News: Livsvetenskaper och teknikhttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyMon, 12 Apr 2021 16:32:55 +0200http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Students-involved-in-creating-the-healthcare-of-the-future.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Students-involved-in-creating-the-healthcare-of-the-future.aspxStudents creating the healthcare of the future<p><b>​Today&#39;s healthcare sector is becoming increasingly digitalized and tech driven. Chalmers invests heavily in the area of health and technology. In the elective course Here, there and everywhere – healthcare integrated in our everyday lives and places, students from different programmes, teachers and industry representatives with different areas of expertise, collaborate. Their task is to find new solutions to the challenges within the global healthcare sector.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">To improve the technical development of the sector, various areas of knowledge within Chalmers can play a key role, such as architecture, organizational development and e-health solutions.</span><div><br /></div> <div>“Chalmers has students who are competent in these three areas, but that doesn’t mean they are automatically good at collaboration. They need to practice interdisciplinary teamwork! For us, that was the starting point when we created this Tracks course” says Patrik Alexandersson who is responsible for the course.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20210101-20210631/SebastanRye_biltilltext.jpg" alt="sebastian rye, student" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px;width:180px;height:180px" /><br /></div> <div>Chalmers student, Sebastian Rye, participated in the first round of the course <em>Here, there and everywhere – healthcare integrated into our everyday lives and places</em>. He is currently studying his final year of Industrial Engineering and Management and is currently writing his Master thesis where he investigates how the use of artificial intelligence can be used in an efficient way in the healthcare sector.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“I had actually already chosen all my elective courses, but the Tracks course great combination of healthcare, interdisciplinary collaboration with mixed student groups and the opportunity to make contacts in the industry was a little too difficult to resist. I just had to take that extra course!”.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Current and real challenges</h3> <div>Tracks is a major investment in education and in new learning environments funded by the Chalmers Foundation. Tracks elective courses will complement students' programmes, introduce them to new subject areas and give them the opportunity to practice interdisciplinary teamwork.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Tracks courses are also linked to the latest research and to industry. In this course, the subject area was presented by representatives from the Högsbo Specialist Hospital and from Sahlgrenska University Hospitals’ digital R&amp;D department. Chalmers Center for Healthcare Improvement (CHI) is also behind the course as well as patients who were involved to give feedback on the students' solutions.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The intention with Tracks courses is that they should be able to quickly adapt to current needs and challenges in work-life and society. The healthcare-course is a good example. In the spring of 2020, when the new corona virus began to spread around the world, the teachers decided to include a case about pandemic management in the course, which was not planned from the beginning. Students could choose from three different cases to work with together in small groups: Pandemic, “Life Event Cancer” and Virtual Hospital.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The case called “Life Event Cancer” shed a light on the fact that there are more things than just the patient's disease that needs to be taken care of in the case of a cancer diagnosis. One question that the students discussed was how and with what digital tools the patient and their families can be supported throughout a treatment period.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Virtual hospital and virtual care in general are current topics in the healthcare sector today. Healthcare can be provided in many ways and doesn’t always have to be linked to a physical hospital building. Åsa Holmgren, project manager at Högsbo Specialist Hospital, believes that more technical solutions are needed, but that they need to be carefully examined – which solutions are the most useful within the healthcare sector? In response to which situations and when can they be applied for the best possible outcomes?</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“By learning more about how different technical solutions can be used, healthcare can be changed and improved. An example could be to develop the patient's ability to self-test at home, which the medical staff can follow up and manage – maybe it can lead to faster regulation of drug dosage. I have to say that the students impressed me with their insights and innovative suggestions in their final presentations!” says Åsa Holmgren.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Among other things, the students had suggestions for continuous feedback from a number of health parameters in patients staying at home. This is something that may create a preventive effect. Patients with better knowledge of their own health would also contribute to a more accurate decision-making by the caregiver. An increased use of Machine learning was also proposed, in order to, for example, identify early risk parameters for potential development of cancer.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In their final presentations the students came up with ideas regarding different health parameters that may be possible for the patients to control by themselves, at home. Something that could have a preventive effect and provide the patients with better knowledge of their own health status and contribute to an improved decision-making-process for the healthcare provider. Another suggestion from the students was more frequent use of Machine Learning. This could be a tool to identify early risk parameters for potential development of cancer.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Aim to increase students’ interest in the healthcare sector</h3> <div>During the first round of the course Here, there and everywhere – healthcare integrated in our everyday life and places, Chalmers students from eight different educational programmes participated and for the next course, planned this autumn, Patrik Alexandersson aims for even more.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We hope that our course can lead to increased knowledge of, and interest in healthcare among architecture and engineering students. By participating in the course, students gain a very good insight into the sector's challenges and its logic, which is enormously positive, both for themselves, Chalmers and for society in general.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Sebastian Rye was already interested in the subject before the start of the course, and he thinks that the opportunity to choose a course based on his own interest was very rewarding.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The teachers were incredibly committed and experienced in the area and guided us throughout the course, but at the same time it was a lot of project-oriented teamwork and a lot of self-studies. I really thought that the course complemented my other studies well, because in Tracks courses you get to practically apply the things you have learned to a subject you are interested in. This means that the knowledge you have gained from your programme actually gets enhanced!”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/news/Pages/chalmers.se/sv/nyheter/Sidor/Studenter-med-och-skapar-framtidens-vard.aspx" title="course poster"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icpdf.png" alt="" />Read more about the <span style="background-color:initial">course</span>​</a></div> <em> </em><div><a href="https://student.portal.chalmers.se/en/chalmersstudies/tracks/Pages/current-courses-within-tracks.aspx" title="chalmers study portal"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /><span style="background-color:initial">Read more about the c</span><span style="background-color:initial">urrent courses within Tracks</span></a></div> <div><em style="background-color:initial"></em></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Julia Jansson</div> <div><strong>Photo:</strong> Västfastigheter, Sjukhusen i väster och Högsbo specialistsjukhus</div> ​Fri, 09 Apr 2021 02:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/Digital-master-thesis-fair-in-may.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/Digital-master-thesis-fair-in-may.aspxDigital master thesis fair in May<p><b>On May 11, Chalmers, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and the University of Gothenburg are arranging the second digital master thesis fair. The aim is to increase collaboration in the intersection between health and technology. Researchers can register projects until April 30.​</b></p><div>The first joint fair, arranged in October 2020, <span style="background-color:initial"> was a great success. This time, the fair is organised by Sahlgrenska Academy and held via Zoom on May 11, at 15:00-17:00. Potential supervisors from Chalmers, the University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital will present their projects. After that, the students have the opportunity to ask questions, and discuss the projects, in small groups with the researchers. Hopefully, the students will then find interesting master thesis projects.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><div> </div> <div>The purpose of the fair is to create conditions for students and researchers to work with interdisciplinary projects that bridge between Chalmers and the University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital at master's level, and for the Sahlgrenska Academy also on a bachelor's level.</div> <div> </div> <div>Chalmers Area of ​​Advance Health Engineering has adopted a very broad approach to address societal challenges related to health and well-being, and many projects are already taking place in collaboration with the University of Gothenburg and/or Sahlgrenska University Hospital. In addition to AI, digitalisation and diagnostics, the area focuses on, among other things, preventive care and lifestyle changes, ergonomics, advanced medical engineering, infections, administration systems for medicines and effective care systems. The broad scope presents an opportunity for health professions to find relevant topics for master projects.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Registration</h2> <div>Potential supervisors at Chalmers, University of Gothenburg and Sahlgrenska University Hospital to report projects that are suitable for a master thesis project in the intersection between health and technology, or another research area that bridges the gap between Chalmers and the external collaboration partners, can register projects until April 30. Note: Please also send a short summary (1/2 A4 page) of the project to exjobbsmassa@sahlgrenska.gu.se.​</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://forms.office.com/r/Eh6MJYMgnr">Researchers register here</a>, no later than April 30.</div> <div><a href="https://forms.office.com/r/3pu0c072aE">Students who want to join the master thesis fair register here​</a>. <span style="background-color:initial">Registration is open until May 10, and a link to the fair will be sent out on the morning of May 11.</span></div></span></div>Tue, 30 Mar 2021 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/AI-generated-proteins-will-speed-up-drug-development.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/AI-generated-proteins-will-speed-up-drug-development.aspxAI generated proteins will speed up drug development<p><b>​Artificial Intelligence is now capable of generating novel, functionally active proteins, thanks to recently published work by researchers from Chalmers. “What we are now able to demonstrate offers fantastic potential for a number of future applications, such as faster and more cost-efficient development of protein-based drugs,” says Aleksej Zelezniak, Associate Professor at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering. ​</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​P<span>roteins are large, complex molecules that play a crucial role in all living cells, building, modifying, and breaking down other molecules naturally inside our cells. They are also widely used in industrial processes and products, and in our daily lives. </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Protein-based drugs are very common – the diabetes drug insulin is one of the most prescribed. Some of the most expensive and effective cancer medicines are also protein-based, as well as the antibody formulas currently being used to treat COVID-19.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">From computer design to wo​rking proteins in just a few weeks</h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Current methods used for protein engineering rely on introducing random mutations to protein sequences. However, with each additional random mutation introduced, the protein activity declines. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“Consequently, one must perform multiple rounds of very expensive and time-consuming experiments, screening millions of variants, to engineer proteins and enzymes that end up being significantly different from those found in nature,” says research leader Aleksej Zelezniak, continuing: </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“This engineering process is very slow, but now we have an AI-based method where we can go from computer design to working protein in just a few weeks.” </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The new results from the Chalmers researchers were recently published in the journal Nature Machine Intelligence and represent a breakthrough in the field of synthetic proteins. Aleksej Zelezniak’s research group and collaborators have developed an AI-based approach called ProteinGAN, which uses a generative deep learning approach. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">In essence, the AI is provided with a large amount of data from well-studied proteins; it studies this data and attempts to create new proteins based on it. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">At the same time, another part of the AI tries to figure out if the synthetic proteins are fake or not. The proteins are sent back and forth in the system until the AI cannot tell apart natural and synthetic proteins anymore. This method is well known for creating photos and videos of people who do not exist, but in this study, it was used for producing highly diverse protein variants with naturalistic-like physical properties that could be tested for their functions.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial;font-family:inherit">The proteins widely used in everyday products are not always entirely natural but are made through synthetic biology and protein engineering techniques. Using these techniques, the original protein sequences are modified in the hope of creating synthetic novel protein variants that are more efficient, stable, and tailored towards particular applications. </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The new AI-based approach is of importance for developing efficient industrial enzymes as well as new protein-based therapies, such as antibodies and vaccines.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">A cost-efficient and sustainable model</h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Assistant Professor Martin Engqvist, also of the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, was involved in designing the experiments to test the AI synthesised proteins. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“Accelerating the rate at which we engineer proteins is very important for driving down development costs for enzyme catalysts. This is the key for realising environmentally sustainable industrial processes and consumer products, and our AI model, as well as future models, will enable that. Our work is a vital contribution in that context” says Martin Engqvist.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“This kind of work is only possible in the type of multidisciplinary environment that exists at our Division – at the interface of computer science and biology. We have perfect conditions to experimentally test the properties of these AI-designed proteins,” says Aleksej Zelezniak. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The next step for the researchers is to explore how the technology could be used for specific improvements to protein properties, such as increased stability, something which could have great benefit for proteins used in industrial technology. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="font-weight:700">Text</span><span>: Susanne Nilsson Lindh, Mia Halleröd Palmgren &amp; Joshua Worth</span><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><strong>More about: The research project </strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The study was conducted within a collaboration between Chalmers University of Technology, Vilnius University Life Sciences Centre in Lithuania, and the company Biomatter Designs. </p> <div> </div> <div><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a>Read the article <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s42256-021-00310-5">“Expanding functional protein sequence spaces using generative adversarial networks&quot;​</a> in Nature Machine Intelligence. </div> <div> <span style="background-color:initial"></span></div>Tue, 30 Mar 2021 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/Diet-advice-depends-on-your-gut.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/Diet-advice-depends-on-your-gut.aspxDiet advice depends on your gut<p><b>​In the future, a blood sample may show how you should eat to stay healthy. But the road to personalized recommendations is long and winding. It passes through the gut, where bacteria make us react differently to the food we eat.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Researchers are working hard, attempting to come up with personalized or group-based dietary advice. It’s not easy. Much depends on the gut microbiota that is unique to us all.<br /><br /></span><div>One example is dietary fiber, which is an established component of a healthy diet. In a research study that attracted attention last year, Chalmers’ researchers show that whole grains from rye lowered cholesterol levels more than whole grain wheat, but that this effect was dependent of individual’s gut microbiota composition. The study clearly showed that the dietary advice is not equally effective for everyone – but that there is a great potential to increase the health benefits by matching the foods with gut microbiota of the individual.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Hot research area</h2> <div>According to Rikard Landberg, Professor of Food and Nutrition science at Chalmers and one of the speakers at the two-day event Engineering Health in April, research relating the importance of the gut bacteria to diet, dietary advice and health is hot right now.<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Health/Udda%20format/Rikard_Landberg_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /></div> <div>“How and when should we take the gut microbiome into account? How do we design a diet that is optimal for the individual? We are yet quite far from individual dietary advice. There is a lot more we need to know first”, he says.<br /><br /></div> <div>At the same time, there are already commercial apps where you can try to identify your ideal diet. But these tests are often not to be trusted, says Rikard Landberg. They are based on nothing more than existing knowledge about general effects of lifestyle and diet, and the connections between these and the gut microbiota. But already in five to ten years, the situation may be completely different:<br /><br /></div> <div>“By then, I believe we will have the opportunity to identify groups of individuals who, for example, benefit from a certain diet”, says Rikard Landberg and explains:</div> <div>“We should be able to identify the profile of a certain group, using gut microbiome and metabolites – molecules formed by bacteria. Then, we can also measure the body’s response to a certain diet through a blood sample. Based on such data, we can determine whether you belong to a particular profile that would benefit from, for example, eating vegetarian food or a certain type of dietary fiber. And knowing which diet is ideal for your group will of course be helpful if you have reason to review your diet, for example if you’re at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Food and gut experts working together</h2> <div>Rikard Landberg collaborates with Fredrik Bäckhed, Professor at the Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine at the University of Gothenburg. Fredrik Bäckhed is an expert on gut microbiome and its role in health and disease. Among other things, he is trying to optimize probiotic bacterial strains that can improve the health of our gut, and reduce risk of developing diseases. A permanent change in the intestinal microbiome is difficult to achieve, but vary between different parts of the bacterial flora.</div> <div>“This autumn, we will start a study start where we take a closer look at diets that are composed to promote a healthy intestinal bacterial flora. The diet is designed based on a systematic literature review, where we have reviewed 8,000 scientific articles. We want to investigate whether it is possible, with an optimal diet based on “ordinary food”, to influence intestinal bacteria linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Strangely enough, this has not been done in any previous scientific study”, says Rikard Landberg.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">New and climate friendly guidelines</h2> <div>A revision of Nordic Nutrition Recommendations and the Swedish dietary guidelines is currently underway. Around 100 experts review, and evaluate, research results. Among other things, they look at health impact of different nutrients and foods. The dietary advice is also put in a Nordic context, to take into account which nutrients we, in the Nordic countries, may need to boost – such as vitamin D, which we could lack in our sun-depraved countries – based on the type of food we normally eat. In addition, the dietary advice is climate-adapted; the guidelines should not only focus on what’s healthy, but also what is sustainable from a climate perspective.<br /><br /></div> <div>But while waiting for updated dietary advice, and research on gut microbiota: What can we really say about what to eat in order to stay healthy? One problem is that many researchers – as well as the media – try to give advice based on individual studies, says Rikard Landberg, as there is a desire to go directly from research results to recommendations.</div> <div>“Unfortunately, this might give people the perception that advices change all the time. Results from different studies often show different results, for varied reasons.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Vegetarian diet possibly healthier</h2> <div>Still, if he would dare to give any advice, in addition to the official dietary guidelines, Rikard Landberg gives one that is aligned with a recent study performed together with Örebro University and Fredrik Bäckhed:<br /><br /></div> <div>“I am quite convinced that a diet with more vegetarian food, and less meat, is better for most of us. But this will vary between individuals, and moreover, we must not forget the risks associated with such a diet for certain groups. Many women, for example, have an iron deficiency. For them, a vegetarian diet might lead to they getting too low intake of available iron – and that will not be healthy”, he says.<br /></div> <div>“Then, of course, the usual advice applies; for example, not eating too much, and avoiding sugar-sweetened beverages. People also tend to think that physical activity plays a large part in keeping a healthy weight, but diet is the most important thing for those who need to watch the kilos. But with that said, we need to be active in order to feel good and prevent illness. Furthermore, we should not forget that diet is much more than health! For example, we do not eat chocolate to be healthy, but because it tastes good. That’s also allowed!”<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS: Want to know more about diet and intestinal flora?</strong></div> <div>Watch Rikard Landberg’s and Fredrik Bäckhed’s lecture “Diet meets the gut microbiome - implications for cardiometabolic disease” at Engineering Health on April 14 at 11.00. The event will be broadcast live via YouTube. <a href="http://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/Engineering-Health-2021.aspx">More information can be found here</a>.<br /><br /></div> <div>Text: Mia Malmstedt</div> <div>Photo: Pixabay and Annika Söderpalm</div> <div>​<br /></div> Fri, 26 Mar 2021 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-model-predicts-metabolic-response-to-metals.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-model-predicts-metabolic-response-to-metals.aspxNew model predicts metabolic response to metals<p><b>​Metal ions, for example iron, are vital to many cellular functions in all organisms. Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have now developed a mathematical model to identify the role of metal ions in baker’s yeast. This model can be used to optimise industrial yeast strains producing a variety of bioproducts, or to design new diet supplements. ​</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span>Baker’s yeast, <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>, is used as a model organism for human cells and different cellular systems, such as metabolism. But the microorganisms can also be used as so-called cell factories, for sustainable industrial production where renewable sources are turned into different bioproducts, such as bioethanol, drugs, and chemicals. </span><span style="background-color:initial">K</span><span style="background-color:initial">nowledge abo</span><span style="background-color:initial">ut the metabolism is used to optimise the production rate and viability of the yeast cell factories, through genetic editing and by providing the best growth conditions.</span></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Predict metabolic respons to reduced availability of metals</span></h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">Metal ions play an important role in metabolism by serving as cofactors, helper molecules, to numerous metabolic enzymes, such as respiration but also many enzymes playing a role in detoxification. Although many enzymes have been reported to interact with metal ions, the quantitative relationships between metal ions, and metabolism, are lacking. </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/SysBio/Yu-Chen_2019-09-02_350.jpg" alt="Photo of Yu Chen" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px;width:250px;height:218px" />&quot;We generated a model by applying the framework to <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>. The model showed good performance in terms of predicting intracellular metal ion abundances and predicting metabolic responses upon reduced availability of metal ions&quot;, says <strong>Yu Chen</strong>, postdoc at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering and first author of the <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33723053/">scientific publication​</a> recently published in PNAS. </p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Iron deficiency leads to resource allocation </h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The research group also investigated the role of iron in metabolism and found that the model captured resource re-allocation upon iron deficiency. This suggests that yeast allocates iron based on optimisation principles. This means that yeast aims to always ensure allocation of iron to enzymes engaged in biosynthesis of amino acids that essential for cell growth. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">In addition, the researchers validated one of the model predictions experimentally in the field of metabolic engineering. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">These experiments showed that insufficient supply of iron could limit biosynthesis of <em>p</em>-coumaric acid, a chemical of great commercial interest used for production of dyes and polymers that are used in many materials, which relies on an iron-containing enzyme.</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">&quot;Improve cell factories and diets&quot;</h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">&quot;We believe that our model can be used to guide improvement of yeast cell factories and optimisation of growth conditions. More importantly, the framework can be easily applied to study metal ions within human metabolism, which can hopefully aid in explaining mineral deficiency and designing diets,&quot; says Yu Chen.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Text:</strong> Susanne Nilsson Lindh </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Read the scientific article in PNAS:</strong> <a href="https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33723053/">Yeast optimizes metal utilization based on metabolic network and enzyme kinetics </a></p> <div><br /></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p>Thu, 25 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/Digital-smorgasbord-with-new-tech-for-health.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/Digital-smorgasbord-with-new-tech-for-health.aspxDigital “smorgasbord” with new tech for health<p><b>​Diet and gut microbiome, antibiotic resistance, hand transplantation, smart textiles, 3D printing, digital health and VR for treating psychosis. Chalmers two-day event Engineering Health is a digital “smorgasbord”, filled with technical solutions for care and health.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">New technologies in a number of exciting areas are the focus of Engineering Health, April 13-14. With less than a month left, the programme’s timeslots are filled up, and registrations flow in.<br /><br /></span><div><div>Engineering Health is arranged by Chalmers’ Area of Advance Health Engineering, which was started in the spring of 2020. The Area of Advance spans the entire Chalmers, and gather all health-related research from all over the university. With Health Engineering, Chalmers has become a distinct partner for external parties such as Sahlgrenska University Hospital, the University of Gothenburg and Region Västra Götaland.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Solving the challenges together</h2></div> <div>Collaborations are also highlighted at Engineering Health, in order to inspire to more joint projects. Many of the programme items therefore have speakers in pairs; an engineer and a clinician, or researcher from healthcare sector, who jointly talk about how healthcare challenges can be solved.<br /><br /></div> <div>“We are very proud to be able to offer such an exciting program. The breadth clearly shows how much Chalmers has to offer when it comes to health-related research, and also how important it is to collaborate on these issues. Healthcare is facing a number of challenges, with an increasing and aging population. Together with healthcare providers, we as engineers can find the solutions”, says Martin Fagerström, Co-Director of Health Engineering Area of Advance.</div> <div><div>“Personally, I think it is very exciting that Chalmers is increasingly profiling itself as a university with health-related research. We are clearly a player to be reckoned with!”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Fully digital and open for all</h2></div> <div>The pandemic transforms Engineering Health from a physical event to a digital one. This could be seen as an advantage, as the event will be a “smorgasbord” and the format makes it easy to listen to, or participate in, selected parts.</div> <div>“In this way, we hope to attract people not only in Gothenburg, but from all over Sweden – and also from other countries! The event is in English and open to everyone”, says Martin Fagerström.<br /><br /></div> <div>Engineering Health is divided into four major parts:</div> <div>• <strong>New technology:</strong> Pushing the boundaries in diagnostics and treatment</div> <div>• <strong>Prevention:</strong> Keep out (of the hospital)!</div> <div>• <strong>Restoring health:</strong> New solutions for rehabilitation</div> <div>• <strong>Modern treatment:</strong> Personalised health- and self-care<br /><br /></div> <div>In addition to these four parts, a panel discussion will end each day. External inspirational speaker is athletic star C<span style="background-color:initial">arolina Klüft, founder of organisation Generation Pep.<br /><br /></span></div> <div>Engineering Health is arranged by Chalmers University of Technology, in collaboration with Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sahlgrenska Academy and the Faculty of Science at the University of Gothenburg. <a href="/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/Engineering-Health-2021.aspx">A full programme is available here</a>.</div> <div><br />Text: Mia Malmstedt</div> <div>Photos: All photos from Center for Bionics and Pain Research, related to the first presentation in the Engineering Health programme</div> Mon, 22 Mar 2021 12:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/DNA-repair-studied-with-molecular-precision.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/DNA-repair-studied-with-molecular-precision.aspxDNA repair studied with molecular precision<p><b>​If DNA breaks and is not correctly repaired it may pose devastating consequences to humans, not only on the cellular level but for the whole body, as the breaks may cause disease, such as cancer. Using a combination of unique methods, researchers at Chalmers have investigated a mechanism for repairing DNA-breaks in bacteria, which can potentially increase the general understanding of DNA repair in human cells.​</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span>Fredrik Westerlund, Professor in Chemical Bi​ology at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, was in 2019 awarded the European Research Council's prestigious research grant ERC Consolidator Grant for the project &quot;Next Generation Nanofluidic for Single Molecule Analysis of DNA Repair Dynamics&quot;. </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>​​His research group has now published <a href="https://academic.oup.com/nar/advance-article/doi/10.1093/nar/gkab083/6137296">a study</a> linked to the project, where they have characterised the bacterial DNA-repair system responsible for so-called Non-Homologous End-Joining (NHEJ).</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>What is NHEJ and why are you interested in this system?</strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong> </strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/ChemBio/FredrikWesterlund_340x400.jpg" alt="Photo of Fredrik Westerlund" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:235px" />Fredrik Westerlund: </strong>DNA molecules can break − it happens all the time in all cells – and the consequences of these breaks can be severe. So-called double-strand breaks can, among other things, stall life-sustaining processes in the cell. If the DNA molecule is not correctly repaired, the cell can potentially lose or change genetic information, i.e. the information that controls all the cellular functions. In turn, this can lead to lethality or the initiation of various diseases, such as cancer. It is important that DNA-breaks are repaired as quickly and efficiently as possible, therefore all cells have developed efficient repair systems.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">There are two different mechanisms for repairing DNA-breaks; &quot;Homologous Recombination&quot; − where the enzymes involved use an identical copy of the broken DNA molecule as a template − and NHEJ where enzymes join the DNA ends, without using a template.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">NHEJ was first discovered in human cells. However, it has also been found to exist in bacteria, which use a smaller set of components. Thus, we realized that the bacterial mechanism might serve as an interesting model system.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>What is a model system?</strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong> </strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/ChemBio/Robin-Oz_20200825_340x400.jpg" alt="Photo of Robin Öz" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:235px" />Robin Öz, postdoc at the Division of Chemical Biology, and first author of the study:</strong> It means that we study a simpler system, in this case the bacterial repair mechanism, with the aim to eventually gain a better understanding of how the more complex human cells, repair broken DNA. Since inaccurate repair of DNA-breaks plays a major role in, for example, cancer, the model system can potentially help us understand how such disease develop and how they can be prevented from further spreading. We use a simpler model, which consists of only two components, to better understand important features of the more complex human system, consisting of at least ten different proteins.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>What are the results of the study?</strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Fredrik Westerlund: </strong>In the study, we focused mainly on one of the two proteins that are part of the bacterial NHEJ system. Together with our collaborators in France we have identified important differences between the bacterial and human systems. Previous studies have shown that a protein, called Ku, binds to broken ends of the DNA, and protects them from systems that may destroy free DNA ends in the cell. Ku can bring the DNA strands together and then recruit, Ligase D, which finally repairs the DNA. In our group we have developed a method where the DNA molecules are stretched out in nanochannels, thin glass tubes, without obstructing the ends. This allow us to study processes and interactions that take place at the free ends when different proteins are added to the solution. In this way, we have been able to show previously unknown mechanisms for the interaction between Ku and DNA.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Robin Öz: </strong>The study has shown that there are very interesting similarities between DNA-repair systems in bacteria and human cells, while the mechanisms are very different. Previously, it has been unclear what happens to the proteins attached to the DNA after the repair. We have now shown, among other things, that Ku is actually entrapped on the DNA up to several hours after the repair has finished, which means that there are potentially other, currently unknown systems that are involved in the final phase of the repair process.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>What is the next step?</strong></span><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Fredrik Westerlund: </strong>The next step is to show how the ligase that binds to Ku works. NHEJ in bacteria could be an important target for new antibacterial drugs. Different variants of combined treatments have become very relevant in the fight against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. For example, one can imagine a combination of drugs that damage DNA − and knock out the DNA-break repair system.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Text:</strong> Susanne Nilsson Lindh<br /><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Photo: </strong>Pixabay, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Johan Bodell &amp; Martina Butorac</span></p> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial"><b>Read the study in</b></span><span style="font-weight:700"> <em>Nucleic Acid Research</em>: </span></p> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a> <a href="https://academic.oup.com/nar/advance-article/doi/10.1093/nar/gkab083/6137296">Dynamics of Ku and bacterial non-homologous end-joining characterized using single DNA molecule analysis​</a></p> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="font-weight:700;background-color:initial">Read more: </span><br /></p> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><span style="background-color:initial"><font color="#1166aa"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/ERC-grant-for-next-generation-DNA-repair-analysis.aspx">ERC-grant for next generation DNA-repair analysis</a></font></span></p> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><span></span><span style="background-color:initial"><font color="#1166aa"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-Chalmers-method-sheds-light-on-DNA-repair-.aspx">New Chalmers method sheds light on DNA-repair</a></font></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> ​</p>Wed, 10 Mar 2021 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/cellulose-thread.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/cellulose-thread.aspxHuge potential for cellulose thread in electronic textiles<p><b>​Electronic textiles offer revolutionary new opportunities in various fields, in particular healthcare. But to be sustainable, they need to be made of renewable materials. A research team led by Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, now presents a thread made of conductive cellulose, which offers fascinating and practical possibilities for electronic textiles.</b></p><div>​<img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Cellulosatråd/portratt_sozan_darabi_320x350.jpg" alt="" style="height:182px;width:165px;margin:5px" />“Miniature, wearable, electronic gadgets are ever more common in our daily lives. But currently, they are often dependent on rare, or in some cases toxic, materials. They are also leading to a gradual build-up of great mountains of electronic waste. There is a real need for organic, renewable materials for use in electronic textiles,” says <a href="/en/staff/Pages/sozan.aspx">Sozan Darabi</a>, doctoral student at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology and the Wallenberg Wood Science Center, and lead author of the scientific article which was recently published in ASC Applied Materials &amp; Interfaces. </div> <div>   </div> <div>Together with <a href="/en/staff/Pages/anja-lund.aspx">Anja Lund</a>, researcher in the same group, Sozan Darabi has been working with electrically conductive fibres for electronic textiles for several years. <a href="/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Student-thesis-led-to-conductive-thread.aspx">The focus was previously on silk</a>, but now the discoveries have been taken further through the use of cellulose. </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Built-in electronics in non-toxic, renewable, and natural materials</h2> <div>The results now presented by the researchers show how cellulose thread offers huge potential as a material for electronic textiles and can be used in many different ways.</div> <div>  </div> <div>Sewing the electrically  conductive cellulose threads into a fabric using a standard household sewing machine, the researchers have now succeeded in producing a thermoelectric textile that produces a small amount of electricity when it is heated on one side – for example, by a person's body heat. At a temperature difference of 37 degrees Celsius, the textile can generate around 0.2 microwatts of electricity.</div> <div>   </div> <div>“This cellulose thread could lead to garments with built-in electronic, smart functions, made from non-toxic, renewable and natural materials,” says Sozan Darabi.</div> <div>   </div> <div>The production process for the cellulose thread has been developed by co-authors from Aalto University in Finland. In a subsequent process, the Chalmers researchers made the thread conductive through dyeing it with an electrically conductive polymeric material. The researchers' measurements show that the dyeing process gives the cellulose thread a record-high conductivity – which can be increased even further through the addition of silver nanowires. In tests, the conductivity was maintained after several washes.</div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">The benefits of e-textiles and cellulose</h2> <div>Electronic textiles could improve our lives in several ways. One important area is healthcare, where functions such as regulating, monitoring, and measuring various health metrics could be hugely beneficial.</div> <div>     </div> <div>In the wider textile industry, where conversion to sustainable raw materia<img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Cellulosatråd/portratt_christian_muller_320x350px.jpg" alt="" style="height:182px;width:165px;margin:5px" />ls is a vital ongoing question, natural materials and fibres have become an increasingly common choice to replace synthetics. Electrically conductive cellulose threads could have a significant role to play here too, the researchers say.</div> <div>   </div> <div>“Cellulose is a fantastic material that can be sustainably extracted and recycled, and we will see it used more and more in the future. And when products are made of uniform material, or as few materials as possible, the recycling process becomes much easier and more effective. This is another perspective from which cellulose thread is very promising for the development of e-textiles,” says <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Christian-Müller.aspx">Christian Müller</a>, research leader for the study and a professor at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div>   </div> <div>This work of the research team from Chalmers is performed within the national research center Wallenberg Wood Science Center, in cooperation with colleagues in Sweden, Finland and South Korea.</div> <div>     </div> <div>Read the article in the scientific journal ASC Applied Materials &amp; Interfaces:</div> <div><a href="https://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsami.0c15399">Green Conducting Cellulose Yarns for Machine-Sewn Electronic Textiles</a></div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More about: Developing expertise in conductive fibres</h2> <div>Both Sozan Darabi and Christian Müller believe the research has resulted in much more than just the latest scientific publication. Sozan Darabi has developed from a student into a foremost expert in electrically conductive fibre materials, something Christian Müller views as very rewarding, and a great strength for their research team. </div></div> <div> </div> <div>Through the national Swedish research center Wallenberg Wood Science Center, a group from Stockholm’s Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) has also been involved in the research and publication of the study. The KTH researchers focus on the electrochemical aspects of the fibres.<br />Together with this group from KTH, the Chalmers research team is now planning ways to take the ideas to the next level.<br />Read earlier press release: <a href="https://news.cision.com/chalmers/r/electric-textile-lights-a-lamp-when-stretched%2cc3191089">Electric textile lights a lamp when stretched</a></div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More about: cellulose thread</h2> <div>The electrically conductive yarn is produced in a &quot;layer-on-layer&quot; coating process with an ink based on the biocompatible polymer &quot;polyelectrolyte complex poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT: PSS)”. The e-textile thread developed by the researchers measures a record-high conductivity for cellulose thread in relation to volume of 36 S/cm-, which can be increased to 181 S/cm by adding silver nanowires. The thread coated with PEDOT: PSS can handle at least five machine washes without losing its conductivity. By integrating the cellulose yarn into an electrochemical transistor, the researchers have also been able to demonstrate its electrochemical function.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More about: textiles from nature and fashion industry interest </h2> <div>Throughout human history, textiles have been made from natural fibre and cellulose. But since the middle of the 20th century, synthetic fibres have become more common in our clothing, particularly in the fashion industry. With the greater focus and awareness now on sustainable alternatives, interest in natural fibres and textiles is returning and growing. Large Swedish chains such as H&amp;M and Lindex have set high goals for increasing the proportion of garments produced from more sustainable materials.</div> <div>The cellulose fibre that the researchers have used is of the Ioncell® type, developed by the Finnish group, led by professor and co-author Herbert Sixta.</div></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">For more information, contact:</h2> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/sozan.aspx">Sozan Darabi</a>, doctoral student at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering</div> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Christian-Müller.aspx">Christian Müller</a>, Professor at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering</div></div>Wed, 10 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/math/news/Pages/Fighting-antibiotic-resistance-through-new-diagnostics.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/math/news/Pages/Fighting-antibiotic-resistance-through-new-diagnostics.aspxFighting antibiotic resistance with new diagnostics<p><b>​Bacteria become resistant to antibiotics through changes in their DNA – changes which can now be found, through the use of modern DNA sequencing technology. A new international research network, led by Chalmers and Erasmus University Medical Center in the Netherlands, will help bring recent advances in DNA sequencing to bacterial diagnostics in healthcare settings.</b></p><p>​<img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Erik Kristiansson" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MV/Nyheter/ErikKristiansson2021.jpg" style="margin:5px" />Clinical microbiology laboratories rely today mainly on cultivation to identify bacteria resistant to antibiotics. Bacteria collected from the patient are grown alongside various types of antibiotics to find drugs that work against them – a method that can take days, or in some cases, weeks.</p> <p>“Cultivation will remain important, but with the increasing number of infections caused by resistant bacteria, it may not be enough,” explains Erik Kristiansson, Professor of Mathematical Sciences at Chalmers. “We need to improve diagnostics to provide faster and more accurate results.”</p> <p>DNA sequencing – a technology that can be used to characterise all the genes a bacterium carries in its genome – can provide just that. But even though the technology is rapidly improving, several challenges need to be solved before it can be effectively applied in routine diagnostics.</p> <h2>Big data expertise a key requirement </h2> <p>Erik Kristiansson is one of two leaders for the new research network, <a href="https://www.jpiamr.eu/seq4amr/">Integrating Microbial Sequencing and Platforms for Antimicrobial Resistance</a>, which aims to provide solutions for these challenges. In this work, an action plan will be developed to increase the adoption rate of sequencing-based diagnostics.</p> <p>As an expert in bioinformatics and artificial intelligence, he works with key questions in how the vast and complex data generated by DNA sequencing of bacteria should be handled and properly interpreted. Here, a major task is to develop and implement data analysis methods that can correctly identify the changes that make bacteria resistant to antibiotics.</p> <p>Other challenges are to ensure that the execution of the DNA sequencing is done properly and accurately and that the genetic databases – which the methods rely upon – are of sufficient quality.</p> <p>“One strength of our network is that it is interdisciplinary,” says Erik Kristiansson. “There are experts from both academia and industry as well as from scientific areas including infectious diseases, bacteriology, computer science and statistics. This will allow us to take a holistic approach to the many factors that affect the spread of resistant bacteria.”</p> <p>“We aim to facilitate the implementation of DNA sequencing as a technique in routine diagnostics in hospitals globally. Here, training personnel to utilise this new technique is an important task. Knowledge dissemination and education will therefore be a part of the network.”</p> <h2>Methods for both fighting resistance and managing outbreaks</h2> <p>DNA sequencing has the potential to reduce antibiotic use and thereby make it harder for bacteria to become resistant. By analysing the entire genome of an infecting bacterium, physicians can be provided with all the information needed for starting a patient-tailored antibiotic treatment at an early stage.</p> <p>In the best-case scenario the bacterium is not resistant and the patient can receive a narrow-spectrum antibiotic, that is, an antibiotic that is more specific and only kills a limited number of bacterial species at the same time. This reduces the risk that other bacteria, for example those that live naturally in and on the human body, become resistant. In the worst case, the infection is instead caused by a bacterium that has developed resistance against a wide range of antibiotics.</p> <p>“It can then become a matter of finding a type of antibiotic that will work at all. In the event of a serious infection, rapid and accurate diagnosis can be life-saving,” says Erik Kristiansson. DNA sequencing can also be instrumental in preventing outbreaks of bacterial infections in hospitals. By monitoring the bacteria that spread within health care settings, resistant and virulent pathogens can be identified at an early stage. Various management strategies, such as isolation of patients, can then be used to disrupt the chain of transmission.</p> <h2>Virus sequencing is carried out with the same technology and expertise</h2> <p>The work done by the network will enable healthcare and clinical laboratories to adopt DNA sequencing for all kinds of microorganisms. This also applies to viruses – a very relevant area during the current pandemic – where sequencing can be used as a tool to monitor coronavirus mutations. In the long run, veterinary medicine may also be able to benefit from the results of the network.</p> <p>Practices for the use of antibiotics vary greatly between countries, and there is a link between widespread use and serious problems with antibiotic resistance. But even though antibiotic resistance can be partially combated within a country through measures such as restrictive antibiotic use, the problem is in essence global. Indeed, antibiotic-resistant bacteria spread rapidly around the world as a result of international travel. The network therefore has a global perspective and includes 14 experts from 8 different countries.</p> <p>“When we present our results in two years, we aim especially to contribute with solutions to countries that still have a long way to go when it comes to sustainable antibiotic use,” says Erik Kristiansson. “Determining the most efficient way to reach this point is an important part of the holistic approach the network will use.”<br /><br /><strong>Text</strong>: Johanna Wilde and Joshua Worth<br /><strong>Photo</strong>: Nachiket P Marathe<br /><br /><strong>More about the network: Integrating Microbial Sequencing and Platforms for Antimicrobial Resistance</strong></p> <strong></strong><ul><li>Coordinated by Erik Kristiansson at the <a href="/en/departments/math/Pages/default.aspx">Department of Mathematical Sciences</a> at Chalmers (erik.kristiansson@chalmers.se) and John P. Hays at Erasmus University Medical Center Rotterdam (j.hays@erasmusmc.nl). </li> <li>Financed nationally by Sweden and the Netherlands, through the organisation <a href="https://www.jpiamr.eu/">Joint Programming Initiative on Antimicrobial Resistance</a>. The organisation is a global cooperation platform of 28 countries for combatting antibiotic resistance. The secretariat is located at the Swedish Research Council.</li> <li>The network and the organisation operate from a One Health-perspective, where the many disparate factors that affect the development and spread of resistant bacteria are considered jointly.</li></ul> <p><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Logo Seq4AMR" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MV/Nyheter/Seq4AMRLogo200x.png" style="margin:5px" /><img width="320" height="120" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Logo jpiamr" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MV/Nyheter/JPIAMR-logo320x.jpg" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /><br /><br />​<br /></p>Fri, 05 Mar 2021 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/ict/news/Pages/Call-for-ICT-seed-projects-2022.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/ict/news/Pages/Call-for-ICT-seed-projects-2022.aspxCall for ICT seed projects 2022<p><b>Call for proposals within ICT strategic areas and involving interdisciplinary approaches.​</b></p><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Important dates:</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li><b>Submission date: </b>April 29, 2021</li> <li><b>Notification:</b> mid-June, 2021</li> <li><b>Expected start of the project:</b> January 2022</li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Background</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><b>The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Area of Advance</b> (AoA) provides financial support for SEED projects, i.e., projects involving innovative ideas that can be a starting point for further collaborative research and joint funding applications. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>We will prioritize research projects that <strong>involve researchers from different research communities</strong> (for example across ICT departments or between ICT and other Areas of Advances) and who have not worked together before (i.e., have no joint projects/publications). </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Research projects involving a <strong>gender-balanced team and younger researchers</strong>, e.g., assistant professors, will be prioritized. Additionally, proposals related to <strong>sustainability</strong> and the UN Sustainable Development Goals are encouraged.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><b><em>Note: </em></b><em>Only researchers employed at Chalmers can apply and can be funded. PhD students cannot be supported by this call.  Applicants and co-applicants of research proposals funded in the 2020 and 2021 ICT SEED calls cannot apply. </em></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><b>The total budget of the call is 1 MSEK.</b> We expect to fund 3-5 projects</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Details of the call</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li>The project should include at least two researchers from different divisions at Chalmers (preferably two different departments) and who should have complementary expertise, and no joint projects/publications.</li> <li>Proposals involving teams with good gender balance and involving assistant professors will be prioritized.</li> <li>The project should contribute to sustainable development. </li> <li>The budget must be between 100 kSEK and 300 kSEK, including indirect costs (OH). The budget is mainly to cover personnel costs for Chalmers employees (but not PhD students). The budget cannot cover costs for equipment or travel costs to conferences/research visits. </li> <li>The project must start in early 2022 and should last 3-6 months. </li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">What must the application contain?</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The application should be at most 3 pages long, font Times–roman, size 11. In addition, max 1 page can be used for references. Finally, an additional one-page CV of each one of the applicants must be included (max 4 CVs). Proposals that do not comply with this format will be desk rejected (no review process).</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The proposal should include:</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>a)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>project title </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>b)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>name, e-mail, and affiliation (department, division) of the applicants</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>c)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the research challenges addressed and the objective of the project; interdisciplinary aspects should be highlighted; also the applicant should discuss how the project contributes to sustainable development, preferably in relation to the <a href="https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/" title="link to UN webpage">UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)</a>. Try to be specific and list the targets within each Goal that are addressed by your project.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>d)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the project description </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>e)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the expected outcome (including dissemination plan) and the plan for further research and funding acquisition</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>f)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the project participants and the planned efforts</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>g)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the project budget and activity timeline
</div> <div><div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Evaluation Criteria</h3> <div><ul><li>Team composition</li> <li>Interdisciplinarity</li> <li>Novelty</li> <li>Relevance to AoA ICT and Chalmers research strategy as well as to SDG</li> <li>Dissemination plan</li> <li>Potential for further research and joint funding applications</li> <li>Budget and project feasibility​</li></ul></div></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Submission</span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The application should be submitted as one PDF document to</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="https://easychair.org/my/conference?conf=seed2022">https://easychair.org/conferences/?conf=seed2022</a></span></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><br /></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The proposals will be evaluated by the AoA ICT management group and selected Chalmers researchers.

</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><b><br /></b></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><b>Questions</b> can be addressed to <a href="mailto:erik.strom@chalmers.se">Erik Ström</a> or <a href="mailto:durisi@chalmers.se">Giuseppe Durisi​</a> </span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">General information about the ICT Area of Advance can be found at <a href="/en/areas-of-advance/ict/Pages/default.aspx">www.chalmers.se/ict ​</a></span><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Information%20and%20Communication%20Technology/About%20us/IKT_logo_600px.jpg" alt="" /><span style="background-color:initial">​​<br /></span></div>Mon, 01 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/cse/news/Pages/dexterity-board-gaming-for-disabled-gamers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/cse/news/Pages/dexterity-board-gaming-for-disabled-gamers.aspxDexterity board gaming made accessible<p><b>Could it be possible for gamers with physical impairments to play dexterity board games? Game researcher Michael Heron thinks so. He wants to develop an app that builds a virtual model of the game, and allows everyone to play together according to their abilities.</b></p><div>Michael Heron is a senior lecturer in interaction design (games and graphics) at Computer Science and Engineering. His research interests are accessibility, games, and especially accessibility in games. To this regard he is running a research blog, <a href="https://www.meeplelikeus.co.uk/">Meeple Like Us</a>, where one section is looking into the accessibility of board games, and has examined nearly 250 titles over the years.  </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/DoIT/News/Dexterity%20board%20games/Michael_Heron.gif" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Michael Heron" style="margin:5px;width:287px;height:160px" />&quot;As part of that project I saw that almost every category of games had at least <em>one</em> game that worked for every category of accessibility, but there was no dexterity game that works for people with physical impairments. <span>Dexterity games are those that involve flicking pieces, stacking pieces, removing pieces without disturbing others, or hitting pieces into other pieces.&quot; <br /></span></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">A digital model of the board</h2></div> <div>As one of many grant applications, Michael Heron proposed to the <a href="https://www.promobilia.se/?lang=en">Promobilia Foundation</a> to try a kind of 'digital bridge' to let disabled gamers play the same physical game as their friends. <br /></div> <div>&quot;It's going to work like this – one or more people have the physical game set up so they can play it. Someone with physical accessibility difficulties has a mobile app. The physical game is played normally, but sensors around the board build up a virtual model of the state – where all the pieces are, how they fit into the board etcetera. When it comes time for the physically impaired player to take their turn, they go into that digital model on the app, and indicate a direction and a force to apply to a piece in the game.&quot; <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The way to indicate direction and force should be done in a gameful way, so the app will allow for a range of different techniques, which have already been tried out in other kinds of video games. A flick on the screen, pull like on an elastic band, press and hold to build up force, are just some examples. The result gets modeled in the virtual world, and the physical players can reconfigure the board accordingly. </div> <div>&quot;Eventually my plan is to have the pieces automatically put where they should be by some exciting combination of robots, drones, and magnets.&quot; </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Contact</h2> <div>Michael Heron, Senior lecturer<br />E-mail: <a href="mailto:heronm@chalmers.se">heronm@chalmers.se<br /></a></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More information </h2></div> <div>About the project<br /></div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=9899">https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=9899</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Meeple like us, the home of meeple centered design<br /></div> <a href="https://meeplelikeus.co.uk/"><div>https://meeplelikeus.co.uk/</div></a><div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://www.promobilia.se/?lang=en">Promobilia foundation</a><br /></div></div> Sun, 28 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Watch-the-webinar-Materials-for-health.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Watch-the-webinar-Materials-for-health.aspxWatch the webinar Materials for health<p><b>​​Thank all of you who participated in the tandem webinar, 25 February: Tandem webinar – Materials for Health.</b></p><a href="https://play.chalmers.se/media/Tandem+Seminar+%E2%80%93+Materials+for+Health/0_c67wpmkf"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />​<span style="background-color:initial">W</span></a><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://play.chalmers.se/media/Tandem+Seminar+%E2%80%93+Materials+for+Health/0_c67wpmkf">atch the webinar on Chalmers Play: Tandem Webinar – Materials for Health</a><br /><br /></span><div><div><strong><a href="/sv/styrkeomraden/material/kalendarium/Sidor/Tandem-Webinar-Materials-for-health.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Program:</a></strong></div> <div><ul><li>Moderator: Maria Abrahamsson, Director of Materials Science Area of Advance </li> <li>B<span style="background-color:initial">ioink Design for Printing of Unified, Multi-material Constructs, Sarah Heilshorn, Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and, by courtesy, of Bioengineering and of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University.</span></li> <li>M<span style="background-color:initial">aterials preventing biomaterial associated infection. Martin Andersson, Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied​ Surface Chemistry.Chalmers University of Technology.</span></li></ul></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div></div>Fri, 26 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/Doctoral-students-will-solve-healthcare-challenges-in-pairs.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/Doctoral-students-will-solve-healthcare-challenges-in-pairs.aspxTeaming up to solve healthcare challenges<p><b>​Research on the border between technology and health is becoming increasingly important. Chalmers and Sahlgrenska Academy have now started a new collaboration, where researchers will work in pairs to solve healthcare challenges.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">As our population grows and we live longer, and previously fatal diseases can be cured or become chronic, the healthcare sector faces major challenges. New technology can support and provide solutions, and technology focusing on health is also rapidly developing. At the same time, collaboration between healthcare and engineering is prioritised. Chalmers University of Technology currently has a number of collaborations, in both research and education, with Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.</span><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Working in pairs</h2> <div>The recently started Gothenburg Research School of Health Engineering is a new way of tackling healthcare challenges. Doctoral students from Sahlgrenska Academy and Chalmers will work in pairs, one participant from each university. Together, they will solve problems identified by healthcare professionals. The initiative is partly funded by Region Västra Götaland.</div> <div>“We are very happy to now expand our collaboration through student pairs, which enables doctoral students in the fields of medicine and technology to work together with important research topics. At Chalmers, we would like to develop technology that will help the healthcare sector to meet future challenges, and we also see that close collaborations with both Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Sahlgrenska Academy strengthen our competences and make us an even more attractive choice for researchers and students”, says Stefan Bengtsson, Chalmers’ President.</div> <div>The universities are now, together, educating a new type of researcher and expert with knowledge in the areas of health, medicine and technology, says Agneta Holmäng, Dean of Sahlgrenska Academy.</div> <div>”This makes it possible to increase interdisciplinary collaborations in many different research areas, which in turn increases the chances of addressing healthcare challenges and specific topics where technical competence is becoming increasingly important.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">First: improved image analysis<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Health/Udda%20format/Malin-Barman_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:220px;height:293px" /><br /></h2> <div>Malin Barman, researcher at the department of Biology and Biological Engineering, is Chalmers’ coordinator<br />for the so-called research school. She is also part of a pair constellation; her counterpart Justin Schneiderman, who is also a researcher and coordinator, works at Sahlgrenska Academy.</div> <div>“Many of the doctoral students at Sahlgrenska work as physicians part-time, and researchers part-time. At Chalmers, our doctoral students do full-time research”, says Malin Barman.</div> <div>“The first projects are in the medtech field, focusing on improved image analysis. With the help of AI, new programmes for image analysis is developed, and this makes it possible to identify signs of, for example, incipient cardiovascular disease. Then, the idea is to expand and develop the research school to include, for example, biotechnology and data analysis, and also to apply AI in more areas. There are clearly many research topics that would benefit from close collaboration.”<br /><br /></div> <div>The overall goal of the research school is to increase collaboration and points of contact. But the initiative is also about shaping a broader research competence; individuals at the intersection of health and technology,<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Health/Udda%20format/Justin-Schneiderman_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:220px;height:293px" /><br /> who can understand and “talk to” both disciplines. To achieve this, each doctoral student has supervisors at both universities, and they will give lectures to each other, thereby sharing their skills. They also take a course together; a seminar series covering cross-border topics such as ethics, innovation, utilisation and AI.</div> <div>“The seminar series is also open to other doctoral students in the field of health”, says Malin Barman.</div> <div>A clear purpose of the seminar series is to provide time and opportunity for networking between researchers from different disciplines. The students will work in groups, but also get the chance to share experiences and skills in more unofficial contexts, such as over a lunch or around the coffee table.</div> <div>“We now hope for a big interest, from both Chalmers and Sahlgrenska Academy!”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Research made useful</h2> <div>There are many benefits of participating in the research school, according to Malin Barman. Chalmers’ doctoral students will gain increased knowledge about research and innovation – and challenges – within the hospital. They will also learn more about the organisation and structure of healthcare, and gain new medical knowledge. For Chalmers as a university, the initiative will be a way to get additional input from the healthcare sector, making it easier for researchers to focus on the right issues and use their expertise in a way that will benefit healthcare and society.</div> <div>“We will, without a doubt, strengthen our competence in the area of health. In addition, we get a clear link to utilisation of our research; we will make technical solutions that can be implemented more quickly in healthcare”, Malin Barman concludes.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>About the seminar series within Gothenburg Research School of Health Engineering</strong></div> <div>The seminar series in the field of health and technology will start in February 2021. The aim is to give doctoral students an in-depth study in areas that connect health and technology, such as innovation, utilisation, ethics and AI. The participants get three higher education points, and the plan is to give the series continuously each year.</div> <div>The seminar series include 10+ seminars, approximately one each month, held by various both external and internal lecturers with expert knowledge in each area.<br /><br /></div> <div>The goal is that the students after completing the course should: </div> <div>• Have gained a broader perspective and understanding of how one’s own research can be utilised and disseminated.  </div> <div>• Gain a greater understanding of how AI and medtech solutions can be helpful in healthcare.  </div> <div>• Be able to identify and discuss ethical aspects of their research.  </div> <div>• Know how to go about translating results from the research project into utilisation.  </div> <div>• Demonstrate and discuss their research project with key players and stakeholders from a utilisation and innovation perspective.<br /></div> <div><div>The seminar series is obligatory for doctoral students at the Gothenburg Research School of Health Engineering, but also open to other doctoral students working in the field of technology and health, at Chalmers and Sahlgrenska Academy. For questions, please get in touch with <a href="mailto:malin.barman@chalmers.se">Malin Barman</a>.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Three questions for Roman Naeem, Chalmers' doctoral students at <span>Gothenburg Research School of Health Engineering:</span></h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>What is your work about?<br /><br /></strong></span></div></div> <div>&quot;These days, most Artificial Intelligence systems utilise Deep Learning methods because of their recent advancements showing significant performance gains over traditional methods. Deep learning models are usually trained in a way called Supervised Learning, in which a large amount of data with sufficient variation is required to learn useful data features, and give appropriate outputs that could be used by medical<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Health/Udda%20format/Roman_Naeem_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:220px;height:288px" /><br />professionals. However, in medical imaging, such as MRI, CT scans and ultrasounds, labeling a large amount of data can be very time consuming and quite expensive, as we need highly-qualified individuals like doctors to label the data. A potential way of tackling this hurdle is utilising Semi-supervised Learning (SSL), which is the main subject of my work.<br /><br /></div> <div>As the name suggests, in SSL we only partly use supervised learning using the limited data that we have, and focus more on using the much more unlabeled data available to train the models. Specifically, I am working on developing algorithms that utilise SSL for analysing a dataset of CT examinations of around 30,000 individuals, collected in a population study by a few Swedish hospitals. Through this analysis, we hope to find and locate atherosclerosis in coronary arteries, which will help us in improving risk predictions for future myocardial infarction, or heart attack in layman’s terms.&quot;<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>What part/-s of your work is the most challenging?</strong></div> <div><br />&quot;Computer vision, like SSL, has seen a major rise in popularity in the recent years, so a lot of research is being done in the field. I think the most challenging aspect of my work is keeping track of and staying updated with all the new research that is being published, and taking inspiration and incorporating ideas in the new research with my own work to improve it.&quot;<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>What are the benefits (for you) in being a part of the Gothenburg Research School of Health Engineering?</strong><br /><br /></div> <div>&quot;There are quite a few benefits! But the main benefit would be being a part of a multidisciplinary group, which makes it easier to learn more about the characteristics and peculiarities of the downstream tasks – like automatic detection of features in a medical exam, that could lead to benefits like early diagnosis and preventive measures – for which my work will be used. My colleagues, coordinators and supervisors at Gothenburg Research School of Health Engineering are also a great asset in helping me further in my research.&quot;</div> <div>​<br />Text: Mia Malmstedt, Elin Lindström​<br /></div> <div>Photo, Malin Barman: Chalmers</div> <div>Photo, Justin Schneiderman: Malin Arnesson</div> <div>Photo, Roman Naeem: Siri Norelius<br /><span style="background-color:initial">Photo, x-ray: Pixabay</span></div>Mon, 15 Feb 2021 13:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-nano-weapon-against-resistant-bacteria.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-nano-weapon-against-resistant-bacteria.aspxNew nano-weapon against resistant bacteria<p><b>​Nanoparticles coated with graphene flakes and antibiotics. This antibacterial nano-weapon is the goal of a new Nordic research project co-ordinated by Professor Ivan Mijakovic at Chalmers. The project aims to deliver the next generation of treatments against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span><span>Bacterial infections that cannot be treated due to antibiotic resistance is a rising and acute global problem. More than 700,000 people worldwide die each year due to infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. </span></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><span>In a worst-case scenario presented in a UN report in 2018, we can, if no measures are taken, reach a situation by 2050 where the death toll due to these infections rises to 10 million per year. As it is a time-consuming process to develop new antibiotics, and today's antibiotics are rapidly becoming ineffective, innovations are needed quickly.</span></span></p> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Treatment of antibiotic resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>​</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><span style="background-color:initial"></span></span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/SysBio/IvanMijakovic_180327_340x400.jpg" alt="Ivan Mijakovic" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="width:240px;height:282px" />“This is the right time for scientists to mobilise and try to solve this problem, which will be a real threat to mankind in a decade or two. Traditionally we all tend to think that the solution is to find new antibiotics, but we could also try to find a disruptive new technology that is not based on antibiotic discovery,” says<strong> Ivan Mijakovic</strong>, Professor of Systems and Synthetic Biology at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering at Chalmers, w​ho is the co-ordinator of the new Nordic project.  </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The research </span><span>pro</span><span>ject will run </span><span>for three years, and in January 2021 it was awarded 15 MSEK by </span><a href="https://www.nordforsk.org/">Nordforsk</a><span>. The researchers will specifically be focusing on treatment of methicillin-resistant </span><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em><span> (MRSA), which, among other things, causes chronic skin infections and sepsis. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>MRSA can also infect tissues and organs inside the body, such as heart and lungs, and they can also grow on different kinds of implants used in health care. MRSA-infections are easily spread in hospitals and cause great suffering in affected patients. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Combine three techniques in a new way</span></h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The idea of the project is to combine three already established techniques in a completely new way to create a new system for drug delivery. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Metal nanoparticles, graphene flakes and antibiotics all have antibacterial properties. Combined they would be even more powerful, as these particles most likely can penetrate the bacterial biofilm formed at the area of infection and release the antibiotic there. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Biofilm is the thick layer of bacteria and the mucus they produce when they attach to a surface and start to multiply, and it creates a protective barrier for the bacteria. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Graphene flakes cut and kill bacteria</span></h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/SysBio/A%20Yurgens%201_340x400.jpg" alt="August Yurgens" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="width:240px;height:282px" />Ch</span><span>almers is one of the world leading universities in the research field of graphene. The idea of using graphene for medical treatments is relatively young but has great potential.  <strong>August Yurgens</strong> is Professor at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience at Chalmers. His research group is developing the process where the nanoparticles are coated axially with graphene flakes. </span></p></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“Sharp edges of graphene flakes placed vertically on a surface cut through the membrane of cells of a certain size, which <a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspx">research from Ivan and other scientists at Chalmers already has shown</a>.  Small bacterial cells are killed when they are cut by the sharp graphene edges, but human cells, which are bigger, are not harmed. The graphene flakes will be coated with the drug for transporting it deeper into the infected tissue. The antibiotics will then be released in the infected tissue gradually, &quot;says August Yurgens and continues: </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>&quot;Since some chemicals used as drugs are non-soluble in water, the main constituent of our bodies, we must find other ways of transporting the drugs within the body. The graphene coated nanoparticles could be a solution to this problem.” </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>His research group has made trials where they tried to grow graphene on silicon nanoparticles </span><span>−</span><span> </span><span> with promising results. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“Of course, we are facing some challenges since the nanoparticles are spherical and for most efficient result, they need to be covered evenly with graphene flakes. We have several ideas on how we can solve that,” he says. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Green nanoparticles and novel drugs​</span></h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The other Nordic partners are <a href="https://www.biosustain.dtu.dk/">DTU</a> in Denmark, and the research institute <a href="https://www.sintef.no/en/">SINTEF​</a> in Norway.  DTU will deliver the so-called green nanoparticles, which produced from plant or bacterial extracts, for an environmentally friendly production. </span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Researchers at SINTEF are developing new drugs with antibacterial properties, which will be loaded on the graphene coated nanoparticles. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">&quot;Mechanism that effectively can be used against MRSA&quot;</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">I<span>van Mijakovic’s research group will test the new nano-weapons for killing of bacterial biofilms. Ivan Mijakovic says that even if their study is successful, further obstacles must be overcome before this system can be used in patients. </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Graphene-based nanotechnology is not yet allowed in medical treatments within the EU. But, since this area has such potential, there are ongoing clinical trials to ensure safe treatments. </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span> “It usually takes decades to develop treatments like this. But we are at the forefront of developing a mechanism that we think can be effectively used against MRSA and other dangerous pathogens, and it is important that we test it and act now,” says Ivan Mijakovic.  </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p 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</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>Read more: </strong></span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspx">Spikes of graphene can kill bacteria on implants</a></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />​</a><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Graphite-nanoplatelets-on-medical-devices-prevent-infections-.aspx">Graphite nanoplatelets prevent infections​</a></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div></div>Tue, 02 Feb 2021 10:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/How-genetic-motifs-conduct-the-music-of-life.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/How-genetic-motifs-conduct-the-music-of-life.aspxHow genetic motifs conduct &quot;the music of life<p><b>​Our genetic codes control not only which proteins our cells produce, but also – to a great extent – in what quantity. This ground-breaking discovery, applicable to all biological life, was recently made by systems biologists at Chalmers University of Technology using supercomputers and artificial intelligence. Their research, which could also shed new light on the mysteries of cancer, was recently published in the scientific journal Nature Communications.​​​</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span>DNA molecules contain instructions for cells for producing various proteins. This has been known since the middle of the last century when the double helix was identified as the information carrier of life.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>But until now, the factor which determines what quantity of a certain protein will be produced has been unclear. Measurements have shown that a single cell can contain anything from a few molecules of a given protein, up to tens of thousands.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>With this new research, our understanding of the mechanisms behind this process, known as gene expression, has taken a big step forward. The group of Chalmers scientists have shown that most of the information for quantity regulation is also embedded in the DNA code itself. They have demonstrated that this information can be read with the help of supercomputers and AI.</span></p> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Comparable to an orche​stral score</span></h2> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Assistant Professor Aleksej Zelezniak, of Chalmers’ Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, leads the research group behind the discovery. </span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“You could compare this to an orchestral score. The notes describe which pitches the different instruments should play. But the notes alone do not say much about how the music will sound,” he explains. </span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Information for the tempo and dynamics of the music are also required, for example. But instead of written instructions such as <em>allegro</em> or <em>forte</em> in connection with the notation, the language of genetics spreads this information over large areas of the DNA molecule. “Previously, we could read the notes, but not how the music should be played. Now we can do both,” states Aleksej Zelezniak. </span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“Another comparison could be that now we have found the grammar rules for the genetic language, where perhaps before we only knew the vocabulary.”</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>What then is this grammar, which determines the quantity of gene expression? According to Aleksej Zelezniak, it takes the form of reoccurring patterns and combinations of the four ‘notes’ of genetics – the molecular building blocks designated A, C, G and T. These patterns and combinations are known as ‘motifs’. </span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The crucial factors are the relationships between these motifs – how often they repeat and at exactly which positions in the DNA code they appear.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“We discovered that this information is distributed over both the coding and non-coding parts of DNA – meaning, it is also present in the areas that used to be referred to as ‘junk DNA’.”</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>A discovery that applies t​o all biological life</span></h2> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Although there are other factors that also affect cells’ gene expression, according to the Chalmers researchers' study, the information embedded in the genetic code accounts for about 80 per cent of the process.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The researchers tested the method in seven different model organisms – from yeast and bacteria to fruit flies, mice, and humans – and found that the mechanism is the same. The discovery they have made is universal, valid for all biological life.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>According to Aleksej Zelezniak, the discovery would have not been possible without access to state-of-the-art supercomputers and AI. The research group conducted huge computer simulations both at Chalmers University of Technology and other facilities in Sweden.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“This tool allows us to look at thousands of positions at the same time, creating a kind of automated examination of DNA. This is essential for being able to identify patterns from such huge amounts of data.”</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Jan Zrimec, postdoctoral researcher in the Chalmers group and first author of the study, agrees, saying:</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“With previous technologies, researchers had to tell the system which motifs in the DNA code to search for. But thanks to AI, the system can now learn on its own, identifying different motifs and motif combinations relevant to gene expression.”</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>He adds that the discovery is also due to the fact they were examining a much larger part of DNA in a single sweep than had previously been done.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Fast value for the pharma​ceutical industry</span></h2> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Aleksej Zelezniak believes that the discovery will generate great interest in the research world, and that the method could become an important tool in several research fields – genetics and evolutionary research, systems biology, medicine, and biotechnology.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The new knowledge could also make it possible to better understand how mutations can affect gene expression in the cell and therefore, eventually, how cancers arise and function. The applications which could most rapidly be significant for the wider public are in the pharmaceutical industry.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“It is conceivable that this method could help improve the genetic modification of the microorganisms already used today as ‘biological factories’ – leading to faster and cheaper development and production of new drugs,” he speculates.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>Text: </strong>Björn Forsman</span><br /></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/SysBio/Fig4_drawing_simplified2_ENG.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Using the AI approaches, the researchers uncover regulatory rules that define which DNA motifs must be present together on a gen" style="margin:5px;width:750px;height:300px" /><br /><br /><br /></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="font-size:14px"><em>Using the AI approaches, the researchers uncover regulatory rules that define which DNA motifs must be present together on a gene and at which locations to regulate gene expression across a range of levels from low to high. Previous studies focus just on single motifs in single regulatory regions (marked ‘original motif’), whereas here they expand the view across multiple regulatory regions and multiple motifs (marked ‘additional motifs’).  <span style="font-size:14px"></span></em></span><span></span><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px"><i>Illustration: Jan Zrimec/Chalmers</i></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><br /></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300;outline:0px"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><span><strong>R</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>e</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>ad the article in <em>Nature Communications</em>:</strong></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19921-4">Deep learning suggests that gene expression is encoded in all parts of a co-evolving interacting gene regulatory structure</a></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300;background-color:rgb(255, 255, 255);outline:0px"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />​</a><span><strong>More about: mapping the motifs in DNA code</strong></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The researchers initially used DNA from yeast for their experiments. Self-learning algorithms, in the form of artificial neural networks, were trained to predict the relationship between DNA data and average amount of proteins in the cells.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>For yeast, it was found that 82 per cent of the variation in gene expression could be predicted using DNA data alone.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>When the same methodology was tested on six other organisms, including humans, the average association between DNA code and gene expression was measured at 60 per cent.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Further analyses of the expression of individual genes showed that what controls the level is the presence of certain motif combinations in the DNA code, which can be found in different parts of the DNA code – both in the coding and non-coding regions.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The research has been supported by NVIDIA Corporation, Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), SciLifeLab and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div><p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p>Thu, 28 Jan 2021 07:00:00 +0100