendiefond&quot;.</b></p><div>The grant, 18 800 SEK, will be used for the 2018 IEEE 68th Electronic Components and Technology Conference in San Diego.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Susannah Carlsson</div> <div>Photo: Michael Nystås</div>Mon, 02 Jul 2018 13:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/How-smart-technology-gadgets-can-avoid-speed-limits.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/How-smart-technology-gadgets-can-avoid-speed-limits.aspxHow smart technology gadgets can avoid speed limits<p><b>Speed limits apply not only to traffic. There are limitations on the control of light as well, in optical switches for internet traffic, for example. Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology now understand why it is not possible to increase the speed beyond a certain limit – and know the circumstances in which it is best to opt for a different route.</b></p><div>Light and other electromagnetic waves play a crucial role in almost all modern electronics, for example in our mobile phones. In recent years researchers have developed artificial speciality materials – known as optomechanical metamaterials – which overcome the limitations inherent in natural materials in order to control the properties of light with a high degree of precision. For example, what are termed optical switches are used to change the colour or intensity of light. In internet traffic these switches can be switched on and off up to 100 billion times in a single second. But beyond that, the speed cannot be increased any further. These unique speciality materials are also subject to this limit.</div> <div> </div> <div><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/340x296px/philippeandsophieapple340x295.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>“Researchers had high hopes of achieving higher and higher speeds in optical switches by further developing optomechanical metamaterials. We now know why these materials failed to outcompete existing technology in internet traffic and mobile communication networks,” says Sophie Viaene, a nanophotonics researcher at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</div> <div> </div> <div>To find out why there are speed limits and what they mean, Viaene went outside the field of optics and analysed the phenomenon using what is termed non-linear dynamics in her doctoral thesis. The conclusion she reached is that it is necessary to choose a different route to circumvent the speed limits: instead of controlling an entire surface at once, the interaction with light can be controlled more efficiently by manipulating one particle at a time. Another way of solving the problem is to allow the speciality material to remain in constant motion at a constant speed and to measure the variations from this movement.</div> <div> </div> <div>But Viaene and her supervisor, Associate Professor Philippe Tassin, say that the speed limit does not pose a problem for all applications. It is not necessary to change the properties of light at such high speeds for screens and various types of displays. So there is great potential for the use of these speciality materials here since they are thin and can be flexible.</div> <div>Their results have determined the direction researchers should take in this area of research and their scientific article was recently published in the highly regarded journal Physical Review Letters. The pathway is now open for the ever smarter watches, screens and glasses of the future. </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“The switching speed limit is not a problem in applications where we see the light, because our eyes do not react all that rapidly. We see a great potential for optomechanical metamaterials in the development of thin, flexible gadgets for interactive visualisation technology,” says Philippe Tassin, an associate professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</div> <div>  <br /></div> <div>Text and image: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se</a></div> <div> </div> <div>Caption (the image in the text above):Chalmers researchers Sophie Viaene and Philippe Tassin recently published their research findings in nanophotonics in the well-respected journal Physical Review Letters. They have determined what direction to take in their area of research. <br /></div> <div> </div> <div><span><a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.197402?"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.197402?"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a></span>Read the scientific article <a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.197402?">Do Optomechanical Metasurfaces Run Out of Time?</a> in Physical Review Letters. The article is written by Chalmers’ researchers Sophie Viaene and Philippe Tassin together with Vincent Ginis and Jan Danckaert from the Vrije Universitet Brussels and Harvard University.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">How nanophotonics and optomechanical metamaterials work:</h4> <div>Nanophotonics is a sub-field of physics which studies how to control and manipulate light by using structured electromagnetic materials.</div> <div>Light and electromagnetic waves are of crucial importance in our society, for the internet, smartphones, TV screens and so on. But in order to make further progress in developing optics technology, natural materials are no longer adequate. Artificial speciality materials, known as optomechanical metamaterials, are needed to circumvent the limitations inherent in natural materials. The research involves studying and designing artificial materials in order to develop properties which enable these materials to manipulate electromagnetic waves – ranging from microwaves through terahertz waves to visible light. The researchers design the materials by allowing small electric circuits to replace atoms as the underlying building blocks for the interaction of electromagnetic waves with matter. These structured electromagnetic materials allow components to be designed that can exert high-level control over light with a high degree of precision. <br /></div></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">For more information:</h4> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Philippe-Tassin.aspx">Philippe Tassin</a>, Associate Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers, <a href="mailto:philippe.tassin@chalmers.se">philippe.tassin@chalmers.se</a>, </div> <div>+46 31 772 22 92</div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/viaene.aspx">Sophie Viaene</a>, Researcher, Department of Physics, Chalmers, <a href="mailto:sophie.viaene@chalmers.se">sophie.viaene@chalmers.se</a>, +32 2 629 36 13 <br /></div> Thu, 28 Jun 2018 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Graphene-assembled-film-shows-higher-thermal-conductivity-than-graphite-film.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Graphene-assembled-film-shows-higher-thermal-conductivity-than-graphite-film.aspxGraphene assembled film shows higher thermal conductivity than graphite film<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have developed a graphene assembled film that has over 60 percent higher thermal conductivity than graphite film – despite the fact that graphite simply consists of many layers of graphene. The graphene film shows great potential as a novel heat spreading material for form-factor driven electronics and other high power-driven systems.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Until now, scientists in the graphene research community have assumed that graphene assembled film cannot have higher thermal conductivity than graphite film. Single layer graphene has a thermal conductivity between 3500 and 5000 W/mK. If you put two graphene layers together, then it theoretically becomes graphite, as graphene is only one layer of graphite.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Today, graphite films, which are practically useful for heat dissipation and spreading in mobile phones and other power devices, have a thermal conductivity of up to 1950 W/mK. Therefore, the graphene-assembled film should not have higher thermal conductivity than this. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Research scientists at Chalmers University of Technology have recently changed this situation. They discovered that the thermal conductivity of graphene assembled film can reach up to 3200 W/mK, which is over 60 percent higher than the best graphite films.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/jliu_2016_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Professor Johan Liu (to the right) and his research team have done this through careful control of both grain size and the stacking orders of graphene layers. The high thermal conductivity is a result of large grain size, high flatness, and weak interlayer binding energy of the graphene layers. With these important features, phonons, whose movement and vibration determine the thermal performance, can move faster in the graphene layers rather than interact between the layers, thereby leading to higher thermal conductivity. </div> <div>“This is indeed a great scientific break-through, and it can have a large impact on the transformation of the existing graphite film manufacturing industry”, says Johan Liu.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Furthermore, the researchers discovered that the graphene film has almost three times higher mechanical tensile strength than graphite film, reaching 70 MPa.  </div> <div>“With the advantages of ultra-high thermal conductivity, and thin, flexible, and robust structures, the developed graphene film shows great potential as a novel heat spreading material for thermal management of form-factor driven electronics and other high power-driven systems”, says Johan Liu.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>As a consequence of never-ending miniaturization and integration, the performance and reliability of modern electronic devices and many other high-power systems are greatly threatened by severe thermal dissipation issues.</div> <div>“To address the problem, heat spreading materials must get better properties when it comes to thermal conductivity, thickness, flexibility and robustness, to match the complex and highly integrated nature of power systems”, says Johan Liu. “Commercially available thermal conductivity materials, like copper, aluminum, and artificial graphite film, will no longer meet and satisfy these demands.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The IP of the high-quality manufacturing process for the graphene film belongs to SHT Smart High Tech AB, a spin-off company from Chalmers, which is going to focus on the commercialization of the technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More about the research</h5> <div>The work has been done in collaboration with research teams at Uppsala University and SHT Smart High Tech AB in Sweden, Shanghai and Tongji University in China and University of Colorado Boulder in USA.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>The paper is published online in the well-known scientific journal Small, with the weblink: </strong><a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/smll.201801346">onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/smll.201801346</a></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Related publications:</strong> </div> <div>Nat. Commun. 7:11281 doi: 10.1038/ncomms11281 (2016). <a href="http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160429/ncomms11281/full/ncomms11281.html">www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160429/ncomms11281/full/ncomms11281.html</a></div> <div>Carbon 106 (2016) 195-201, <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.014">dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.014</a> </div> <div>Carbon 61 (2013) 342-348,<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.05.014">dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.05.014​</a></div> <div>Advanced Materials, DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104408)</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More about the graphene film</h5> <div>The manufacturing method of the graphene film is based on simultaneous graphene oxide film formation and reduction, on aluminum substrate, dry-bubbling film separation, followed by high-temperature treatment as well as mechanical pressing. These conditions enable the formation of the graphene film with large grain size, good atomic alignment, thin-film structure, and low interlayer binding energy. All these features have great benefit for the transfer of both high-frequency diffusive phonons and low-frequency ballistic phonons, and thereby lead to the improvement of in-plane thermal conductivity of the graphene film. Phonons are quantum particles that describe the thermal conductivity of a material.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">For further information, please contact:</h5> <div>Johan Liu, Professor at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience <span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 31 772 30 67, </span><a href="mailto:jliu@chalmers.se">jliu@chalmers.se​</a></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Photo Source: Johan Liu/Krantz Nanoart</div> Thu, 21 Jun 2018 13:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Summer-course-with-focus-on-nuclear-safety.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Summer-course-with-focus-on-nuclear-safety.aspxInteractive summer course with a focus on nuclear safety<p><b></b></p><div>Since last year, Chalmers University of Technology is coordinating the research and innovation project Cortex to improve nuclear power safety. On 18-21 June 2018, about 30 young researchers from Europe, the US and Asia took part in a summer course at Chalmers, organised by <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Christophe-Demazière.aspx">Professor Christophe Demazière </a>. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The topic was reactor dynamics with a focus on nuclear safety. About half of the participants were on-site, at the Department of Physics at Chalmers. The other participants took part in the activities via distance education, thanks to a multimedia room at the department. In addition, an innovative pedagogical format relying on flipped classrooms and adapted to both the on-site and off-site audiences was used throughout the course.</div> <br /><div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Chalmers-gets-5,1-M€-to-improve-nuclear-safety.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read the news article &quot;Chalmers gets 5,1 MSEK to improve nuclear safety&quot;.</a>  <br /></div> <div><a href="http://cortex-h2020.eu/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more about the project at Cortex webpage. <br /></a></div> <div><a href="https://www.linkedin.com/company/cortex-h2020/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Follow Cortex on LinkedIn.</a><br /><a href="http://cortex-h2020.eu/"></a></div>Thu, 21 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Ground-breaking-discoveries-could-create-tougher-alloys-with-many-applications.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Ground-breaking-discoveries-could-create-tougher-alloys-with-many-applications.aspxSuperior alloys could be possible, thanks to ground-breaking research<p><b>Many current and future technologies require alloys that can withstand high temperatures​ without corroding. Now, researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have hailed a major breakthrough in understanding how alloys behave at high temperatures, pointing the way to significant improvements in many technologies. The results are published in the highly ranked journal Nature Materials.​</b></p><div style="font-size:14px"><div><span>Developing alloys that can withst​and high temperatures without corroding is a key challenge for many fields, such as renewable and sustainable energy technologies like concentrated solar power and solid oxide fuel cells, as well as aviation, materials processing and petrochemistry. </span></div> <span> </span><div><span><br /></span> </div> <span> </span><div><span>At high temperatures, alloys can react violently with their environment, quickly causing the materials to fail by corrosion. To protect against this, all high temperature alloys are designed to form a protective oxide scale, usually consisting of aluminium oxide or chromium oxide. This oxide scale plays a decisive role in preventing the metals from corroding. Therefore, research on high temperature corrosion is very focused on these oxide scales – how they are formed, how they perform at high heat, and how they sometimes fail.</span></div> <span> </span><div><span>The article in Nature Materials answers two classical issues in the area. One applies to the very small additives of so-called ‘reactive elements’ – often yttrium and zirconium – found in all high-temperature alloys. The second issue is about the role of water vapour.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:10.66px"> </span></div></div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/TItan%20Microscope.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="font-size:10.66px"><span style="background-color:window"> <span style="font-size:14px">“Adding reactive elements to alloys results in a huge improvement in performance – but no one has been able to provide robust experimental proof why,” says Nooshin Mortazavi, materials researcher at Chalmers’ Department of Physics, and first author of the study. “Likewise, the role of water, which is always present in high-temperature environments, in the form of steam, has been little understood. Our paper will help solve these enigmas”. </span></span></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:10.66px"><span style="background-color:window"><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></span></span> </div> <span style="font-size:14px"> </span><span style="font-size:14px"></span><div style="font-size:14px"><span>In this paper, the Chalmers researchers show how these two elements are linked. They demonstrate how the reactive elements in the alloy promote the growth of an aluminium oxide scale. The presence of these reactive element particles causes the oxide scale to grow inward, rather than outward, thereby facilitating the transport of water from the environment, towards the alloy substrate. Reactive elements and water combine to create a fast-growing, nanocrystalline, oxide scale. </span></div> <div style="font-size:14px"><span><br /></span> </div> <span style="font-size:14px"> </span><div style="font-size:14px"><span>“This paper challenges several accepted ‘truths’ in the science of high temperature corrosion and opens up exciting new avenues of research and alloy development,” says Lars Gunnar Johansson, Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at Chalmers, Director of the Competence Centre for High Temperature Corrosion (HTC) and co-author of the paper. </span></div> <div style="font-size:14px"><span><br /></span> </div> <span style="font-size:14px"> </span><div style="font-size:14px"><span>“Everyone in the industry has been waiting for this discovery. This is a paradigm shift in the field of high-temperature oxidation,” says Nooshin Mortazavi. “We are now establishing new principles for understanding the degradation mechanisms in this class of materials at very high temperatures.” </span></div> <div style="font-size:14px"><span><br /></span> </div> <span style="font-size:14px"> </span><div style="font-size:14px"><span>Further to their discoveries, the Chalmers researchers suggest a practical method for creating more resistant alloys. They demonstrate that there exists a critical size for the reactive element particles. Above a certain size, reactive element particles cause cracks in the oxide scale, that provide an easy route for corrosive gases to react with the alloy substrate, causing rapid corrosion. This means that a better, more protective oxide scale can be achieved by controlling the size distribution of the reactive element particles in the alloy.</span></div> <span style="font-size:14px"> </span><div style="font-size:14px"><span>This ground-breaking research from Chalmers University of Technology points the way to stronger, safer, more resistant alloys in the future. </span></div> <div><br /> </div> <div>Text: Joshua Worth and Johanna Wilde</div> <div>Image: Johan Bodell</div> <div>Caption (the image in the text above): Nooshin Mortazavi and the Titan TEM microscope, which was used to investigate the nanocrystalline oxide forming on high-temperature alloys.  ​​<br /></div> <div><br /> </div> <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41563-018-0105-6"></a><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41563-018-0105-6"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><div style="display:inline !important"><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41563-018-0105-6">Read the scientific paper <span style="background-color:initial"><em>Interplay of water and reactive eleme</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>nts in oxidation of alumina-forming alloys</em> </span></a><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41563-018-0105-6">in Nature Materials.</a></span></div> <div><div><a href="http://www.mynewsdesk.com/uk/chalmers/pressreleases/ground-breaking-discoveries-could-create-superior-alloys-with-many-applications-2546991"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release from Chalmers University of Technology and download high-resolution images. ​</a></div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">More about: Potential consequences of the research breakthrough</h4> <div>High temperature alloys are used in a variety of areas, and are essential to many technologies which underpin our civilisation. They are crucial for both new and traditional renewable energy technologies, such as &quot;green&quot; electricity from biomass, biomass gasification, bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), concentrated solar energy, and solid oxide fuel cells. They are also crucial in many other important technology areas such as jet engines, petrochemistry and materials processing.</div> <div>All these industries and technologies are entirely dependent on materials that can withstand high temperatures – 600 ° C and beyond – without failing due to corrosion. There is a constant demand for materials with improved heat resistance, both for developing new high temperature technologies, and for enhancing the process efficiency of existing ones. </div> <div>For example, if the turbine blades in an aircraft's jet engines could withstand higher temperatures, the engine could operate more efficiently, resulting in fuel-savings for the aviation industry. Or, if you can produce steam pipes with better high-temperature capability, biomass-fired power plants could generate more power per kilogram of fuel. </div> <div>Corrosion is one of the key obstacles to material development within these areas. The Chalmers researchers' article provides new tools for researchers and industry to develop alloys that withstand higher temperatures without quickly corroding. </div> <div><br /> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">More About: The Research</h4> <div>The Chalmers researchers’ explanation of how oxide scale growth occurs – which has been developed using several complementary methods for experimentation and quantum chemistry modelling – is completely new to both the research community, and the industry in the field of high-temperature materials.</div> <div>The research was carried out by the High Temperature Corrosion Center (HTC) (www.htc.chalmers.se) in a collaboration between the Departments of Chemistry and Physics at Chalmers, together with the world leading materials manufacturer Kanthal, part of the Sandvik group. HTC is jointly funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, 21 member-companies and Chalmers. </div> <div>The paper was published in the highly prestigious journal <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41563-018-0105-6">Nature Materials​</a>. </div> <div><br /><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Related news: ​</h5> <div><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/on-the-quest-for-high-entropy-alloys.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />On the quest for high-entropy alloys that survive 1500 °C ​​</a><br /></div> <div style="display:inline !important"><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41563-018-0105-6"></a></span> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/Nooshin%20WEB.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br />Nooshin Mortazavi is a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. <a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Materials-scientists-wins-two-prestigious-fellowships-------.aspx">She was recently awarded prestigious fellowships by the Wenner-Gren Foundation and the Wallenberg Foundation. ​</a><span style="background-color:initial">She can now choose between two or three years of postdoctoral training at either Harvard University or at Stanford University in the US – followed by two years at Chalmers Univ</span><span style="background-color:initial">​ersity. </span></div> <div><br /> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">For more information: </h4> <div><div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Nooshin-Mortazavi-Seyedeh.aspx">Nooshin Mortazavi​</a>, Postdoctoral researcher, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, , +46 73 387 32 26, +46 31 772 67 83, <span style="background-color:initial">nooshin.mortazavi@chalmers.se</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/lg.aspx">Lars-Gunnar Johansson</a>, Professor, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 772 28 72, <span style="background-color:initial">lg@chalmers.se,​</span></div> </div></div>Tue, 19 Jun 2018 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Clean-water-for-the-win!.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Clean-water-for-the-win!.aspxClean water for the win!<p><b></b></p><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/atiumresidenset270x170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />A patented innovation to detect and selectively remove heavy metals, such as mercury, from water has attracted a great deal of attention lately. Now, Chalmers Assistant Professor <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Björn-Wickman.aspx">Björn Wickman</a> and his colleagues at the startup<a href="http://www.atium.se/"> Atium</a> have won another prestigious award. On Friday 15 June 2018 they received the SKAPA award at the residency of the County Governor of Västra Götaland. The prize was distributed by the County Governor Anders Danielsson and the County Jury Chairman Andreas Albertsson, who also works as a business developer at GU Ventures.</div> <div><br /></div> The award is one of the country's finest innovation prizes, awarded every year since 1986. The regional winners also qualify for the national finals in Stockholm on 8 November. <br /><br /><div><a href="http://www.venturecup.se/en/newsroom/#/news/venture-cup-vinnarna-ska-raedda-vaerldens-foerorenade-sjoear-306465">Atium will also represent western Sweden in the National finals of Venture Cup​</a> in September. Last year Björn Wickman and the team - Emma Ericson, Johan Björkquist and Cristian Tunsu - also made it to the idea competition Swedish Venture Cup Top 20. The innovation has also been awarded by Almi företagspartner Väst and WaterCampus Business Challenge.</div> <br />Atium’s concept is based on Björn Wickman's research at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.<br /><br /><a href="http://www.mynewsdesk.com/se/guventures/pressreleases/aarets-skapa-pristagare-i-vaestra-goetalands-laen-aer-utsedda-2546705"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release about the SKAPA award (in Swedish).</a><br />​Mon, 18 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Successful-workshop-on-Dark-Matter.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Successful-workshop-on-Dark-Matter.aspxSuccess for international workshop on detection of dark matter<p><b></b></p><div>Dark matter is one of the great mysteries of the universe. For every star, galaxy and dust cloud we can see in space, there are five times more invisible, so-called dark matter. On 11-15 June 2018, there was a workshop on dark matter at Chalmers University of Technology. The conference was the first of its kind in Gothenburg and the event attracted about 50 international experts in the field – both experimentalists and theorists.</div> <div><br />&quot;The detection of dark matter may come at any moment in the coming years. We must be prepared to interpret a discovery with optimal strategies, in order to learn as much as possible about dark matter,” says Riccardo Catena, assistant professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers and the organiser of the event.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Unveiling-the-nature-of-dark-matter.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about dark matter. </a><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/calendar/Pages/Workshop-on-dark-matter.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the workshop at Chalmers 11-15 June 2018. </a></div> <div><br /></div> <div></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Unveiling-the-nature-of-dark-matter.aspx"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/darkmatterute750x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /></a>The workshop attracted <span style="background-color:initial">about 50 international experts in the field – both experimentalists and theorists.</span></div> <div>Image: Mia Halleröd Palmgren</div>Sun, 17 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/New-challenges-ahead-for-Sheila-Galt.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/New-challenges-ahead-for-Sheila-Galt.aspxNew challenges ahead for Sheila Galt<p><b>For many years, Sheila Galt has been a positive and influential force at MC2. Now she takes on new challenges at Chalmers. On 1 June 2018, she joined the Department of Communication and Learning in Science. &quot;It feels wonderful – lots of fun ahead!&quot;, she says.</b></p><div><div>Sheila Galt is a professor of applied electromagnetics. She studied at the department of Applied Electron Physics at Chalmers and got her doctoral degree in 1990 with the thesis &quot;Optical fiber scattering and biological electromagnetic effects&quot;.</div> <div>She remained at the department until 2001 when she joined the Photonics Laboratory at MC2. 17 years later, it is time to move on and test her wings at Communication and Learning in Science, where she formally belongs to the Division of Engineering Education Research (EER). In fact, she already started at her new address on 1 June.</div> <div>&quot;It feels just right since their activities correspond well with my own. I'm usually joking that I will do the same things I've always done, but with other colleagues to discuss educational ideas with. For parts of my work, it feels like a more logical home base&quot;, says Sheila.</div></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/sheila_IMG_3169_665x330.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Taking up educational research</h5> <div>She hopes to continue to work with much of what she has done so far, but exactly what it will look like is still unclear.</div> <div>&quot;I will drop some of the activities I've had at MC2, and start more educational research. Most of what I have taken care of at the Photonics Laboratory, I will have to let go. There will be changes. I've been teaching Laser Engineering and dealing with labs for quite a few years and developed new photonics related labs in a number of courses. It has been great fun to do&quot;, says Sheila.</div> <div>Until recently, she was vice-head for the undergraduate education at MC2.</div> <div>&quot;It meant both strategic thinking – how we should improve the courses and how teachers can be provided with more chances to teach – and to make sure the courses are properly staffed, delivered according to our agreements, and that we take care of our commitments properly on a daily basis. Then it also involved being a member of Chalmers Joint Vice-Head Group, which works a bit more strategically. If you identify a need for a change in routines for how the undergraduate education is organized from a teacher perspective, then it is the vice-head's task to accomplish that.&quot;</div> <div>The assignment as vice-head for the undergraduate education has been taken over by Per Rudquist.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Outreaching role</h5> <div>Sheila Galt is perhaps best known for her role in school outreach programs, where she worked extensively with The International Science Festival in Gothenburg, the Wallenberg Physics Prize (connected with the International Physics Olympiad) and other activities aimed at children and adolescents. Her laser shows have almost become an institution, and the Newton performances at the house of William Chalmers became very noteworthy. The other year she contributed to a children’s program on the radio. Many of these popular activities have unfortunately ceased.</div> <div>Nor is the much-appreciated activity &quot;Nanoscientist for a day&quot;, which Sheila ran along with Per Lundgren during the Science Festival, remaining.</div> <div>&quot;I think that these are activities that should have been continued. We will see how it will be in the future.&quot;</div></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/sheila_IMG_3155_665x330.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Laser shows at Universeum</span><br /></div> <div><div>Instead, Sheila gets a chance to continue her outreach work with a 60% assignment at the science centre Universeum. There, among other things, she has continued to offer her laser shows.</div> <div>&quot;I have shared responsibility for activities offered for the public at the so-called “Teknoteket”. This is a technology-oriented makerspace where we have specific themes that are replaced approximately every two months. Here we need to have long-term planning and be able to develop new ideas and to freshen up old ones&quot;, she says.</div> <div>The challenge has been to find activities that work for a large range of ages, from preschoolers and upwards. Everyone is welcome to participate and you do not have to book time in advance.</div> <div>&quot;My aim has been to do more than just raise interest in technology. It is very important that we help people to enjoy technology, science and math. You should be able to have fun with technology while learning something.&quot;</div> <div>In the theme called &quot;Värmeverket&quot;, visitors were able to explore the heat of the human body and of the planet Earth, including studying the effects of exercise and the greenhouse effect. Visitors also had to think about how they themselves could contribute to the solution of the global warming problem.</div> <div>&quot;Thinking about how technology is used is a specially important issue for me, as well as linking sustainability ideas to the subject. I'm quite proud of our success.&quot;</div> <div>The assignment at Universeum ends at the end of the year, but Sheila would like to continue if possible.</div></div> <div></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">The recognition meant the most</h5> <div><div>During the period 2009-2016, Sheila Galt was the leader of Chalmers gymnasiecentrum where she was a driving force, but the centre no longer remains in its original form. It was an operation that was later awarded, 2014.</div> <div>&quot;It started with Bo Håkansson's award &quot;Technician of the year&quot; in 2013. The prize included a part that he could donate for some good purpose and then he chose us.&quot;</div> <div>But the money was not the most important aspect for Sheila. The recognition meant more.</div> <div>&quot;To get an acknowledgement that my struggles have been worth the effort,&quot; she says.</div> <div>Together with Per Lundgren, Sheila Galt was also honored with Sigurd Andersson's scholarship for best peer effort in 2014, something that also pleased her a lot.</div></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Born in Canada</h5> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/sheila_IMG_3179_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><div>Sheila Galt was born in 1956 in Kingston, Canada. She laughs at saying that she never really grew up.</div> <div>&quot;I have no memories at all from Kingston. We moved to England when I was one year, and from there to Penticton, located in the southernmost part of the Canadian province of British Columbia.&quot;</div> <div>Dad was a radio astronomer and the Penticton conditions were ideal for that type of work. The town is located near a valley with mountains on all sides, pretty much like a bowl. There you could work in protection from electromagnetic interference.</div> <div>In 1972, the family moved to Sweden.</div> <div>&quot;My father wanted to borrow instruments from Onsala Space Observatory, and brought the whole family. We studied Swedish intensively and I started at the music program at the high school Hvitfeldtska. That year became a turning point in my life. I had been aiming at having music as my profession, but after a year I realized that I didn't want to fight so hard, although I still enjoyed music a lot, and still do. So I decided to engage more in physics.&quot;</div> <div>Her technology interest comes from her father.</div> <div>&quot;He was always coming up with new nerdy fun. He played a lot with us. Among other things, we remodeled old bikes. Suddenly a bicycle had to be pedaled backwards to move forward. We often went with dad to the observatory and played there. Sometimes I got my own problems to solve, such as finding bugs in his software. Dad used to buy kits for electronics and taught us to build our own music amplifier and our own oscilloscope. We had new projects all the time&quot;, recalls Sheila.</div></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Met the husband</h5> <div><div>At Hvitfeldtska she also met her future life companion:</div> <div>&quot;Anders was the tallest person in class and I was the shortest. He eventually became my husband!&quot;</div> <div>The family lives in a house in Sävedalen with two sons aged 25 and 19.</div> <div>&quot;Our youngest son went to the same music program as I did at Hvitfeldtska and met his girlfriend there!&quot;</div> <div>Sheila has played the piano since she was a small child. During her school years, she also received a lot of prizes for her talent. She says modestly that she got awarded because she signed up for all the competitions she could find...</div> <div>&quot;But I often mention that I learned to read music even before I could read ordinary text.&quot;</div> <div>There is also room for some spare time in her life. She enjoys gardening and choral singing.</div> <div>&quot;I love to grow vegetables in the garden, preferably those that are cheap to buy and easy to grow. I also sing in the little choir Corona. I usually say it’s a group of old, left-over Chalmers choristers, because almost all members have a Chalmers background. There are also a lot of other things I like to do but don’t take time for. When I retire, I’ll resume my interests in pottery and sewing.&quot;</div></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">&quot;Like ingenious stuff&quot;</h5> <div><div>She has several driving forces, but at the bottom of it all is a basic interest in technology, which she describes as &quot;bubbly&quot;.</div> <div>&quot;I like ingenious stuff. My mom usually jokes with me and says I'm like Don Quixote; if I see a windmill, I'll go off and try to fight it! I’m drawn to tackling what I see as important problems, even though they might seem almost irresolvable, such as teaching technology students to apply ethical thinking. I took on the challenge in the Fundamentals of Photonics course, and I actually believe we succeeded!&quot;</div> <div>Other major driving forces are curiosity and an interest in gender equality and sustainability.</div> <div>&quot;It must be fair in terms of a sustainable world. Much of what the UN writes in its sustainability goals, I have tried to push for in my own small context.&quot;</div></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/sheila_IMG_3166_665x330.jpg" alt="" style="background-color:initial;margin:5px" /> </div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Long-term student recruitment</span><br /></div> <div><div>In her outreach activities, Sheila Galt has worked persistently with long-term student recruitment. She has seen the twinkle in the eyes of the children when the penny dropped. She has also received a hug now and then as thanks afterwards.</div> <div>But how many future Chalmers students she has inspired and ultimately attracted to the university, she will never know:</div> <div>&quot;I have no idea. No one has ever come and let me know about this. I have asked myself many times if it could be followed up in some way, but I have come to the conclusion that it is not feasible. The efforts are so small for each child and it is impossible to say if we managed to influence anyone in just one hour's time. It's probably much more effective if you can influence their teachers. We need to provide inspiration and tools for the teachers, and we try to do this, among other things, in the Master's program Learning and Leadership, where the students become both engineers and high school teachers.&quot;</div> <div>In this program, Sheila teaches and examines the practicum courses, which involve the students practice-teaching at local high schools. She will continue to do that.</div></div> <div><div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Many small seeds and steps</h5></div> <div><span></span><div>You can certainly say that Sheila Galt has been planting small seeds in children and adolescents, although the results can’t easily be measured.</div> <div>&quot;Of course, you do not know how many other people in these children’s environment are nudging and encouraging their technical interests. They make a bigger difference, and it is not certain that my little contribution will be a part of the choices these young people will make in their lives. But it's nice to imagine it could be so&quot;, she says.</div> <div>On 15 June, Sheila Galt was thanked by colleagues and friends with coffee and cake.</div> <div>&quot;I want to encourage all the small steps which are continuously being taken at Chalmers in order for the educational programs to keep growing better and better. It feels great to be part of that work and see how everyone works together to make it happen. I want to continue to support that&quot;, she concludes.</div></div> <div>​</div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div>Thu, 14 Jun 2018 02:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Multiple-lasers-could-be-replaced-by-a-single-microcomb.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Multiple-lasers-could-be-replaced-by-a-single-microcomb.aspxMultiple lasers could be replaced by a single microcomb<p><b>​Every time we send an e-mail, a tweet, or stream a video, we rely on laser light to transfer digital information over a complex network of optical fibers. Dozens of high-performance lasers are needed to fill up the bandwidth and to squeeze in an increasing amount of digital data. Researchers have now shown that all these lasers can be replaced by a single device called a microcomb.​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">A microcomb is an optical device that generates very sharp and equidistant frequency lines in a tiny microphotonic chip. This technology was developed about a decade ago and is now reaching a maturity level that enables new applications, including lidar, sensing, timekeeping and of course optical communications.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/victor_torres_chalmers_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The soul of a microcomb is a tiny optical cavity that confines laser light in space. Therefore, this technology provides a fantastic playground to explore new nonlinear physical phenomena. These conditions have now been utilised by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, in cooperation with researchers at Purdue University, USA. Victor Torres Company (to the right), Associate Professor at Chalmers, is one of the authors of a paper that was recently published in the journal Nature Communications.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“We observed that the optical frequencies of the microcomb interfered destructively over a short period of time, thus providing the formation of a wave inside the cavity that resembled a ‘hole’ of light. The interesting aspect of this waveform is that it yielded a sufficient amount of power per frequency line, which was essential to achieve these high-performance experiments in fiber communication systems”, says Victor Torres Company.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The physical formation of these “dark” pulses of light is far from being fully understood, but the researchers believe that their unique properties will enable novel applications in fiber-optic communication systems and spectroscopy. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“I</span><span style="background-color:initial"> will be able to explore these aspects thanks to the financial support of the European Research Council (ERC)”, says Victor Torres Company. “This is a bright start to better understand the formation of dark pulses in microresonators and their potential use in optical communications. The research could lead to faster and more power-efficient optical communication links in the future.”</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The results are the fruit of a collaborative effort between researchers at the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue University, who fabricated the samples, and the group of Professor Peter Andrekson at the Photonics Laboratory at Chalmers, which hosts world-class experimental facilities for fiber-optic communications research.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">Our findings do not represent the first demonstration of a microcomb in fiber communications, but it is the first time that the microcomb has achieved a performance compatible with the strong demands of future communication systems”, says Peter Andrekson, who is also one of the co-authors of the paper. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The main author is Attila Fülöp, who defended his doctoral thesis “Fiber-optic communications with microresonator frequency combs” at the Photonics Laboratory in April.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“Working with the microcomb and this experiment has been a great experience. This proof-of-concept demonstration has allowed us to explore the requirements for future chip-scale data transmitters while at the same time proving the potential of this very exciting dark pulse comb technology”, he says.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås<br />Photo of  <span style="background-color:initial">Victor Torres Company: Michael Nystås</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial">Read the paper &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /></div> <div>Fülöp et al., High-order coherent communications using mode-locked dark-pulse Kerr combs from microresonators, Nature Communications 9, 1598 (2018). DOI 10.1038/s41467-018-04046-6</div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/publication/17abc87f-538b-4039-9c3b-526d0cc82da1">research.chalmers.se/publication/17abc87f-538b-4039-9c3b-526d0cc82da1</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Prestigious-EU-funding-for-Victor-Torres-Company.aspx"><strong>Read more about the ERC grant to Victor Torres Company </strong><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(51, 51, 51);font-weight:300">&gt;&gt;&gt;</span></a></div>Tue, 12 Jun 2018 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-master-of-light-elected-to-the-Young-Academy-of-Sweden.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-master-of-light-elected-to-the-Young-Academy-of-Sweden.aspxA master of light elected to the Young Academy of Sweden<p><b>​Chalmers physicist Philippe Tassin is elected member of the Young Academy of Sweden. He is an Associate Professor at the Department of Physics and one of eight prominent researchers who will join the academy for five years.​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">In the Young Academy of Sweden, just over thirty selected young researchers collaborate on issues related to research policy and outreach. The Academy is an independent platform providing young researchers with a strong voice in the science policy debate and promoting science and research to young adults and children.</span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;I'm really looking forward to working with researchers from across the country and collaborating with researchers from a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines. As a member of the Young Academy of Sweden, I want to further my commitment to a number of research policy issues and popular science activities,&quot; said Philippe Tassin, the only physicist to be elected.</span><br /></div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5"><span>Studying how light can be controlled</span></h5></div> <div>Philippe Tassin’s research group is active in nanophotonics, a subfield of physics studying how light can be controlled and manipulated with electromagnetic structured materials. Light and electromagnetic waves are of paramount importance to our modern society, for the internet, smartphones, TV screens, etc. But further progress of optics technology is limited by the availability of natural optical materials.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">To circumvent the limitations of natural materials, Tassin and his co-workers study and design man-made structured materials that can manipulate electromagnetic waves—from microwaves, over terahertz waves, to visible light—in ways that are impossible with natural materials. This is achieved by using small electric circuits instead of atoms as the basic constituents for the interaction of electromagnetic waves with matter. Electromagnetic structured materials have the potential to create devices that can exert precise and advanced control over light.</span><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Researcher, teacher and clarinettist</h5> <div>Philippe Tassin’s research has attracted attention around the world and he himself has worked in Belgium, Greece, and the USA before joining Chalmers in 2013. Along with his research, he teaches electromagnetism, optics, quantum mechanics, and computer science at Chalmers. Music being a great interest to him, he also likes to play the clarinet whenever he has the time.</div> <div>As a member of the Young Academy of Sweden, he can take his interest in science and education policy and in science popularization to a new level.  <br /></div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;I would like to work with questions regarding the internationalization of Swedish universities, the public's awareness of science, and academic careers. There are no simple solutions to these challenges, but I think it is important that young academics have a voice in the debate and take their responsibility.” </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More Chalmers Professors in the academy</h5> <div>In addition to <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Philippe-Tassin.aspx">Philippe Tassin​</a>, Chalmers Professor <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/rikard-landberg.aspx">Rikard Landberg </a>from the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering is also elected  to the Young Academy of Sweden. Read more about him in the article <a href="http://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Rikard-Landberg-elected-to-Young-Academy-of-Sweden.aspx">Food and nutrition makes an entry in Young Academy of Sweden​</a>. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers Professor </span><a href="/en/staff/Pages/kraiberg.aspx">Kirsten Kraiberg Knudsen</a><span style="background-color:initial"> at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment is already a member of the academy. </span><br /></div> <div>Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se​​</a><br /></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">More about Philippe Tassin </h4> <div><strong>Born</strong>: 1982 in Belgium, he moved to Gothenburg in 2013 when he started working at Chalmers.</div> <div><strong>Interests: </strong>When he does not teach or research, he can be found playing clarinet in a symphony orchestra, on the ski slopes, discovering countries all over the world, or simply reading a good book.</div> <div><strong>About his passion for physics:</strong> “You face a problem that no one has ever solved before. After having tried and failed many times, you find the solution and then you realize you’re the only person in the world to know the solution. This is one thing that inspires me”.</div> <div><strong>Read more about Philippe Tassin and his research</strong>:</div> <div><a href="http://www.epsnews.eu/2017/12/how-to-trick-light-into-flexing-its-muscles/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />How to trick light into flexing its muscles</a></div> <div><div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Worldwide-attention-for-optic-invention-.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Worldwide attention for optic invention from Chalmers </a></div></div> <div>​<a href="http://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Pressrelease-Light-bending-material-facilitates-the-search-for-new-particles.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Light bending material facilitates the search for new particles​</a></div> <div><a href="http://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Philippe-Tassin.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />With a Love for Music and Mathematics​​</a><br /></div> <div><br /> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">More about the Young Academy of Sweden </h4> <div>The Young Academy of Sweden is a transdisciplinary academy for a selection of the most prominent, younger researchers in Sweden. Its operations rest firmly on three pillars: transdisciplinarity, science policy and outreach. The Academy is an independent platform that provides younger researchers with a strong voice in the science policy debate and that promotes science and research to young adults and children. In the Academy young researchers meet across institutional and disciplinary borders to discuss research and research related topics. The Young Academy of Sweden was formed at the initiative of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and currently has 33 members.</div> <div><a href="http://www.sverigesungaakademi.se/en-GB/1.html"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more on the webpage of the Young Academy of Sweden. </a></div> <a href="http://www.chalmers.se/en/research/our-scientists/Pages/The-Young-Academy-of-Sweden.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Find all Chalmers researchers who are or have been members of the Young Academy of Sweden.</a>Mon, 28 May 2018 14:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Materials-scientists-wins-two-prestigious-fellowships-------.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Materials-scientists-wins-two-prestigious-fellowships-------.aspxMaterials scientist awarded two prestigious fellowships<p><b>​Postdoctoral researcher Nooshin Mortazavi has recently been awarded two prestigious fellowships by the Wenner-Gren Foundations and Wallenberg Foundations. She can now choose between two or three years of postdoctoral training at either Harvard University or at Stanford University in the US – followed by two years at Chalmers University of Technology after her return.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">I am now trying to understand which position is a good fit for me and my career goals and is located in a place where I enjoy spending time. This is indeed a very tough decision to make,&quot; says Nooshin Mortazavi who currently works at the Division of Materials Microstructure at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>One choice is a grant from the Wenner-Gren Foundation to carry out research on &quot;High Temperature Thermoelectrics Based on Natural Superlattice Oxides&quot; in John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Science at Harvard University, Boston, USA. The project that Nooshin Mortazavi has proposed to carry out at Harvard comes with an ambitious goal: conversion of large amounts of waste heat to electricity using an intriguing but poorly characterized class of still-developing high-temperature ceramics, known as natural superlattices (NSLs).</div> <div>In this program, she will spend up to three years abroad, followed by two years of research at Chalmers. This fellowship is the Wenner-Gren Foundation’s most exclusive program where only five candidates are chosen in Sweden from different fields of research.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Nooshin Mortazavi has also been selected as one of the Wallenberg’s fellows of a postdoctoral scholarship program at Stanford University, California, USA. This grant supports her to make an impact on the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) research in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Stanford University. In this program she will spend two years at Stanford, followed by two years of research at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;I plan to expand my research horizon from metallic materials to ceramics with various applications in emerging renewable energy technologies such as thermoelectric materials and SOFCs. It is a privilege to be in a situation where I can choose, even though it is hard to decide. Apparently, it is not possible to perform two projects in the east and west coast of the US simultaneously…&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">For more information: <br /></h4> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Nooshin-Mortazavi-Seyedeh.aspx">Nooshin Mortazavi</a>, Postdoctoral researcher, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, <a href="mailto:nooshin.mortazavi@chalmers.se">nooshin.mortazavi@chalmers.se </a>, +46 73 387 32 26, +46 31 772 67 83 </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Nooshin Mortazavi defended her doctoral thesis at the Department of Physics at Chalmers on 21 December 2017. <a href="/en/departments/physics/calendar/Pages/Thesis-defence-Nooshin-Mortazavi-171221.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read the abstract here.   </a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Read more about the foundations and the fellowships:</h5> <div><a href="https://www.swgc.org/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />The Wenner-Gren Foundations.</a><br /></div> <div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/calls/wallenberg-foundation-postdoctoral-scholarship-program-stanford-university"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />The Stanford-Wallenberg Fellowship. </a><br /></div></div> <div>​<br /></div>Wed, 23 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Tord-Claeson-appointed-to-jubilee-doctor.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Tord-Claeson-appointed-to-jubilee-doctor.aspxTord Claeson appointed to jubilee doctor<p><b>​Tord Claeson, well-known professor at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience –​ MC2, defended his thesis for a doctoral degree of technology in 1967. On 2 June, he was promoted to jubilee doctor at the solemn Doctoral Conferment Ceremony in the Concert Hall in Göteborg. &quot;I&#39;ve been looking forward to this for 50 years,&quot; he says jokingly.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Jubilee doctor is at title earned by individuals who received their doctoral degrees fifty years earlier at the same university. Tord Claeson was the only one to be honored in this way in 2018.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>He became civil engineer in the field of engineering physics in 1963, and continued his academic career by defending his thesis in 1967, resumed by assignments as researcher at both Chalmers and Gothenburg University. In 1982, Tord Claeson was appointed to professor of physics at Chalmers.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/tordc_doktorspromotion_180602__S8A0246-1_665x330.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">Over the years, he has also been a guest researcher at the University of California and Stanford University in the United States, and has stayed for longer periods in Japan and Korea.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Tord Claeson's research has included basic condensed matter physics as well as different applications, primarily hypersensitive sensors based on superconducting tunnel effects. He has also been deeply engaged in the field of high-temperature superconductivity, regularly used the <span style="background-color:initial">synchrotron radiation facility at Stanford, and advocated facilities for nanostructures at Chalmers.</span></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/tclaeson_690x330.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">He is a member of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences in Gothenburg (KVVS), the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA), the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (KVA) and the Korean and Flemish science academies. He has also been a member of the Nobel Committee for Physics, and has received several awards, including the Jacob Wallenberg Prize, the IVA Gold Medal, and the Celsius and Chalmers Medals.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Tord Claeson is one of the legendary MC2 pioneers and has been a part of the department ever since it was founded in the year 2000. Many are the PhD students who have had him as supervisor over the years. Tord Claeson has fostered many of today's leaders <span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:11pt;line-height:16.8667px;font-family:calibri, sans-serif">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> both those who have stayed in different positions at MC2, and those who have undertaken leading challenges in Sweden and abroad.</span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Tord Claeson was born in Varberg in 1938. In November he turns 80 years old.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås and the Communications and Marketing department</div> <div>Photo: Susannah Carlsson and Anna-Lena Lundqvist</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a>Read more about the Doctoral Conferment Ceremony</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div>Mon, 21 May 2018 10:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Chalmers-Professor-awarded-by-the-City-of-Gothenburg.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Chalmers-Professor-awarded-by-the-City-of-Gothenburg.aspxProfessor of physics awarded by the City of Gothenburg<p><b>​Professor Per-Olof Nilsson at the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology is well-known for his skills in communicating science to the public in an accessible, creative and passionate way.</b></p>Through the years, he has inspired thousands and thousands of students of all ages. With his popular Physics toys, crowded science cafés and many other activities he has spread his enthusiasm for physics and natural sciences to the public. Now, he has been awarded a badge of merit by the City of Gothenburg. (Göteborgs stads förtjänsttecken).<p></p> <p></p> <img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/po-nilssonflytandekvave350x305.jpg" width="208" height="180" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block">&quot;</span>This really shows how important it is to communicate science to the public. Most of all I’m happy on behalf of Chalmers because public understanding of science is crucial in our society,” says Per-Olof “P-O” Nilsson.<p></p> <p></p> The motivation for the award from the City of Gothenburg will be announced in connection with the award ceremony on 4 June.<p></p> <p></p> The reconstruction work of the new locations for Per-Olof Nilsson’s Physics toys at the Gothenburg Physics Centre has recently begun.<p></p> <p></p> “I’m really looking forward to a new start and I hope that we can soon invite lots of young people to explore physics with us again”, says P-O Nilsson.<p></p> <p></p> Besides <a href="http://www.chalmers.se/en/Staff/Pages/per-olof-nilsson.aspx">Per-Olof Nilsson</a>, Chalmers Professor <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Ann-Sofie-Sandberg.aspx">Ann-Sofie Sandberg </a>has also been awarded the badge of merit by the City of Gothenburg. <a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Gothenburg-award-to-Ann-Sofie-Sandberg.aspx">Read an article about her.   </a><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span style="display:inline-block"><br /></span></span></span></span><p></p> <p><strong>Text</strong>: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se</a></p> <p><br /></p> <p></p> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More about Professor Per-Olof &quot;P-O&quot; Nilsson</h5> <div><span><span></span></span></div> <p></p> <p><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span><a href="https://youtu.be/70zDeI1KtYE"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Watch</a><span> a short video clip when he demonstrates the “Finnish rocket.”</span><br /><br /><a href="https://vimeo.com/129641437"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Watch a news feature about P-O Nilsson when he was awarded the prize from “Längmanska Kulturfonden” in 2015. The film was recorded at the old location for the Physics toys. </a><br /><br /><a href="http://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/gpc/news/Pages/A-new-place-for-physics-play%21.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the plans for ”Fysiklek” at Gothenburg Physics centre.</a><br /></p>Mon, 14 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200