News: Produktion related to Chalmers University of TechnologyThu, 04 Oct 2018 16:03:13 +0200 in on gear teeth<p><b>​Congratulations to our new doctor Dinesh Mallipeddi who today successfully held his doctoral defence with the title: Surface Integrity of Gear Materials.</b></p><div>Gears are an integral part of modern life, necessary for both production and transport. The <span style="background-color:initial">compact and efficient transmission offered by gears made their usage predominant compared </span><span style="background-color:initial">to other drives. Recent development have increased both the efficiency and durability of gears, </span><span style="background-color:initial">especially in the automotive industry. Still, enhanced performance is required due to global </span><span style="background-color:initial">demands on sustainability and energy consumption. Actually, one billion cars are rolling on the </span><span style="background-color:initial">streets around the globe, without counting trucks and busses. This means even small increase </span><span style="background-color:initial">in efficiency could significantly reduce the energy usage.​</span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">A gearbox with gears of different sizes is part of a vehicle transmission system and plays an important part in transmitting the engine power to the wheels. The efficient energy transmission highly relies on the performance of gears. Together, the mesh efficiency and durability determines the performance of gears.</span><div><br /></div> <div>The hard finishing of gear surfaces can be done by different methods; grinding, honing and superfinishing etc., and produces unique characteristics in terms of surface roughness, microstructure and residual stresses. These characteristics of the teeth affect the gear performance. A running-in process is known to alter them along with the surface chemistry and it pre-sets the gear for service. By understanding the initial running-in it is possible to improve the performance of gears. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– My study addressed the influence of running-in on the evolution of surface characteristics generated by the mentioned methods, and how they developed further during initial usage, represented by efficiency test. The <span style="background-color:initial">surface roughness was found to be the most influential factor among all the </span><span style="background-color:initial">characteristics. </span><span style="background-color:initial">The findings that I have presented are expected to contribute to the technical and industrial aims for optimized gear preparation.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research was conducted together with AB Volvo under the supervision of <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/mats-norell.aspx" target="_blank" title="Link to profile page of Mats Norell">Senior Lecturer​ Mats Norell</a> and <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/lars-nyborg.aspx" target="_blank" title="Link to profile page of Lars Nyborg">Professor Lars Nyborg </a>at Chalmers department of Industrial and Materials Science.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank" title="Link to doctoral thesis"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the full publication here.</a></div></div>Thu, 04 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200 welding methods reduces CO2 emissions of airplanes<p><b>​Aviation accounts for around 2 % of the world&#39;s total CO2 emissions, but the proportion is expected to rise. In pursuit of reducing emissions, researchers from Chalmers cooperate with GKN Aerospace and University West to find new manufacturing solutions for engines. A new doctoral dissertation presents results from studies of titanium alloys and mechanical properties of various welding processes.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The aviation industry is looking for solutions that reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and reducing the weight of the aircraft is essential for success. An airplane engine weighs a lot, but through new manufacturing methods it can decrease.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>One way to reduce weight is to weld several small subcomponents into a larger component instead of casting it into one whole piece. In a new doctoral thesis by Sakari Tolvanen, he presents studies that have compared the mechanical properties of welds produced with different welding processes. The aim is to gain a better understanding of how and why occasional defects occur and how the defects influence the mechanical properties of the welds.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>One might imagine that welding is an old technique that has left the lab stage for a long time, but as the requirements change, manufacturing technologies need to keep up with the change. Manufacturing technologies of large aeroengine components are developed to improve material utilization, reduce cost and allow design flexibility. Welding has an important role in the development as it allows joining multiple subcomponents to produce one large structure. This approach produces less scrap material and enables design of lighter and more functional components, which in turn, results in reduced environmental impact in both production phase and the use phase of the engine.  </div> <div><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Welding-processes-comparison.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><em>Titanium alloys are readily joined with several common fusion welding processes such as tungsten inert gas welding (TIG), plasma arc welding (PAW), electron beam welding (EBW), and laser beam welding (EBW). Fusion welding processes can be characterized generally by the heat-source intensity. This figure illustrates the different characteristics of the aforementioned welding processes and how they affect the penetration. </em></div> <div><br /><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Sakari Tolvanen has studied what happens when two metal components made of titanium alloys are welded together. Titanium alloys are widely used in aviation industry mainly because of their superior combination of high strength and low weight. Sakari has among other things analyzed how the chemical composition of the alloy affects the result of welding.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The results from my studies give a better understanding of the factors that affect the microstructure and what in it leads to defects. This makes it possible to choose and optimize not only the welding process but also the base material”, says Sakari Tolvanen. “The combination of which process and material you use determines how good the result is.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Fracture%20surface%20of%20a%20fatigue%20specimen_400pxl.jpg" alt="Fracture surface of a fatigue specimen" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span></span><em>In aeroplanes, you do not want the welds to crack. By characterizing the topography of the fracture surface, information about the cause of crack initiation and fracture mechanisms can be revealed. Fatigue failure can be divided into different stages, i.e. crack initiation, crack propagation and final fracture. This figure shows a crack initiation at a pore, a relatively flat crack propagation area around the initiation and the final fracture surface. By learning the behaviour of cracks, they can be avoided.</em><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>In airplanes, titanium alloys can be found on parts for landing gear, internal components of wings, and engine components like the fan and compressor sections.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS</strong></div> <div>Read more about the transport sector's CO2 emissions in the <a href="" title="Link to IPCC web page" target="_blank">IPCC climate assessment report from 2014</a>.</div> <div>The studies carried out by Sakari Tolvanen have taken place within the framework of a research project conducted by GKN Aerospace:</div> <div><a href="" title="Link to research project" target="_blank">Defect formation during welding and their effect on mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo </a></div> <div>Read the full thesis here:</div> <div><a href="">Welding of Ti-6Al-4V: Influence of welding process and alloy composition on microstructure and properties</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Supervisors were <a href="/en/staff/Pages/uta-klement.aspx">Professor Uta Klement</a> from Chalmers University of Technology and Professor Robert Pederson from University West.</div> <div><br /></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text: Nina Silow</em></div> <div><em>Images within the article: Sakari Tolvanen</em></div> ​Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200's-product-developer.aspx's-product-developer.aspxTough race for this year&#39;s product development master students<p><b>​ With a limited selection of styrofoam, rubber bands, gears and a lot of inventiveness, the new master students built racing vehicles for the traditional PD Classic Race.</b></p><div>​During a challenging week, the Product Development master students managed to build small vehicles for the traditional competition PD Classic, a race where the vehicles have to cope with a difficult track, including asphalt, ice, water and gravel. This year's competition was even and tough, but the judges Lars Almefelt, Kanishk Bhadani and Ali Davoodi could finally proclaim two winners. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>
In the &quot;Design and Innovation&quot; class, Team Purple Pearl, got an extra plus in the motivation for the robust construction, the protective hood over the electronics and fancy skulls as design elements.
</div> <div>Team Rally Ralf took home the prize in the &quot;Performance&quot; class, which with a classic, reduced design won thanks to even cut times in the races.

</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Competition officer and supervisor during the week was Luisa Zlatoidska, student at the second year on the Master's Program Product Development.</div> <br /><a href="" target="_blank">More pictures from the construction and competition</a><br /><br /><div>Text and photo: Carina Schultz</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/PD-Classic_master_180907_040_750x476.png" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:680px;height:434px" /><br />Team Rally Ralf</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/PD-Classic_master_180907_028_750x428.png" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:680px;height:386px" /><br />Team Purple Pearl.<br /><br /></div>Wed, 19 Sep 2018 14:00:00 +0200 for EU Affairs and Trade on visit at Chalmers<p><b>​In conjunction with the installation lecture on 4 September, Ann Linde, Minister for EU Affairs and Trade, visited the department for a brief presentation of the new cooperation with Airbus and the researchers at the Division of Material and Computational Mechanics.</b></p>​“I'm very proud that my cousin, Peter Linde, has been appointed adjunct professor at Chalmers. There are major societal challenges where research collaboration with industry is important. Since Sweden has the ambition to become the world's first fossil-free welfare state, it requires development in many areas. The research on lightweight materials and lower fuel consumption is an example.”<br /><br />What issues are relevant now, given the situation in the outside world?
<br /><br />&quot;The worst threat right now is whether we enter a trade war. Sweden is very dependent on exports and about half of our GDP come from exports. In addition, 70% of the export go to the EU's internal market, so when Britain leaves, it becomes an extremely difficult challenge for Sweden. For example, the UK is our largest exporting country for services. And cooperation between universities and industries will also be complicated.”

<br /><br />&quot;What I've heard about today has been incredibly exciting. I hope I get the opportunity to visit Chalmers again, Ann Linde concludes.<br /><br /><em>Text and photo: Carina Schultz</em><br />Thu, 06 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0200 honorable appointed to CIRP Fellow<p><b>​Professor Rikard Söderberg has been appointed as Fellow of the International Academy of Production Engineering, CIRP. The selection is based on a long and rigorous process that guarantees the highest possible academic standard.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Recently, the members of <a href="">CIRP, the International Academy of Production Engineering</a>, gathered for a meeting in Japan. At the meeting, <a href="/en/staff/Pages/rikard-soderberg.aspx" title="Link to profile page ">Professor Rikard Söderberg</a>, Head of <a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx" title="Link to department">Department of Industrial and Materials Science</a> and Director of the <a href="/en/centres/wingquist/Pages/default.aspx">Wingquist Laboratory</a>, was appointed as a Fellow in the organization.</span><div><br /></div> <div>&quot;It feels extremely honorable to be nominated and elected as a Fellow in CIRP,&quot; says Rikard Söderberg. &quot;It is an acknowledgment of the research that I and my research team conduct in the field of geometry assurance and robust design.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Rikard Söderberg is a professor in product and production development and with his research he focuses on minimizing the effect of geometric variation. It includes areas such as industrial design, visualization, robust design, statistical variation simulation, optimization, assembly modeling and analysis, measurement preparation and analysis of measurement data.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>CIRP is a world-leading organization in production engineering research and is at the forefront of design, optimization, control and handling of processes, machines and systems. More and more of the business's attention is focused on challenges such as sustainable production, the environmental impact of new technology and manufacturing aspects of globalization. The Academy has limited membership based on demonstrated excellence in research and has about 600 academic and industrial members from 50 industrialized countries. Fellows are internationally recognized scientists chosen to be members of CIRP for life.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The nomination of Rikard Söderberg was supported by Professor Torsten Kjellberg of KTH, Professor Hoda ElMaraghy ​​of University of Windsor in Canada, Professor Luc Mathieu of École Normal Supérieure Paris-Saclay in France and Professor Eric Lutters of the University of Twente in the Netherlands.​</div> ​Wed, 05 Sep 2018 16:00:00 +0200 and Chalmers organize a conference on future transport<p><b>​Chalmers is hosting this year and will take place on September 11-13. Future transport is the theme, what happens more?</b></p>​<br /><strong>Who are gathered?</strong><br />It is the Volvo Group's academic partners, where Chalmers is one of five selected universities. The others are Penn State University in the United States, INSA Lyon in France and Mälardalen and Skövde universities in Sweden. Together with the representatives from AB Volvo, we become about 50 participants in total.<br /><br />Can you tell us about the 3-days programme?<br />The aim is to develop common research ideas on the theme of &quot;conversion to future transport&quot;. The focus is on new fuels, autonomous transport and digitalized production. One session is about developing ideas for new industrial student projects. In addition to workshops, there will also be study visits to AstaZero and the Volvo Bus Experience Center. On the third day we will meet with Chalmers initiative seminar on electric mobility.<br /><br /><strong>What does such cooperation mean for Chalmers?</strong><br />Chalmers has a strong tradition of cooperating with industry. In analyses that measure research collaboration with industry, such as CWTS Leiden's ranking, Chalmers is recurring among the top ten in the world. This conference is another concrete proof of how we connect researchers and students with industry needs to meet societal challenges. The projects include, for example, sustainable transport systems and road safety.<br /><br /><strong>What do you hope it will give the participants?</strong><br />We hope that the conference will strengthen the already good cooperation between the Volvo Group and their academic partners as well as inspire new research projects and student collaborations that can contribute to sustainable transport in the future.<br /><br /><strong>Chalmers has been collaborating on student projects with Penn State University for many years. Can you tell us more about it?</strong><br /><div>The projects are collaborative at BSc level between Chalmers, the Volvo Group and Penn State University. Volvo contributes to project proposals with questions they want help with, after which student groups consisting of three students from each college and a supervisor at each university will collaborate via Skype during spring term to handle the issues and propose solutions. Towards the end of the semester, students write a joint project report. The Volvo Group has so far contributed with funding so that the two previous student groups were able to visit each other and listen to project presentations at the end of spring. It is much appreciated.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text: Nina Silow</em></div> <div><em>Photo: Carina Schultz</em><br /></div>Sun, 02 Sep 2018 09:00:00 +0200 management is central to digitalised manufacturing<p><b>​Digitalisation in manufacturing industry has rapidly increased the expectations on production systems to be highly productive and resource efficient. Fulfilling these expectations depends on how well the machines in the production system function.</b></p><div><table class="chalmersTable-default" width="100%" cellspacing="0" style="font-size:1em"><tbody><tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:470px">​<span><br />So, successful maintenance management is central to the realisation of digitalised manufacturing. However, the practices of maintenance organisations in manufacturing companies are found to be well behind the needs of digitalised manufacturing. Mainly, industrial practices show non-factual maintenance decision-making, which is dangerous to the smooth functioning of production systems.  This is because maintenance is approached on a component-level by focusing only on maximising the availability of machines, instead of approaching from a system perspective which can maximise the productivity of the entire production system. Therefore, the purpose of this research work is to successfully transform the maintenance organisations from having a narrow focus to achieve a system perspective.<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="text-align:right;width:200px">​<span><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/PPD/Profilbilder/bilder/Maheshwara%20Gopalakrishnan-1_resize.jpg" alt="Profile page" width="178" height="228" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:470px">​</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="text-align:right;width:200px"><div style="text-align:left"><em><span>PhD student Maheshwaran​ on the importance of maintenance for  effective digitalised manufacturing.</span></em></div></td></tr></tbody></table> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"> From a narrow focus to a system perspective</h3></div> <div>A data-driven maintenance decision support framework was developed in the thesis, which provides guidelines for the maintenance organisations to transform from having a narrow focus to a system perspective. Currently, manufacturing companies are classifying the machines based on its criticality with the motive of prioritising their maintenance efforts. But, the criticality assessment tools are not used for maintenance prioritisation. Instead, experience-driven or operator-influenced prioritisation decisions are made. The criticality assessment is problematic as they are not data-driven, rarely updated and lack a clear goal. In order to solve this, a data-driven machine criticality assessment was developed as a solution. It uses real-time machine data and data analytics to provide factual and dynamical updating decision support with a clear goal of increasing productivity. By using the data-driven approach for maintenance, the real-time data and data analytics helps in enlarging maintenance scope to having a system perspective. Prioritising maintenance based on data-driven criticality assessment leads to better performance of the production system and to increase its productivity. </div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">About Maheshwaran Gopalakrishnan</h4> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Maheshwaran Gopalakrishnan presents his <a href="">Ph.D. thesis, Data-Driven Decision Support for Maintenance Prioritisation - Connecting Maintenance to Productivity</a>, in VDL on the 31 of August. He has a background in Production engineering, which he obtained from his M.Sc. degree at KTH, Stockholm. <br /><br /><span><span><span style="display:inline-block">Maheshwaran feels that the field of maintenance management offers plenty of research opportunities, especially as it has got low attention in the global research community compared to other fields. As industries are still using traditional approaches for maintenance, the theory on maintenance is disjoint for industrial practice. This drives him to work in close collaboration with industries in order to close this gap. He currently conducts empirical research within smart maintenance for digitalised manufacturing. In addition to his focus on discrete manufacturing, he plans to expand the maintenance research to include other types of manufacturing and inter-disciplinary research.</span></span></span><br /></p> <span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span style="font-family:open sans"><span lang="EN-GB"><span><br />On his spare time Maheshwaran loves to travel and is an ardent fan of cricket.</span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span style="font-family:open sans"><span lang="EN-GB"><span>He has also been playing curling since 2016<span style="display:inline-block">.<br /></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span style="font-family:open sans"><span lang="EN-GB"></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span> <div><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><i style="font-family:open sans"><span lang="EN-GB"><span><span style="display:inline-block"><br /></span></span></span></i></span></span></span></span></span></span></div> <div><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span style="font-family:open sans"><span lang="EN-GB"><span><span style="display:inline-block"><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/mahgop.aspx">Contact Maheshwaran<br /></a></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></div> <div><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span style="font-family:open sans"><span lang="EN-GB"><span><span style="display:inline-block"><a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx">Department of Industrial and Materials Manufacturing</a><br /></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></span></div> <div><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><i style="font-family:open sans"><span lang="EN-GB"><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span id="ms-rterangecursor-end" style="display:inline-block"><br /></span></span></span></span></i></span></span></span></span></span></span></div> <div><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><i style="font-family:open sans"><span lang="EN-GB"><span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span></i></span></span></span></span></span></span> </div>Sun, 26 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0200​Standardization promotes better recycling of plastics<p><b>​ In Sweden, almost one million tonnes of plastic are used every year. The proportion of recycled plastic is fairly high compared with that in other EU-countries, but ambitions are high, particularly against the background of the new tough recycling demands which come into force in 2020. In order to make the cyclic process more effective, a joint language is required, a standard for the recycling of plastic. The Swedish Standards Institute, SIS, has accepted the challenge and Professor Antal Boldizar is a member of the expert group.</b></p>Plastics are complex and controversial materials from an environmental perspective. A broad range of plastic materials are used in the manufacturing industry, since they are relatively resource-efficient, design-friendly and light in weight, but there are disadvantages in that they are based on fossil-fuels and degrade very slowly, and garbage sorting at source is an important first step towards the achievement of a cyclic system in which plastics can be re-used for new purposes. <br /><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Konstruktionsmaterial/300x200-plastskrap.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px 10px" />Chalmers has a strong competence in this field, in for example Antal Boldizar, Professor in the Department of Industrial and <span></span>Materials Science, whose work focuses on environment-adapted polymeric structural materials.  He is leader of a Polymeric Materials and Composites research group devoted to the study of the relationships between the structure, processing and functional properties of polymeric materials, such as polymeric composites reinforced with cellulose fibres. The recycling of plastics and the use of bio-plastics are other strong fields. <br /><br /><strong>Sweden takes the lead in developing a new joint Standard </strong><br />Now that Sweden through SIS is taking a joint initiative with regard to the future sustainable use of plastics, Antal is one of the experts in the group which will work on the terminology and standardization of recycled plastics.<br />”I‘m looking forward to it.  It is an important field for both society and industry.  One can say that standardization is the industrial language”, says Antal, and continues: “there is a great need for a clear terminology.  Many new concepts are used indistinctly and the industry requires greater clarity with regard to terminology and standards.”<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Konstruktionsmaterial/Johan%20Dahlgren%20SIS.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 10px;width:169px;height:165px" /><br />Johan Dahlgren (to the right), the project leader at SIS, agrees.<br />”We are working to develop clearer definitions relating to plastics in a cyclic economy.  It is important that all the actors in the value-chain use the same terminology, in order for example to be able to compare and evaluate results.  A Standard can be seen as a joint solution of a recurrent problem.  It is in everyone’s interest to raise quality, to avoid misunderstanding and to avoid reinventing the wheel every time.” <br /><br /><strong>Many different perspectives are required</strong><br />Johan Dahlgren says further that a major task of the working group is to contribute to the future sustainable use of plastics. A key feature is the recycling of plastics, but bio-plastics are also an interesting field.<br />”Standardization is often applied research strongly linked to the work of academia. Unfortunately, universities and colleges are not always able to participate in the SIS committees because of the participation fees”, says Johan Dahlgren, ”but at the same time it is important that as many perspectives as possible are represented to ensure that the Standards are good. It is therefore valuable that Antal Boldizar is able to contribute with his knowledge and opinions from his research perspective.”        <br />   <br /><strong>Recycled plastic from electronic waste </strong><br />It normally takes between 18 months and three years to develop a Standard. The first step is to clarify the need for standardization in a given sector and that report is expected to be available by the end of 2019.   What questions are important now at the start?<br />”About 40 % of the plastics used in Sweden is now being recycled,” says Antal, “a large and readily available part of the recycled plastic in Sweden comes from industrial spillage, i.e. waste from the manufacturing process.  There is a good reason for this – the material has not been contaminated or aged.  It is in effect a new material with known properties easy to use in a manufacturing process.”<br />“But how much of the plastic recovered from old materials can be reused?” asks Antal and continues, ”a couple of years ago we had <a href="" target="_blank">a successful project </a>where Erik Stenvall, a doctoral student with us, studied plastic components recovered from electronic waste and showed that 100 % can be reused, but that the process parameters need to differ considerably from those used in the processing of new material.”<br />“Now, I hope to be able to contribute to the development of a clearer picture of the technical potential of recycled material, and the functional properties which can be achieved through e.g. suitable melt-processing.  In this context, we are especially interested in cooperation with the industry, in order to be able better to work with processes on a large scale” finishes Antal Boldizar.<br /><br /><span lang="en"><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/antal-boldizar.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /><span>Read more about Antal Boldizar</span></a><br /><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /><span>Recycled plastic from electronics scrap</span></a><br /></span><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /><span lang="en"><span>Read more about SIS</span></span></a><br /><br /><span class="short_text" lang="en"><span><strong>FACTS - SIS group for environmental aspects of plastic</strong></span></span><span lang="en"><span><br />The group influences content for new standards such as CEN and ISO, and develops a basis for new standards (eg test methods, processes, terminology, classifications).<br /><span></span><strong>Participants: </strong>Avfall Sverige, Borealis, Chalmers, Electrolux, Fortum Waste Solutions, Håll Sverige Rent, IKEM, Mondi, Naturskyddsföreningen, Perstorp, Ragn-Sells, RISE, SIS, SPIF, Swerea IVF, Tetra Pak, and Trioplast.<br /><br /><em>Text: Carina Schultz</em><br /><em>Översättning: J Anthony Bristow</em><br /><em>Photo: Sten Jansin (portrait Johan Dahlgren) and Carina Schultz</em><br /></span></span><br />Fri, 10 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0200 in Manufacturing Technology gets new prestigious editorial position<p><b>​Congratulations to Prof. Peter Krajnik who now is an Associate Editor of the prestigious International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Profilbilder/Peter-Krajnik_340x305.png" alt="Peter Krajnik" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px;width:250px;height:224px" />​Prof. Peter Krajnik recently became an Associate Editor of the prestigious International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture (IJMTM​). <span style="background-color:initial">In his additional academic role he is responsible for the scientific content of the journal that aims to advance the scientific understanding of fundamental mechanics of processes and machines applied to the manufacture of engineering components.​</span><div><div><br /></div> <div>– IJMTM has one of the highest impact factors in the field of Production Engineering and the new editorial board has a substantial responsibility to sustain the journal in the top ranking. From the perspective of a researcher aiming to publish in top-tier journals it is crucial to demonstrate what constitutes a significant advance of the current state of knowledge. It is unlikely that research dealing with theory and modeling alone are acceptable. Likewise, research in which the use of methodology predominates over technological advance falls into the same category, says Peter Krajnik.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>At Chalmers University of Technology, Peter Krajnik leads the Manufacturing Technology research group which belongs to the Department of Industrial and Materials Science. His research focus is on modeling and optimization of manufacturing processes, with specialization in grinding technology. He also serves as a director of the Chalmers Metal Cutting Research and Development Center (MCR), and as director of graduate studies in manufacturing technology.​</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The <a href="" target="_blank">International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture</a> publishes research related to advances in scientific understanding of essential mechanics of processes and machines applied to the manufacture of engineering components, mainly in metals, but also in composites, ceramics and other structural/functional materials.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Please contact Prof. <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Peter-Krajnik.aspx" target="_blank">Peter Krajnik</a> for more information.</div></div>Wed, 27 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200 the quest for high-entropy alloys that survive 1500 °C<p><b>​An aero-engine should operate at the highest possible temperature for the best output power and energy efficiency. But today’s metal alloys in the engines need cooling – otherwise they turn into powders. This causes alarming energy losses. Saad Sheikh is on the quest to design optimum alloys that survive ultra-high temperatures.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">High-entropy alloys (HEAs), or multi-principal-element alloys, is a new and growing field, and has gained enormous interest in recent years as potential ultra-high temperature materials. The materials and manufacture researcher Saad Sheikh focuses on developing HEAs with optimum tensile ductility and strength, superior than the current state-of-the-art nickel based superalloys. </span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>This work is driven by the need to improve the energy efficiency of aerospace and power-generation gas-turbine engines. For example, if cooling of aero-engines can be avoided, the aero-engine output power and energy efficiency would increase up to 50%. Other applications like solar power, fuel cells, materials processing and petro-chemistry can also benefit from the results. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>The aim is to be able to operate engines at higher temperatures </strong>than today. Today’s engines expose the nickel based superalloys inside to temperatures approaching 1200 °C, which is close to 90% of their melting points. In the hottest region of a turbine engine, temperatures are approaching 1500 °C. By using complex cooling systems and coatings the nickel based superalloys can exist in the hottest region but the efficiency gained from operating at higher temperatures is greatly reduced, as the cooling needs extra work.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Saad-Sheikh_250pxl.jpg" alt="Saad Sheikh" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial;font-family:calibri, sans-serif;font-size:11pt">– </span><span style="background-color:initial">The current situation of higher inefficiency losses is alarming, but also provides opportunity to look for new ground-breaking materials. It is a big but intriguing scientific challenge, says Saad Sheikh.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Saad Sheikh</strong> comes from a materials science background and did his Masters in Materials Processing at KTH in Stockholm. Before joining Chalmers University of Technology as a PhD student, he also worked on mechanical properties of cutting tools within the Swedish industry. He is very interested in alloy development and mechanical properties of new structural and high-temperature materials for sustainable energy systems. He explains the difference between HEAs and conventional alloys. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-family:calibri, sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial">– </span>Conventional alloys are usually based on one or two principal elements. HEAs consist of at least four principal metallic elements with an atomic percentage of each element between 5 % and 35 %. These multi-component element alloys can enable formation of simple solid solution phases. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>In his research</strong>, Saad Sheikh has strived to improve HEAs in several ways. Firstly he has contributed with improved understanding of the solid solubility in HEAs. Secondly he has proposed a mechanism and route for increasing the ductility in refractory, or heat resistant, HEAs – so-called RHEAs.</div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Saad-Sheikh-True-tensile-stress-strain-curve_250pxl.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="True tensile stress-strain curve for Hf0.5Nb0.5Ta0.5Ti1.5Zr. The inset shows the microstructure at the fractured surface." style="margin:5px" /><span style="font-weight:700"></span> <div><br /></div> <div>Thirdly, which has been the ultimate goal of his work, Saad Sheikh has addressed the balance of mechanical properties and oxidation resistance for RHEAs, aiming at high-temperature applications. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-family:calibri, sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial">– </span>In studies I have found out that the insufficient oxidation resistance in existing ductile RHEAs is attributed to the failure in forming protective oxide scales accompanied by the accelerated internal oxidation leading to pesting corrosion. Aluminizing is a promising solution.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Image: </em><span style="background-color:initial"><i>True tensile stress-strain curve for the as-cast Hf0.5Nb0.5Ta0.5Ti1.5Zr. The inset shows the microstructure at the fractured surface.​</i></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><i><br /></i></span></div> <div>These studies provide important input to the further development of RHEAs as novel high-temperature materials and shed light on the design of refractory HEAs with optimal mechanical as well as heat and oxidation resistance properties.</div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">FACTS</h2> <div>Saad Sheikh belongs to the division of <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/Pages/default.aspx">Materials and Manufacture</a> at the department of <a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx">Industrial and Materials Science</a>. He recently presented his doctoral thesis with the title: </div> <div><a href="" target="_blank">Alloy Design for High-Entropy Alloys: Predicting Solid Solubility, and Balancing Mechanical Properties and Oxidation Resistance</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>If you want to learn more about refractory high-entropy alloys, we recommend to read:</div> <div><a href="" target="_blank">Alloy design for intrinsically ductile refractory high-entropy alloys, published 2016 in the prestigious Journal of Applied Physics.</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Saad Sheikh has been granted a postdoc fellowship by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). He will be placed in Japan at the <a href="" target="_blank">National Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba</a>, with focus on ultra-high temperature materials (alloy design and mechanical properties) for two years. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Please contact <a href="/en/staff/Pages/sheng-guo.aspx" title="Link to profile page of Sheng Guo" target="_blank">Associate Professor Sheng Guo​</a>, Saad Sheikh's supervisor for more information</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>RELATED NEWS</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Ground-breaking-discoveries-could-create-tougher-alloys-with-many-applications.aspx" target="_blank">Superior alloys could be possible, thanks to ground-breaking research</a></div> <div><br /></div></div> ​<div><em>Text: Nina Silow</em><br /><em>Images: Airbus, Nina Silow and Saad Sheikh</em></div> ​Wed, 27 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200 harvest from the seed-bed programme<p><b>​​Earlier this year we reported about the launch of a new Research Associate Programme in the Production Area of Advance. Four students from four different master programs were appointed as the pioneering research associates in this seed-bed programme. Having just presented their research results, what did the students think about the programme?</b></p><div>Inspired by US universities, <a href="/en/areas-of-advance/production/Pages/default.aspx">the Production Area of Advance</a> earlier this year launched a new Research Associate Programme to enable talented students from the master programs to obtain some experience from research activities. In the first round, four project applications by students from four different master programs was granted. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/production/news/Pages/Seed-bed-for-future-production-researchers.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the programme and the pioneering projects in the first article: Seed-bed for future production researchers</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The projects have been reported mid-term and the final reports have recently been held. We are now curious to hear how the students have experienced this period as researchers. <strong>Priska Herzog</strong> is the first to answer and she starts with the very beginning.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“It was nice to be able to choose ourselves what we wanted to do”, says Priska Herzog.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>She decided on a project connected to her burning interest in sports. The project was about involving sports technology in product development with the aim to improve the offering of sports projects for students. <span style="background-color:initial">Priska did a survey among her fellow students to investigate the interest for sports related studies. The result was very positive and Priska now recommends Chalmers to motivate lecturers to use sports technology in courses. As for trying out as a researcher, she made an observation during the project. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>“It was good to have a project to refer to when contacting professors. It was easier to get their attention than usual”, says Priska. On that comment, the other students nods and <strong>Adis Imsirovic</strong> says:</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“I got good help from my mentor MariAnne (professor MariAnne Karlsson, editor’s note) to narrow the scope of my research”. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In Adis project he wanted to compare the view of design between Scandinavian and Balkan designers and based his research on several interviews with both academic and industrial representatives in Sweden and Bosnia-Herzegovina. At the beginning of the project he got a bit overwhelmed about the task. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“It would have been nice to have an introduction to research work in the beginning, in order to get a good start”, says Adis and continues “the research turned out to be a lot more work than expected”. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>During the project accounts, Adis Imsirovic presented a thick research report and <a href="/en/staff/Pages/johan-malmqvist.aspx">Professor Johan Malmqvist</a>, who is responsible for the Research Associate Programme, suggested that Adis should use the report as a basis and submit it to a scientific conference. Being a student with a published scientific article in his CV would be unusual and a benefit to him. By publishing the material, all Adis hard work during the spring would provide him additional bonus effects.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Also <a href="/en/staff/Pages/melanie-despeisse.aspx">Assistant Professor Mélanie Despeisse</a> thought that publishing the student’s results would be a good idea. Her protégé <strong>Hasnain Thathia</strong> studied how digital technologies can support the conversion towards sustainable production. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Both Adis and Hasnain used interviews in their research and came across one of the challenges this research method brings. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“It was very time consuming to listen to all the recorded material afterwards”, says Adis. Hasnain smiled in recognition and agrees but also says that he appreciates the Research Associate Programme. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“I am grateful for this opportunity. It has been a good experience to get insights about what research is and helps me to make a good decision about whether or not I want to pursue with research”, says Hasnain.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The forth student is <strong>Shankar Paramasivam</strong>. Unlike the others, he used physical experiments, modelling and analysis in his research. For example he used a single fibre pull-out test to see what force was needed before the bio composite cellulose fibre broke and how the force affected the fibre.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“I’ve learn a lot about time management and taking up responsibilities. In student projects we usually work in groups and take common responsibility. In this project it was down to me alone and that was a new educative experience”, says Shankar.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>However, the responsibility does not seem to have scared him off. Shankar definitely sees research as a future career path.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Yes, I would like to work as a researcher in the future”, says Shankar.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Adis Imsirovic says that he wants to work in industry first but might come back to research later on. Priska Herzog shares Shankar’s view.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“I will definitely want to work either as a PhD student or with product development in an innovation driven company”, says Priska.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>The person behind the idea</strong> of the Research Associate Programme is Professor Johan Malmqvist who initially had the ambition to show students some of the benefits of being a researcher. How does he think the program has worked out?</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“I am very pleased with outcome of the programme. It was the first time that is was operated, but it seems that we got the basic design right. Many students applied to the programme. The ones selected worked very hard and, with the engaged guidance from their faculty sponsors, produced very interesting results. In addition, the students expressed that the programme enabled them to develop personally in a way that is not possible in a regular course. The first round of the programme was a clear success”, says Johan Malmqvist.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>So the final question is, will there be a continuation?</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Yes, the programme will be offered in a similar form the next academic year. Further ahead, we expect the programme to become a regular component of the master’s programmes within the Production Area of Advance, with recognized importance for attracting potential student to Chalmers, for encouraging personal student-faculty interaction, and for stimulating talents students to pursue a research career”, concludes Johan Malmqvist.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/production/education/Pages/production-research-associate-programme.aspx" title="Link to basic info about the research associate programme" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the Production Research Associate Programme​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">For more information, please contact:</h5> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/johan-malmqvist.aspx">Professor Johan Malmqvist</a>, Educational Officer of the Production Area of Advance.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><ul><li><span style="background-color:initial">Priska Herzog is studying Product Development and her mentor was Professor Ola Isaksson.</span><br /></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">Adis Imsirovic is a student in Industrial Design Engineering with Professor MariAnne Karlsson as his mentor. </span><br /></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">Hasnain Thathia is a student in Production Engineering mentored by Assistant Professor Mélanie Despeisse.</span><br /></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">Shankar Paramasivam is a student in Applied Mechanics with Associate Professor Martin Fagerström and Professor Gunnar Westman as his mentors.</span><br /></li></ul></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Nina Silow</div> ​​Tue, 26 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200 2018 jubilee professor wants more philosophy in businesses<p><b>​Professor Claudia Eckert of Open University in the UK is one of Chalmers four jubilee professors in 2018. For three months she visits the hosting department of Industrial and Materials Science. With a background in mathematics and philosophy together experience from artificial intelligence, fashion and helicopter industries, she wants to help strengthen Chalmers research in design.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Claudia Eckert has a combined background in mathematics and philosophy. Usually she is a professor of design at Open University in Great Britain, but in 2018 she spends three months in Gothenburg as one of Chalmers four jubilee professors. During her visit, her hosts are the <a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx" title="Link to department">Department of Industrial and Materials Sciences</a>, and more specifically, the research group <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/product-development/Pages/systems-engineering-design.aspx" title="Link to research group">Systems Engineering Design</a>.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>The Systems Engineering Design group studies product development processes and has platform-based development as a special interest. This orientation fits well with Claudia Eckert's research. Her research aims at understanding how design processes work and she likes to compare different design areas, from the production of knitted garments in the fashion industry to production of helicopters or trucks. How is it possible to compare such different product areas?<br /><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">– Looking at the design processes, the similarities are greater than you might think,&quot; says Claudia Eckert. Here you are used to vehicle development, but in the fashion industry you also start with an idea, create a concept and go on producing prototypes and test series before running production. I also believe that the fashion industry has a platform approach where design elements and fabrics are reused in different garments to create a brand recognition and to save money. However, the term platform is not used.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The big difference between the fashion design and product development processes in engineering is the time frame.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– The process is much faster. Instead of taking several years to develop a new product, a new garment can be made in a week.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Claudia Eckert looks at processes as a system, or as multiple systems connected with each other. The systems approach is also in line with the research done at Chalmers. She says that the holistic view is necessary to be able to develop products in a sustainable way. Life cycle analysis is a relatively common approach to sustainability aspects of product development, but Claudia does not think that the method is sufficient. </div> <div>“It is a bit too narrow. There may be effects in the environment, at a higher system level, that are omitted. “</div> <div>She gives an example from a German children's program on asparagus cultivation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– The Germans love their asparagus in the spring. In one asparagus field they warm up the ground to get an earlier harvest. This sounds devastating from an environmental point of view – if you focus on the heating alone. But in this case the heat came from hot water waste that a nearby factory needed to get rid of and the waste became a resource instead.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>As a help to see the overall picture and act more responsibly, Claudia encourages more philosophy in the corporate world.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– Yes, I think companies should hire philosophers to get more ethics into the business. It may sound strange, but I think it would help them to make carefully prepared decisions. If there was more philosophical thinking, I think we could avoid scandals like Volkswagen's diesel engines, for example.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Claudia Eckert has divided her stay at Chalmers into two visits. During the first month she has had a couple of open lectures, participated in the daily research activities and made a number of study visits, both at Chalmers and at collaborating industrial partners. But above all, she has prioritized to talk with PhD students at the department about their research.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– I am astonished about how open and close cooperation the department has with industrial companies. From this perspective, I think Chalmers is one of the world's leading universities.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Since the industrial collaboration is so strong, academic positioning is the area where she thinks there is room for growth. By offering the PhD students an academic outside perspective, she hopes to strengthen the quality of their research. She would like to see researchers focusing on issues that create academic debate and more clearly pushes the field of research forward.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/iola.aspx">Ola Isaksson</a>, research group leader of Systems Engineering Design at Chalmers, was the one who nominated Claudia Eckert as a jubilee professor.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>–​ Claudia Eckert is a well-known researcher who contributes with both deep knowledge in product development and a slightly different perspective which is a positive contribution to the dialogue with researchers and PhD students here. We can challenge ourselves in how we look at the research. Not least the philosophical aspect is important. One example is when society and companies are actively looking at Artificial Intelligence in their product development, an area in which Claudia also has worked.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Now Claudia Eckert has left Gothenburg and Chalmers for the first visit but in August she returns and stays for two months. For those who want to take the opportunity to meet her, please contact her host <a href="/en/staff/Pages/iola.aspx">Ola Isaksson</a>.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS</strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong>Chalmers jubilee professors</strong></div> <div>When Chalmers in 1979 celebrated 150 years, the government gave a Jubilee Professorship at Chalmers as a gift. The criteria to be met is that the holders will add Chalmers new skills and that the university's international relations will be strengthened. The chair is usually divided into three or four time intervals during the year and held by different professors. They are designated by the University President of Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Chalmers all jubilee professors for 2018:</strong></div> <div><ul><li>Claudia Eckert (The Open University, UK), Industrial and Materials Sciences<br /></li> <li>Hilary Bradbury (Oregon Health Sciences University, USA), Technology Economics and Organization<span style="background-color:initial">​</span><br /></li> <li>Paula Caselli (Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany), Space Geo and Environmental Science<br /></li> <li>Keith Hampson (Curtin University, Australia), Architecture and Civil Engineering<br /></li></ul></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/research/our-scientists/Pages/Jubilee-Professors.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Holders of Chalmers Jubilee Professorship since 1991</a></div> <div><br /></div> ​</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Nina Silow</div>Thu, 14 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200 sustainable composities - the cellulose challenge<p><b>Finding more sustainable materials is one important goal for researchers at the Division of Engineering Materials. One way is to decrease the use of fossil-based materials in composites and polymers. That is where cellulose fits in, as a renewable and inexpensive material used as the composite matrix. &gt;</b></p>​Lilian Forsgren and Abhijit Venkatesh, both PhD students in the research group <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/em/polymera/Pages/default.aspx">Polymeric materials and composites</a>, are studying how to better use cellulos<span><span><span></span></span></span>e fibers in composites. <br />-    We both study <a href="">cellulose </a><span>composites<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span> but it differs in which part of the cellulose structure we examine. <span>Cellulose can be found abundantly is a very important component of plants and trees, basically providing structural integrity. <span style="display:inline-block"> It</span></span> has a hierarchical structure where each part<span><span></span></span> <span></span>has a bit different mechanical property. First, there are thin fibers, so called microfibrils. These microfibrils are in turn made up of even smaller fibers called nanofibrils. It is these cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) that we are interested in. The cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) that Lilian works with is just the crystalline part of CNF and they are obtained by using acids, says Abhijit Venkatesh and continues:<br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Ahbijit-Venkatesh_180518_01_170x220.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="PhD student Abhijit Venkatesh" style="margin:5px 10px" /><br />-    I deal with understanding the processing of cellulose nanofibrils reinforced thermoplastic composites, and how the processing parameters affect the final properties, continues Abhijit Venkatesh. The benefit of using cellulose as reinforcement is that it could help to replace or complement the currently used reinforcements like glass- and carbon fibers. It could also strengthen polymers, which are inherently rather weak, to be used as structural materials.<br /><br />-    My focus is on cellulose nanocrystals. We are trying to customize cellulose to better fit and work with the polymer matrix, but also to understand the challenging mechanisms of cellulose, regarding thermal degradation, moist adsorption and discoloration, says Lilian Forsgren. <br /><br /><strong>Sustainability is a strong driving force</strong>, which go for them both. They give an example of possible new biodegradable product: Consider a milk carton cap made out of plastic. If this plastic were replaced with CNF instead, we could reduce the amount of plastic used to produce the cap. Or even totally degradable if starch or corn could be in the matrix. <br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Lilian-Forsgren_180518_01_170x220.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="PhD student Lilian Forsgren" style="margin:5px 10px" /><br />-    I like to be part of the development towards a more sustainable future, no matter how big impact my project will have, every small contribution will make a difference all together, says Lilian and continues:<br />-    I did my bachelor at the Industrial Design Engineering programme at Chalmers but found materials to be very interesting and hence did my master in Materials Engineering. I enjoy challenges and are eager to gain more knowledge. I really enjoy working with cellulose since it is a fantastic material and it’s a more sustainable alternative compared to many materials used today.<br /><br />-    My background differs since I come from Bangalore, India, where I took my Bachelor in the field of Mechanical Engineering. After coming to Sweden 2013, completing my master thesis in Materials Engineering, I found the environment to be calm and productive which pursued me to stay and do my PhD here at Chalmers, says Abhijit. And I like to be part of the move towards a more sustainable society. I think the usage of CNF, which is biodegradable, renewable, abundantly available (in all plant sources) and light weight, in itself is the sustainable perspective. Since the source of cellulose is from Sweden this makes it much more sustainable as Sweden has one of the most sustainable forest industries on the world.<br /><br /><strong>Another interesting fact</strong> – they are both top athletes within in their sports. Lilian Forsgren is running in the <a href="">Swedish national team in Orienteering </a>and  Abhijit Venkatesh play for <a href="">Swedish National Cricket team.</a> Can the competitive spirit be of help in the daily work as a researcher?<br />-    Being determent and setting up a personal goal is a similarity, that might be same the mindset as when I compete in my sport. I set up goals and can be very effective, Lilian says.<br />-    I like to think of research as a team game. I am very good to talking and teambuilding, which is something I learned as a coach in my sport. And to have will power, to have a fixed goal, pushing yourself – that helps, says Abhijit.<br /><br />They agree upon the “never give up&quot;-thing, especially after many failed experiments, you still need to go on.<br />-    Well, there is a competitive downside also, says Lilian. When I had a series of bad turnouts on my experiments, I was really frustrated. But since there is no physical competitor in this case, you must let it go and get back on track.<br /><br /><strong>They are both halfway through </strong>their research and will present their licentiate thesis in September. What are the results so far?<br />-    We have been able to graft side chains onto the molecule of cellulose Nano crystals, performing an increased thermal stability and interesting mechanical properties of the composites produced with these grafted Cellulose Nanocrystals adding them into a polymer matrix, says Lilian. This means we have found a possible way to overcome some of the main challenges such as avoiding degradation at low temperatures and increased strength and thermal stability. <br />-    There are some good results soon to be published, where we managed to make crystal clear, transparent composites that can be used as reinforcement. That is cool, Lilian finishes.<br /><br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Dihexyl_polymer_foto_Marcus-Folino_300x300.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Transparent composite with cellulose nanocrystals" style="margin:5px" /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Polymerer_cracks_3_foto_Marcus-Folino_300x300.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Mixed and dried material, flaky shards." style="margin:5px" /><br /><em><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Pictures, to the </em><em>left: This is a composite with 10% surface grafted CNC (cellulose nanocrystals) and EAA polymer. As you can see, the composite is transparent (the Chalmers logo is on a printed paper below). 3 out of 4 variants of composites with CNC in the study are transparent. (Photo: Marcus Folino)</em><br /><em>Pictures to the right: Mixed and dried composite material. The plastic and cellulose are mixed in aqueous solution, and when air dried these shards of material are formed. Afterwards, they are moulded into composites, as the one in the first picture. </em><span><em> (Photo: Marcus Folino)<span style="display:inline-block"></span></em></span><br /><br />-    The big challenge is that cellulose likes water and polymers usually don’t. When you put them together they tend to separate and makes the composite more fragile. The main results of my research so far lie in the fact that wet processing techniques is successful in producing excellent composites. It also helps us to achieve high CNF loading contents while not sacrificing mechanical properties. The problem is to upscale the process for industry because it is still too expensive but we will hopefully solve that, says Abhijit.<br /><br /><span>Learn more about the research: <a href="">Surface treatment of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC): effects on dispersion rheology.</a> <br />You can also follow Lilian and Abhijit when they are hosting the <a href="">Chalmers Production</a> instagram account 28-30 May, reporting from <a href="">Nordic Polymer Days 2018, Copenhagen. </a></span>A closely related research within polymer science is presented May 24th at the docent lecture where <a href="/sv/personal/redigera/Sidor/roland-kadar.aspx">Roland Kádár </a>talks about <a href="/sv/institutioner/ims/kalendarium/Sidor/Docentföreläsning-Roland-Kádár---IMS.aspx">“Polymer Rheology and Processing”</a>. <br /><br /><br /><strong>Quick facts Lilian Forsgren</strong><br /><strong>Living in: </strong>Gothenburg<br /><strong>Family:</strong> Boyfriend and family with two brothers and two lovely nieces.<br /><strong>Interests: </strong>Love running and nature, especially high mountains.<br /><span><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Lilian-Forsgren.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about Lilian Forsgren</a></span><div><span><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Lilian-Forsgren.aspx"></a><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Licentiate thesis: Physical properties of dispersions and composites containing surface-grafted cellulose nanocrystals​​</a><br /><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Lilian-Forsgren.aspx"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a></span><br /><strong>Quick facts Ahbijit Venkatesh</strong><br /><strong>Living in:</strong> <span><strong><span></span></strong>Gothenburg<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /><strong>Family: </strong>Parents, two siblings (who are twins – boy and a girl) and my lovely wife.<br /><strong>Interests:</strong> Love being out in the nature and coaching cricket.<br /><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/abhven.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about Abhijit Venkatesh</a><div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><div style="display:inline !important"><a href="" target="_blank">Licentiate thesis: <span style="background-color:initial">Water-assisted mixing and compression moulding of ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer reinforced with nano-cellulose</span></a></div> <div><br /><a href="/en/departments/ims/research/em/Pages/default.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Division Engineering Materials </a><br /><br /><em>Text and photo: Carina Schultz<br /><br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Lilian-Forsgren-Ahbijit-Venkatesh_180518_16_750x340.png" alt="The PhD students in front of a machine" style="margin:5px" /><br />Abhijit Ventaesh and Lilian Forsgren in front of the compression moulding machine, in the Materials Processing Lab at Chalmers, where the samples of composites are moulded.<br /><br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Lilian-Forsgren-Ahbijit-Venkatesh_180518_13_750x501.png" alt="Samples of composites" style="margin:5px" /><br />Samples of moulded cellulose composites.<br /><br /><br /></em><br /></div></div></div>Tue, 22 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200 twins ensure quality and lower costs<p><b>​No one can have escaped the digitalization wave currently under way. There are high expectations in the industry to become more streamlined using big data and data analysis. In a new Vinnova-funded project, DigiGeo, will Professor Söderberg and his research team enhance digital twins for geometry assurance .</b></p><div>​<img src="/en/departments/ims/PublishingImages/Rikard-Söderberg_170x220.png" alt="Professor-Rikard-Soderberg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px 15px" /><span>Even the use of simulations has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. The models have become more accurate, the algorithms faster and the computers are more powerful.<span style="display:inline-block"><br /></span></span><br /><span>-    <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>We have been heavily focused on simulation and optimization for many years and are of course, very pleased with Vinnova's financing of the project “Digital Twin for Geometry Assured Production” (DigiGeo). The funding makes it possible to increase the use of simulation to mirror and control proce<span><span><span><span><span><span></span></span></span></span></span></span>sses in real t<span><span><span><span><span></span></span></span></span></span>ime, such as digital twins, says <a href="/en/staff/Pages/rikard-soderberg.aspx">Rikard Söderberg</a>, Professor of Product and Production Development, and continues:</div> <div>-    We hope to be able to use the method in early development phases to simulate and visualize the<span><span><span><span></span></span></span></span> effects of geometric variation.<br /><span><span><span></span></span></span></div> <div>A digital twin is an online virtual copy of a real product or process. It can have different purposes and is therefore supplied with various real-time data. The digital twin is connected wirelessly to databases and physical devices and is predicted to be common in future production systems.</div> <div>At the same time, the development of simulation models for geometry assurance has been going<span><span></span></span> on for many years. It has gone from simpler simulation where details have been assumed rigid, to more advanced finite element (FEM) based simulations.</div> <div>-    The work of recent years has been aimed at driving simulation models for non-rigid geometry as digital twins in the future. It could mean an ability to control both the production process and product development in a more efficient way, says Professor Söderberg.<br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Faster algoritms demands</h5> <p class="chalmersElement-P">However, in order to fully exploit the simulation models for geometry assurance as digital twins - both in production and in early stages of development - it is necessary to develop further. The project is therefore divided into three parts: <span></span></p> <div>The first part project focuses on better material models and finding faster algorithms for real-time use. This means refinement of the digital twin to handle more advanced material properties as multi-material solutions, i.e. solutions in which different materials are used in the same subassembly or the same component. Residual stresses, depending, for example welding details, also affects the geometrical deviation and variation and must therefore also be included in the simulations.</div> <div>-    This means more complex and demanding calculations. Therefore, we need to develop high-speed algorithms for real-time use, says Söderberg.<br /></div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Visualization necessary for decisionmaking</h5> <div>To use the digital twin as a decision tool, you need to visualize the variation as realistic as possible. Therefore, in the second part of the project, you enhance the simulation models with Raytracing, 3D scanning / point clouds and digital environments.</div></div> <div>Raytracing means increased realism when visualizing manufacturing variation and can be used to support decision-making in the early stages. Scanning results as point clouds are currently used to measure and verify components and products with great accuracy. Point clouds can be used to compare variations in batch details, but the method requires faster and more efficient algorithms due to the large amount of data.</div> <div>Finally, there is a need for models of digital environments visualizing the impact of manufacturing variations on perceived quality.<br /></div> <div>-    To effectively visualize geometric variation, models are required, as well as design and data to be combined into scenarios that then are evaluated. If we manage to automatically generate those models, we would significantly rationalize the geometry insurance process. We benefit greatly from the research on visual evaluation conducted by the department within the research area Percieved Quality, says Rikard Söderberg.</div> <div>In the third and final subproject, a preliminary study of a digital information flow, a so-called “Digital Thread”, is being planned. It will predict how the future digital geometry assurance process might look.<br /></div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Industrial co-operation and advanced mathematics</h5> <div>The DigiGeo project, which started at the beginning of the year, extends over two years and brings together academics, research centers and industry. </div></div> <div>-    We carry out this project in cooperation with Fraunhofer Chalmers Center, who has the required advanced competence in industrial mathematics for the development of algorithms, says Söderberg, and continues:</div> <div>-    The project would not be possible without collaboration with industry partners such as Volvo Cars, IKEA, GKN, VA Automotive and RD&amp;T Technology.<br /><br /><em>Text: Carina Schultz</em><br /><em>Photo: Shutterstock (large image) and Anna-Lena Lundqvist (portrait) </em></div> <div> <br /></div> <div><strong><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Digital Twin for Geometry Assured Production (DigiGeo)</a></strong></div> <div><strong>Project leader: </strong>Professor Rikard Söderberg, Department of Industrial and Materials Sciences</div> <div><strong>Project time: </strong>2018-2019</div> <div><strong>Financing: </strong>Vinnova / 5 MSEK<br /><br /><a href="/en/departments/ims/research/product-development/Pages/default.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the Division of Product Development</a><br /><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div>Mon, 21 May 2018 14:00:00 +0200 Data improves materials analysis<p><b>​By examining the structure of a metal or ceramic material at the atomic level, it is easier to understand and influence the properties of different materials. But what should you look for and where? In a new project, Professor Uta Klement combines analyses of Big Data with her expertise area of material characterization. Instead of looking for a needle in a haystack, the data is analysed to find the deviations which needs to be investigated in detail.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/staff/Pages/uta-klement.aspx" target="_blank">Professor Uta Klement</a> leads a research group called <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/ytmikro/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Surface and Microstructure Engineering</a>. She examines the properties of metals and different ceramic materials. These include nano materials, different types of coating, advanced steel or superalloys. By understanding the structure and construction of the materials, it is possible to achieve more sustainable production processes and products. Manufacturers can use less material and also use the material more efficiently and longer.</span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>One example is</strong> new thermal barrier coatings that allow for higher combustion temperatures in gas turbines such as in airplane engines, which would improve efficiency and result in lower emissions.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Profilbilder/Uta%20Klement_170x220.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Uta Klement" style="margin:5px" />In a new project, which deals with improving the grindability of recycled steel, Uta Klement collaborates with a group of researchers and combines analyses of big data with material characterization. This is the first time they try this method. She tells us what benefits it brings.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– Our material analyses are often based on an assumption, not on a theory. However, in industry a lot of data is collected in material processing. By analysing these data we can get hints on what to look for in the microstructure. Our material science knowledge helps to interpret the data, and then we can perform accurate investigations instead of looking for the &quot;needle in the haystack&quot;.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Knowing what you are looking for</strong> is particularly important in research that zooms in on a small piece of material using electron microscopy and other complementary techniques. Taking advantage of data can be a breakthrough and become a generic approach, says Uta Klement.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– New and improved characterization technology and the ability to interpret the results enable us to increase our knowledge and produce new and better products with better features and better utilization of the resources. Indirectly this is important to all of us.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS</strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Uta Klement is a professor of materials science with a focus on electron microscopy. She is Head of <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Division of Materials and Manufacture</a> at Chalmers <a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Department of Industrial and Materials Science</a>, and also heads the research group <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/ytmikro/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Surface and Microstructure Engineering</a>. She is also in the board of <a href="" target="_blank">Chalmers Ventures</a>.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read more about the project &quot;<a href="">Grindability of recycled steel: automotive crankshafts</a>&quot; in Chalmers research database [<em>in Swedish</em>]. The project is led by <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Peter-Krajnik.aspx" target="_blank">P​eter Krajnik</a>, professor of manufacturing technology and also includes <a href="/en/staff/Pages/Philipp-Hoier-.aspx" target="_blank">Philipp Hoier</a> and <a href="/en/staff/Pages/amir-malakizadi.aspx" target="_blank">Amir Malakizadi</a>.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text and photo: Nina Silow</em></div> <div><br /></div> Fri, 18 May 2018 17:00:00 +0200