News: Materialvetenskaphttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyThu, 18 Oct 2018 14:30:35 +0200http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspxCarbon fibre can store energy in the body of a vehicle<p><b>A study led by Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, has shown that carbon fibres can work as battery electrodes, storing energy directly. This opens up new opportunities for structural batteries, where the carbon fibre becomes part of the energy system. The use of this type of multifunctional material can contribute to a significant weight-reduction in the aircraft and vehicles of the future – a key challenge for electrification.</b></p><p>Passenger aircraft need to be much lighter than they are today in order to be powered by electricity. A reduction in weight is also very important for vehicles in order to extend the driving distance per battery charge.</p> <p>Leif Asp, Professor of Material and Computational Mechanics at Chalmers University of Technology, conducts research into the ability of carbon fibres to perform more tasks than simply to act as a reinforcing material. They can store energy, for example.</p> <p>“A car body would then be not simply a load-bearing element, but also act as a battery,” he says. “It will also be possible to use the carbon fibre for other purposes such as harvesting kinetic energy, for sensors or for conductors of both energy and data. If all these functions were part of a car or aircraft body, this could reduce the weight by up to 50 percent.” </p> <p>Asp headed up a multidisciplinary group of researchers who recently published a study on how the microstructure of carbon fibres affects their electrochemical properties – that is, their ability to operate as electrodes in a lithium-ion battery. So far this has been an unexplored research field.</p> <p><img alt="Leif Asp carbon fibre" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Leif%20Asp%20kolfiber%20webb.jpg" style="margin:10px 5px" /><br /><em>Leif Asp with a bobbin of carbon fibre yarn. The electrodes in a structural lithium ion battery consist of carbon fibre yarn arranged in a grid in a polymer (see illustration). Every length of yarn consists of 24,000 individual carbon fibres.</em> <br /><br /></p> <p>The researchers studied the microstructure of different types of commercially available carbon fibres. They discovered that carbon fibres with small and poorly oriented crystals have good electrochemical properties but a lower stiffness in relative terms. If you compare this with carbon fibres that have large, highly oriented crystals, they have greater stiffness, but the electrochemical properties are too low for use in structural batteries.</p> <p><br /><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Kolfiberrulle_webb.jpg" width="298" height="447" alt="" style="margin:5px 10px" />We now know how multifunctional carbon fibres should be manufactured to attain a high energy storage capacity, while also ensuring sufficient stiffness,” Asp says. “A slight reduction in stiffness is not a problem for many applications such as cars. The market is currently dominated by expensive carbon fibre composites whose stiffness is tailored to aircraft use. There is therefore some potential here for carbon fibre manufacturers to extend their utilisation.”</p> <p>In the study the types of carbon fibre with good electrochemical properties had a slightly higher stiffness than steel, whereas the types whose electrochemical properties were poor are just over twice as rigid as steel.</p> <p>The researchers are collaborating with both the automotive and aviation industries. Leif Asp explains that for the aviation industry, it may be necessary to increase the thickness of carbon fibre composites, to compensate for the reduced stiffness of structural batteries. This would, in turn, also increase their energy storage capacity.</p> <p><br /> </p> <p><br />“The key is to optimise vehicles at system level – based on the weight, strength, stiffness and electrochemical properties. That is something of a new way of thinking for the automotive sector, which is more used to optimising individual components. Structural batteries may perhaps not become as efficient as traditional batteries, but since they have a structural load-bearing capability, very large gains can be made at system level.”</p> <p></p> <div> </div> <div>He continues, “In addition, the lower energy density of structural batteries would make them safer than standard batteries, especially as they would also not contain any volatile substances.”</div> <div><br /> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Read the article </h3> <p></p> <p></p> <div><a href="http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2399-7532/aab707/meta">Graphitic microstructure and performance of carbon fibre Li-ion structural battery electrodes</a> in the journal Multifunctional Materials.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For more information, contact:</h3> <div>Leif Asp, Professor of Material and Computational Mechanics, Chalmers, +46 31 772 15, <a href="mailto:%20leif.asp@chalmers.se">leif.asp@chalmers.se<br /></a></div> <div><br /> </div> <div><em>Text: Johanna Wilde &amp; Marcus Folino</em></div> <div><em>Photo: Johan Bodell</em><br /></div> <p></p>Thu, 18 Oct 2018 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Great-interest-when-the-Nobel-Laureate-visited-Chalmers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Great-interest-when-the-Nobel-Laureate-visited-Chalmers.aspxGreat interest when the Nobel Laureate visited Chalmers<p><b>​The Nobel Laureate Konstantin Novoselov attracted a large audience when visiting the initiative seminar &quot;2D materials beyond graphene&quot; at Chalmers on 2 October. Many came to Palmstedtsalen in the student union building to see and hear him talk about his work with graphene, often mentioned as a super-material.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Ermin Malic, associate professor at the Department of Physics and director of the organizing Graphene Centre at Chalmers (GCC), introduced Novoselov shortly:</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;It is a great pleasure to welcome such a prominent guest. I am sure you all know Konstantin and are very familiar with his work,&quot; he said.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/KonstantinNovoselov_181002_03_665x330.jpg" alt="Picture of Konstantin Novoselov." style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">Konstantin Novoselov, professor at the University of Manchester, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 for his achievements with the novel material graphene. He has visited Chalmers before, not least in conjunction with the large inaugauration of the major Graphene Flagship a few years ago. On 2 October, he opened the intitative seminar &quot;2D materials beyond graphene&quot; with a lecture entitled &quot;van der Waals heterostructures&quot;.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;A lot of work has already been done with Chalmers, but what I am going to talk about today is more the story beyond graphene, where we are heading now towards other 2D materials and even towards the heterostructures. The reason for why we pay so much attention to graphene is because it has a number of characteristics which each of them makes this material very interesting. That's why we have the Graphene Flagship&quot;, said Konstantin Novoselov.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/KonstantinNovoselov_181002_02_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Picture of Konstantin Novoselov." style="margin:5px" />In his lecture, Konstantin Novoselov provided a history of the graphene subject and an update of the current situation and future of the material.</div> <div>&quot;The most active direction during the last years has been the research in so-called 2d ferromagnetic materials. This is important because we need to distinguish the difference between space dimensionality and spin dimensionality&quot;, said Konstantin Novoselov.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The Nobel Laureate saw a bright future where the development pushes for new experiments that are not feasible today, something he called as science fiction. Among other things he talked about new crystallines and naturally occurring heterostructures:</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;It sounds like science fiction that we can do it and that's why it's really surprising to see what kind of quality it will be of the stacks and what infrastructures we can achieve. But it just don't come for free, you just don't stack those crystals and they give you nice interfaces. Behind this is a quite specific process&quot;, said Konstantin Novoselov.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/vpalermo_IMG_20181002_095503_300x180.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Picture of Vincenzo Palermo." style="margin:5px" />Vincenzo Palermo (to the left), Professor of graphene composite materials at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science, and Vice Director of the Graphene Flagship, was very distinct with the future possibilities for graphene and spoke warmly about commercial products containing the material and already are available on the market. In his lecture, &quot;Applications of 2D materials in a 3-dimensional world&quot;, he mentioned everything from tennis rackets and lightweight clothing, to headphones with amazing jaw-dropping sound and – lasagna! However, it was somewhat unclear how close to realization in time the latter is.</div> <div>&quot;It has gone unusually fast. Research began as early as 2004, and by 2010, the first commercial products were developed,&quot; said Vincenzo Palermo.</div> <div>At the same time, he raised a warning finger for fake products riding the graphene wave, claiming to be graphene-based without sufficient coverage for it:</div> <div>&quot;It does not mean the products are bad, but they need to be carefully analyzed to know if they are serious,&quot; said Vincenzo Palermo.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/yury_gogotski_IMG_20181002_103633_300x180.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Picture of Yury Gogotsi." style="margin:5px" />Among the speakers were also the Nobel Prize tipped Russian material researcher Yury Gogotsi (to the right), Professor at Drexel University in Philadelphia, USA. He participated with a lecture on his groundbreaking battery research, entitled &quot;Metallically Conducting Carbides and Nitrides (MXenes) Enable New Technologies&quot;.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Over 100 participants were registered for the seminar; an obvious sign that the subject still has the potential to attract interest. A broad audience sat down in Palmstedtsalen; from students to researchers, public and entrepreneurs.</div> <div>We met a visitor in the crowd and asked for a review. In particular, hen had come to listen to the lecture of Konstantin Novoselov:</div> <div>&quot;Novoselov was a great speaker with an unusual ability to popularize his research and make it interesting. Grapehene is clearly a vivid research topic under constant development&quot;, hen said.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The seminar provided an intense program with a total of 18 invited speakers from Europe and USA; among them Frank Koppens, Instituto de Ciencias Fotónicas (ICFO), Spain, Paulina Plochocka and Bernhard Urbaszek, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), France, Thomas Müller, Vienna University, Austria, Kristian Thygesen, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU), Danmark, and Miriam Vitiello, National Research Council, Italy. Chalmers was represented by Timur Shegai, Department of Physics, Saroj Dash, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2 – and Vincenzo Palermo, Department of  Industrial and Materials Science.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>There was also a poster session, which many participants took the opportunity to watch.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Every year, the Excellence Initiative Nano has a topical event under the title Initiative Seminar. This year, the seminar was organized by the Graphene Center, which is an umbrella for all research at Chalmers on atomically thin 2D materials. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The centre director Ermin Malic were very satisfied with the seminar:</div> <div>&quot;It provided a fantastic overview of the outstanding characteristics and the promising technological potential of 2D materials. I hope that this could give a push at Chalmers to investigate 2D materials beyond graphene&quot;, he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The seminar was organized by an ambitious quartet consisting of Ermin Malic, Cristina Andersson, Susannah Carlsson and Debora Perlheden.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo: Johan Bodell</div> <div>Photo of Yury Gogotsi and Vincenzo Palermo: Michael Nystås</div>Mon, 08 Oct 2018 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Zooming-in-on-gear-teeth.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Zooming-in-on-gear-teeth.aspxZooming in on gear teeth<p><b>​Congratulations to our new doctor Dinesh Mallipeddi who today successfully held his doctoral defence with the title: Surface Integrity of Gear Materials.</b></p><div>Gears are an integral part of modern life, necessary for both production and transport. The <span style="background-color:initial">compact and efficient transmission offered by gears made their usage predominant compared </span><span style="background-color:initial">to other drives. Recent development have increased both the efficiency and durability of gears, </span><span style="background-color:initial">especially in the automotive industry. Still, enhanced performance is required due to global </span><span style="background-color:initial">demands on sustainability and energy consumption. Actually, one billion cars are rolling on the </span><span style="background-color:initial">streets around the globe, without counting trucks and busses. This means even small increase </span><span style="background-color:initial">in efficiency could significantly reduce the energy usage.​</span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">A gearbox with gears of different sizes is part of a vehicle transmission system and plays an important part in transmitting the engine power to the wheels. The efficient energy transmission highly relies on the performance of gears. Together, the mesh efficiency and durability determines the performance of gears.</span><div><br /></div> <div>The hard finishing of gear surfaces can be done by different methods; grinding, honing and superfinishing etc., and produces unique characteristics in terms of surface roughness, microstructure and residual stresses. These characteristics of the teeth affect the gear performance. A running-in process is known to alter them along with the surface chemistry and it pre-sets the gear for service. By understanding the initial running-in it is possible to improve the performance of gears. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– My study addressed the influence of running-in on the evolution of surface characteristics generated by the mentioned methods, and how they developed further during initial usage, represented by efficiency test. The <span style="background-color:initial">surface roughness was found to be the most influential factor among all the </span><span style="background-color:initial">characteristics. </span><span style="background-color:initial">The findings that I have presented are expected to contribute to the technical and industrial aims for optimized gear preparation.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research was conducted together with AB Volvo under the supervision of <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/mats-norell.aspx" target="_blank" title="Link to profile page of Mats Norell">Senior Lecturer​ Mats Norell</a> and <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/lars-nyborg.aspx" target="_blank" title="Link to profile page of Lars Nyborg">Professor Lars Nyborg </a>at Chalmers department of Industrial and Materials Science.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/publication/505083" target="_blank" title="Link to doctoral thesis"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the full publication here.</a></div></div>Thu, 04 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/using-better-welding-methods-reduces-CO2-emissions-of-airplanes.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/using-better-welding-methods-reduces-CO2-emissions-of-airplanes.aspxBetter welding methods reduces CO2 emissions of airplanes<p><b>​Aviation accounts for around 2 % of the world&#39;s total CO2 emissions, but the proportion is expected to rise. In pursuit of reducing emissions, researchers from Chalmers cooperate with GKN Aerospace and University West to find new manufacturing solutions for engines. A new doctoral dissertation presents results from studies of titanium alloys and mechanical properties of various welding processes.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The aviation industry is looking for solutions that reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and reducing the weight of the aircraft is essential for success. An airplane engine weighs a lot, but through new manufacturing methods it can decrease.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>One way to reduce weight is to weld several small subcomponents into a larger component instead of casting it into one whole piece. In a new doctoral thesis by Sakari Tolvanen, he presents studies that have compared the mechanical properties of welds produced with different welding processes. The aim is to gain a better understanding of how and why occasional defects occur and how the defects influence the mechanical properties of the welds.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>One might imagine that welding is an old technique that has left the lab stage for a long time, but as the requirements change, manufacturing technologies need to keep up with the change. Manufacturing technologies of large aeroengine components are developed to improve material utilization, reduce cost and allow design flexibility. Welding has an important role in the development as it allows joining multiple subcomponents to produce one large structure. This approach produces less scrap material and enables design of lighter and more functional components, which in turn, results in reduced environmental impact in both production phase and the use phase of the engine.  </div> <div><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Welding-processes-comparison.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><em>Titanium alloys are readily joined with several common fusion welding processes such as tungsten inert gas welding (TIG), plasma arc welding (PAW), electron beam welding (EBW), and laser beam welding (EBW). Fusion welding processes can be characterized generally by the heat-source intensity. This figure illustrates the different characteristics of the aforementioned welding processes and how they affect the penetration. </em></div> <div><br /><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Sakari Tolvanen has studied what happens when two metal components made of titanium alloys are welded together. Titanium alloys are widely used in aviation industry mainly because of their superior combination of high strength and low weight. Sakari has among other things analyzed how the chemical composition of the alloy affects the result of welding.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The results from my studies give a better understanding of the factors that affect the microstructure and what in it leads to defects. This makes it possible to choose and optimize not only the welding process but also the base material”, says Sakari Tolvanen. “The combination of which process and material you use determines how good the result is.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Fracture%20surface%20of%20a%20fatigue%20specimen_400pxl.jpg" alt="Fracture surface of a fatigue specimen" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span></span><em>In aeroplanes, you do not want the welds to crack. By characterizing the topography of the fracture surface, information about the cause of crack initiation and fracture mechanisms can be revealed. Fatigue failure can be divided into different stages, i.e. crack initiation, crack propagation and final fracture. This figure shows a crack initiation at a pore, a relatively flat crack propagation area around the initiation and the final fracture surface. By learning the behaviour of cracks, they can be avoided.</em><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>In airplanes, titanium alloys can be found on parts for landing gear, internal components of wings, and engine components like the fan and compressor sections.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS</strong></div> <div>Read more about the transport sector's CO2 emissions in the <a href="https://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar5/wg3/ipcc_wg3_ar5_chapter8.pdf" title="Link to IPCC web page" target="_blank">IPCC climate assessment report from 2014</a>.</div> <div>The studies carried out by Sakari Tolvanen have taken place within the framework of a research project conducted by GKN Aerospace:</div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=6130" title="Link to research project" target="_blank">Defect formation during welding and their effect on mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo </a></div> <div>Read the full thesis here:</div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/publication/504433">Welding of Ti-6Al-4V: Influence of welding process and alloy composition on microstructure and properties</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Supervisors were <a href="/en/staff/Pages/uta-klement.aspx">Professor Uta Klement</a> from Chalmers University of Technology and Professor Robert Pederson from University West.</div> <div><br /></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text: Nina Silow</em></div> <div><em>Images within the article: Sakari Tolvanen</em></div> ​Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/crash-behaviour-of-composites.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/crash-behaviour-of-composites.aspxCrash behaviour of composites<p><b>​The increase of composite materials in future vehicles will lead to lighter and more efficient ways of transportation. However, these new structures will also have an impact on vehicle behaviour in crashes. This was the topic discussed by participants from both academia and industry during a two-day workshop at Chalmers University of Technology.</b></p>​<br />Kaj Fredin from Volvo Cars explained that the potential to reduce the weight of a car using current metallic materials is very limited. All premium original equipment manufacturers are therefore working with carbon fibre reinforced polymers in different ways. Even though there are still industrial challenges connected to cost and competence in this new and less developed area. The challenge will be to find the optimal mix of material usage to have a cost-efficient product. David Moncayo from Daimler AG, who talked about German design experiences for composites in cars, said that the beauty lies in using the correct material in the correct place.<br /><br /><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">New crash prediction models and Mantis shrimps</h2> <div>Since crash simulations and testing currently are focused on a metallic car structure there is an urgent need for new predictive numerical models for future lightweight vehicles. A major challenge that was addressed repeatedly during the workshop is the need to develop models which are both accurate and computationally efficient in predicting the failure process of structural composite components in crash. Martin Fagerström and Robin Olsson, organizers of the workshop, are currently involved in several projects with the hopes of having a full-scale crash analysis method in place by 2020.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Mantis%20shrimp%2016_9_750pxl.jpg" width="688" height="387" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><em><span>Silvestre Pinho from the Imperial College</span></em><br /><br /></div> By having composites as part of the impact structure it also follows that there will be a greater need for composite microstructures that can absorb high energy impact. Silvestre Pinho from the Imperial College talked about finding inspiration in nature’s own designs. The studies ranged from bamboo and bone structures to different shells and interlocking nacre. But the most spectacular may perhaps be the Mantis Shrimps super hard hitting dactyle clubs with a Bouligand -type microstructure. The question still to be answered, can the structure of the high impact absorbing club be transferred into human engineered vehicles?<br /><br /><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Reoccurring series of events?</h2> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/crash%20composites%20mingle_327pxl.jpg" alt="Mingle image" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" width="244" height="283" style="margin:5px" />The organizers Martin Fagerström and Robin Olsson were very pleased with the outcome of the workshop and would like to thank all the participants and sponsors for making this a very interesting event, and especially the invited speakers, Brian Falzon; Johan Jergeus; Reza Vaziri; Yi Wan; David Moncayo; Kaj Fredin; Silvestre Pinho and Hannes Körber.</div> <br /><div>Martin hopes that this was the beginning of a reoccurring series of events. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>- I am already looking forward to the next one!</div> <div><br /></div> <div><h4 class="chalmersElement-H4"><br /></h4> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More information</h3></div> <div><span class="text-normal ingress"><span></span></span>The purpose of the workshop, jointly organised by Chalmers University of Technology and Swerea SICOMP, was to gather international experts in academia and industry to discuss current state-of-the-art in the area of modelling and characterisation of composites in crash. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">The event was sponsored by:</h4> <div><table class="chalmersTable-default " width="100%" cellspacing="0" style="font-size:1em"><tbody><tr class="chalmersTableHeaderRow-default"><th class="chalmersTableHeaderFirstCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1">​<span><span><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/BETA_logo_web_300%20pxl%20width.jpg" alt="beta logo" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /></span></span></span><span></span></th> <th class="chalmersTableHeaderLastCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1">​<span></span></th></tr></tbody></table> <span><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/DYNAMore%20Nordic_logo_4c_width300pxl.png" alt="dynamore logo" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span><br /><br /> <br /></div> <br /><div><br /></div> <span><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/Documents/Styrke_material_RGB_EN.png" alt="Styrke_material_RGB_EN.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /></span><br /><div><br /></div> <br /><div><h4 class="chalmersElement-H4"><br /></h4> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Worksshop talks</h4> <div><table class="chalmersTable-default" cellspacing="0" style="font-size:1em;width:100%"><tbody><tr class="chalmersTableHeaderRow-default"><th class="chalmersTableHeaderEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Title​</th> <th class="chalmersTableHeaderOddCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1">​Speaker</th></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">Crash modelling at QUB and the ICONIC resea​rch network<br /></td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Brian Falzon (Queens Univ. Belfast)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Crash modelling and experiments at Swerea SICOMP</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Robin Olsson (SICOMP)​</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​North American work on crash behaviour of composites</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Reza Vaziri (Univ British Columbia)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Crash modelling at Chalmers and in Swedish crash projects</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Martin Fagerström (Chalmers Univ Techn.)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Japanese studies of composites in crash</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Jun Takahashi and Yi Wan (Univ. Tokyo)​</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Novel composite microstructures for increased energy absorption</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Silvestre Pinho (Imperial College)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Strain rate behaviour of composite materials</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Hannes Körber (TU Munich)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​German design experience for composites in cars</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​David Moncayo (Daimler AG)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Composite materials for cars – demands and cost issues</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Kaj Fredin (Volvo Cars)​</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Current methods for crash simulation and testing</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default" rowspan="1">​Johan Jergeus (Volvo Cars)</td></tr></tbody></table>  <br /></div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Workshop topical discussion sessions</h4> <div>Realism of models and industrial demands</div> <div>Efficient structural models for composites in crash</div> <div>Strain rate behaviour of composites</div> <div>Cost and manufacturing considerations and their implication on crash</div> <div><br /></div> <div><h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Organizing committee</h4> <strong>​<br />Martin Fagerström</strong>​<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Övriga/AvancezChalmersU_black_right.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /> ​<strong></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong>Robin Olsson</strong> ​<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/SICOMP%20LOGO.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /></div> <br /></div>Fri, 21 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Nobel-Prize-winner-on-stage-at-upcoming-seminar.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Nobel-Prize-winner-on-stage-at-upcoming-seminar.aspxNobel Prize Laureate on stage at upcoming seminar<p><b>​The Nobel Laureate Konstantin Novoselov is the major highlight at the initiative seminar &quot;2D materials beyond graphene&quot; on 1-2 October in Palmstedtsalen at Chalmers. &quot;I think that it was crucial for him to see that we have managed to gather leading scientists in this growing field of research for our seminar&quot;, says Ermin Malic, associate professor at the Department of Physics and director of the organizing Graphene Centre at Chalmers (GCC).</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Konstantin Novoselov, professor at the University of Manchester, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 for his achievements with the novel material graphene. He will open the seminar's second day with a lecture entitled &quot;Materials in the Flatland&quot;. </span><br /></div> <div>Ermin Malic is very pleased to welcome the prominent guest among the many other well-renowned speakers: </div> <div>&quot;Konstantin Novoselov is very busy and gets many of such invitations. Therefore, we are, of course, very happy that he picked our event. I think that it was crucial for him to see that we have managed to gather leading scientists in this growing field of research for our seminar. Certainly, the talk of Konstantin Novoselov is a highlight, but I am really excited about every single talk&quot;, he says.</div> <div> </div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/emalic_350x305.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Every year, the Excellence Initiative Nano has a topical event under the title Initiative Seminar. This year, the seminar is organized by the Graphene Center, which is an umbrella for all research at Chalmers on atomically thin 2D materials. </div> <div>&quot;Graphene is the most prominent representative of this class of materials. However, other 2D materials gain more and more importance in the current research. Therefore, we have put the focus of the seminar to 2D materials beyond graphene, in particular including monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides and related van der Waals heterostructures. We have invited leading experts in this emerging and technologically promising field of research&quot;, says Ermin Malic (to the left).</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">What's not to miss at the seminar? </h5> <div>&quot;The program is relatively dense covering a large spectrum of 2D material research. We will have 18 excellent talks in 8 different sessions including exciton phenomena, novel heterostructures materials, energy applications, opto-electronic applications as well as composite and bio applications.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>There will also be a poster session reflecting the 2D material research at Chalmers. </div> <div>&quot;The idea here is to offer Chalmers researchers the opportunity to present their research on 2D materials, now also including graphene. We would like to show the full spectrum and the excellence of 2D materials-based research at Chalmers.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>The participants can also look forward to hearing about exciting new research: </div> <div>&quot;Definitely. The field is very dynamic and there are still many open questions that are relevant for fundamental research and possible technological applications. The invited speakers perform cutting-edge research in this field, so we can expect many new insights and hopefully exciting discussions&quot;, says Ermin Malic.</div> <div> </div> <div>The two busy days aim at a broad audience; researchers, postdocs, PhD and master students and even industry representatives who are interested in novel developments in nanotechnology. Already, over 100 people are registered for the seminar, which takes place in the elegant auditorium Palmstedtsalen in Chalmers student union building. </div> <div>&quot;The large majority of the registered participants are researchers and students from Chalmers. However, some of the international speakers bring their own students to the seminar. We have also participants from other Swedish universities as well as company representatives.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>The invited speakers come from Sweden, Italy, Germany, Spain, Austria, Switzerland, Denmark, Russia, USA and UK. Among them are Frank Koppens (ICFO, Spain), Paulina Plochocka and Bernhard Urbaszek (CNRS, France), Thomas Müller (University of Vienna, Austria), Kristian Thygesen (DTU, Denmark) and Miriam Vitiello (National Research Council, Italy). Chalmers is represented by Timur Shegai (Physics), Saroj Dash (MC2), and Vincenzo Palermo (IMS).</div> <div> <span style="background-color:initial">&quot;Lunch and coffee breaks will offer a lot of time for deeper discussions&quot;, concludes Ermin Malic.</span></div> <div> </div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo of Konstantin Novoselov: By Sergey Vladimirov (vlsergey) (Konstantin NovoselovUploaded by vlsergey) [CC BY 2.0  (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0)], via Wikimedia Commons</div> <div>Photo of Ermin Malic: Private</div> <div><br /> </div> <div>The seminar is free of charge, but don’t forget to register no later than 19 September. <br /><a href="/en/centres/graphene/events/2D%20beyond%20graphene/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank" title="Link to seminar page">Read more and see full schedule of the seminar​</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> Thu, 13 Sep 2018 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Chalmers-grant-to-support-postdoctoral-studies-in-the-US0908-6029.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Chalmers-grant-to-support-postdoctoral-studies-in-the-US0908-6029.aspxA Chalmers grant to support her postdoctoral studies in the US<p><b>​Postdoctoral researcher Nooshin Mortazavi at the Department of Physics, Chalmers, has recently been granted SEK 135 000 from the Barbro Osher Pro Suecia Foundation. The grant will cover research costs during her first year at Harvard University in Boston, USA.</b></p>Through this foundation, Chalmers can support researchers who spend some time at a University in the United States. The foundation is aimed at researchers who, in collaboration with leading research environments and colleagues at prominent universities in the USA, wish to develop their research by finding new inspiration or guiding it along with new paths.<br /><br /><div>Earlier this year Nooshin Mortazavi was awarded an international postdoctoral grant from the Swedish Research Council (VR) to carry out research on &quot;High-Temperature Thermoelectrics Based on Natural Superlattice Oxides&quot; in John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Science at Harvard. The project has an ambitious goal: conversion of large amounts of waste heat to electricity using an intriguing but poorly characterized class of still-developing high-temperature ceramics, known as natural superlattices (NSLs).</div> <br /><div>Nooshin Mortazavi will spend up to three years abroad before returning to Chalmers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se<br /></a></div> <div><a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se"><br /></a></div>  <span><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Nooshin-Mortazavi-Seyedeh.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about Nooshin Mortazavi’s research.</a><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Nooshin-Mortazavi-Seyedeh.aspx"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a></span><br /><a href="http://www.chalmers.se/sv/stiftelse/stipendier/Sidor/osher.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the Barbro Osher Pro Suecia Foundation.</a><br /><a href="http://www.vr.se/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more about the Swedish Research Council.</a><br />Sat, 08 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/The-world's-first-research-conference-on-battery-recycling.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/The-world's-first-research-conference-on-battery-recycling.aspxThe world&#39;s first battery recycling research conference<p><b>​Our vehicles are moving towards an increasingly electrified future, but without functioning battery recycling technology, development will stop and electric cars&#39; batteries are still very difficult to recycle industrially. Now researchers and industry gather at Chalmers to attend the world&#39;s first research conference with the main focus on battery recycling.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Research on recycling of lithium batteries from, among other things, electric cars and portable electronics has grown as we approach a fossil-free and electrified society. Metals and minerals that are necessary for the batteries will sooner or later end. Cobalt, for example, which is one of the most common substances in the batteries, is now expected to reach its production peak around 2025. Cobalt is also considered by many to be a so-called conflict mineral where human rights are often violated in connection with mining in the form of child labour and slavery.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>&quot;This is a very critical issue where it is crucial that we find a solution soon. Sustainable cobalt supply and recovery is crucial to the electric car's existence, &quot;says Assistant Professor <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/marpetr.aspx">Martina Petranikova</a>, organiser of the conference.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>However, there are more areas in the battery life cycle that hold them back in terms of durability. Among other things, electric cars, when consumed, still have so much energy that recycling can be dangerous. In addition, electric vehicle batteries may vary so much between manufacturers that it is difficult for the recycler to know what the battery contains. At the same time, it is a competitive advantage for the companies to develop new assemblies on the batteries and thus the producers have to talk to the recyclers in order to find a right design</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;The industry is very interested in finding the right recycling technology. Among other things, they are obliged to take care of the waste from their products, such as used batteries. With different combinations of batteries, they are very difficult to recycle industrially. Today we can recover most of a battery, but it takes time and is costly. With the conference, we want to meet and solve these problems, &quot;said Martina Petranikova.</div> <div>In order to find a sustainable solution, the entire battery life cycle must be coordinated from production and development to collection and recycling, as well as legislation. Therefore, Chalmers researchers in industrial recycling gather researchers, experts, manufacturers, users and recyclers under the same roof to share their knowledge, their expectations, technical and financial realities, and also their dreams to take the initiative for a circular economy of batteries .</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Circular Economy of Batteries Production and Recycling, CEB, will be held at Lindholmen Conference Center 24-26 September 2018.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="http://www.ceb2018.org/">Read more at the conference page.</a></div> </div>Tue, 28 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/on-the-quest-for-high-entropy-alloys.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/on-the-quest-for-high-entropy-alloys.aspxOn the quest for high-entropy alloys that survive 1500 °C<p><b>​An aero-engine should operate at the highest possible temperature for the best output power and energy efficiency. But today’s metal alloys in the engines need cooling – otherwise they turn into powders. This causes alarming energy losses. Saad Sheikh is on the quest to design optimum alloys that survive ultra-high temperatures.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">High-entropy alloys (HEAs), or multi-principal-element alloys, is a new and growing field, and has gained enormous interest in recent years as potential ultra-high temperature materials. The materials and manufacture researcher Saad Sheikh focuses on developing HEAs with optimum tensile ductility and strength, superior than the current state-of-the-art nickel based superalloys. </span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>This work is driven by the need to improve the energy efficiency of aerospace and power-generation gas-turbine engines. For example, if cooling of aero-engines can be avoided, the aero-engine output power and energy efficiency would increase up to 50%. Other applications like solar power, fuel cells, materials processing and petro-chemistry can also benefit from the results. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>The aim is to be able to operate engines at higher temperatures </strong>than today. Today’s engines expose the nickel based superalloys inside to temperatures approaching 1200 °C, which is close to 90% of their melting points. In the hottest region of a turbine engine, temperatures are approaching 1500 °C. By using complex cooling systems and coatings the nickel based superalloys can exist in the hottest region but the efficiency gained from operating at higher temperatures is greatly reduced, as the cooling needs extra work.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Saad-Sheikh_250pxl.jpg" alt="Saad Sheikh" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial;font-family:calibri, sans-serif;font-size:11pt">– </span><span style="background-color:initial">The current situation of higher inefficiency losses is alarming, but also provides opportunity to look for new ground-breaking materials. It is a big but intriguing scientific challenge, says Saad Sheikh.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Saad Sheikh</strong> comes from a materials science background and did his Masters in Materials Processing at KTH in Stockholm. Before joining Chalmers University of Technology as a PhD student, he also worked on mechanical properties of cutting tools within the Swedish industry. He is very interested in alloy development and mechanical properties of new structural and high-temperature materials for sustainable energy systems. He explains the difference between HEAs and conventional alloys. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-family:calibri, sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial">– </span>Conventional alloys are usually based on one or two principal elements. HEAs consist of at least four principal metallic elements with an atomic percentage of each element between 5 % and 35 %. These multi-component element alloys can enable formation of simple solid solution phases. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>In his research</strong>, Saad Sheikh has strived to improve HEAs in several ways. Firstly he has contributed with improved understanding of the solid solubility in HEAs. Secondly he has proposed a mechanism and route for increasing the ductility in refractory, or heat resistant, HEAs – so-called RHEAs.</div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Saad-Sheikh-True-tensile-stress-strain-curve_250pxl.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="True tensile stress-strain curve for Hf0.5Nb0.5Ta0.5Ti1.5Zr. The inset shows the microstructure at the fractured surface." style="margin:5px" /><span style="font-weight:700"></span> <div><br /></div> <div>Thirdly, which has been the ultimate goal of his work, Saad Sheikh has addressed the balance of mechanical properties and oxidation resistance for RHEAs, aiming at high-temperature applications. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-family:calibri, sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial">– </span>In studies I have found out that the insufficient oxidation resistance in existing ductile RHEAs is attributed to the failure in forming protective oxide scales accompanied by the accelerated internal oxidation leading to pesting corrosion. Aluminizing is a promising solution.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Image: </em><span style="background-color:initial"><i>True tensile stress-strain curve for the as-cast Hf0.5Nb0.5Ta0.5Ti1.5Zr. The inset shows the microstructure at the fractured surface.​</i></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><i><br /></i></span></div> <div>These studies provide important input to the further development of RHEAs as novel high-temperature materials and shed light on the design of refractory HEAs with optimal mechanical as well as heat and oxidation resistance properties.</div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">FACTS</h2> <div>Saad Sheikh belongs to the division of <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/Pages/default.aspx">Materials and Manufacture</a> at the department of <a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx">Industrial and Materials Science</a>. He recently presented his doctoral thesis with the title: </div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/publication/503532" target="_blank">Alloy Design for High-Entropy Alloys: Predicting Solid Solubility, and Balancing Mechanical Properties and Oxidation Resistance</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>If you want to learn more about refractory high-entropy alloys, we recommend to read:</div> <div><a href="https://aip.scitation.org/doi/abs/10.1063/1.4966659" target="_blank">Alloy design for intrinsically ductile refractory high-entropy alloys, published 2016 in the prestigious Journal of Applied Physics.</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Saad Sheikh has been granted a postdoc fellowship by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS). He will be placed in Japan at the <a href="http://www.nims.go.jp/eng/" target="_blank">National Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba</a>, with focus on ultra-high temperature materials (alloy design and mechanical properties) for two years. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Please contact <a href="/en/staff/Pages/sheng-guo.aspx" title="Link to profile page of Sheng Guo" target="_blank">Associate Professor Sheng Guo​</a>, Saad Sheikh's supervisor for more information</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>RELATED NEWS</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Ground-breaking-discoveries-could-create-tougher-alloys-with-many-applications.aspx" target="_blank">Superior alloys could be possible, thanks to ground-breaking research</a></div> <div><br /></div></div> ​<div><em>Text: Nina Silow</em><br /><em>Images: Airbus, Nina Silow and Saad Sheikh</em></div> ​Wed, 27 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/thesis-of-the-year.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/thesis-of-the-year.aspxBest theis award to Furqan Ali Shah<p><b>​The Institute for Clinical Sciences at Sahlgrenska Academy have awarded Furqan Ali Shah with the prestigious “Best thesis of the year” award for his thesis entitled “Osteocytes as indicators of bone quality – Multiscale structure-composition characterization of the bone-implant interface”.</b></p>​Furqan defended his PhD in at the Department of Biomaterials, University of Gothenburg with his thesis entitled “Osteocytes as indicators of bone quality – Multiscale structure-composition characterisation of the bone-implant interface” which recently received the prestigious “Årets avhandling vid institutionen för kliniska vetenskaper 2017” award at Sahlrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.<br /><br /><span><span><span><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Materials%20Science/News/Furqan_A_S.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Furqan Ali Shah and his award winning thesis" width="358" height="323" style="margin:5px" /></span></span></span></span>Osteocytes comprise up to 95% of all bone cells, reside within confined spaces called lacunae, and are interconnected through an extensive canalicular network. Furqan’s thesis looks at osseointegration in terms <span><span><span></span></span></span>of bone quality, with emphasis on the osteocyte lacuno-canalicular network in relation to compositional and ultrastructural patterns at intermediate/late healing. A series of investigations were undertaken to study osteocyte lacunae on the forming bone surface, hypermineralised lacunae of apoptotic osteocytes, autogenous bone fragments within healing sites, bone formed adjacent to surface <span></span>modified implants, and bone formed within macroporous implants using a range of analytical microscopy and complementary spectroscopic techniques. A directional relationship was found between osteocyte lacunar shape and the underlying bone surface. The physico-chemical environment of the lacunar space is, however, different from the surrounding bone matrix, resulting in formation of magnesium whitlockite, rather than apatite. Connectivity between osteocytes within unintentionally generated autogenous bone fragments and de novo formed bone on their surface indicates a regenerative capacity of osteocytes. Laser-ablation creates a hierarchical micro- and nanotopography on titanium implants and enhances their biomechanical anchorage. Osteocytes attach directly to such surfaces, while mineralised collagen fibril organisation at bone-implant and bone-osteocyte interfaces is remarkably similar. More osteocytes are retained in the vicinity of Ti6Al4V surface as manufactured by electron beam melting than machined Ti6Al4V. Osteocytes also attach to CoCr, thus indicating a favourable osteogenic response of a material widely considered inferior to Ti6Al4V.<br /><br /><div>Furqan currently holds a two-year postdoctoral scholarship from Svenska Sällskapet för Medicinsk Forskning (SSMF). His PhD was supervised by professor Anders Palmquist, (University of Gothenburg) and professor Aleksandar Matic (Chalmers University of Technology).</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read the full thesis <a href="http://hdl.handle.net/2077/52415">here<br /></a></div> <div>More about Furquan's work <a href="https://clinsci.gu.se/Forskning+och+personal/forskning/aktuella-disputationer/tidigare-disputationer-2017#Furqan_Ali_Shah">here</a><br /><a href="http://hdl.handle.net/2077/52415"></a></div> <div><br /></div>Wed, 13 Jun 2018 16:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Prestigious-international-innovation-competition-Imagine-Chemistry-at-Chalmers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Prestigious-international-innovation-competition-Imagine-Chemistry-at-Chalmers.aspxTen winners in Imagine chemistry at Chalmers<p><b>​Ten out of twenty startups competing in the competition Imagine Chemistry will get to take the next step and develop further together with AkzoNobel. Most promising start up was Swedish company Finecell which makes bio based nanomaterials.</b></p>​<span>A number of startups from all over the world contributed to the Imagine chemistry competition to get to the final at Vera´s lawn at Chalmers. 20 succeeded, 10 became winners and Finecell became Most Promising Startup. </span><div>“We want to create something similar to a hackaton. These startups get the chance to hammer out a business plan together with our own experts. The idea is that they, in the end of the event, have a case good enough for us to partner up with them”, says Peter Nieuwenhuizen, Corporate Director of RD&amp;I &amp; Sustainability, AkzoNobel Speciality Chemicals.</div> <div> For four days the startups escaped the hot and humid weather in Gothenburg and worked intensely refining their ideas with help from corporates from AkzoNobel and other experts trying to finalize the ideas and make them viable for large-scale business. </div> <div>&quot;I love the fact that we are here at Vera’s lawn. It is combination of science on the one hand and the industrial applications which Sweden is known for. It is fantastic to be here” says Peter Nieuwenhuizen.</div> <div>The choice to have the prestigious competition at Chalmers was only natural, says Lars.</div> <div>In Sweden the collaboration between academy and industry is very strong. It is qualifying for companies to collaborate with academy and therefore it is only natural for us to have this innovation contest here at Chalmers” says Lars Andersson, General Manager Performance Chemicals, AkzoNobel Speciality Chemicals.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>These are the winners of the Imagine Chemistry conteset:</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Edinburgh Napier University – Två veckors fri Chemical Support</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Invert Robotics – Support från KPMG</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Semiotic Labs – Support från ICOS Capital</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Fraunhofer UMSICHT – Support från Lux Research</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>FineCell – Most Promising Startup från Chalmers Ventures med plats i Startup Camp och rådgivning från investment team</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>University of Nottingham – Akzo Nobel Research Award</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Sulogen Inc. – Joint Development Agreement med Akzo Nobel</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Water Knight – Joint Development Agreement med Akzo Nobel</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Green Lizard Technologies &amp; Dixie Chemicals – Joint Development Agreement med Akzo Nobel</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Fero Labs – Joint Development Agreement med Akzo Nobel</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://www.imaginechemistry.com/news-overview/akzonobel-specialty-chemicals-announces-2018-imagine-chemistry-winners/">Read more about the winners and the competition here.​​</a></div> <div><br /></div>Mon, 04 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Materials-scientists-wins-two-prestigious-fellowships-------.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Materials-scientists-wins-two-prestigious-fellowships-------.aspxMaterials scientist awarded two prestigious fellowships<p><b>​Postdoctoral researcher Nooshin Mortazavi has recently been awarded two prestigious fellowships by the Wenner-Gren Foundations and Wallenberg Foundations. She can now choose between two or three years of postdoctoral training at either Harvard University or at Stanford University in the US – followed by two years at Chalmers University of Technology after her return.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">I am now trying to understand which position is a good fit for me and my career goals and is located in a place where I enjoy spending time. This is indeed a very tough decision to make,&quot; says Nooshin Mortazavi who currently works at the Division of Materials Microstructure at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>One choice is a grant from the Wenner-Gren Foundation to carry out research on &quot;High Temperature Thermoelectrics Based on Natural Superlattice Oxides&quot; in John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Science at Harvard University, Boston, USA. The project that Nooshin Mortazavi has proposed to carry out at Harvard comes with an ambitious goal: conversion of large amounts of waste heat to electricity using an intriguing but poorly characterized class of still-developing high-temperature ceramics, known as natural superlattices (NSLs).</div> <div>In this program, she will spend up to three years abroad, followed by two years of research at Chalmers. This fellowship is the Wenner-Gren Foundation’s most exclusive program where only five candidates are chosen in Sweden from different fields of research.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Nooshin Mortazavi has also been selected as one of the Wallenberg’s fellows of a postdoctoral scholarship program at Stanford University, California, USA. This grant supports her to make an impact on the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) research in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Stanford University. In this program she will spend two years at Stanford, followed by two years of research at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;I plan to expand my research horizon from metallic materials to ceramics with various applications in emerging renewable energy technologies such as thermoelectric materials and SOFCs. It is a privilege to be in a situation where I can choose, even though it is hard to decide. Apparently, it is not possible to perform two projects in the east and west coast of the US simultaneously…&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In August 2018 Nooshin Mortazavi was also granted a scholarship of 135 000 SEK from the Barbro Osher Foundation. The grant will help cover research costs.<br /></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">For more information: <br /></h4> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Nooshin-Mortazavi-Seyedeh.aspx">Nooshin Mortazavi</a>, Postdoctoral researcher, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, <a href="mailto:nooshin.mortazavi@chalmers.se">nooshin.mortazavi@chalmers.se </a>, +46 73 387 32 26, +46 31 772 67 83 </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Nooshin Mortazavi defended her doctoral thesis at the Department of Physics at Chalmers on 21 December 2017. <a href="/en/departments/physics/calendar/Pages/Thesis-defence-Nooshin-Mortazavi-171221.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read the abstract here.   </a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Read more about the foundations and the fellowships:</h5> <div><a href="https://www.swgc.org/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />The Wenner-Gren Foundations.</a><br /></div> <div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/calls/wallenberg-foundation-postdoctoral-scholarship-program-stanford-university"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />The Stanford-Wallenberg Fellowship. </a><br /></div></div> <div>​<br /></div>Wed, 23 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Costumizing-sustainable-composties---the-cellulose-challenge-.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Costumizing-sustainable-composties---the-cellulose-challenge-.aspxCostumizing sustainable composities - the cellulose challenge<p><b>Finding more sustainable materials is one important goal for researchers at the Division of Engineering Materials. One way is to decrease the use of fossil-based materials in composites and polymers. That is where cellulose fits in, as a renewable and inexpensive material used as the composite matrix. &gt;</b></p>​Lilian Forsgren and Abhijit Venkatesh, both PhD students in the research group <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/em/polymera/Pages/default.aspx">Polymeric materials and composites</a>, are studying how to better use cellulos<span><span><span></span></span></span>e fibers in composites. <br />-    We both study <a href="http://pslc.ws/macrog/kidsmac/cell.htm">cellulose </a><span>composites<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span> but it differs in which part of the cellulose structure we examine. <span>Cellulose can be found abundantly is a very important component of plants and trees, basically providing structural integrity. <span style="display:inline-block"> It</span></span> has a hierarchical structure where each part<span><span></span></span> <span></span>has a bit different mechanical property. First, there are thin fibers, so called microfibrils. These microfibrils are in turn made up of even smaller fibers called nanofibrils. It is these cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) that we are interested in. The cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) that Lilian works with is just the crystalline part of CNF and they are obtained by using acids, says Abhijit Venkatesh and continues:<br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Ahbijit-Venkatesh_180518_01_170x220.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="PhD student Abhijit Venkatesh" style="margin:5px 10px" /><br />-    I deal with understanding the processing of cellulose nanofibrils reinforced thermoplastic composites, and how the processing parameters affect the final properties, continues Abhijit Venkatesh. The benefit of using cellulose as reinforcement is that it could help to replace or complement the currently used reinforcements like glass- and carbon fibers. It could also strengthen polymers, which are inherently rather weak, to be used as structural materials.<br /><br />-    My focus is on cellulose nanocrystals. We are trying to customize cellulose to better fit and work with the polymer matrix, but also to understand the challenging mechanisms of cellulose, regarding thermal degradation, moist adsorption and discoloration, says Lilian Forsgren. <br /><br /><strong>Sustainability is a strong driving force</strong>, which go for them both. They give an example of possible new biodegradable product: Consider a milk carton cap made out of plastic. If this plastic were replaced with CNF instead, we could reduce the amount of plastic used to produce the cap. Or even totally degradable if starch or corn could be in the matrix. <br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Lilian-Forsgren_180518_01_170x220.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="PhD student Lilian Forsgren" style="margin:5px 10px" /><br />-    I like to be part of the development towards a more sustainable future, no matter how big impact my project will have, every small contribution will make a difference all together, says Lilian and continues:<br />-    I did my bachelor at the Industrial Design Engineering programme at Chalmers but found materials to be very interesting and hence did my master in Materials Engineering. I enjoy challenges and are eager to gain more knowledge. I really enjoy working with cellulose since it is a fantastic material and it’s a more sustainable alternative compared to many materials used today.<br /><br />-    My background differs since I come from Bangalore, India, where I took my Bachelor in the field of Mechanical Engineering. After coming to Sweden 2013, completing my master thesis in Materials Engineering, I found the environment to be calm and productive which pursued me to stay and do my PhD here at Chalmers, says Abhijit. And I like to be part of the move towards a more sustainable society. I think the usage of CNF, which is biodegradable, renewable, abundantly available (in all plant sources) and light weight, in itself is the sustainable perspective. Since the source of cellulose is from Sweden this makes it much more sustainable as Sweden has one of the most sustainable forest industries on the world.<br /><br /><strong>Another interesting fact</strong> – they are both top athletes within in their sports. Lilian Forsgren is running in the <a href="http://www.svenskorientering.se/Grenar/Orientering/Landslaget/EM-truppen2018/">Swedish national team in Orienteering </a>and  Abhijit Venkatesh play for <a href="http://www.swedishcricket.org/Landslag/HerrarSenior/">Swedish National Cricket team.</a> Can the competitive spirit be of help in the daily work as a researcher?<br />-    Being determent and setting up a personal goal is a similarity, that might be same the mindset as when I compete in my sport. I set up goals and can be very effective, Lilian says.<br />-    I like to think of research as a team game. I am very good to talking and teambuilding, which is something I learned as a coach in my sport. And to have will power, to have a fixed goal, pushing yourself – that helps, says Abhijit.<br /><br />They agree upon the “never give up&quot;-thing, especially after many failed experiments, you still need to go on.<br />-    Well, there is a competitive downside also, says Lilian. When I had a series of bad turnouts on my experiments, I was really frustrated. But since there is no physical competitor in this case, you must let it go and get back on track.<br /><br /><strong>They are both halfway through </strong>their research and will present their licentiate thesis in September. What are the results so far?<br />-    We have been able to graft side chains onto the molecule of cellulose Nano crystals, performing an increased thermal stability and interesting mechanical properties of the composites produced with these grafted Cellulose Nanocrystals adding them into a polymer matrix, says Lilian. This means we have found a possible way to overcome some of the main challenges such as avoiding degradation at low temperatures and increased strength and thermal stability. <br />-    There are some good results soon to be published, where we managed to make crystal clear, transparent composites that can be used as reinforcement. That is cool, Lilian finishes.<br /><br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Dihexyl_polymer_foto_Marcus-Folino_300x300.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Transparent composite with cellulose nanocrystals" style="margin:5px" /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Polymerer_cracks_3_foto_Marcus-Folino_300x300.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Mixed and dried material, flaky shards." style="margin:5px" /><br /><em><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Pictures, to the </em><em>left: This is a composite with 10% surface grafted CNC (cellulose nanocrystals) and EAA polymer. As you can see, the composite is transparent (the Chalmers logo is on a printed paper below). 3 out of 4 variants of composites with CNC in the study are transparent. (Photo: Marcus Folino)</em><br /><em>Pictures to the right: Mixed and dried composite material. The plastic and cellulose are mixed in aqueous solution, and when air dried these shards of material are formed. Afterwards, they are moulded into composites, as the one in the first picture. </em><span><em> (Photo: Marcus Folino)<span style="display:inline-block"></span></em></span><br /><br />-    The big challenge is that cellulose likes water and polymers usually don’t. When you put them together they tend to separate and makes the composite more fragile. The main results of my research so far lie in the fact that wet processing techniques is successful in producing excellent composites. It also helps us to achieve high CNF loading contents while not sacrificing mechanical properties. The problem is to upscale the process for industry because it is still too expensive but we will hopefully solve that, says Abhijit.<br /><br /><span>Learn more about the research: <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10570-017-1582-5">Surface treatment of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC): effects on dispersion rheology.</a> <br />You can also follow Lilian and Abhijit when they are hosting the <a href="https://www.instagram.com/chalmers_production/">Chalmers Production</a> instagram account 28-30 May, reporting from <a href="https://universe.ida.dk/nordic-polymer-days/">Nordic Polymer Days 2018, Copenhagen. </a></span>A closely related research within polymer science is presented May 24th at the docent lecture where <a href="/sv/personal/redigera/Sidor/roland-kadar.aspx">Roland Kádár </a>talks about <a href="/sv/institutioner/ims/kalendarium/Sidor/Docentföreläsning-Roland-Kádár---IMS.aspx">“Polymer Rheology and Processing”</a>. <br /><br /><br /><strong>Quick facts Lilian Forsgren</strong><br /><strong>Living in: </strong>Gothenburg<br /><strong>Family:</strong> Boyfriend and family with two brothers and two lovely nieces.<br /><strong>Interests: </strong>Love running and nature, especially high mountains.<br /><span><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Lilian-Forsgren.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about Lilian Forsgren</a></span><div><span><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Lilian-Forsgren.aspx"></a><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/publication/?id=504798" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Licentiate thesis: Physical properties of dispersions and composites containing surface-grafted cellulose nanocrystals​​</a><br /><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Lilian-Forsgren.aspx"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a></span><br /><strong>Quick facts Ahbijit Venkatesh</strong><br /><strong>Living in:</strong> <span><strong><span></span></strong>Gothenburg<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /><strong>Family: </strong>Parents, two siblings (who are twins – boy and a girl) and my lovely wife.<br /><strong>Interests:</strong> Love being out in the nature and coaching cricket.<br /><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/abhven.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about Abhijit Venkatesh</a><div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/publication/505088" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><div style="display:inline !important"><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/publication/505088" target="_blank">Licentiate thesis: <span style="background-color:initial">Water-assisted mixing and compression moulding of ethylene-acrylic acid copolymer reinforced with nano-cellulose</span></a></div> <div><br /><a href="/en/departments/ims/research/em/Pages/default.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Division Engineering Materials </a><br /><br /><em>Text and photo: Carina Schultz<br /><br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Lilian-Forsgren-Ahbijit-Venkatesh_180518_16_750x340.png" alt="The PhD students in front of a machine" style="margin:5px" /><br />Abhijit Ventaesh and Lilian Forsgren in front of the compression moulding machine, in the Materials Processing Lab at Chalmers, where the samples of composites are moulded.<br /><br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Lilian-Forsgren-Ahbijit-Venkatesh_180518_13_750x501.png" alt="Samples of composites" style="margin:5px" /><br />Samples of moulded cellulose composites.<br /><br /><br /></em><br /></div></div></div>Tue, 22 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Big-Data-improves-analysis-of-materials.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Big-Data-improves-analysis-of-materials.aspxBig Data improves materials analysis<p><b>​By examining the structure of a metal or ceramic material at the atomic level, it is easier to understand and influence the properties of different materials. But what should you look for and where? In a new project, Professor Uta Klement combines analyses of Big Data with her expertise area of material characterization. Instead of looking for a needle in a haystack, the data is analysed to find the deviations which needs to be investigated in detail.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/staff/Pages/uta-klement.aspx" target="_blank">Professor Uta Klement</a> leads a research group called <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/ytmikro/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Surface and Microstructure Engineering</a>. She examines the properties of metals and different ceramic materials. These include nano materials, different types of coating, advanced steel or superalloys. By understanding the structure and construction of the materials, it is possible to achieve more sustainable production processes and products. Manufacturers can use less material and also use the material more efficiently and longer.</span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>One example is</strong> new thermal barrier coatings that allow for higher combustion temperatures in gas turbines such as in airplane engines, which would improve efficiency and result in lower emissions.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Profilbilder/Uta%20Klement_170x220.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Uta Klement" style="margin:5px" />In a new project, which deals with improving the grindability of recycled steel, Uta Klement collaborates with a group of researchers and combines analyses of big data with material characterization. This is the first time they try this method. She tells us what benefits it brings.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– Our material analyses are often based on an assumption, not on a theory. However, in industry a lot of data is collected in material processing. By analysing these data we can get hints on what to look for in the microstructure. Our material science knowledge helps to interpret the data, and then we can perform accurate investigations instead of looking for the &quot;needle in the haystack&quot;.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Knowing what you are looking for</strong> is particularly important in research that zooms in on a small piece of material using electron microscopy and other complementary techniques. Taking advantage of data can be a breakthrough and become a generic approach, says Uta Klement.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– New and improved characterization technology and the ability to interpret the results enable us to increase our knowledge and produce new and better products with better features and better utilization of the resources. Indirectly this is important to all of us.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS</strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Uta Klement is a professor of materials science with a focus on electron microscopy. She is Head of <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Division of Materials and Manufacture</a> at Chalmers <a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Department of Industrial and Materials Science</a>, and also heads the research group <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/ytmikro/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Surface and Microstructure Engineering</a>. She is also in the board of <a href="http://www.chalmersventures.com/" target="_blank">Chalmers Ventures</a>.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read more about the project &quot;<a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=7859">Grindability of recycled steel: automotive crankshafts</a>&quot; in Chalmers research database [<em>in Swedish</em>]. The project is led by <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Peter-Krajnik.aspx" target="_blank">P​eter Krajnik</a>, professor of manufacturing technology and also includes <a href="/en/staff/Pages/Philipp-Hoier-.aspx" target="_blank">Philipp Hoier</a> and <a href="/en/staff/Pages/amir-malakizadi.aspx" target="_blank">Amir Malakizadi</a>.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text and photo: Nina Silow</em></div> <div><br /></div> Fri, 18 May 2018 17:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Finnjolle.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Finnjolle.aspxWorld Championship dinghy tested at Chalmers and SSPA<p><b>The Finn dinghy of Max Salminen, previous Olympic gold medal winner, was tested at Chalmers in SSPA:s towing tank in the end of April.</b></p>​After finishing in sixth place in the Olympic games of Rio de Janeiro in 2016 with his Finn dinghy, the Swedish sailor Max Salminen started to wonder about what consequences the choice of rudder had on his performance. Max has previously won an Olympic gold medal with Starboat in London, 2012. To answer his questions, he turned to SSPA for help. By using simulations and tests the flow properties could be evaluated. Through financial aid from the Chalmers Area of Advance Material science the different allowed rudders could be purchased and tested. In order to incorporate the proper measuring systems a full scale copy of the boat was built at SSPA. The findings from the study showed that different rudders performed better or worse depending on the physical conditions at the race.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Materials%20Science/News/Jollen1_560px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" width="400" height="224" alt="" style="margin:5px" />As a next step in the project, students from Chalmers in collaboration with SSPA, are trying to develop a completely new rudder. The best one of the traditional rudders is being studied in detail and the new one will be optimized with regards to its weigh distribution and design in order to optimize the hydrodynamic properties. Max boat is seen <span>during testing<span style="display:inline-block"> </span></span> in the picture to the left .<br /><br /><div>During the tests, another interesting difference between the Finn dinghy and the model boat was observed; the structures of the Finn dinghy is rigid, while the hull is soft and deformable. Meanwhile, the hull of the model boat is all rigid. In the end of April, the two boats were tested in the SSPAs 260 meter long towing tank. The results will be analyzed, and if it turns out that soft hull causes a lower hydrodynamic resistance, the results could be groundbreaking in the shipping industry and for Max, who is aiming for a gold medal in the Olympic Games in Tokyo 2020.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read more at sspa.se - <a href="https://www.sspa.se/news/sports-technology-initiative-continues-combine-passion-sports-expertise-science-and-engineering">The Sports &amp; Technology initiative continues to combine passion for sports with expertise in science and engineering</a> <br /></div>Wed, 02 May 2018 16:00:00 +0200