News: Materialvetenskaphttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyWed, 13 Feb 2019 13:26:32 +0100http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Video-boats-from-ocean-plastic-waste.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Video-boats-from-ocean-plastic-waste.aspxVideo: Making boats from ocean plastic waste<p><b>​ Watch the lastest video from the project &quot;Optimist for the sea&quot;, where optimist dinghies are produced from oceanic waste.</b></p><div>​Hopefully you have alredy heard or read something about the awareness campaign “Optimists for the sea” (<a href="http://optimistforhavet.se/" target="_blank">Optimist för havet</a>). A project where boats are being built from collected ocean plastic waste in order to increase awareness of the global issue.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In this video researchers at Chalmers University of Technology address the question whether the reuse of such plastic waste in new products generates a positive environmental impact. To find out they will quantify and compare the impact of manufacturing processes for standard boat building versus &quot;waste-to-boat building&quot;.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The video was produced by Johan Bodell, Chalmers with film clips from Anders Mikaelsson, SSPA Sweden. <br /> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Optimist-for-the-sea.aspx" target="_blank">Read more</a> about the project, watch the video on <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhocKL_hCqQ&amp;feature=youtu.be" target="_blank">YouTube</a>, or read a news article from the Gothenburg newspapper <a href="http://www.gp.se/nyheter/optimisten-som-ska-r%C3%A4dda-havet-fr%C3%A5n-plast-1.12924392" target="_blank">GP (in swedish)</a>.<br /></div> <br />Thu, 31 Jan 2019 13:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/gender-equality-at-Chalmers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/gender-equality-at-Chalmers.aspx“If you care about gender equality at Chalmers, come!”<p><b>​Liisa Husu, expert in studies of gender equality in academia, gives a guest lecture on 27 February. “She will doubtless bring new insights”, says Pernilla Wittung Stafshede.</b></p><strong>​<img src="http://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/PublishingImages/liisa_husu_W.jpg" alt="Liisa Husu, Photo: Ulla-Carin Ekblom" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /></strong><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Liisa Husu is one of the pioneers </strong>in the study of gender equality in academia. She has focused particularly on gender dynamics and inequality in scientific careers and organizations, and in science policy. Liisa Husu is Professor of Gender Studies at Örebro University.</span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>On 27 February, she visits Chalmers</strong> for a guest lecture on gender challenges in academic careers and organizations. The seminar is intended for all Chalmers employees, particularly for graduate students, postdocs and faculty. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“She will doubtless bring new insights. I hope the audience will get a better understanding of gender challenges in academia and learn more scientific facts about it. Maybe the seminar will be an eye-opener for some. I personally hope we will get suggestions for how to approach this issue at Chalmers,” says Pernilla Wittung Stafshede, leader of Genie, Chalmers gender initiative for excellence.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>“Liisa Husu’s expertise in gender equality</strong> in higher education and her international experience and contacts led us to ask her to join Genie’s advisory board. Now, we want to make her knowledge available to the whole of Chalmers in a lecture that is open to all,” says Pernilla Wittung Stafshede.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Liisa Husu does research on topics such as gender paradoxes in changing academic and scientific organization. Her perspective is that of a highly experienced researcher in gender equality in science. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Liisa Husu has done extensive work</strong> as adviser to universities, funding agencies and governments. She was the national coordinator of women’s studies and senior adviser in the Finnish gender equality machinery, Council for Equality between Women and Men and Equality Ombudsman’s Office, at the Prime Minister’s office in her native Finland. She was also a member of the Swedish Ministry of Education advisory group on gender in European research policy in 2017, and is the moderator of the European Network on Gender Equality in Higher Education. </div> <div> </div> <div>“If you care about gender equality at Chalmers, come! I hope every head of department will attend the seminar and bring their faculty and students with them”, concludes Pernilla Wittung Stafshede. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>The seminar takes place in Palmstedtsalen,</strong> Campus Johanneberg on 27 February at 13:15. It is hosted by Genie together with Chalmers Energy and Transport Areas of Advance. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/calendar/Pages/Gender-challenges-in-academic-careers-and-organisations.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the seminar and register &gt;&gt;</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>By:  <span style="background-color:initial">E</span><span style="background-color:initial">milia Lundgren</span><span style="background-color:initial"> and Ann-Christine Nordin<br />Photo Liisa Husu: Ulla-Karin Ekblom</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div>Thu, 31 Jan 2019 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/New-management.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/New-management.aspxNew management for the Area of Advance - Materials Science<p><b>​ Maria Abrahamsson and Leif Asp are appointed new directors for the Area of Advance - Materials Science, succeeding the former Director Aleksandar Matic at the mandate period turnover.</b></p><div>​<a href="/en/Staff/Pages/abmaria.aspx" target="_blank">Maria Abrahamsson</a> is assuming the position as Director for the Area of Advance - Materials Science. Growing up in the small town of Flerohopp in rural Sweden, Maria developed an early interest for environmental issues and after initial studies in geology, she eventually found her passion in chemistry. She pursued her doctorate studies at Uppsala University, engaging in the development of artificial photosynthesis, and later continued in the field as a post doc at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, USA.</div> <br /><div>This year, Maria is celebrating 10 years at Chalmers where she has a position as an Associate professor at the department for Chemistry and Chemical Engineering since 2015. Her research focuses on conversion of solar energy for fuel production as well as production of electricity. Maria was previously the Vice director of the Area of Advance - Materials Science at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>–Today’s society faces some big challenges. Globally, as well as locally. The most obvious ones are of course climate changes, environmental issues and a growing elderly population, but to tackle these challenges it is important that everyone have access to environmentally sound products and materials. We want people to naturally turn to Chalmers when looking for the best education and scientists in the area of material science, says Maria.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/leifas.aspx" target="_blank">Leif Asp</a> is succeeding Maria Abrahamsson as Vice director for the Area of Advance - Materials Science. Leif has a background as a civil engineer from Luleå Technical University where he also earned his doctorate degree in polymeric construction materials. He has valuable experience from working in several industries and is the founder of SICOMP (now RISE SICOMP) and was appointed their chief scientist in 2011. Leif also has extensive collaboration with scientists and industry through his engagement in <a href="https://lighterarena.se/en" target="_blank">LIGHTer</a> Academy, a platform for development of lightweight solutions for the industry.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> Since 2015 Leif is a professor at the Department of Industrial and Material Science where his research focuses on modelling and construction of lightweight composite materials.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>–Through the Area of Advance, Chalmers has a unique tool to coordinate and execute interdisciplinary research across our whole University and can tackle bigger questions than any individual research group or even department can manage. We therefore have a huge potential to develop new materials, methods and technologies to provide solutions to many societal needs, Leif says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>During the coming year the duo aim to increase international collaborations and deepen the exchange with existing ones, but also to find new ways of engaging students in materials science, and discussions of a summer research school is ongoing.</div> <div><br /></div> –We also want to meet all researchers in the Area of Advance - Materials Science to get an updated view and to learn about all the exciting research performed throughout the Area of Advance!<br />Wed, 30 Jan 2019 13:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Optimist-for-the-sea.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Optimist-for-the-sea.aspxOptimist for the sea<p><b>​The awareness campaign “Optimists for the sea” are building boats from ocean plastic waste in order to increase awareness of the global issue.</b></p><div>​Plastic waste as a marine pollutant is a severe global concern. Several initiatives have therefor started around the world to try to influence people’s behavior. In Sweden, an awareness campaign called “Optimist for the sea” (Optimist för havet) wants to stop the supply of plastics to the sea by spreading knowledge about the problem and at the same time engage children and adults in possible solutions. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Plastic litter has been collected by volunteers and will <span><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Materials%20Science/News/AMI_0153_340px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Plastic litter has been collected by volunteers and this plastic waste will now be recycled and converted into optimistic dinghi" style="margin:5px" /></span></span></div> <div>be recycled and converte<span></span>d into five prototype boats <br />(optimist dinghies) during spring 2019. Experts from SSPA are crafting the dinghies with support from Chalmers University of Technology and their researchers with knowledge in how to handle different plastic materials.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Link to Swedish Television report: <a href="https://www.svt.se/nyheter/lokalt/vast/optimistjolle-byggs-av-skrap-fran-havet">Optimistjollar byggs av skräp från havet</a> (only in Swedish)</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Follow the progress of the project on <a href="https://www.facebook.com/optimistforhavet">Facebook</a><br /></div>Fri, 18 Jan 2019 12:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Hasselblad-Foundation-awards-bio-based-material-research.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Hasselblad-Foundation-awards-bio-based-material-research.aspxHasselblad Foundation awards bio-based material research<p><b>​Brina Blinzler is the 2018 recipient of Hasselblad Foundation’s annual research grant for female researchers. The grant will be used to increase the understanding of how to make bio-based composites, which will lead to a variety of new sustainable materials.</b></p>​There is an ever-increasing demand for a variety of sustainable materials: materials that consume less energy to manufacture, materials that can be recycled or reused, materials that require safer chemical processing and materials that are derived from sustainable, non-food competing resources.<br /><br />Bio-based structural material technology available today allows us to breakdown and sort natural fibers into many varieties, such as nanofibrils and cellulose nanocrystals. These nanomaterials are derived from the most abundant natural polymer in the world, cellulose. <br /><br /><div>Brina believes it is possible to process high quality composite reinforcement from natural plant-based materials and to derive sustainable resins compatible with these reinforcements.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div>-    I’m very glad and excited to receive this grant from the Hasselblad Foundation. It will allow me to pursue bio-based polymer composite research in three key areas, says Brina. </div> <br /><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/BrinaBrinzler_hasselbladsstiftelsen_190114_02_680pxl.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:446px;height:271px" />First, predicting the microstructure of cured composite parts. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Second, predicting the mechanical, moisture absorption, thermal, and electrical properties of cured composite parts. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Third, developing tools for material specialists to design custom multifunctional composite materials for specific purposes.</div> <br /><div><em>Brina is here congratulated by the Hasselblad Foundation chairman, <br />Göran Bengtsson, and </em><em>CEO Christina Backman.</em><br /><br /></div> <div>By combining these three research areas, I can begin to build an approach for predicting the microstructure and multifunctional properties of the resulting composite materials. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">About Brina</h2> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/brina-blinzler.aspx">Brina Blinzler</a> is Assistant professor at the Division of material- and computational mechanics, Department of industrial and materials Science. She specializes in composite mechanics. Her research interests include the optimization of polymer matrix composite processing techniques (heat and pressure cycles during curing), multifunctional composite materials, renewable materials (bio-composites) and advanced energy materials. Brina is also part of the Graphene Flagship.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> Hasselblad Foundation </h2> <div><a href="http://www.hasselbladfoundation.org/wp/sv/naturvetenskap/">The Hasselblad Foundation</a> grant programme was established in 2011 to acknowledge female researchers and enable them to continue and further develop their research. The intention is, to appropriate SEK 2,000,000 annually to be used as further research funding for two women researchers (SEK 1,000,000 each). Marina Rafajlovic, Assistant Professor at Department of Marine Sciences University of Gothenburg, was the second recipient of the 2018 grant.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div></div>Thu, 17 Jan 2019 10:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Breakthrough-in-organic-electronics.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Breakthrough-in-organic-electronics.aspxBreakthrough in organic electronics<p><b>​Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have discovered a simple new tweak that could double the efficiency of organic electronics. OLED-displays, plastic-based solar cells and bioelectronics are just some of the technologies that could benefit from their new discovery, which deals with &quot;double-doped&quot; polymers.</b></p><p>​The majority of our everyday electronics are based on inorganic semiconductors, such as silicon. Crucial to their function is a process called doping, which involves weaving impurities into the semiconductor to enhance its electrical conductivity. It is this that allows various components in solar cells and LED screens to work. </p> <p>For organic – that is, carbon-based – semiconductors, this doping process is similarly of extreme importance. Since the discovery of electrically conducting plastics and polymers, a field in which a Nobel Prize was awarded in 2000, research and development of organic electronics has accelerated quickly. OLED-displays are one example which are already on the market, for example in the latest generation of smartphones. Other applications have not yet been fully realised, due in part to the fact that organic semiconductors have so far not been efficient enough. </p> <p>Doping in organic semiconductors operates through what is known as a redox reaction. This means that a dopant molecule receives an electron from the semiconductor, increasing the electrical conductivity of the semiconductor. The more dopant molecules that the semiconductor can react with, the higher the conductivity – at least up to a certain limit, after which the conductivity decreases. Currently, the efficiency limit of doped organic semiconductors has been determined by the fact that the dopant molecules have only been able to exchange one electron each.</p> <p>But now, in an article in the scientific journal Nature Materials, <a href="/sv/personal/redigera/Sidor/Christian-Müller.aspx">Professor Christian Müller </a>and his group, together with colleagues from seven other universities demonstrate that it is possible to move two electrons to every dopant molecule. </p> <p>&quot;Through this 'double doping' process, the semiconductor can therefore become twice as effective,&quot; says David Kiefer, PhD student in the group and first author of the article. </p> <p>According to Christian Müller, this innovation is not built on some great technical achievement. Instead, it is simply a case of seeing what others have not seen. </p> <p>&quot;The whole research field has been totally focused on studying materials, which only allow one redox reaction per molecule. We chose to look at a different type of polymer, with lower ionisation energy. We saw that this material allowed the transfer of two electrons to the dopant molecule. It is actually very simple,&quot; says Christian Müller, Professor of Polymer Science at Chalmers University of Technology. </p> <p>The discovery could allow further improvements to technologies which today are not competitive enough to make it to market. One problem is that polymers simply do not conduct current well enough, and so making the doping techniques more effective has long been a focus for achieving better polymer-based electronics. Now, this doubling of the conductivity of polymers, while using only the same amount of dopant material, over the same surface area as before, could represent the tipping point needed to allow several emerging technologies to be commercialised. </p> <p>“With OLED displays, the development has come far enough that they are already on the market. But for other technologies to succeed and make it to market something extra is needed. With organic solar cells, for example, or electronic circuits built of organic material, we need the ability to dope certain components to the same extent as silicon-based electronics. Our approach is a step in the right direction,” says Christian Müller. </p> <p>The discovery offers fundamental knowledge and could help thousands of researchers to achieve advances in flexible electronics, bioelectronics and thermoelectricity. Christian Müller’s research group themselves are researching several different applied areas, with polymer technology at the centre. Among other things, his group is looking into the development of electrically conducting textiles and organic solar cells. </p> <p>Read the article in Nature Materials: &quot;<a href="http://network.mynewsdesk.com/wf/click?upn=rAs-2FKzLGnTnOtMjh4TIXDXfGzIH8shCS-2FN99Hya8DdLVE9Juda4J6agACV7PDkmD0q35q9pr1WPpOt9mv7d7TA-3D-3D_Krev5Rfnj-2BxDumtC9NHGZli6Ao-2Fzc0RvnFiDvzdnvTKfi-2BpSdDC8qDBy7Lmg3toUcIdiOLN-2FUSlOd4KSQU-2F90j-2Bs-2BXHi1b4hBuh4GIlUcc8qoxxQJktOsVGwk38Ej-2BxnWREzvaz6KeCqkbpaV-2BrO-2BLsPf-2BY-2F3Iyyyxt7dp5K1Cow1Szxhk-2BfeM-2F5n12VQFL32-2BPMDl-2FtDtSc9ZTyO4z8J9IWLKeckGHNMpjNel1-2B-2F6aA-2B-2FXSQGRUKCz2i68rLzFw83gFRcCyPwJYtjvbAHlQmxvengWmvlogKRkNQ8rvDZHUViLsQsVrMmBg-2Bbiw253YI-2FkCONemuY5u80CLuvugzqu6VZYmxSec-2FUCvPLH04xgugbP0zVEvZUL2NvlAEn-2FJM7IeLni7pQX80x-2FBIYkvdQ-3D-3D">Double Doping of Conjugated Polymers with Monomer Molecular Dopants</a>&quot;</p> <p>The research was funded by the <a href="https://www.vr.se/english.html">Swedish Research Council</a>, the <a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/research/clothes-future-making-electricity-body-heat">Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation</a>, and the <a href="https://erc.europa.eu/projects-figures/stories/high-energy-fashion">European Research Council (ERC)</a>, and was carried out in collaboration with colleagues from Linköping University (Sweden), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (Saudi Arabia), Imperial College London (UK), the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of California, Davis (USA), and the Chemnitz University of Technology (Germany). <br /></p>Mon, 14 Jan 2019 17:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/new-composite-and-manufacturing-lab.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/new-composite-and-manufacturing-lab.aspxA new composite and manufacturing laboratory<p><b>​The demand for lightweight construction materials is constantly increasing, which has led to a greatly increased use of fiber-reinforced polymer composites in weight-optimized structures. Chalmers research is now strengthened with a new laboratory for composite manufacturing.</b></p><div>​Chalmers new laboratory for composites and manufacturing was opened on December 19. Maria Knutson Wedel, Vice Head of education and lifelong learning, and Anders Palmqvist, Vice Head of research and postgraduate studies, began the ceremony by launching a vacuum resin infusion where Chalmers logo appeared. <br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/InvigningLaboratorieKomposittillverkning_181219_03_600pxl.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <div> </div> <div><em>Leif Asp, Anders Palmqvist and Maria Knutson Wedel inspect Chalmers logo after vacuum injection of resin.</em></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>- It feels good that we have now started and we are looking forward to utilizing the new facilities as soon as possible. It really strengthens our research to be able to have a lab this close, &quot; says Leif Asp, who is the director.</div> <div><br /></div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Kolfiberrulle_webb.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px 15px;width:265px;height:398px" /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Several ongoing research projects are in line to use the new facilities. One of these projects is the highly noticed study that has shown that energy can be stored directly in carbon fiber as battery electrodes. This opens up new possibilities for so-called structural batteries which could halve the importance of future vehicles. The discovery was listed by Physics World as top ten scientific breaktroughs of 2018.</div> <div> </div> <div>The aviation industry has also shown great interest in the use of carbon fiber composites. This imposes high security requirements, and methods need to be developed to control the strength of carbon fiber composites over time. there is ongoing research to provide methods for the materials themselves to send signals when exhausted.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div><em>A bobbin of carbon fibre yarn</em><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research is mainly conducted by researchers and postgraduate students in Chalmers Material Science field, but the purpose is to make the lab available to all who are part of Chalmers. Chalmers initiative for Sport &amp; Technology is one of the players who have shown interest in the development of lightweight composite materials for everything in skiing, sailing and motorsport.<br /></div> <br /><div>The research is mainly conducted by researchers and postgraduate students in Chalmers Material Science field, but the purpose is to make the lab available to all who are part of Chalmers. Chalmers initiative for Sport &amp; Technology is one of the players who have shown interest in the development of lightweight composite materials for everything in skiing, sailing and motorsport.</div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">The facilities</h2> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Övriga/FormulaStudent_180315_12.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:349px;height:528px" />In the lab there will be equipment for the manufacture and characterization of multifunctional composites, especially structural batteries and the lab will be used both in education and research. Students in Chalmers Formula Student will be especially active in the lab.</div> <div> </div> <div>Manufacturing and processing of fiber reinforced polymer composites are some of the main areas. The business focuses on carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites, which are manufactured using injection technology or molding. There are also equipment for the manufacture and characterization of multifunctional composites, especially structural batteries.</div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><br /></h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More information</h2> <div>Chalmers research in the field of materials has recently been noted both nationally and internationally. Read more on the links below.</div> <div> </div> <div> <br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/breakthroughs-of-the-year.aspx">Top ten scientific breakthrough of the year</a></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspx">Store energy directly in carbon fiber as battery electrodes</a></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Airbus-collaboration-on-multifunctional-materials.aspx">Airbus cooperation with Chalmers around multifunctional materials</a></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Contact</h2></div> <div>Director Professor <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/leifas.aspx">Leif Asp</a> at the Department of Industrial and Materials Sciences.</div> <div><br /></div> <br />Thu, 20 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Modelling-of-cyclic-and-viscous-behaviour-of-thermomechanically-loaded-pearlitic-steels;-Application-to-tread-braked-railwa.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Modelling-of-cyclic-and-viscous-behaviour-of-thermomechanically-loaded-pearlitic-steels;-Application-to-tread-braked-railwa.aspxModelling of cyclic and viscous behaviour of thermomechanically loaded pearlitic steels...<p><b>​​Ali Esmaeili, Material and Computational Mechanics, will present his doctoral thesis on January 10, 10:00</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Övriga/div%20nyheter%20o%20kalender/Ali%20Esmaeili%20ny.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br />The dissertation will be in </span><span style="background-color:initial">VDL, Chalmers tvärgata 4C</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Opponent: Dr. David Fletcher, Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Sheffield, UK</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Title: Modelling of cyclic and viscous behaviour of thermomechanically loaded pearlitic steels; Application to tread braked railway wheels</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Popular description</strong></div> <div><div>There are about 1 million kilometers of railway rail lines and about 25-50 million wheels in service in the world. Due to increasing demands (such as axle loads, running speeds of trains, etc.) the maintenance costs have increased in the recent years. Accounting for the enormous size of the railway network and the number of wheels, even 1% cost reductions translate to a huge amount of money for infrastructure managers and train operators. Furthermore, the performance of rails and wheels is important for the safety of railway operation. Hence, a grand challenge for the metallurgists, engineers, and railway managers is to minimize the causes of rail and wheel damage and failures.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Due to the geometry of the railway rails and wheels, a typical wheel-rail contact surface is merely the size of a coin. The material in the vicinity of this contact is subjected to very high loads. These loads are generated due to axle loads that can be from 10 tonnes up to 40 tonnes (for heavy duty railways) and also frictional forces in the rail-wheel interface caused by train acceleration, braking, and curving. Add to that the frictional heat generated between brake block and wheel during braking or between wheel and rail during braking and acceleration which might result in elevated temperatures up to 500℃. In severe cases, such as malfunctioning traction systems, temperatures might even reach 800-1000℃. These complex loading conditions might result in damage and failure of the rail and wheel material causing major maintenance costs in the railway industry.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>To be able to understand load limits (e.g. the maximum allowed train axle loads), to plan an efficient maintenance schedule and also to improve the components’ design for obtaining sufficiently long life of the components, we need to have a good understanding of the material behaviour in the components under operational conditions.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Due to high strength, high wear resistance and relatively low cost, pearlitic steels are widely used for railway rails and wheels. In this thesis, an effort has been made to develop material models that are able to numerically simulate the behaviour of the pearlitic steel in railway wheels when subjected to mechanical and thermal loads. These models are used to simulate different scenarios of railway operational conditions and for study of possible damage mechanisms that might result in failure of the wheel material.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>More about Ali:</div> <div><a href="https://www.linkedin.com/in/ali-esmaeili-8a249138/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Linkedin</a></div> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/ali-esmaeili.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Chalmers profile </a></div></div> <div><br /></div>Wed, 19 Dec 2018 15:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/breakthroughs-of-the-year.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/breakthroughs-of-the-year.aspxTop ten scientific breakthrough of the year<p><b>​We have previously reported about a study, led by Chalmers University of Technology, that has shown that carbon fibres can work as battery electrodes, storing energy directly. This research has now been listed by the regarded Physics World Magazine as one of this year’s biggest breakthroughs.</b></p><div>​It is a team of expert editors at <a href="https://physicsworld.com/a/discovery-of-magic-angle-graphene-that-behaves-like-a-high-temperature-superconductor-is-physics-world-2018-breakthrough-of-the-year/">Physics World</a> that each year lists what they regard as the top ten biggest breakthroughs of the year. One out of these ten is then awarded Breakthrough of the Year and the other nine highly commended breakthroughs are listed in no particular order. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Physics World 2018 Breakthrough of the Year went to Pablo Jarillo-Herrero of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US and colleagues for their discoveries in the area of graphene. In 2012 the title went to the discovery of a Higgs-like particle, which the following year was awarded with the Nobel Prize.</div> <br /><div>&quot;I’m very happy that our research on materials here at Chalmers University of Technology gain attention in this context. It is a big thing&quot;, says Leif Asp.</div> <br /><div>Asp headed up a multidisciplinary group of researchers who recently published a study on how the microstructure of carbon fibres affects their electrochemical properties – that is, their ability to operate as electrodes in a lithium-ion battery. So far this has been an unexplored research field.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Kolfiber%20kan%20laga%20energi_webb_EN.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><em>Increased energy efficiency with multi-functional carbon fibre in a structural battery</em><br /><em>Illustration: Yen Strandqvist</em><br /><br /></div> <div>What the researchers have shown is that carbon fibres can perform more tasks than simply act as a reinforcing material. They can store energy, for example. This opens up new opportunities for structural batteries, where the carbon fibre becomes part of the energy system. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The use of this type of multifunctional material can contribute to a significant weight-reduction in the aircraft and vehicles of the future – a key challenge for electrification.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Has gained world-wide attention</h2></div> <div>The discovery has also attracted a lot of international interest with over 170 articles in more than 30 countries.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Yes, I have been contacted by a lot of journalists. Among other BBC called me and wanted a live radio interview, which was quite exciting&quot;, says Leif Asp.</div> <br /><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/EFANX_340x305_viewpoint-2-HD_BSJ_20180201.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The industry has also shown great interest and Airbus has entered an agreement with Chalmers University of Technology, since it chimes with one of Airbus’ own strategic research fields: integrated energy storage. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Peter Linde from Airbus says that one absolutely crucial reason for the collaboration is the cutting-edge research being conducted by Leif Asp’s research team, together with colleagues at KTH Royal Institute of Technology within the field of multifunctional composites for energy storage.
 </div> <br /><div><br /></div> <div><div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5"><br /></h5> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More information</h2> <div>The research has been funded by <em>Vinnova, the Swedish Energy Agency, the Swedish Research Council </em>and <em>Alistore European Research Institute.</em><br /></div></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Read the scientific article</h5></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a title="Länk till den vetenskapliga artikeln" href="http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2399-7532/aab707/meta">Graphitic microstructure and performance of carbon fibre Li-ion structural battery electrodes</a> published in the journal Multifunctional Materials.</p> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Read more about how carbon fibre can store energy<br /></h5> <div><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspx">Carbon fibre that can store energy in the body of a vehicle<br /></a></div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More information about the Airbus collaboration</h5></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Airbus-collaboration-on-multifunctional-materials.aspx">Airbus collaboration on multifunctional materials</a><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">For additional information, contact:</h5> <span style="display:inline !important;float:none;background-color:transparent;font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:300;letter-spacing:normal;line-height:22px;text-align:left;text-decoration:none;text-indent:0px;text-transform:none;white-space:normal;word-spacing:0px">Leif Asp, Professor of Material and Computational Mechanics at Chalmers University of Technology</span>, 031-772 15 43, <a href="mailto:%20leif.asp@chalmers.se">leif.asp@chalmers.se</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div>Fri, 14 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Removing-toxic-mercury-from-contaminated-water-.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Removing-toxic-mercury-from-contaminated-water-.aspxRemoving toxic mercury from contaminated water<p><b>Water which has been contaminated with mercury and other toxic heavy metals is a major cause of environmental damage and health problems worldwide. Now, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, present a totally new way to clean contaminated water, through an electrochemical process. The results are published in the scientific journal Nature Communications. ​​​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">“Our results have really exceeded the expectations we had when we started with the technique,” says the research leader Björn Wickman, from Chalmers’ Department of Physics. “Our new method makes it possible to reduce the mercury content in a liquid by more than 99%. This can bring the water well within the margins for safe human consumption.” </span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), mercury is one the most harmful substances for human health. It can influence the nervous system, the development of the brain, and more. It is particularly harmful for children and can also be transmitted from a mother to a child during pregnancy. Furthermore, mercury spreads very easily through nature, and can enter the food chain. Freshwater fish, for example, often contain high levels of mercury. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the last two years, Björn Wickman and Cristian Tunsu, researcher at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Chalmers, have studied an electrochemical process for cleaning mercury from water. Their method works via extracting the heavy metal ions from water by encouraging them to form an alloy with another metal. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Today, removing low, yet harmful, levels of mercury from large amounts of water is a major challenge. Industries need better methods to reduce the risk of mercury being released in nature,” says Björn Wickman. </div> <div><br /></div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Vattenrening_labbsetup1_webb.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;background-color:initial" /><div>Their new method involves a metal plate – an electrode – that binds specific heavy metals to it. The electrode is made of the noble metal platinum, and through an electrochemical process it draws the toxic mercury out of the water to form an alloy of the two. In this way, the water is cleaned of the mercury contamination. The alloy formed by the two metals is very stable, so there is no risk of the mercury re-entering the water. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“An alloy of this type has been made before, but with a totally different purpose in mind. This is the first time the technique with electrochemical alloying has been used for decontamination purposes,” says Cristian Tunsu.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>One strength of the new cleaning technique is that the electrode has a very high capacity. Each platinum atom can bond with four mercury atoms. Furthermore, the mercury atoms do not only bond on the surface, but also penetrate deeper into the material, creating thick layers. This means the electrode can be used for a long time. After use, it can be emptied in a controlled way. Thereby, the electrode can be recycled, and the mercury disposed of in a safe way. A further positive for this process is that it is very energy efficient.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Another great thing with our technique is that it is very selective. Even though there may be many different types of substance in the water, it just removes the mercury. Therefore, the electrode doesn’t waste capacity by unnecessarily taking away harmless substances from the water,” says Björn Wickman. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Patenting for the new method is being sought, and in order to commercialise the discovery, the company Atium has been setup. The new innovation has already been bestowed with a number of prizes and awards, both in Sweden and internationally. The research and the colleagues in the company have also had a strong response from industry. ​ </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We have already had positive interactions with a number of interested parties, who are keen to test the method. Right now, we are working on a prototype which can be tested outside the lab under real-world conditions.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se​</a> </div> <div>and Joshua Worth, <a href="mailto:%20joshua.worth@chalmers.se"> joshua.worth@chalmers.se ​</a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read the article, <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-018-07300-z">“Effective removal of mercury from aqueous streams via electrochemical alloy formation on platinum”​</a> in Nature Communications.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><a href="http://www.mynewsdesk.com/uk/chalmers/pressreleases/removing-toxic-mercury-from-contaminated-water-2800540"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release and download high-resolution images. ​​</a><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Vattenrening_Bjorn_Wickman_Cristian_Tunsu_portratt_750x340_NY.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />​<span style="background-color:initial">Björn Wickman and Cristian Tunsu</span><span style="background-color:initial"> ​are pr</span><span style="background-color:initial">esenting a new and effective way of cleaning mercury from water. With the help of new technology, contaminated water can become clean enough to be well within the safe limits for drinkability. The results are now published in the scientific journal Nature Communications. ​</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Image: Mia Halleröd Palmgren</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Potential uses for the new method</h3> <div><ul><li>T<span style="background-color:initial">he technique could be used to reduce the amount of waste and increase the purity of waste and process water in the chemical and mining industries, and in metal production. </span></li></ul></div> <div><ul><li>It can contribute to better environmental cleaning of places with contaminated land and water sources.<br /></li></ul></div> <div><ul><li>​It <span style="background-color:initial">can even be used to clean drinking water in badly affected environments because, thanks to its low energy use, it can be powered totally by solar cells. Therefore, it can be developed into a mobile and reusable water cleaning technology. </span></li></ul></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More on heavy metals in our environment</h3> <div>Heavy metals in water sources create enormous environmental problems and influence the health of millions of people around the world. Heavy metals are toxic for all living organisms in the food chain. According to the WHO, mercury is one of the most dangerous substances for human health, influencing our nervous system, brain development and more. The substance is especially dangerous for children and unborn babies. </div> <div>Today there are strict regulations concerning the management of toxic heavy metals to hinder their spread in nature. But there are many places worldwide which are already contaminated, and they can be transported in rain or in the air. This results in certain environments where heavy metals can become abundant, for example fish in freshwater sources. In industries where heavy metals are used, there is a need for better methods of recycling, cleaning and decontamination of the affected water. <span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif">For more information</h3> <div><span style="font-weight:700"><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Björn-Wickman.aspx">Björn Wickman​</a></span>, Assistant Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 772 51 79, <a href="mailto:bjorn.wickman@chalmers.se">bjorn.wickman@chalmers.se​</a></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700"><a href="/en/staff/Pages/tunsu.aspx">Cristian Tunsu</a></span>,  Post Doc, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering​, <span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers University of Technology, +46 </span><span style="background-color:initial">31 772 29 45, <a href="mailto:tunsu@chalmers.se">tunsu@chalmers.se</a></span></div></div> <div><div><div><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div></div></div>Wed, 21 Nov 2018 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/How-gold-can-melt-at-room-temperature-.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/How-gold-can-melt-at-room-temperature-.aspxHow to melt gold at room temperature<p><b>​When the tension rises, unexpected things can happen – not least when it comes to gold atoms. Researchers from, among others, Chalmers University of Technology, have now managed, for the first time, to make the surface of a gold object melt at room temperature.​</b></p><div><div><div>​<span style="background-color:initial">Ludvig de Knoop, from Chalmers’ Department of Physics, placed a small piece of gold in an electron microscope. Observing it at the highest level of magnification and increasing the electric field step-by-step to extremely high levels, he was interested to see how it influenced the gold atoms.</span></div> <div>It was when he studied the atoms in the recordings from the microscope, that he saw something exciting. The surface layers of gold had actually melted – at room temperature.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;I was really stunned by the discovery. This is an extraordinary phenomenon, and it gives us new, foundational knowledge of gold,” says Ludvig de Knoop.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>What happened was that the gold atoms became excited. Under the influence of the electric field, they suddenly lost their ordered structure and released almost all their connections to each other.</div> <div>Upon further experimentation, the researchers discovered that it was also possible to switch between a solid and a molten structure.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The discovery of how gold atoms can lose their structure in this way is not just spectacular, but also groundbreaking scientifically. Together with the theoretician Mikael Juhani Kuisma, from the University of Jyväskylä in Finland, Ludvig de Knoop and colleagues have opened up new avenues in materials science. The results are now published in the journal Physical Review Materials. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Thanks to theoretical calculations, the researchers are able to suggest why gold can melt at room temperature, which has to do with the formation of defects in the surface layers. <br /><br />Possibly, the surface melting can also be seen as a so-called low-dimensional phase transition. In that case, the discovery is connected to the research field of topology, where pioneers David Thouless, Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz received the Nobel Prize in Physics 2016. With Mikael Juhani Kuisma in the lead, the researchers are now looking into that possibility. In any case, the ability to melt surface layers of gold in this manner enables various novel practical applications in the future.<br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Because we can control and change the properties of the surface atom layers, it opens doors for different kinds of applications. For example, the technology could be used in different types of sensors, catalysts and transistors. There could also be opportunities for new concepts for contactless components,&quot; says Eva Olsson, Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>But for now, for those who want to melt gold without an electron microscope, a trip to the goldsmith is still in order.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Text: </span><span style="background-color:initial"> Joshua Worth,</span><a href="mailto:%20joshua.worth@chalmers.se"> joshua.worth@chalmers.se  </a>and <span style="background-color:initial">M</span><span style="background-color:initial">ia </span><span style="background-color:initial">Hall</span><span style="background-color:initial">eröd</span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"> Palmgren, </span><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se </a></span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif;font-size:24px;background-color:initial">About the scientific article</span><br /></div> <div><div><span style="background-color:initial">The article </span><a href="https://journals.aps.org/prmaterials/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.2.085006">“Electric-field-controlled reversible order-disorder switching of a metal tip surface </a><span style="background-color:initial">” has been published in the journal Physical Review Materials. It was written by Ludvig de Knoop, Mikael Juhani Kuisma, Joakim Löfgren, Kristof Lodewijks, Mattias Thuvander, Paul Erhart, Alexandre Dmitriev and Eva Olsson. The researchers behind the results are active at Chalmers, the University of Gothenburg,  the University of Jyväskylä in Finland, and Stanford University in the United States.</span></div> <span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div><br /></div></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/GuldSmalterIRumstemperatur_181116_01_750x340px.jpg" alt="" style="font-size:24px;margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">Joakim Löfgren, Eva Olsson, Ludvig de Knoop,  Mattias Thuvander, Alexandre Dmitriev and Paul Erhart are some of the researchers behind the discovery. Not pictured are Mikael Juhani Kuisma and Kristof Lodewijks.</span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Image: Johan Bodell</span></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about the research infrastructure at Chalmers<br /></h3> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/researchinfrastructure/CMAL/Pages/default.aspx">The Chalmers Material Analysis Laboratory (CMAL) </a> has advanced instruments for material research. The laboratory formally belongs to the Department of Physics, but is open to all researchers from universities, institutes and industry. The experiments in this study have been carried out using advanced and high-resolution electron microscopes - in this case, transmission electron microscopes (TEM). Major investments have recently been made, to further push the laboratory to the forefront of material research. In total, the investments are about 66 million Swedish kronor, of which the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation has contributed half.<span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">More about electron microscopy</h4> <div> </div> <div>Electron microscopy is a collective name for different types of microscopy, using electrons instead of electromagnetic radiation to produce images of very small objects. Using this technique makes it possible to study individual atoms. <span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For more information, contact: </h3></div> <div><div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/f00lude.aspx"><span>Ludvig de Knoop</span>, </a>Postdoctoral researcher, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 31 772 <span style="background-color:initial">51 80, </span><a href="mailto:ludvig.deknoop@chalmers.se%E2%80%8B%E2%80%8B" style="font-family:calibri, sans-serif;font-size:12pt"><span lang="EN-US">ludvig.deknoop@chalmers.se </span></a></div></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"> <br /></span></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Eva-Olsson.aspx"><span>Eva Olsson</span><span style="background-color:initial">,</span></a><span style="background-color:initial"> Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 31 772 32 47, </span><a href="mailto:eva.olsson@chalmers.se" target="_blank">eva.olsson@chalmers.se </a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="http://www.mynewsdesk.com/uk/chalmers/pressreleases/how-to-melt-gold-at-room-temperature-2799968"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release and download high-resolution images. </a></div> <div><a href="https://youtu.be/mbKuq1BAfrs"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Watch a <span style="background-color:initial">short video clip with researcher Ludvig de Knoop explaining the discovery.</span>​</a></div> </div></div> ​Tue, 20 Nov 2018 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Material-characterisation-for-crash-modelling-of-composites.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Material-characterisation-for-crash-modelling-of-composites.aspxMaterial characterisation for crash modelling of composites<p><b>​​Thomas Bru, industrial PhD student (RISE SICOMP) at the division of Material and Computational Mechanics IMS, defends his doctoral thesis on November 30. Below the popular science description. For more information, please see links below.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700">Popular science description</span></span><div><br /></div> <div>In 2015, the transport sector contributed to nearly 30% of the total EU-28 greenhouse gas emissions. The figure decreases to 21% if international aviation and maritime emissions are excluded. The transport industry must therefore find solutions to reduce its impact on climate change.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A promising method to reduce the weight of vehicles and therefore to their CO2 emissions is to introduce components made of lightweight composite materials, in particular carbon fibre reinforced plastics. On medium size cars, weight savings as high as 35% can be achieved by replacing steel structures with structures made of composite materials, and so without any loss in mechanical performances (strength and stiffness). In addition, it has been shown that composites structures can potentially absorb more energy than metallic structures in crash situations. Higher energy absorption in crash yields higher safety of the occupants thanks to reduced deceleration loads.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Unfortunately, reliable simulation of the crash behaviour of composite structure has been identified as one the bottle necks for the introduction of composite materials in cars. With the aim of increasing the level of confidence in crash simulations, physical tests must be carried out in order to 1) extract relevant material properties to input to the simulation tools and to 2) validate the predictions of the numerical crash simulations.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In this work, a simple test method is developed to experimentally characterise the crushing behaviour of composites. The experimental results are compared the simulation results obtained from a project conducted in parallel to this thesis. The aim of the simulations is to pre-emptively predict the crushing behaviour of composite structures in order to optimise their design in terms of energy absorption and to reduce the number of physical tests which are associated with high costs. In addition, experimental methods are developed with the aim of extracting material parameters required as input to material models in simulation codes. It is important to carefully measure the mechanical response of composite materials under shear forces (shear forces are pairs of equal and opposing forces acting on opposite sides of an object, like the forces created when using a pair of scissors). Therefore, a methodology is proposed to characterise the shear response of composite materials and to calibrate crash models for composites from the measured shear response.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Links:</span></div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/publication/505312"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/publication/505312"><span>R</span>ead the thesis </a></div> <div><a href="https://se.linkedin.com/in/thomas-bru-01127262"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />LinkedIn Thomas Bru</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>Dissertation</strong></div> <div>2018-11-30 10:00</div> <div>VDL, Tvärgata 4C, Chalmers</div> <div>Opponent: Prof. Ivana Partridge, University of Bristol, UK</div></div> <div><br /></div> ​Tue, 20 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Skeletal-imitation.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Skeletal-imitation.aspxSkeletal imitation reveals how bones grow atom-by-atom<p><b>​Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have discovered how our bones grow at an atomic level, showing how an unstructured mass orders itself into a perfectly arranged bone structure. The discovery offers new insights, which could yield improved new implants, as well as increasing our knowledge of bone diseases such as osteoporosis.</b></p><p>​The bones in our body grow through several stages, with atoms and molecules joining together, and those bigger groupings joining together in turn. One early stage in the growth process is when calcium phosphate molecules crystallise, which means that they transform from an amorphous mass into an ordered structure. Many stages of this transformation were previously a mystery, but now, through a project looking at an imitation of how our bones are built, the researchers have been able to follow this crystallisation process at an atomic level. Their results are now published in the scientific journal Nature Communications. <br /><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Martin%20150.jpg" alt="" style="height:200px;width:150px;margin:5px" /><br />“A wonderful thing with this project is that it demonstrates how applied and fundamental research go hand in hand. Our project was originally focused on the creation of an artificial biomaterial, but the material turned out to be a great tool to study bone building processes. We first imitated nature, by creating an artificial copy. Then, we used that copy to go back and study nature,” says Martin Andersson, Professor in Materials Chemistry at Chalmers, and leader of the study. </p> <p><br />The researchers were developing a method of creating artificial bone through additive manufacturing, or 3D printing. The resulting structure is built up in the same way, with the same properties, as real bone. Once fully developed, it will enable the formation of naturalistic implants, which could replace the metal and plastic technologies currently in use. As the team began to imitate natural bone tissue functions, they saw that they had created the possibility to study the phenomenon in a setting highly resembling the environment in living tissue. </p> <p><br />The team’s artificial bone-like substance mimicked the way real bone grows. The smallest structural building blocks in the skeleton are groups of strings consisting of the protein collagen. To mineralize these strings, cells send out spherical particles known as vesicles, which contain calcium phosphate. These vesicles release the calcium phosphate into confined spaces between the collagen strings. There, the calcium phosphate begins to transform from an amorphous mass into an ordered crystalline structure, which creates the bone’s characteristic features of remarkable resistance to shocks and bending. </p> <p><br />The researchers followed this cycle with the help of electron microscopes and now show in their paper how it happens at the atomic level. Despite the fact that bone crystallisation naturally occurs in a biological environment, it is not a biological process. Instead, calcium phosphate’s intrinsic physical characteristics define how it crystallises and builds up, following the laws of thermodynamics. The molecules are drawn to the <img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Antiope%20150.jpg" alt="" style="height:200px;width:150px;margin:5px 10px" />place where the energy level is lowest, which results in it building itself into a perfectly crystallised structure.</p> <p><br />“Within the transmission electron microscope, we could follow the stages of how the material transformed itself into an ordered structure. This enables it to achieve as low an energy level as possible, and therefore a more stable state,” says Dr Antiope Lotsari, a researcher in Martin Andersson’s group, who conducted the electron microscopy experiments.</p> <p><br />The Chalmers researchers are the first to show in high resolution what happens when bones crystallise. The results could influence the way many common bone related illnesses are treated. </p> <p><br />“Our results could be significant for the treatment of bone disease such as osteoporosis, which today is a common illness, especially among older women. Osteoporosis is when there is an imbalance between how fast bones break down and are being re-formed, which are natural processes in the body,” says Martin Andersson. </p> <p><br />Current medicines for osteoporosis, which work through influencing this imbalance, could be improved with this new knowledge. The hope is that with greater precision, we will be able to evaluate the pros and cons of current medicines, as well as experiment with different substances to examine how they hinder or stimulate bone growth.</p> <p><br />The article “<a href="http://network.mynewsdesk.com/wf/click?upn=jT4ao6EIWq-2B-2Fx9SECyWO4-2F3NrlX2-2Fnm4FQcveXCi43isecyOuYW7oWnBr4foZiiD7GZHtNUdA7e76vI5IUmE3Q-3D-3D_X6nVGqSMdJTrz-2FI1LxXG5p2migGMf1WazWDFt93-2FtiI1gYqAxvDcGyKwx2VSvp2Qu4S7dbxiGOADD-2BPxNvRDBo13-2FkNZip-2FdWo3vIzwtu4xnDEpw5nfjCHF9h7QTYlrgGM5-2Bk-2BoYo3FgbyVZeEfVs1LFPZxgF1DdCXNBIKCsSdWf6M6UkLH-2F1dT-2BoQ3Sf18tc6IJ52N1hf-2FUZ68xDZW-2BSHPwvmMGYwUHhdLBS60-2FS6-2FUgu-2FSoHN4imBpIZhPK7a9P-2BMxJvA-2Fr4AikF4WB-2FG97d4LFcB4JgF-2B3xCFpHJbiHknPgjkTzo2RWnROGrDTZMVTjdTg8KHEIQWZT5GbCkkAI8npyAyDvwD-2FacPTjVPzo96ExiuL8pKemOVvlzVuPW0EgdUtQcl1kO3ZKoBc-2FjOp9YBaCDbcRKYNw3b-2BCC5d5A-3D">Transformation of amorphous calcium phosphate to bone-like apatite</a>” is published now in Nature Communications. <br /></p>Sun, 18 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Airbus-collaboration-on-multifunctional-materials.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Airbus-collaboration-on-multifunctional-materials.aspxAirbus collaboration on multifunctional materials<p><b>​Chalmers has received a substantial boost in the field of multifunctional materials and technologies focusing on the aviation industry. Dr. Peter Linde, Research Engineer at Airbus, one of the world’s largest aircraft manufacturers, has taken up the position of Adjunct Professor in the Department of Industrial and Materials Science. A collaboration that started with a long walk to a remote hotel in Toulouse in 2008.</b></p>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Peter-Linde_02_500x750_foto%20Carina%20Schultz.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Portrait Peter Linde" style="margin:5px 20px;width:225px;height:312px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">During their long walk to the hotel, Peter Linde and <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/leifas.aspx">Leif Asp</a>, Professor of <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mocm/Pages/Lightweight-materials-and-structures.aspx">Lightweight Composite Materials and Structures</a>, realised that they shared many questions regarding research into lightweight materials. After nearly 10 years of working together on a number of projects, Asp’s wish for more in-depth collaboration with Airbus has now been realised as Linde took up the part-time (20%) position of Adjunct Professor at Chalmers in September. He is based in the Division of Material and Computational Mechanics.  </span><div><span style="background-color:initial">
At <a href="http://company.airbus.com/careers/Our-locations/Hamburg.html">Airbus Operations GmbH in Hamburg </a>Linde is currently working as an Airframe Architecture and Integration Research Engineer. His long experience of research into materials and composites has made him particularly familiar with the many challenges of this field within the Airbus group – which will be a major asset for Chalmers.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Picture above: Peter Linde, who has recently taken up the position of Adjunct Professor in the Department of Industrial and Materials Science. His impressive CV includes studies at ETH Zurich, Stanford, the University of California, Los Angeles (focusing on industrial collaboration in aviation), and the University of California, Berkeley (pioneers in finite element methods). </em></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div><strong>
World-leading research into structural batteries</strong> 
</div> <div>The agreement has taken time to prepare because the professorship must be relevant to Chalmers while also adding value to Airbus. Linde says that one absolutely crucial reason for the collaboration is the cutting-edge research being conducted by Leif Asp’s research team together with colleagues at KTH Royal Institute of Technology within the field of multifunctional composites for energy storage.
</div> <div>“Yes, it’s true that we’re world-leading in the area of <a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspx">structural batteries​</a>. In preparation for the agreement, Airbus conducted a Technology Watch in which the potential in our research was identified. It chimes with one of Airbus’ own strategic research fields: integrated energy storage. Airbus saw the potential and has therefore chosen to enter into an agreement with us,” Asp says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>
Request for broader collaboration with Chalmers
</strong></div> <div>Now that this agreement has been secured, Leif Asp hopes that Chalmers will gain a much broader interface with Airbus. Asp believes that there will be more joint projects on composites in future, but he would also like to see the research collaboration broadened. There are many research fields at Chalmers that are of interest to Airbus. 
</div> <div>“One of Peter Linde’s key talents is his ability to see possible collaborations and create networks that drive innovation in industry. In short, he is skilled at technology, politics and making things happen,” Asp explains.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/EFANX_viewpoint-2-HD_BSJ_20180201.jpeg" alt="Environmentally Friendly Aircraft E-Fan-X " style="margin:5px;width:680px;height:471px" /><br /><br /></div> <div><em>The title of his installation lecture was “Emerging Materials and Technologies for Multifunctional Application in Environmentally Friendly Aircraft”. E-Fan-X (depicted) is the second-generation of research aircraft within the Airbus group in which electric propulsion is being tested. E-Fan-X is a modified BAE 146 with four engines, one of which is electric. The energy for the propulsion is a hybrid-based system with a gas turbine and battery. Its maiden flight is planned for 2019. Its predecessor, the E-Fan, was a two-seater with two electric engines and energy storage in batteries. Its maiden flight took place in 2014. Photo: Airbus</em><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>
Lighter planes achieve environmental gains
</strong></div> <div>Peter Linde devotes most of his time to his work as Topic Manager of the EU project <a href="/en/projects/Pages/Structural-pOweR-CompositEs-foR-futurE-civil-aiRcraft-QSORCERERQ.aspx">SORCERER,</a> in which Chalmers is one of four partners.
</div> <div>“The project aims to develop a lightweight composite with intrinsic electrical energy storage capability, intended for future electric and hybrid-electric aircraft. The background to the project is the need for more environmentally friendly lightweight aircraft, of which the weight can be reduced by integrating batteries in structures, cabins and systems.
</div> <div>“Via Airbus’ involvement in the Clean Sky​ project, I will also gain the opportunity to meet new collaboration partners for Chalmers and Airbus,” says Linde, who hopes that he will have time for this on the 3–4 occasions per year that he will be on site in Gothenburg.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>

Degree projects focusing on thin layers</strong></div> <div>Other interesting and closely related research fields mentioned by Linde are graphene and additive manufacturing for weight reduction and multifunctionality for components. Initially, however, he wants to dig deeper into the field of composites made of thin layers. Linde continues, </div> <div>“Together with Leif Asp and <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/martin-fagerstrom.aspx">Martin Fagerström</a>, I will prepare a number of degree projects. We have also started to supervise a doctoral student together, and we might lecture for the Master’s students in the latter part of their programmes.<span style="background-color:initial">”

</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong><br /></strong></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>​Always a st</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>udent
</strong></span></div> <div>When the news of the professorship was made public, many people in Peter Linde’s extensive contact network got in touch. One person who has already congratulated him is Professor <a href="https://web.stanford.edu/group/sacl/people/tsai.html">Stephen W. Tsai </a>at Stanford, a living legend in the field of composite materials, with whom Linde has had an innovative exchange in recent years.</div> <div>
“I have also heard from my old Professor <a href="https://www.ethz.ch/en/the-eth-zurich/organisation/who-is-who/retired-professors/details.html?persid=77106">Hugo Bachmann​</a> at ETH Zurich, who congratulated me on gaining such a fine position at such a reputable seat of learning,” Linde laughs and continues, 
</div> <div>“This feels great! Above all as Adjunct Professor, I will be able to devote myself to my major interests: building networks and satisfying my curiosity. I regard myself as always being a student,” Linde concludes.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Installation-adj-prof-Peter-Linde_20180904_13_750x477.png" alt="Peter Linde lecturing" style="margin:5px;width:679px;height:424px" /><br /><em><br /></em></div> <div><em>In his installation lecture, Dr. Peter Linde provided a short recap of Airbus’ history and technological successes. One example was the sales success of the Airbus A320, which vastly surpassed its sales target of around 300 planes and reached a total of 8,000. To conclude, he presented his thoughts on the future development of new materials, such as multifunctional composites for energy storage. Photo: Carina Schultz</em></div> <div><i><br /></i></div> <div><em></em><p style="margin-bottom:10px"><a href="https://flic.kr/s/aHsmox113f" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />See more pictures from the event</a></p> <p style="margin-bottom:10px"><a href="/sv/institutioner/ims/kalendarium/Sidor/Peter-Linde.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the lecture</a></p> <p style="margin-bottom:10px"></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Carbon fibre can store energy in the body of a vehicle</a>​</p> <p style="margin-bottom:10px"><br /></p> <i></i></div></div></div> ​Thu, 15 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspxCarbon fibre can store energy in the body of a vehicle<p><b>A study led by Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, has shown that carbon fibres can work as battery electrodes, storing energy directly. This opens up new opportunities for structural batteries, where the carbon fibre becomes part of the energy system. The use of this type of multifunctional material can contribute to a significant weight-reduction in the aircraft and vehicles of the future – a key challenge for electrification.</b></p><p>Passenger aircraft need to be much lighter than they are today in order to be powered by electricity. A reduction in weight is also very important for vehicles in order to extend the driving distance per battery charge.</p> <p>Leif Asp, Professor of Material and Computational Mechanics at Chalmers University of Technology, conducts research into the ability of carbon fibres to perform more tasks than simply to act as a reinforcing material. They can store energy, for example.</p> <p>“A car body would then be not simply a load-bearing element, but also act as a battery,” he says. “It will also be possible to use the carbon fibre for other purposes such as harvesting kinetic energy, for sensors or for conductors of both energy and data. If all these functions were part of a car or aircraft body, this could reduce the weight by up to 50 percent.” </p> <p>Asp headed up a multidisciplinary group of researchers who recently published a study on how the microstructure of carbon fibres affects their electrochemical properties – that is, their ability to operate as electrodes in a lithium-ion battery. So far this has been an unexplored research field.</p> <p><img alt="Leif Asp carbon fibre" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Leif%20Asp%20kolfiber%20webb.jpg" style="margin:10px 5px" /><br /><em>Leif Asp with a bobbin of carbon fibre yarn. The electrodes in a structural lithium ion battery consist of carbon fibre yarn arranged in a grid in a polymer (see illustration). Every length of yarn consists of 24,000 individual carbon fibres.</em> <br /><br /></p> <p>The researchers studied the microstructure of different types of commercially available carbon fibres. They discovered that carbon fibres with small and poorly oriented crystals have good electrochemical properties but a lower stiffness in relative terms. If you compare this with carbon fibres that have large, highly oriented crystals, they have greater stiffness, but the electrochemical properties are too low for use in structural batteries.</p> <p><br /><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Kolfiberrulle_webb.jpg" width="298" height="447" alt="" style="margin:5px 10px" />We now know how multifunctional carbon fibres should be manufactured to attain a high energy storage capacity, while also ensuring sufficient stiffness,” Asp says. “A slight reduction in stiffness is not a problem for many applications such as cars. The market is currently dominated by expensive carbon fibre composites whose stiffness is tailored to aircraft use. There is therefore some potential here for carbon fibre manufacturers to extend their utilisation.”</p> <p>In the study the types of carbon fibre with good electrochemical properties had a slightly higher stiffness than steel, whereas the types whose electrochemical properties were poor are just over twice as rigid as steel.</p> <p>The researchers are collaborating with both the automotive and aviation industries. Leif Asp explains that for the aviation industry, it may be necessary to increase the thickness of carbon fibre composites, to compensate for the reduced stiffness of structural batteries. This would, in turn, also increase their energy storage capacity.</p> <p><br /> </p> <p><br />“The key is to optimise vehicles at system level – based on the weight, strength, stiffness and electrochemical properties. That is something of a new way of thinking for the automotive sector, which is more used to optimising individual components. Structural batteries may perhaps not become as efficient as traditional batteries, but since they have a structural load-bearing capability, very large gains can be made at system level.”</p> <p></p> <div> </div> <div>He continues, “In addition, the lower energy density of structural batteries would make them safer than standard batteries, especially as they would also not contain any volatile substances.”</div> <div><br /> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Read the article </h3> <p></p> <p></p> <div><a href="http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2399-7532/aab707/meta">Graphitic microstructure and performance of carbon fibre Li-ion structural battery electrodes</a> in the journal Multifunctional Materials.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For more information, contact:</h3> <div>Leif Asp, Professor of Material and Computational Mechanics, Chalmers, +46 31 772 15, <a href="mailto:%20leif.asp@chalmers.se">leif.asp@chalmers.se<br /></a></div> <div><br /> </div> <div><em>Text: Johanna Wilde &amp; Marcus Folino</em></div> <div><em>Photo: Johan Bodell</em><br /></div> <p></p>Thu, 18 Oct 2018 07:00:00 +0200