News: Materialvetenskaphttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyMon, 26 Nov 2018 16:32:30 +0100http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Removing-toxic-mercury-from-contaminated-water-.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Removing-toxic-mercury-from-contaminated-water-.aspxRemoving toxic mercury from contaminated water<p><b>Water which has been contaminated with mercury and other toxic heavy metals is a major cause of environmental damage and health problems worldwide. Now, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, present a totally new way to clean contaminated water, through an electrochemical process. The results are published in the scientific journal Nature Communications. ​​​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">“Our results have really exceeded the expectations we had when we started with the technique,” says the research leader Björn Wickman, from Chalmers’ Department of Physics. “Our new method makes it possible to reduce the mercury content in a liquid by more than 99%. This can bring the water well within the margins for safe human consumption.” </span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), mercury is one the most harmful substances for human health. It can influence the nervous system, the development of the brain, and more. It is particularly harmful for children and can also be transmitted from a mother to a child during pregnancy. Furthermore, mercury spreads very easily through nature, and can enter the food chain. Freshwater fish, for example, often contain high levels of mercury. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the last two years, Björn Wickman and Cristian Tunsu, researcher at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Chalmers, have studied an electrochemical process for cleaning mercury from water. Their method works via extracting the heavy metal ions from water by encouraging them to form an alloy with another metal. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Today, removing low, yet harmful, levels of mercury from large amounts of water is a major challenge. Industries need better methods to reduce the risk of mercury being released in nature,” says Björn Wickman. </div> <div><br /></div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Vattenrening_labbsetup1_webb.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;background-color:initial" /><div>Their new method involves a metal plate – an electrode – that binds specific heavy metals to it. The electrode is made of the noble metal platinum, and through an electrochemical process it draws the toxic mercury out of the water to form an alloy of the two. In this way, the water is cleaned of the mercury contamination. The alloy formed by the two metals is very stable, so there is no risk of the mercury re-entering the water. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“An alloy of this type has been made before, but with a totally different purpose in mind. This is the first time the technique with electrochemical alloying has been used for decontamination purposes,” says Cristian Tunsu.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>One strength of the new cleaning technique is that the electrode has a very high capacity. Each platinum atom can bond with four mercury atoms. Furthermore, the mercury atoms do not only bond on the surface, but also penetrate deeper into the material, creating thick layers. This means the electrode can be used for a long time. After use, it can be emptied in a controlled way. Thereby, the electrode can be recycled, and the mercury disposed of in a safe way. A further positive for this process is that it is very energy efficient.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Another great thing with our technique is that it is very selective. Even though there may be many different types of substance in the water, it just removes the mercury. Therefore, the electrode doesn’t waste capacity by unnecessarily taking away harmless substances from the water,” says Björn Wickman. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Patenting for the new method is being sought, and in order to commercialise the discovery, the company Atium has been setup. The new innovation has already been bestowed with a number of prizes and awards, both in Sweden and internationally. The research and the colleagues in the company have also had a strong response from industry. ​ </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We have already had positive interactions with a number of interested parties, who are keen to test the method. Right now, we are working on a prototype which can be tested outside the lab under real-world conditions.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se​</a> </div> <div>and Joshua Worth, <a href="mailto:%20joshua.worth@chalmers.se"> joshua.worth@chalmers.se ​</a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read the article, <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-07300-z">“Effective removal of mercury from aqueous streams via electrochemical alloy formation on platinum”​</a> in Nature Communications.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><a href="http://www.mynewsdesk.com/uk/chalmers/pressreleases/removing-toxic-mercury-from-contaminated-water-2800540"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release and download high-resolution images. ​​</a><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Vattenrening_Bjorn_Wickman_Cristian_Tunsu_portratt_750x340_NY.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />​<span style="background-color:initial">Björn Wickman and Cristian Tunsu</span><span style="background-color:initial"> ​are pr</span><span style="background-color:initial">esenting a new and effective way of cleaning mercury from water. With the help of new technology, contaminated water can become clean enough to be well within the safe limits for drinkability. The results are now published in the scientific journal Nature Communications. ​</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Image: Mia Halleröd Palmgren</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Potential uses for the new method</h3> <div><ul><li>T<span style="background-color:initial">he technique could be used to reduce the amount of waste and increase the purity of waste and process water in the chemical and mining industries, and in metal production. </span></li></ul></div> <div><ul><li>It can contribute to better environmental cleaning of places with contaminated land and water sources.<br /></li></ul></div> <div><ul><li>​It <span style="background-color:initial">can even be used to clean drinking water in badly affected environments because, thanks to its low energy use, it can be powered totally by solar cells. Therefore, it can be developed into a mobile and reusable water cleaning technology. </span></li></ul></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More on heavy metals in our environment</h3> <div>Heavy metals in water sources create enormous environmental problems and influence the health of millions of people around the world. Heavy metals are toxic for all living organisms in the food chain. According to the WHO, mercury is one of the most dangerous substances for human health, influencing our nervous system, brain development and more. The substance is especially dangerous for children and unborn babies. </div> <div>Today there are strict regulations concerning the management of toxic heavy metals to hinder their spread in nature. But there are many places worldwide which are already contaminated, and they can be transported in rain or in the air. This results in certain environments where heavy metals can become abundant, for example fish in freshwater sources. In industries where heavy metals are used, there is a need for better methods of recycling, cleaning and decontamination of the affected water. <span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif">For more information</h3> <div><span style="font-weight:700"><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Björn-Wickman.aspx">Björn Wickman​</a></span>, Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 772 51 79, <a href="mailto:bjorn.wickman@chalmers.se">bjorn.wickman@chalmers.se​</a></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700"><a href="/en/staff/Pages/tunsu.aspx">Cristian Tunsu</a></span>,  Post Doc, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering​, <span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers University of Technology, +46 </span><span style="background-color:initial">31 772 29 45, <a href="mailto:tunsu@chalmers.se">tunsu@chalmers.se</a></span></div></div> <div><div><div><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div></div></div>Wed, 21 Nov 2018 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/How-gold-can-melt-at-room-temperature-.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/How-gold-can-melt-at-room-temperature-.aspxHow to melt gold at room temperature<p><b>​When the tension rises, unexpected things can happen – not least when it comes to gold atoms. Researchers from, among others, Chalmers University of Technology, have now managed, for the first time, to make the surface of a gold object melt at room temperature.​</b></p><div><div><div>​<span style="background-color:initial">Ludvig de Knoop, from Chalmers’ Department of Physics, placed a small piece of gold in an electron microscope. Observing it at the highest level of magnification and increasing the electric field step-by-step to extremely high levels, he was interested to see how it influenced the gold atoms.</span></div> <div>It was when he studied the atoms in the recordings from the microscope, that he saw something exciting. The surface layers of gold had actually melted – at room temperature.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;I was really stunned by the discovery. This is an extraordinary phenomenon, and it gives us new, foundational knowledge of gold,” says Ludvig de Knoop.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>What happened was that the gold atoms became excited. Under the influence of the electric field, they suddenly lost their ordered structure and released almost all their connections to each other.</div> <div>Upon further experimentation, the researchers discovered that it was also possible to switch between a solid and a molten structure.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The discovery of how gold atoms can lose their structure in this way is not just spectacular, but also groundbreaking scientifically. Together with the theoretician Mikael Juhani Kuisma, from the University of Jyväskylä in Finland, Ludvig de Knoop and colleagues have opened up new avenues in materials science. The results are now published in the journal Physical Review Materials. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Thanks to theoretical calculations, the researchers are able to suggest why gold can melt at room temperature, which has to do with the formation of defects in the surface layers. <br /><br />Possibly, the surface melting can also be seen as a so-called low-dimensional phase transition. In that case, the discovery is connected to the research field of topology, where pioneers David Thouless, Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz received the Nobel Prize in Physics 2016. With Mikael Juhani Kuisma in the lead, the researchers are now looking into that possibility. In any case, the ability to melt surface layers of gold in this manner enables various novel practical applications in the future.<br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Because we can control and change the properties of the surface atom layers, it opens doors for different kinds of applications. For example, the technology could be used in different types of sensors, catalysts and transistors. There could also be opportunities for new concepts for contactless components,&quot; says Eva Olsson, Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>But for now, for those who want to melt gold without an electron microscope, a trip to the goldsmith is still in order.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Text: </span><span style="background-color:initial"> Joshua Worth,</span><a href="mailto:%20joshua.worth@chalmers.se"> joshua.worth@chalmers.se  </a>and <span style="background-color:initial">M</span><span style="background-color:initial">ia </span><span style="background-color:initial">Hall</span><span style="background-color:initial">eröd</span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"> Palmgren, </span><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se </a></span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif;font-size:24px;background-color:initial">About the scientific article</span><br /></div> <div><div><span style="background-color:initial">The article </span><a href="https://journals.aps.org/prmaterials/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.2.085006">“Electric-field-controlled reversible order-disorder switching of a metal tip surface </a><span style="background-color:initial">” has been published in the journal Physical Review Materials. It was written by Ludvig de Knoop, Mikael Juhani Kuisma, Joakim Löfgren, Kristof Lodewijks, Mattias Thuvander, Paul Erhart, Alexandre Dmitriev and Eva Olsson. The researchers behind the results are active at Chalmers, the University of Gothenburg,  the University of Jyväskylä in Finland, and Stanford University in the United States.</span></div> <span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div><br /></div></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/GuldSmalterIRumstemperatur_181116_01_750x340px.jpg" alt="" style="font-size:24px;margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">Joakim Löfgren, Eva Olsson, Ludvig de Knoop,  Mattias Thuvander, Alexandre Dmitriev and Paul Erhart are some of the researchers behind the discovery. Not pictured are Mikael Juhani Kuisma and Kristof Lodewijks.</span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Image: Johan Bodell</span></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about the research infrastructure at Chalmers<br /></h3> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/researchinfrastructure/CMAL/Pages/default.aspx">The Chalmers Material Analysis Laboratory (CMAL) </a> has advanced instruments for material research. The laboratory formally belongs to the Department of Physics, but is open to all researchers from universities, institutes and industry. The experiments in this study have been carried out using advanced and high-resolution electron microscopes - in this case, transmission electron microscopes (TEM). Major investments have recently been made, to further push the laboratory to the forefront of material research. In total, the investments are about 66 million Swedish kronor, of which the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation has contributed half.<span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">More about electron microscopy</h4> <div> </div> <div>Electron microscopy is a collective name for different types of microscopy, using electrons instead of electromagnetic radiation to produce images of very small objects. Using this technique makes it possible to study individual atoms. <span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For more information, contact: </h3></div> <div><div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/f00lude.aspx"><span>Ludvig de Knoop</span>, </a>Postdoctoral researcher, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 31 772 <span style="background-color:initial">51 80, </span><a href="mailto:ludvig.deknoop@chalmers.se%E2%80%8B%E2%80%8B" style="font-family:calibri, sans-serif;font-size:12pt"><span lang="EN-US">ludvig.deknoop@chalmers.se </span></a></div></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"> <br /></span></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Eva-Olsson.aspx"><span>Eva Olsson</span><span style="background-color:initial">,</span></a><span style="background-color:initial"> Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 31 772 32 47, </span><a href="mailto:eva.olsson@chalmers.se" target="_blank">eva.olsson@chalmers.se </a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="http://www.mynewsdesk.com/uk/chalmers/pressreleases/how-to-melt-gold-at-room-temperature-2799968"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release and download high-resolution images. </a></div> <div><a href="https://youtu.be/mbKuq1BAfrs"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Watch a <span style="background-color:initial">short video clip with researcher Ludvig de Knoop explaining the discovery.</span>​</a></div> </div></div> ​Tue, 20 Nov 2018 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Material-characterisation-for-crash-modelling-of-composites.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Material-characterisation-for-crash-modelling-of-composites.aspxMaterial characterisation for crash modelling of composites<p><b>​​Thomas Bru, industrial PhD student (RISE SICOMP) at the division of Material and Computational Mechanics IMS, defends his doctoral thesis on November 30. Below the popular science description. For more information, please see links below.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700">Popular science description</span></span><div><br /></div> <div>In 2015, the transport sector contributed to nearly 30% of the total EU-28 greenhouse gas emissions. The figure decreases to 21% if international aviation and maritime emissions are excluded. The transport industry must therefore find solutions to reduce its impact on climate change.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A promising method to reduce the weight of vehicles and therefore to their CO2 emissions is to introduce components made of lightweight composite materials, in particular carbon fibre reinforced plastics. On medium size cars, weight savings as high as 35% can be achieved by replacing steel structures with structures made of composite materials, and so without any loss in mechanical performances (strength and stiffness). In addition, it has been shown that composites structures can potentially absorb more energy than metallic structures in crash situations. Higher energy absorption in crash yields higher safety of the occupants thanks to reduced deceleration loads.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Unfortunately, reliable simulation of the crash behaviour of composite structure has been identified as one the bottle necks for the introduction of composite materials in cars. With the aim of increasing the level of confidence in crash simulations, physical tests must be carried out in order to 1) extract relevant material properties to input to the simulation tools and to 2) validate the predictions of the numerical crash simulations.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In this work, a simple test method is developed to experimentally characterise the crushing behaviour of composites. The experimental results are compared the simulation results obtained from a project conducted in parallel to this thesis. The aim of the simulations is to pre-emptively predict the crushing behaviour of composite structures in order to optimise their design in terms of energy absorption and to reduce the number of physical tests which are associated with high costs. In addition, experimental methods are developed with the aim of extracting material parameters required as input to material models in simulation codes. It is important to carefully measure the mechanical response of composite materials under shear forces (shear forces are pairs of equal and opposing forces acting on opposite sides of an object, like the forces created when using a pair of scissors). Therefore, a methodology is proposed to characterise the shear response of composite materials and to calibrate crash models for composites from the measured shear response.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Links:</span></div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/publication/505312"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/publication/505312"><span>R</span>ead the thesis </a></div> <div><a href="https://se.linkedin.com/in/thomas-bru-01127262"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />LinkedIn Thomas Bru</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>Dissertation</strong></div> <div>2018-11-30 10:00</div> <div>VDL, Tvärgata 4C, Chalmers</div> <div>Opponent: Prof. Ivana Partridge, University of Bristol, UK</div></div> <div><br /></div> ​Tue, 20 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Skeletal-imitation.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Skeletal-imitation.aspxSkeletal imitation reveals how bones grow atom-by-atom<p><b>​Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have discovered how our bones grow at an atomic level, showing how an unstructured mass orders itself into a perfectly arranged bone structure. The discovery offers new insights, which could yield improved new implants, as well as increasing our knowledge of bone diseases such as osteoporosis.</b></p><p>​The bones in our body grow through several stages, with atoms and molecules joining together, and those bigger groupings joining together in turn. One early stage in the growth process is when calcium phosphate molecules crystallise, which means that they transform from an amorphous mass into an ordered structure. Many stages of this transformation were previously a mystery, but now, through a project looking at an imitation of how our bones are built, the researchers have been able to follow this crystallisation process at an atomic level. Their results are now published in the scientific journal Nature Communications. <br /><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Martin%20150.jpg" alt="" style="height:200px;width:150px;margin:5px" /><br />“A wonderful thing with this project is that it demonstrates how applied and fundamental research go hand in hand. Our project was originally focused on the creation of an artificial biomaterial, but the material turned out to be a great tool to study bone building processes. We first imitated nature, by creating an artificial copy. Then, we used that copy to go back and study nature,” says Martin Andersson, Professor in Materials Chemistry at Chalmers, and leader of the study. </p> <p><br />The researchers were developing a method of creating artificial bone through additive manufacturing, or 3D printing. The resulting structure is built up in the same way, with the same properties, as real bone. Once fully developed, it will enable the formation of naturalistic implants, which could replace the metal and plastic technologies currently in use. As the team began to imitate natural bone tissue functions, they saw that they had created the possibility to study the phenomenon in a setting highly resembling the environment in living tissue. </p> <p><br />The team’s artificial bone-like substance mimicked the way real bone grows. The smallest structural building blocks in the skeleton are groups of strings consisting of the protein collagen. To mineralize these strings, cells send out spherical particles known as vesicles, which contain calcium phosphate. These vesicles release the calcium phosphate into confined spaces between the collagen strings. There, the calcium phosphate begins to transform from an amorphous mass into an ordered crystalline structure, which creates the bone’s characteristic features of remarkable resistance to shocks and bending. </p> <p><br />The researchers followed this cycle with the help of electron microscopes and now show in their paper how it happens at the atomic level. Despite the fact that bone crystallisation naturally occurs in a biological environment, it is not a biological process. Instead, calcium phosphate’s intrinsic physical characteristics define how it crystallises and builds up, following the laws of thermodynamics. The molecules are drawn to the <img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Antiope%20150.jpg" alt="" style="height:200px;width:150px;margin:5px 10px" />place where the energy level is lowest, which results in it building itself into a perfectly crystallised structure.</p> <p><br />“Within the transmission electron microscope, we could follow the stages of how the material transformed itself into an ordered structure. This enables it to achieve as low an energy level as possible, and therefore a more stable state,” says Dr Antiope Lotsari, a researcher in Martin Andersson’s group, who conducted the electron microscopy experiments.</p> <p><br />The Chalmers researchers are the first to show in high resolution what happens when bones crystallise. The results could influence the way many common bone related illnesses are treated. </p> <p><br />“Our results could be significant for the treatment of bone disease such as osteoporosis, which today is a common illness, especially among older women. Osteoporosis is when there is an imbalance between how fast bones break down and are being re-formed, which are natural processes in the body,” says Martin Andersson. </p> <p><br />Current medicines for osteoporosis, which work through influencing this imbalance, could be improved with this new knowledge. The hope is that with greater precision, we will be able to evaluate the pros and cons of current medicines, as well as experiment with different substances to examine how they hinder or stimulate bone growth.</p> <p><br />The article “<a href="http://network.mynewsdesk.com/wf/click?upn=jT4ao6EIWq-2B-2Fx9SECyWO4-2F3NrlX2-2Fnm4FQcveXCi43isecyOuYW7oWnBr4foZiiD7GZHtNUdA7e76vI5IUmE3Q-3D-3D_X6nVGqSMdJTrz-2FI1LxXG5p2migGMf1WazWDFt93-2FtiI1gYqAxvDcGyKwx2VSvp2Qu4S7dbxiGOADD-2BPxNvRDBo13-2FkNZip-2FdWo3vIzwtu4xnDEpw5nfjCHF9h7QTYlrgGM5-2Bk-2BoYo3FgbyVZeEfVs1LFPZxgF1DdCXNBIKCsSdWf6M6UkLH-2F1dT-2BoQ3Sf18tc6IJ52N1hf-2FUZ68xDZW-2BSHPwvmMGYwUHhdLBS60-2FS6-2FUgu-2FSoHN4imBpIZhPK7a9P-2BMxJvA-2Fr4AikF4WB-2FG97d4LFcB4JgF-2B3xCFpHJbiHknPgjkTzo2RWnROGrDTZMVTjdTg8KHEIQWZT5GbCkkAI8npyAyDvwD-2FacPTjVPzo96ExiuL8pKemOVvlzVuPW0EgdUtQcl1kO3ZKoBc-2FjOp9YBaCDbcRKYNw3b-2BCC5d5A-3D">Transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate to bone-like apatite</a>” is published now in Nature Communications. <br /></p>Sun, 18 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Airbus-collaboration-on-multifunctional-materials.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Airbus-collaboration-on-multifunctional-materials.aspxAirbus collaboration on multifunctional materials<p><b>​Chalmers has received a substantial boost in the field of multifunctional materials and technologies focusing on the aviation industry. Dr. Peter Linde, Research Engineer at Airbus, one of the world’s largest aircraft manufacturers, has taken up the position of Adjunct Professor in the Department of Industrial and Materials Science. A collaboration that started with a long walk to a remote hotel in Toulouse in 2008.</b></p>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Peter-Linde_02_500x750_foto%20Carina%20Schultz.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Portrait Peter Linde" style="margin:5px 20px;width:225px;height:312px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">During their long walk to the hotel, Peter Linde and <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/leifas.aspx">Leif Asp</a>, Professor of <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mocm/Pages/Lightweight-materials-and-structures.aspx">Lightweight Composite Materials and Structures</a>, realised that they shared many questions regarding research into lightweight materials. After nearly 10 years of working together on a number of projects, Asp’s wish for more in-depth collaboration with Airbus has now been realised as Linde took up the part-time (20%) position of Adjunct Professor at Chalmers in September. He is based in the Division of Material and Computational Mechanics.  </span><div><span style="background-color:initial">
At <a href="http://company.airbus.com/careers/Our-locations/Hamburg.html">Airbus Operations GmbH in Hamburg </a>Linde is currently working as an Airframe Architecture and Integration Research Engineer. His long experience of research into materials and composites has made him particularly familiar with the many challenges of this field within the Airbus group – which will be a major asset for Chalmers.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Picture above: Peter Linde, who has recently taken up the position of Adjunct Professor in the Department of Industrial and Materials Science. His impressive CV includes studies at ETH Zurich, Stanford, the University of California, Los Angeles (focusing on industrial collaboration in aviation), and the University of California, Berkeley (pioneers in finite element methods). </em></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div><strong>
World-leading research into structural batteries</strong> 
</div> <div>The agreement has taken time to prepare because the professorship must be relevant to Chalmers while also adding value to Airbus. Linde says that one absolutely crucial reason for the collaboration is the cutting-edge research being conducted by Leif Asp’s research team together with colleagues at KTH Royal Institute of Technology within the field of multifunctional composites for energy storage.
</div> <div>“Yes, it’s true that we’re world-leading in the area of <a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspx">structural batteries​</a>. In preparation for the agreement, Airbus conducted a Technology Watch in which the potential in our research was identified. It chimes with one of Airbus’ own strategic research fields: integrated energy storage. Airbus saw the potential and has therefore chosen to enter into an agreement with us,” Asp says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>
Request for broader collaboration with Chalmers
</strong></div> <div>Now that this agreement has been secured, Leif Asp hopes that Chalmers will gain a much broader interface with Airbus. Asp believes that there will be more joint projects on composites in future, but he would also like to see the research collaboration broadened. There are many research fields at Chalmers that are of interest to Airbus. 
</div> <div>“One of Peter Linde’s key talents is his ability to see possible collaborations and create networks that drive innovation in industry. In short, he is skilled at technology, politics and making things happen,” Asp explains.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/EFANX_viewpoint-2-HD_BSJ_20180201.jpeg" alt="Environmentally Friendly Aircraft E-Fan-X " style="margin:5px;width:680px;height:471px" /><br /><br /></div> <div><em>The title of his installation lecture was “Emerging Materials and Technologies for Multifunctional Application in Environmentally Friendly Aircraft”. E-Fan-X (depicted) is the second-generation of research aircraft within the Airbus group in which electric propulsion is being tested. E-Fan-X is a modified BAE 146 with four engines, one of which is electric. The energy for the propulsion is a hybrid-based system with a gas turbine and battery. Its maiden flight is planned for 2019. Its predecessor, the E-Fan, was a two-seater with two electric engines and energy storage in batteries. Its maiden flight took place in 2014. Photo: Airbus</em><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>
Lighter planes achieve environmental gains
</strong></div> <div>Peter Linde devotes most of his time to his work as Topic Manager of the EU project <a href="/en/projects/Pages/Structural-pOweR-CompositEs-foR-futurE-civil-aiRcraft-QSORCERERQ.aspx">SORCERER,</a> in which Chalmers is one of four partners.
</div> <div>“The project aims to develop a lightweight composite with intrinsic electrical energy storage capability, intended for future electric and hybrid-electric aircraft. The background to the project is the need for more environmentally friendly lightweight aircraft, of which the weight can be reduced by integrating batteries in structures, cabins and systems.
</div> <div>“Via Airbus’ involvement in the Clean Sky​ project, I will also gain the opportunity to meet new collaboration partners for Chalmers and Airbus,” says Linde, who hopes that he will have time for this on the 3–4 occasions per year that he will be on site in Gothenburg.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>

Degree projects focusing on thin layers</strong></div> <div>Other interesting and closely related research fields mentioned by Linde are graphene and additive manufacturing for weight reduction and multifunctionality for components. Initially, however, he wants to dig deeper into the field of composites made of thin layers. Linde continues, </div> <div>“Together with Leif Asp and <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/martin-fagerstrom.aspx">Martin Fagerström</a>, I will prepare a number of degree projects. We have also started to supervise a doctoral student together, and we might lecture for the Master’s students in the latter part of their programmes.<span style="background-color:initial">”

</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong><br /></strong></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>​Always a st</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>udent
</strong></span></div> <div>When the news of the professorship was made public, many people in Peter Linde’s extensive contact network got in touch. One person who has already congratulated him is Professor <a href="https://web.stanford.edu/group/sacl/people/tsai.html">Stephen W. Tsai </a>at Stanford, a living legend in the field of composite materials, with whom Linde has had an innovative exchange in recent years.</div> <div>
“I have also heard from my old Professor <a href="https://www.ethz.ch/en/the-eth-zurich/organisation/who-is-who/retired-professors/details.html?persid=77106">Hugo Bachmann​</a> at ETH Zurich, who congratulated me on gaining such a fine position at such a reputable seat of learning,” Linde laughs and continues, 
</div> <div>“This feels great! Above all as Adjunct Professor, I will be able to devote myself to my major interests: building networks and satisfying my curiosity. I regard myself as always being a student,” Linde concludes.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Installation-adj-prof-Peter-Linde_20180904_13_750x477.png" alt="Peter Linde lecturing" style="margin:5px;width:679px;height:424px" /><br /><em><br /></em></div> <div><em>In his installation lecture, Dr. Peter Linde provided a short recap of Airbus’ history and technological successes. One example was the sales success of the Airbus A320, which vastly surpassed its sales target of around 300 planes and reached a total of 8,000. To conclude, he presented his thoughts on the future development of new materials, such as multifunctional composites for energy storage. Photo: Carina Schultz</em></div> <div><i><br /></i></div> <div><em></em><p style="margin-bottom:10px"><a href="https://flic.kr/s/aHsmox113f" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />See more pictures from the event</a></p> <p style="margin-bottom:10px"><a href="/sv/institutioner/ims/kalendarium/Sidor/Peter-Linde.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the lecture</a></p> <p style="margin-bottom:10px"></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Carbon fibre can store energy in the body of a vehicle</a>​</p> <p style="margin-bottom:10px"><br /></p> <i></i></div></div></div> ​Thu, 15 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspxCarbon fibre can store energy in the body of a vehicle<p><b>A study led by Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, has shown that carbon fibres can work as battery electrodes, storing energy directly. This opens up new opportunities for structural batteries, where the carbon fibre becomes part of the energy system. The use of this type of multifunctional material can contribute to a significant weight-reduction in the aircraft and vehicles of the future – a key challenge for electrification.</b></p><p>Passenger aircraft need to be much lighter than they are today in order to be powered by electricity. A reduction in weight is also very important for vehicles in order to extend the driving distance per battery charge.</p> <p>Leif Asp, Professor of Material and Computational Mechanics at Chalmers University of Technology, conducts research into the ability of carbon fibres to perform more tasks than simply to act as a reinforcing material. They can store energy, for example.</p> <p>“A car body would then be not simply a load-bearing element, but also act as a battery,” he says. “It will also be possible to use the carbon fibre for other purposes such as harvesting kinetic energy, for sensors or for conductors of both energy and data. If all these functions were part of a car or aircraft body, this could reduce the weight by up to 50 percent.” </p> <p>Asp headed up a multidisciplinary group of researchers who recently published a study on how the microstructure of carbon fibres affects their electrochemical properties – that is, their ability to operate as electrodes in a lithium-ion battery. So far this has been an unexplored research field.</p> <p><img alt="Leif Asp carbon fibre" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Leif%20Asp%20kolfiber%20webb.jpg" style="margin:10px 5px" /><br /><em>Leif Asp with a bobbin of carbon fibre yarn. The electrodes in a structural lithium ion battery consist of carbon fibre yarn arranged in a grid in a polymer (see illustration). Every length of yarn consists of 24,000 individual carbon fibres.</em> <br /><br /></p> <p>The researchers studied the microstructure of different types of commercially available carbon fibres. They discovered that carbon fibres with small and poorly oriented crystals have good electrochemical properties but a lower stiffness in relative terms. If you compare this with carbon fibres that have large, highly oriented crystals, they have greater stiffness, but the electrochemical properties are too low for use in structural batteries.</p> <p><br /><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Kolfiberrulle_webb.jpg" width="298" height="447" alt="" style="margin:5px 10px" />We now know how multifunctional carbon fibres should be manufactured to attain a high energy storage capacity, while also ensuring sufficient stiffness,” Asp says. “A slight reduction in stiffness is not a problem for many applications such as cars. The market is currently dominated by expensive carbon fibre composites whose stiffness is tailored to aircraft use. There is therefore some potential here for carbon fibre manufacturers to extend their utilisation.”</p> <p>In the study the types of carbon fibre with good electrochemical properties had a slightly higher stiffness than steel, whereas the types whose electrochemical properties were poor are just over twice as rigid as steel.</p> <p>The researchers are collaborating with both the automotive and aviation industries. Leif Asp explains that for the aviation industry, it may be necessary to increase the thickness of carbon fibre composites, to compensate for the reduced stiffness of structural batteries. This would, in turn, also increase their energy storage capacity.</p> <p><br /> </p> <p><br />“The key is to optimise vehicles at system level – based on the weight, strength, stiffness and electrochemical properties. That is something of a new way of thinking for the automotive sector, which is more used to optimising individual components. Structural batteries may perhaps not become as efficient as traditional batteries, but since they have a structural load-bearing capability, very large gains can be made at system level.”</p> <p></p> <div> </div> <div>He continues, “In addition, the lower energy density of structural batteries would make them safer than standard batteries, especially as they would also not contain any volatile substances.”</div> <div><br /> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Read the article </h3> <p></p> <p></p> <div><a href="http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2399-7532/aab707/meta">Graphitic microstructure and performance of carbon fibre Li-ion structural battery electrodes</a> in the journal Multifunctional Materials.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For more information, contact:</h3> <div>Leif Asp, Professor of Material and Computational Mechanics, Chalmers, +46 31 772 15, <a href="mailto:%20leif.asp@chalmers.se">leif.asp@chalmers.se<br /></a></div> <div><br /> </div> <div><em>Text: Johanna Wilde &amp; Marcus Folino</em></div> <div><em>Photo: Johan Bodell</em><br /></div> <p></p>Thu, 18 Oct 2018 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Great-interest-when-the-Nobel-Laureate-visited-Chalmers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Great-interest-when-the-Nobel-Laureate-visited-Chalmers.aspxGreat interest when the Nobel Laureate visited Chalmers<p><b>​The Nobel Laureate Konstantin Novoselov attracted a large audience when visiting the initiative seminar &quot;2D materials beyond graphene&quot; at Chalmers on 2 October. Many came to Palmstedtsalen in the student union building to see and hear him talk about his work with graphene, often mentioned as a super-material.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Ermin Malic, associate professor at the Department of Physics and director of the organizing Graphene Centre at Chalmers (GCC), introduced Novoselov shortly:</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;It is a great pleasure to welcome such a prominent guest. I am sure you all know Konstantin and are very familiar with his work,&quot; he said.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/KonstantinNovoselov_181002_03_665x330.jpg" alt="Picture of Konstantin Novoselov." style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">Konstantin Novoselov, professor at the University of Manchester, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 for his achievements with the novel material graphene. He has visited Chalmers before, not least in conjunction with the large inaugauration of the major Graphene Flagship a few years ago. On 2 October, he opened the intitative seminar &quot;2D materials beyond graphene&quot; with a lecture entitled &quot;van der Waals heterostructures&quot;.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;A lot of work has already been done with Chalmers, but what I am going to talk about today is more the story beyond graphene, where we are heading now towards other 2D materials and even towards the heterostructures. The reason for why we pay so much attention to graphene is because it has a number of characteristics which each of them makes this material very interesting. That's why we have the Graphene Flagship&quot;, said Konstantin Novoselov.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/KonstantinNovoselov_181002_02_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Picture of Konstantin Novoselov." style="margin:5px" />In his lecture, Konstantin Novoselov provided a history of the graphene subject and an update of the current situation and future of the material.</div> <div>&quot;The most active direction during the last years has been the research in so-called 2d ferromagnetic materials. This is important because we need to distinguish the difference between space dimensionality and spin dimensionality&quot;, said Konstantin Novoselov.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The Nobel Laureate saw a bright future where the development pushes for new experiments that are not feasible today, something he called as science fiction. Among other things he talked about new crystallines and naturally occurring heterostructures:</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;It sounds like science fiction that we can do it and that's why it's really surprising to see what kind of quality it will be of the stacks and what infrastructures we can achieve. But it just don't come for free, you just don't stack those crystals and they give you nice interfaces. Behind this is a quite specific process&quot;, said Konstantin Novoselov.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/vpalermo_IMG_20181002_095503_300x180.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Picture of Vincenzo Palermo." style="margin:5px" />Vincenzo Palermo (to the left), Professor of graphene composite materials at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science, and Vice Director of the Graphene Flagship, was very distinct with the future possibilities for graphene and spoke warmly about commercial products containing the material and already are available on the market. In his lecture, &quot;Applications of 2D materials in a 3-dimensional world&quot;, he mentioned everything from tennis rackets and lightweight clothing, to headphones with amazing jaw-dropping sound and – lasagna! However, it was somewhat unclear how close to realization in time the latter is.</div> <div>&quot;It has gone unusually fast. Research began as early as 2004, and by 2010, the first commercial products were developed,&quot; said Vincenzo Palermo.</div> <div>At the same time, he raised a warning finger for fake products riding the graphene wave, claiming to be graphene-based without sufficient coverage for it:</div> <div>&quot;It does not mean the products are bad, but they need to be carefully analyzed to know if they are serious,&quot; said Vincenzo Palermo.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/yury_gogotski_IMG_20181002_103633_300x180.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Picture of Yury Gogotsi." style="margin:5px" />Among the speakers were also the Nobel Prize tipped Russian material researcher Yury Gogotsi (to the right), Professor at Drexel University in Philadelphia, USA. He participated with a lecture on his groundbreaking battery research, entitled &quot;Metallically Conducting Carbides and Nitrides (MXenes) Enable New Technologies&quot;.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Over 100 participants were registered for the seminar; an obvious sign that the subject still has the potential to attract interest. A broad audience sat down in Palmstedtsalen; from students to researchers, public and entrepreneurs.</div> <div>We met a visitor in the crowd and asked for a review. In particular, hen had come to listen to the lecture of Konstantin Novoselov:</div> <div>&quot;Novoselov was a great speaker with an unusual ability to popularize his research and make it interesting. Grapehene is clearly a vivid research topic under constant development&quot;, hen said.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The seminar provided an intense program with a total of 18 invited speakers from Europe and USA; among them Frank Koppens, Instituto de Ciencias Fotónicas (ICFO), Spain, Paulina Plochocka and Bernhard Urbaszek, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), France, Thomas Müller, Vienna University, Austria, Kristian Thygesen, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU), Danmark, and Miriam Vitiello, National Research Council, Italy. Chalmers was represented by Timur Shegai, Department of Physics, Saroj Dash, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2 – and Vincenzo Palermo, Department of  Industrial and Materials Science.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>There was also a poster session, which many participants took the opportunity to watch.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Every year, the Excellence Initiative Nano has a topical event under the title Initiative Seminar. This year, the seminar was organized by the Graphene Center, which is an umbrella for all research at Chalmers on atomically thin 2D materials. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The centre director Ermin Malic were very satisfied with the seminar:</div> <div>&quot;It provided a fantastic overview of the outstanding characteristics and the promising technological potential of 2D materials. I hope that this could give a push at Chalmers to investigate 2D materials beyond graphene&quot;, he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The seminar was organized by an ambitious quartet consisting of Ermin Malic, Cristina Andersson, Susannah Carlsson and Debora Perlheden.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo: Johan Bodell</div> <div>Photo of Yury Gogotsi and Vincenzo Palermo: Michael Nystås</div>Mon, 08 Oct 2018 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Zooming-in-on-gear-teeth.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Zooming-in-on-gear-teeth.aspxZooming in on gear teeth<p><b>​Congratulations to our new doctor Dinesh Mallipeddi who today successfully held his doctoral defence with the title: Surface Integrity of Gear Materials.</b></p><div>Gears are an integral part of modern life, necessary for both production and transport. The <span style="background-color:initial">compact and efficient transmission offered by gears made their usage predominant compared </span><span style="background-color:initial">to other drives. Recent development have increased both the efficiency and durability of gears, </span><span style="background-color:initial">especially in the automotive industry. Still, enhanced performance is required due to global </span><span style="background-color:initial">demands on sustainability and energy consumption. Actually, one billion cars are rolling on the </span><span style="background-color:initial">streets around the globe, without counting trucks and busses. This means even small increase </span><span style="background-color:initial">in efficiency could significantly reduce the energy usage.​</span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">A gearbox with gears of different sizes is part of a vehicle transmission system and plays an important part in transmitting the engine power to the wheels. The efficient energy transmission highly relies on the performance of gears. Together, the mesh efficiency and durability determines the performance of gears.</span><div><br /></div> <div>The hard finishing of gear surfaces can be done by different methods; grinding, honing and superfinishing etc., and produces unique characteristics in terms of surface roughness, microstructure and residual stresses. These characteristics of the teeth affect the gear performance. A running-in process is known to alter them along with the surface chemistry and it pre-sets the gear for service. By understanding the initial running-in it is possible to improve the performance of gears. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– My study addressed the influence of running-in on the evolution of surface characteristics generated by the mentioned methods, and how they developed further during initial usage, represented by efficiency test. The <span style="background-color:initial">surface roughness was found to be the most influential factor among all the </span><span style="background-color:initial">characteristics. </span><span style="background-color:initial">The findings that I have presented are expected to contribute to the technical and industrial aims for optimized gear preparation.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research was conducted together with AB Volvo under the supervision of <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/mats-norell.aspx" target="_blank" title="Link to profile page of Mats Norell">Senior Lecturer​ Mats Norell</a> and <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/lars-nyborg.aspx" target="_blank" title="Link to profile page of Lars Nyborg">Professor Lars Nyborg </a>at Chalmers department of Industrial and Materials Science.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/publication/505083" target="_blank" title="Link to doctoral thesis"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the full publication here.</a></div></div>Thu, 04 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/using-better-welding-methods-reduces-CO2-emissions-of-airplanes.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/using-better-welding-methods-reduces-CO2-emissions-of-airplanes.aspxBetter welding methods reduces CO2 emissions of airplanes<p><b>​Aviation accounts for around 2 % of the world&#39;s total CO2 emissions, but the proportion is expected to rise. In pursuit of reducing emissions, researchers from Chalmers cooperate with GKN Aerospace and University West to find new manufacturing solutions for engines. A new doctoral dissertation presents results from studies of titanium alloys and mechanical properties of various welding processes.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The aviation industry is looking for solutions that reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and reducing the weight of the aircraft is essential for success. An airplane engine weighs a lot, but through new manufacturing methods it can decrease.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>One way to reduce weight is to weld several small subcomponents into a larger component instead of casting it into one whole piece. In a new doctoral thesis by Sakari Tolvanen, he presents studies that have compared the mechanical properties of welds produced with different welding processes. The aim is to gain a better understanding of how and why occasional defects occur and how the defects influence the mechanical properties of the welds.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>One might imagine that welding is an old technique that has left the lab stage for a long time, but as the requirements change, manufacturing technologies need to keep up with the change. Manufacturing technologies of large aeroengine components are developed to improve material utilization, reduce cost and allow design flexibility. Welding has an important role in the development as it allows joining multiple subcomponents to produce one large structure. This approach produces less scrap material and enables design of lighter and more functional components, which in turn, results in reduced environmental impact in both production phase and the use phase of the engine.  </div> <div><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Welding-processes-comparison.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><em>Titanium alloys are readily joined with several common fusion welding processes such as tungsten inert gas welding (TIG), plasma arc welding (PAW), electron beam welding (EBW), and laser beam welding (EBW). Fusion welding processes can be characterized generally by the heat-source intensity. This figure illustrates the different characteristics of the aforementioned welding processes and how they affect the penetration. </em></div> <div><br /><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Sakari Tolvanen has studied what happens when two metal components made of titanium alloys are welded together. Titanium alloys are widely used in aviation industry mainly because of their superior combination of high strength and low weight. Sakari has among other things analyzed how the chemical composition of the alloy affects the result of welding.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The results from my studies give a better understanding of the factors that affect the microstructure and what in it leads to defects. This makes it possible to choose and optimize not only the welding process but also the base material”, says Sakari Tolvanen. “The combination of which process and material you use determines how good the result is.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Fracture%20surface%20of%20a%20fatigue%20specimen_400pxl.jpg" alt="Fracture surface of a fatigue specimen" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span></span><em>In aeroplanes, you do not want the welds to crack. By characterizing the topography of the fracture surface, information about the cause of crack initiation and fracture mechanisms can be revealed. Fatigue failure can be divided into different stages, i.e. crack initiation, crack propagation and final fracture. This figure shows a crack initiation at a pore, a relatively flat crack propagation area around the initiation and the final fracture surface. By learning the behaviour of cracks, they can be avoided.</em><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>In airplanes, titanium alloys can be found on parts for landing gear, internal components of wings, and engine components like the fan and compressor sections.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS</strong></div> <div>Read more about the transport sector's CO2 emissions in the <a href="https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg3/ipcc_wg3_ar5_chapter8.pdf" title="Link to IPCC web page" target="_blank">IPCC climate assessment report from 2014</a>.</div> <div>The studies carried out by Sakari Tolvanen have taken place within the framework of a research project conducted by GKN Aerospace:</div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=6130" title="Link to research project" target="_blank">Defect formation during welding and their effect on mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo </a></div> <div>Read the full thesis here:</div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/publication/504433">Welding of Ti-6Al-4V: Influence of welding process and alloy composition on microstructure and properties</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Supervisors were <a href="/en/staff/Pages/uta-klement.aspx">Professor Uta Klement</a> from Chalmers University of Technology and Professor Robert Pederson from University West.</div> <div><br /></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text: Nina Silow</em></div> <div><em>Images within the article: Sakari Tolvanen</em></div> ​Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/crash-behaviour-of-composites.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/crash-behaviour-of-composites.aspxCrash behaviour of composites<p><b>​The increase of composite materials in future vehicles will lead to lighter and more efficient ways of transportation. However, these new structures will also have an impact on vehicle behaviour in crashes. This was the topic discussed by participants from both academia and industry during a two-day workshop at Chalmers University of Technology.</b></p>​<br />Kaj Fredin from Volvo Cars explained that the potential to reduce the weight of a car using current metallic materials is very limited. All premium original equipment manufacturers are therefore working with carbon fibre reinforced polymers in different ways. Even though there are still industrial challenges connected to cost and competence in this new and less developed area. The challenge will be to find the optimal mix of material usage to have a cost-efficient product. David Moncayo from Daimler AG, who talked about German design experiences for composites in cars, said that the beauty lies in using the correct material in the correct place.<br /><br /><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">New crash prediction models and Mantis shrimps</h2> <div>Since crash simulations and testing currently are focused on a metallic car structure there is an urgent need for new predictive numerical models for future lightweight vehicles. A major challenge that was addressed repeatedly during the workshop is the need to develop models which are both accurate and computationally efficient in predicting the failure process of structural composite components in crash. Martin Fagerström and Robin Olsson, organizers of the workshop, are currently involved in several projects with the hopes of having a full-scale crash analysis method in place by 2020.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Mantis%20shrimp%2016_9_750pxl.jpg" width="688" height="387" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><em><span>Silvestre Pinho from the Imperial College</span></em><br /><br /></div> By having composites as part of the impact structure it also follows that there will be a greater need for composite microstructures that can absorb high energy impact. Silvestre Pinho from the Imperial College talked about finding inspiration in nature’s own designs. The studies ranged from bamboo and bone structures to different shells and interlocking nacre. But the most spectacular may perhaps be the Mantis Shrimps super hard hitting dactyle clubs with a Bouligand -type microstructure. The question still to be answered, can the structure of the high impact absorbing club be transferred into human engineered vehicles?<br /><br /><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Reoccurring series of events?</h2> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/crash%20composites%20mingle_327pxl.jpg" alt="Mingle image" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" width="244" height="283" style="margin:5px" />The organizers Martin Fagerström and Robin Olsson were very pleased with the outcome of the workshop and would like to thank all the participants and sponsors for making this a very interesting event, and especially the invited speakers, Brian Falzon; Johan Jergeus; Reza Vaziri; Yi Wan; David Moncayo; Kaj Fredin; Silvestre Pinho and Hannes Körber.</div> <br /><div>Martin hopes that this was the beginning of a reoccurring series of events. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>- I am already looking forward to the next one!</div> <div><br /></div> <div><h4 class="chalmersElement-H4"><br /></h4> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More information</h3></div> <div><span class="text-normal ingress"><span></span></span>The purpose of the workshop, jointly organised by Chalmers University of Technology and Swerea SICOMP, was to gather international experts in academia and industry to discuss current state-of-the-art in the area of modelling and characterisation of composites in crash. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">The event was sponsored by:</h4> <div><table class="chalmersTable-default " width="100%" cellspacing="0" style="font-size:1em"><tbody><tr class="chalmersTableHeaderRow-default"><th class="chalmersTableHeaderFirstCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1">​<span><span><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/BETA_logo_web_300%20pxl%20width.jpg" alt="beta logo" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /></span></span></span><span></span></th> <th class="chalmersTableHeaderLastCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1">​<span></span></th></tr></tbody></table> <span><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/DYNAMore%20Nordic_logo_4c_width300pxl.png" alt="dynamore logo" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span><br /><br /> <br /></div> <br /><div><br /></div> <span><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/Documents/Styrke_material_RGB_EN.png" alt="Styrke_material_RGB_EN.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /></span><br /><div><br /></div> <br /><div><h4 class="chalmersElement-H4"><br /></h4> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Worksshop talks</h4> <div><table class="chalmersTable-default" cellspacing="0" style="font-size:1em;width:100%"><tbody><tr class="chalmersTableHeaderRow-default"><th class="chalmersTableHeaderEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Title​</th> <th class="chalmersTableHeaderOddCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1">​Speaker</th></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">Crash modelling at QUB and the ICONIC resea​rch network<br /></td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Brian Falzon (Queens Univ. Belfast)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Crash modelling and experiments at Swerea SICOMP</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Robin Olsson (SICOMP)​</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​North American work on crash behaviour of composites</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Reza Vaziri (Univ British Columbia)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Crash modelling at Chalmers and in Swedish crash projects</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Martin Fagerström (Chalmers Univ Techn.)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Japanese studies of composites in crash</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Jun Takahashi and Yi Wan (Univ. Tokyo)​</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Novel composite microstructures for increased energy absorption</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Silvestre Pinho (Imperial College)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Strain rate behaviour of composite materials</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Hannes Körber (TU Munich)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​German design experience for composites in cars</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​David Moncayo (Daimler AG)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Composite materials for cars – demands and cost issues</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Kaj Fredin (Volvo Cars)​</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Current methods for crash simulation and testing</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default" rowspan="1">​Johan Jergeus (Volvo Cars)</td></tr></tbody></table>  <br /></div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Workshop topical discussion sessions</h4> <div>Realism of models and industrial demands</div> <div>Efficient structural models for composites in crash</div> <div>Strain rate behaviour of composites</div> <div>Cost and manufacturing considerations and their implication on crash</div> <div><br /></div> <div><h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Organizing committee</h4> <strong>​<br />Martin Fagerström</strong>​<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Övriga/AvancezChalmersU_black_right.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /> ​<strong></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong>Robin Olsson</strong> ​<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/SICOMP%20LOGO.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /></div> <br /></div>Fri, 21 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Nobel-Prize-winner-on-stage-at-upcoming-seminar.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Nobel-Prize-winner-on-stage-at-upcoming-seminar.aspxNobel Prize Laureate on stage at upcoming seminar<p><b>​The Nobel Laureate Konstantin Novoselov is the major highlight at the initiative seminar &quot;2D materials beyond graphene&quot; on 1-2 October in Palmstedtsalen at Chalmers. &quot;I think that it was crucial for him to see that we have managed to gather leading scientists in this growing field of research for our seminar&quot;, says Ermin Malic, associate professor at the Department of Physics and director of the organizing Graphene Centre at Chalmers (GCC).</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Konstantin Novoselov, professor at the University of Manchester, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 for his achievements with the novel material graphene. He will open the seminar's second day with a lecture entitled &quot;Materials in the Flatland&quot;. </span><br /></div> <div>Ermin Malic is very pleased to welcome the prominent guest among the many other well-renowned speakers: </div> <div>&quot;Konstantin Novoselov is very busy and gets many of such invitations. Therefore, we are, of course, very happy that he picked our event. I think that it was crucial for him to see that we have managed to gather leading scientists in this growing field of research for our seminar. Certainly, the talk of Konstantin Novoselov is a highlight, but I am really excited about every single talk&quot;, he says.</div> <div> </div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/emalic_350x305.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Every year, the Excellence Initiative Nano has a topical event under the title Initiative Seminar. This year, the seminar is organized by the Graphene Center, which is an umbrella for all research at Chalmers on atomically thin 2D materials. </div> <div>&quot;Graphene is the most prominent representative of this class of materials. However, other 2D materials gain more and more importance in the current research. Therefore, we have put the focus of the seminar to 2D materials beyond graphene, in particular including monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides and related van der Waals heterostructures. We have invited leading experts in this emerging and technologically promising field of research&quot;, says Ermin Malic (to the left).</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">What's not to miss at the seminar? </h5> <div>&quot;The program is relatively dense covering a large spectrum of 2D material research. We will have 18 excellent talks in 8 different sessions including exciton phenomena, novel heterostructures materials, energy applications, opto-electronic applications as well as composite and bio applications.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>There will also be a poster session reflecting the 2D material research at Chalmers. </div> <div>&quot;The idea here is to offer Chalmers researchers the opportunity to present their research on 2D materials, now also including graphene. We would like to show the full spectrum and the excellence of 2D materials-based research at Chalmers.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>The participants can also look forward to hearing about exciting new research: </div> <div>&quot;Definitely. The field is very dynamic and there are still many open questions that are relevant for fundamental research and possible technological applications. The invited speakers perform cutting-edge research in this field, so we can expect many new insights and hopefully exciting discussions&quot;, says Ermin Malic.</div> <div> </div> <div>The two busy days aim at a broad audience; researchers, postdocs, PhD and master students and even industry representatives who are interested in novel developments in nanotechnology. Already, over 100 people are registered for the seminar, which takes place in the elegant auditorium Palmstedtsalen in Chalmers student union building. </div> <div>&quot;The large majority of the registered participants are researchers and students from Chalmers. However, some of the international speakers bring their own students to the seminar. We have also participants from other Swedish universities as well as company representatives.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>The invited speakers come from Sweden, Italy, Germany, Spain, Austria, Switzerland, Denmark, Russia, USA and UK. Among them are Frank Koppens (ICFO, Spain), Paulina Plochocka and Bernhard Urbaszek (CNRS, France), Thomas Müller (University of Vienna, Austria), Kristian Thygesen (DTU, Denmark) and Miriam Vitiello (National Research Council, Italy). Chalmers is represented by Timur Shegai (Physics), Saroj Dash (MC2), and Vincenzo Palermo (IMS).</div> <div> <span style="background-color:initial">&quot;Lunch and coffee breaks will offer a lot of time for deeper discussions&quot;, concludes Ermin Malic.</span></div> <div> </div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo of Konstantin Novoselov: By Sergey Vladimirov (vlsergey) (Konstantin NovoselovUploaded by vlsergey) [CC BY 2.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons</div> <div>Photo of Ermin Malic: Private</div> <div><br /> </div> <div>The seminar is free of charge, but don’t forget to register no later than 19 September. <br /><a href="/en/centres/graphene/events/2D%20beyond%20graphene/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank" title="Link to seminar page">Read more and see full schedule of the seminar​</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> Thu, 13 Sep 2018 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Chalmers-grant-to-support-postdoctoral-studies-in-the-US0908-6029.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Chalmers-grant-to-support-postdoctoral-studies-in-the-US0908-6029.aspxA Chalmers grant to support her postdoctoral studies in the US<p><b>​Postdoctoral researcher Nooshin Mortazavi at the Department of Physics, Chalmers, has recently been granted SEK 135 000 from the Barbro Osher Pro Suecia Foundation. The grant will cover research costs during her first year at Harvard University in Boston, USA.</b></p>Through this foundation, Chalmers can support researchers who spend some time at a University in the United States. The foundation is aimed at researchers who, in collaboration with leading research environments and colleagues at prominent universities in the USA, wish to develop their research by finding new inspiration or guiding it along with new paths.<br /><br /><div>Earlier this year Nooshin Mortazavi was awarded an international postdoctoral grant from the Swedish Research Council (VR) to carry out research on &quot;High-Temperature Thermoelectrics Based on Natural Superlattice Oxides&quot; in John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Science at Harvard. The project has an ambitious goal: conversion of large amounts of waste heat to electricity using an intriguing but poorly characterized class of still-developing high-temperature ceramics, known as natural superlattices (NSLs).</div> <br /><div>Nooshin Mortazavi will spend up to three years abroad before returning to Chalmers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se<br /></a></div> <div><a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se"><br /></a></div>  <span><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Nooshin-Mortazavi-Seyedeh.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about Nooshin Mortazavi’s research.</a><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Nooshin-Mortazavi-Seyedeh.aspx"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a></span><br /><a href="http://www.chalmers.se/sv/stiftelse/stipendier/Sidor/osher.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the Barbro Osher Pro Suecia Foundation.</a><br /><a href="http://www.vr.se/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more about the Swedish Research Council.</a><br />Sat, 08 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/The-world's-first-research-conference-on-battery-recycling.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/The-world's-first-research-conference-on-battery-recycling.aspxThe world&#39;s first battery recycling research conference<p><b>​Our vehicles are moving towards an increasingly electrified future, but without functioning battery recycling technology, development will stop and electric cars&#39; batteries are still very difficult to recycle industrially. Now researchers and industry gather at Chalmers to attend the world&#39;s first research conference with the main focus on battery recycling.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Research on recycling of lithium batteries from, among other things, electric cars and portable electronics has grown as we approach a fossil-free and electrified society. Metals and minerals that are necessary for the batteries will sooner or later end. Cobalt, for example, which is one of the most common substances in the batteries, is now expected to reach its production peak around 2025. Cobalt is also considered by many to be a so-called conflict mineral where human rights are often violated in connection with mining in the form of child labour and slavery.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>&quot;This is a very critical issue where it is crucial that we find a solution soon. Sustainable cobalt supply and recovery is crucial to the electric car's existence, &quot;says Assistant Professor <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/marpetr.aspx">Martina Petranikova</a>, organiser of the conference.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>However, there are more areas in the battery life cycle that hold them back in terms of durability. Among other things, electric cars, when consumed, still have so much energy that recycling can be dangerous. In addition, electric vehicle batteries may vary so much between manufacturers that it is difficult for the recycler to know what the battery contains. At the same time, it is a competitive advantage for the companies to develop new assemblies on the batteries and thus the producers have to talk to the recyclers in order to find a right design</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;The industry is very interested in finding the right recycling technology. Among other things, they are obliged to take care of the waste from their products, such as used batteries. With different combinations of batteries, they are very difficult to recycle industrially. Today we can recover most of a battery, but it takes time and is costly. With the conference, we want to meet and solve these problems, &quot;said Martina Petranikova.</div> <div>In order to find a sustainable solution, the entire battery life cycle must be coordinated from production and development to collection and recycling, as well as legislation. Therefore, Chalmers researchers in industrial recycling gather researchers, experts, manufacturers, users and recyclers under the same roof to share their knowledge, their expectations, technical and financial realities, and also their dreams to take the initiative for a circular economy of batteries .</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Circular Economy of Batteries Production and Recycling, CEB, will be held at Lindholmen Conference Center 24-26 September 2018.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="http://www.ceb2018.org/">Read more at the conference page.</a></div> </div>Tue, 28 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/on-the-quest-for-high-entropy-alloys.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/on-the-quest-for-high-entropy-alloys.aspxOn the quest for high-entropy alloys that survive 1500 °C<p><b>​An aero-engine should operate at the highest possible temperature for the best output power and energy efficiency. But today’s metal alloys in the engines need cooling – otherwise they turn into powders. This causes alarming energy losses. Saad Sheikh is on the quest to design optimum alloys that survive ultra-high temperatures.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">High-entropy alloys (HEAs), or multi-principal-element alloys, is a new and growing field, and has gained enormous interest in recent years as potential ultra-high temperature materials. The materials and manufacture researcher Saad Sheikh focuses on developing HEAs with optimum tensile ductility and strength, superior than the current state-of-the-art nickel based superalloys. </span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>This work is driven by the need to improve the energy efficiency of aerospace and power-generation gas-turbine engines. For example, if cooling of aero-engines can be avoided, the aero-engine output power and energy efficiency would increase up to 50%. Other applications like solar power, fuel cells, materials processing and petro-chemistry can also benefit from the results. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>The aim is to be able to operate engines at higher temperatures </strong>than today. Today’s engines expose the nickel based superalloys inside to temperatures approaching 1200 °C, which is close to 90% of their melting points. In the hottest region of a turbine engine, temperatures are approaching 1500 °C. By using complex cooling systems and coatings the nickel based superalloys can exist in the hottest region but the efficiency gained from operating at higher temperatures is greatly reduced, as the cooling needs extra work.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Saad-Sheikh_250pxl.jpg" alt="Saad Sheikh" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial;font-family:calibri, sans-serif;font-size:11pt">– </span><span style="background-color:initial">The current situation of higher inefficiency losses is alarming, but also provides opportunity to look for new ground-breaking materials. It is a big but intriguing scientific challenge, says Saad Sheikh.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Saad Sheikh</strong> comes from a materials science background and did his Masters in Materials Processing at KTH in Stockholm. Before joining Chalmers University of Technology as a PhD student, he also worked on mechanical properties of cutting tools within the Swedish industry. He is very interested in alloy development and mechanical properties of new structural and high-temperature materials for sustainable energy systems. He explains the difference between HEAs and conventional alloys. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-family:calibri, sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial">– </span>Conventional alloys are usually based on one or two principal elements. HEAs consist of at least four principal metallic elements with an atomic percentage of each element between 5 % and 35 %. These multi-component element alloys can enable formation of simple solid solution phases. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>In his research</strong>, Saad Sheikh has strived to improve HEAs in several ways. Firstly he has contributed with improved understanding of the solid solubility in HEAs. Secondly he has proposed a mechanism and route for increasing the ductility in refractory, or heat resistant, HEAs – so-called RHEAs.</div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Saad-Sheikh-True-tensile-stress-strain-curve_250pxl.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="True tensile stress-strain curve for Hf0.5Nb0.5Ta0.5Ti1.5Zr. The inset shows the microstructure at the fractured surface." style="margin:5px" /><span style="font-weight:700"></span> <div><br /></div> <div>Thirdly, which has been the ultimate goal of his work, Saad Sheikh has addressed the balance of mechanical properties and oxidation resistance for RHEAs, aiming at high-temperature applications. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-family:calibri, sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial">– </span>In studies I have found out that the insufficient oxidation resistance in existing ductile RHEAs is attributed to the failure in forming protective oxide scales accompanied by the accelerated internal oxidation leading to pesting corrosion. Aluminizing is a promising solution.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Image: </em><span style="background-color:initial"><i>True tensile stress-strain curve for the as-cast Hf0.5Nb0.5Ta0.5Ti1.5Zr. The inset shows the microstructure at the fractured surface.​</i></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><i><br /></i></span></div> <div>These studies provide important input to the further development of RHEAs as novel high-temperature materials and shed light on the design of refractory HEAs with optimal mechanical as well as heat and oxidation resistance properties.</div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">FACTS</h2> <div>Saad Sheikh belongs to the division of <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/Pages/default.aspx">Materials and Manufacture</a> at the department of <a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx">Industrial and Materials Science</a>. He recently presented his doctoral thesis with the title: </div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/publication/503532" target="_blank">Alloy Design for High-Entropy Alloys: Predicting Solid Solubility, and Balancing Mechanical Properties and Oxidation Resistance</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>If you want to learn more about refractory high-entropy alloys, we recommend to read:</div> <div><a href="https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.4966659" target="_blank">Alloy design for intrinsically ductile refractory high-entropy alloys, published 2016 in the prestigious Journal of Applied Physics.</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Saad Sheikh has been granted a postdoc fellowship by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). He will be placed in Japan at the <a href="http://www.nims.go.jp/eng/" target="_blank">National Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba</a>, with focus on ultra-high temperature materials (alloy design and mechanical properties) for two years. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Please contact <a href="/en/staff/Pages/sheng-guo.aspx" title="Link to profile page of Sheng Guo" target="_blank">Associate Professor Sheng Guo​</a>, Saad Sheikh's supervisor for more information</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>RELATED NEWS</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Ground-breaking-discoveries-could-create-tougher-alloys-with-many-applications.aspx" target="_blank">Superior alloys could be possible, thanks to ground-breaking research</a></div> <div><br /></div></div> ​<div><em>Text: Nina Silow</em><br /><em>Images: Airbus, Nina Silow and Saad Sheikh</em></div> ​Wed, 27 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/thesis-of-the-year.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/thesis-of-the-year.aspxBest theis award to Furqan Ali Shah<p><b>​The Institute for Clinical Sciences at Sahlgrenska Academy have awarded Furqan Ali Shah with the prestigious “Best thesis of the year” award for his thesis entitled “Osteocytes as indicators of bone quality – Multiscale structure-composition characterization of the bone-implant interface”.</b></p>​Furqan defended his PhD in at the Department of Biomaterials, University of Gothenburg with his thesis entitled “Osteocytes as indicators of bone quality – Multiscale structure-composition characterisation of the bone-implant interface” which recently received the prestigious “Årets avhandling vid institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper 2017” award at Sahlrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.<br /><br /><span><span><span><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Materials%20Science/News/Furqan_A_S.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Furqan Ali Shah and his award winning thesis" width="358" height="323" style="margin:5px" /></span></span></span></span>Osteocytes comprise up to 95% of all bone cells, reside within confined spaces called lacunae, and are interconnected through an extensive canalicular network. Furqan’s thesis looks at osseointegration in terms <span><span><span></span></span></span>of bone quality, with emphasis on the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network in relation to compositional and ultrastructural patterns at intermediate/late healing. A series of investigations were undertaken to study osteocyte lacunae on the forming bone surface, hypermineralised lacunae of apoptotic osteocytes, autogenous bone fragments within healing sites, bone formed adjacent to surface <span></span>modified implants, and bone formed within macroporous implants using a range of analytical microscopy and complementary spectroscopic techniques. A directional relationship was found between osteocyte lacunar shape and the underlying bone surface. The physico-chemical environment of the lacunar space is, however, different from the surrounding bone matrix, resulting in formation of magnesium whitlockite, rather than apatite. Connectivity between osteocytes within unintentionally generated autogenous bone fragments and de novo formed bone on their surface indicates a regenerative capacity of osteocytes. Laser-ablation creates a hierarchical micro- and nanotopography on titanium implants and enhances their biomechanical anchorage. Osteocytes attach directly to such surfaces, while mineralised collagen fibril organisation at bone-implant and bone-osteocyte interfaces is remarkably similar. More osteocytes are retained in the vicinity of Ti6Al4V surface as manufactured by electron beam melting than machined Ti6Al4V. Osteocytes also attach to CoCr, thus indicating a favourable osteogenic response of a material widely considered inferior to Ti6Al4V.<br /><br /><div>Furqan currently holds a two-year postdoctoral scholarship from Svenska Sällskapet för Medicinsk Forskning (SSMF). His PhD was supervised by professor Anders Palmquist, (University of Gothenburg) and professor Aleksandar Matic (Chalmers University of Technology).</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read the full thesis <a href="http://hdl.handle.net/2077/52415">here<br /></a></div> <div>More about Furquan's work <a href="https://clinsci.gu.se/Forskning+och+personal/forskning/aktuella-disputationer/tidigare-disputationer-2017#Furqan_Ali_Shah">here</a><br /><a href="http://hdl.handle.net/2077/52415"></a></div> <div><br /></div>Wed, 13 Jun 2018 16:00:00 +0200