News: Energihttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyWed, 14 Apr 2021 17:54:07 +0200http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/2021-tandem-seminars.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/2021-tandem-seminars.aspx​This spring&#39;s tandem seminars<p><b>Here are Area of Advance Materials Science new exciting seminars all connected to the challenges of the future. Due to the pandemic, we hold most seminars online via zoom.  We will present the autumn and winter seminars on this page in the end of the summer.  If you miss a seminar, you will have the opportunity to see it afterwards. You find the link to the recording on this page.</b></p><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>UPCOMMING SEMINARS</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>:</strong></span><div><span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700">2</span></span><span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700">7 April:</span> <a href="/sv/styrkeomraden/material/kalendarium/Sidor/Tandem-Webinar-Materials-for-batteries.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Tandem Webinar – Materials for batteries</a></span><br /></div> <div>It’s time for our third Tandem Webinar held by Chalmers Area of Advance Materials Science. </div> <div>When: 27 April 2021, at noon (12 am). Place: Online. </div> <div>We will have two presentations dedicated to materials for batteries. Two hot topics will be covered, one on the use of digital twins for battery manufacturing and one on development and advanced modelling of battery electrolytes – from DFT to artificial intelligence. </div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">To login and participate, click on the following link: </span></div> <div><a href="https://chalmers.zoom.us/j/66540969416"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />https://chalmers.zoom.us/j/66540969416</a></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Password: 018200</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial;font-weight:700">4 May:</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><a href="/sv/styrkeomraden/material/kalendarium/Sidor/Tandem-Webinar--Design-for-new-sustainable-thermoplastics-and-their-nanocomposites.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Tandem Webinar – Design for new sustainable thermoplastics and their nanocomposites</a><br /></div> <div>It’s time for our fourth Tandem Webinar held by Chalmers Area of Advance Materials Science. </div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">When: 4 May 2021, at 11 am. Place: Online.</span></div> <div>In this tandem seminar, we will have two presentations dedicated to sustainable materials engineering. Two hot topics will be covered, one on the transfer of Chemistry from flask to extruder and one on the design of reactive extrusion methods for lignocellulosic nanocomposites towards large scale applications. This collaboration has been selected in 2020 by Genie Initiative at Chalmers.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700">T</span></span><span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700">he webinar is held on the platform zoom.</span> To login and participate, click on the following link: </span><br /></div> <div><a href="https://chalmers.zoom.us/j/65610819731">https://chalmers.zoom.us/j/65610819731</a></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Password: 913556</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700;background-color:initial">Wat</span><span style="font-weight:700;background-color:initial">ch the seminars on Chalmers Play</span><span style="font-weight:700;background-color:initial">:</span><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">TANDEM SEMINAR  –  MATERIALS FOR SOLAR ENERGY</span></div> <div>Materials for Solar Energy, 26 March, 2021. <span style="background-color:initial">Organizer: Chalmers Area of Advance Mater</span><span></span><span style="background-color:initial">ials Science.<br /></span>In this webinar we have two presentations dedicated to materials for solar energy conversion, specifically how we can manipulate the solar spectrum to make better use of it, will be covered. <span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><a href="https://play.chalmers.se/media/Tandem+Seminar+%E2%80%93+Materials+for+Solar+Energy/0_r16vpsvj">Chalmers Play: Tandem Webinar – Materials for Solar Energy</a><br /><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700;background-color:initial">TANDEM SEMINAR  –  MATERIALS FOR HEALTH</span><br /><span style="background-color:initial">Materials for Health, 25 February, 2021.  Organizer: Chalmers Area of Advance Mater</span><span style="background-color:initial">ials Science.<br /></span>In this webinar we  have two presentations dedicated to materials for health.  One on the design of bioinks for 3D-printing of cell-laden constructs and one on the development of novel medical device surfaces to prevent infections.<br /></div> <div><a href="https://play.chalmers.se/media/Tandem+Seminar+%E2%80%93+Materials+for+Health/0_c67wpmkf"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Chalmers Play: Tandem Webinar – Materials for Health</a></div> ​Tue, 13 Apr 2021 19:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Watch-the-webinar-Materials-for-Solar-Energy.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Watch-the-webinar-Materials-for-Solar-Energy.aspxWatch the webinar Materials for Solar Energy<p><b>​Watch the webinar Materials for Solar Energy​Thank all of you who participated in the tandem webinar, 26 March.</b></p><a href="https://play.chalmers.se/media/Tandem+Seminar+%E2%80%93+Materials+for+Solar+Energy/0_r16vpsvj"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />​Watch the webinar on Chalmers Play: Tandem Webinar – Materials for Solar Energy​</a><div>​<div><span style="background-color:initial">In this webinar we have two presentations dedicated to materials for solar energy conversion, specifically how we can manipulate the solar spectrum to make better use of it, will be covered. </span><div><strong>Program:</strong></div> <div><ul><li>Moderator: Professor Paul Erhart Condensed Matter and Materials Theory, Department of Physics, Chalmers.</li> <li>S<span style="background-color:initial">cience </span><span style="background-color:initial">Developing solid-state photon upconverters based on sensitized triplet–triplet annihilation, Angelo Munguzzi, Associate Professor - Università Degli Studi Milano Bicocca - Materials Science Department.​</span></li> <li>T<span style="background-color:initial">oward solid state singlet fission: Insights from studies of Diphenylisobenzofuran−Semiconductors and Pentacene-decorated gels, Maria Abrahamsson, Professor of Physical Chemistry at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology​.</span></li></ul></div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/materials/Calendar/Pages/Tandem-Seminar-–-Materials-for-Solar-Energy.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the webinar in the calendar</a></div></div></div>Thu, 01 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/tme/news/Pages/Swedish-photovoltaics-industry-in-the-shade.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/tme/news/Pages/Swedish-photovoltaics-industry-in-the-shade.aspxPhotovoltaics in the shade, despite opportunities<p><b>​The use of solar energy is growing in Sweden. But the photovoltaics panels mounted on Swedish rooftops and in solar parks are almost exclusively imported. New research from Chalmers University of Technology shows how Sweden could have had a domestic industry for production of photovoltaics. The lack of a clear national strategy is one of the reasons why it did not happen.</b></p><div>​A new article in the scientific journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews describes the growth of the solar energy industry in Sweden. The authors of the article are the Chalmers’ researchers Johnn Andersson, Hans Hellsmark and Björn Sandén at the Department of Technology Management and Economics, Division of Environmental Systems Analysis.</div> <div> </div> <div>With the expansion of solar energy, a successful installation industry has emerged in Sweden. The installed photovoltaics (PV) products, however, are developed and manufactured abroad, especially in China.</div> <div> </div> <div>“There is no reason why we could not have created a photovoltaics industry in Europe and Sweden as well. Initially, the idea was rather the opposite: ‘we can build a Swedish photovoltaics industry, but we will really not make use of solar energy here’. At the time, it was not thought that solar panels would be effective up here. Instead it was the industrial development that failed, because of the lack of right efforts”, says Professor Björn Sandén.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">No strategic support</h2></div> <div>There are many explanations why this happened. In the article, the authors discuss, among other things, the absence of strategic political support measures.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Political actors did not have a holistic perspective on development and therefore failed to create a cohesive innovation system, which can create conditions for domestic development in all parts of the photovoltaics value chain: from manufacturing to installation”, explains Johnn Andersson, whose doctoral thesis was the basis for a large part of the research.</div> <div> </div> <div>“If we had invested differently, we might have been able to participate in the industrialization process. It is not certain in any way, and it is not easy for a small country to manage something like this. But of course we can industrialize things here – If there is a will. A recent example is battery manufacturing, which is now gaining ground in Sweden as well. But when it comes to photovoltaics, there are few trying to see the whole picture and how to invest in the area strategically”, says Björn Sandén.</div> <div> </div> <div>The state has several important roles to play. It has access to instruments that no other actors have, can set rules for the market, create infrastructure, shape expectations and develop networks. Based on these conditions, it is up to entrepreneurs and other actors to act.</div> <div> </div> <div><em>Is it a lost race, is it too late for Sweden to catch up now?</em></div> <div> “We are still only at the beginning of a development. There are lots of untapped opportunities. Today, solar energy is only a few permille or percent of what it will be in the end, in terms of size. There is still a huge growth in all possible directions. As an example, we point to the thin films that can have special application areas. When you connect it with building materials or applications in vehicles or whatever it may be, many new opportunities will arise”, says Björn Sandén.</div> <div> </div> <div><em>What would be the point of manufacturing in Sweden, then? Apart from obvious benefits for Swedish economy and Swedish jobs, and perhaps shorter transports.</em> </div> <div>“More and more companies are thinking about the entire life cycle and the entire supply chain: What are the ethical and environmental consequences that occur in this chain. As for photovoltaics produced in China, there is a discussion about the use of coal energy to produce them, and what about the working conditions, and so on. When you start to think about the entire production chain and the consequences of it, it can affect where you want to locate the production. This can be an argument for placing it in Sweden, for example.”</div> <div> </div> <div>Björn Sandén believes there is a general benefit to think about climate change and industrial policy in unison:</div> <div> </div> <div>“You can gain a lot from thinking about these two issues at the same time, so you can take advantage of the industrial opportunities that come with the global energy transition. Especially for a country with advanced competencies like Sweden.”</div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/sv/institutioner/tme/nyheter/PublishingImages/solcellsforskarna_750x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><em>The researchers behind the study: </em><span><em>Johnn Andersson, Hans Hellsmark and Björn Sandén</em><span></span></span><br /> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">The history of the Swedish photovoltaics industry</h2> <div>The development can be divided in different phases. In the 1980s and 1990s, there was an advance of knowledge in thin film technology. It was discussed how this could be exploited in Sweden and attempts were also made to commercialize the technology. The foremost example is the company Solibro. They were bought by a German company, which in turn was taken over by a Chinese company. There was a lack of interest from the Swedish industry, one reason being the absence of earlier similar products.  There were also other tracks with different types of technology that led to smaller companies, but nothing of considerable size.</div> <div> </div> <div>During the 1990s, and detached from the previously mentioned development, a modular assembly industry started to grow in Sweden. Photovoltaic cells were imported, assembled, and then the finished modules were exported. This became a large industry for a while, before it was completely wiped out when prices fell sharply as international competition intensified and large production plants were built in China.</div> <div> </div> <div>As photovoltaics became cheaper and with the help of national subsidy programs the use of solar energy systems started to grow. Today, there is no production of photovoltaics modules left in the country. There are some smaller initiatives, such as university spin-offs and other small businesses in the area. But more than anything, there is a growing installation industry.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text: Daniel Karlsson</em> <br /></div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">The scientific article</h3> <div><a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136403212100188X" target="_blank">&quot;Photovoltaics in Sweden - Success or failure?&quot;</a> by Johnn Andersson, Hans Hellsmark, Björn Sandén</div> <div>Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 143, June 2021, 110894</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">How the research was carried out    </h3> <div>The research in the article is based on a socio-technical systems perspective on technological innovation. Description and analysis are based on interviews with various types of stakeholders, a comprehensive review of public support initiatives, scientific publications and news articles, as well as reviews of relevant reports and websites. The research has been funded by the Swedish Energy Agency.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div>Tue, 30 Mar 2021 10:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Big-breakthrough-for-’massless’-energy-storage.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Big-breakthrough-for-%E2%80%99massless%E2%80%99-energy-storage.aspxBig breakthrough for ’massless’ energy storage<p><b>Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology have produced a structural battery that performs ten times better than all previous versions. It contains carbon fibre that serves simultaneously as an electrode, conductor, and load-bearing material. Their latest research breakthrough paves the way for essentially ’massless’ energy storage in vehicles and other technology.</b></p><div>​The batteries in today's electric cars constitute a large part of the vehicles' weight, without fulfilling any load-bearing function. A structural battery, on the other hand, is one that works as both a power source and as part of the structure – for example, in a car body. This is termed ‘massless’ energy storage, because in essence the battery’s weight vanishes when it becomes part of the load-bearing structure. Calculations show that this type of multifunctional battery could greatly reduce the weight of an electric vehicle.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The development of structural batteries at Chalmers University of Technology has proceeded through many years of research, including <a href="https://news.cision.com/se/chalmers/r/kolfiber-kan-lagra-energi-i-karossen%2cc3179311">previous discoveries</a> involving certain types of carbon fibre. In addition to being stiff and strong, they also have a good ability to store electrical energy chemically. This work was named by Physics World as one of 2018’s ten biggest scientific breakthroughs.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The first attempt to make a structural battery was made as early as 2007, but it has so far proven difficult to manufacture batteries with both good electrical and mechanical properties. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>But now the development has taken a real step forward, with researchers from Chalmers, in collaboration with KTH Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, presenting a structural battery with properties that far exceed anything yet seen, in terms of electrical energy storage, stiffness and strength. Its multifunctional performance is ten times higher than previous structural battery prototypes.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/JohannaXu_LeifAsp20210303_05_webb.jpg" alt="Johanna Xu och Leif Asp granskar ett strukturellt batteri" style="margin:5px" /><br /><em>Doctor Johanna Xu with a newly manufactured structural battery cell in Chalmers’ composite lab, which she shows to Leif Asp. The cell consists of a carbon fibre electrode and a lithium iron phosphate electrode separated by a fibreglass fabric, all impregnated with a structural battery electrolyte for combined mechanical and electrical function. Image: Marcus Folino</em><br /><br /></div> The battery has an energy density of 24 Wh/kg, meaning approximately 20 percent capacity compared to comparable lithium-ion batteries currently available. But since the weight of the vehicles can be greatly reduced, less energy will be required to drive an electric car, for example, and lower energy density also results in increased safety. And with a stiffness of 25 GPa, the structural battery can really compete with many other commonly used construction materials. <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“Previous attempts to make structural batteries have resulted in cells with either good mechanical properties, or good electrical properties. But here, using carbon fibre, we have succeeded in designing a structural battery with both competitive energy storage capacity and rigidity,” explains Leif Asp, Professor at Chalmers and leader of the project.</div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Super light electric bikes and consumer electronics could soon be a reality</h2> <div>The new battery has a negative electrode made of carbon fibre, and a positive electrode made of a lithium iron phosphate-coated aluminium foil. They are separated by a fibreglass fabric, in an electrolyte matrix. Despite their success in creating a structural battery ten times better than all previous ones, the researchers did not choose the materials to try and break records – rather, they wanted to investigate and understand the effects of material architecture and separator thickness. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/JohannaXu_LeifAsp20210303_webb_3.jpg" alt="Strukturellt batteri" style="margin:5px" /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Now, a new project, financed by the Swedish National Space Agency, is underway, where the performance of the structural battery will be increased yet further. The aluminium foil will be replaced with carbon fibre as a load-bearing material in the positive electrode, providing both increased stiffness and energy density. The fibreglass separator will be replaced with an ultra-thin variant, which will give a much greater effect – as well as faster charging cycles. The new project is expected to be completed within two years. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Leif Asp, who is leading this project too, estimates that such a battery could reach an energy density of 75 Wh/kg and a stiffness of 75 GPa. This would make the battery about as strong as aluminium, but with a comparatively much lower weight.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/LeifAsp20210303_06_webb6.jpg" alt="Leif Asp" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:30px 40px;width:198px;height:255px" /><br />“The next generation structural battery has fantastic potential. If you look at consumer technology, it could be quite possible within a few years to manufacture smartphones, laptops or electric bicycles that weigh half as much as today and are much more compact”, says Leif Asp.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>And in the longer term, it is absolutely conceivable that electric cars, electric planes and satellites will be designed with and powered by structural batteries.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We are really only limited by our imaginations here. We have received a lot of attention from many different types of companies in connection with the publication of our scientific articles in the field. There is understandably a great amount of interest in these lightweight, multifunctional materials,” says Leif Asp.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read the article in the scientific journal Advanced Energy &amp; Sustainability Research:</div> <div><span><a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/aesr.202000093" title="A Structural Battery and its Multifunctional Performance">A Structural Battery and its Multifunctional Performance</a><a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/aesr.202000093" title="A Structural Battery and its Multifunctional Performance"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a></span></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More about: The research on structural batteries</h2> <div>The structural battery uses carbon fibre as a negative electrode, and a lithium iron phosphate-coated aluminium foil as the positive electrode. The carbon fibre acts as a host for the lithium and thus stores the energy. Since the carbon fibre also conducts electrons, the need for copper and silver conductors is also avoided – reducing the weight even further. Both the carbon fibre and the aluminium foil contribute to the mechanical properties of the structural battery. The two electrode materials are kept separated by a fibreglass fabric in a structural electrolyte matrix. The task of the electrolyte is to transport the lithium ions between the two electrodes of the battery, but also to transfer mechanical loads between carbon fibres and other parts.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The project is run in collaboration between Chalmers University of Technology and KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden's two largest technical universities. The battery electrolyte has been developed at KTH. The project involves researchers from five different disciplines: material mechanics, materials engineering, lightweight structures, applied electrochemistry and fibre and polymer technology. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Funding has come from the European Commission's research program Clean Sky II, as well as the US Airforce.</div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">For more information contact:</h2> <div>Leif Asp, Professor at the Division of Materials and Computational Mechanics</div> <div>Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div>+46 31-772 15 43, <a href="mailto:leifasp@chalmers.se">leif.asp@chalmers.se</a></div> <div> </div>Sun, 21 Mar 2021 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Christian-Azar-Science-and-Politics.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Christian-Azar-Science-and-Politics.aspxFacts are one thing – values another<p><b>In the climate debate you can often hear the argument that ‘science requires us to cut emissions’. But that argument is problematic,” says Christian Azar, Professor of Energy and Environment at Chalmers University of Technology. In a filmed keynote presentation at the Act Sustainable Research Conference he questions the &quot;science-demands&quot; rhetoric in a discussion about the relationship between science and politics.</b></p><div><strong>Christian Azar, why is it problematic or even wrong to claim that “the science requires” various actions. </strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">– Science is essentially a method of finding out what the world is like. But what we should do about the various problems humanity faces is a different matter. Science alone cannot give you the answers to that. To find out what we should do about, for example, environmental degradation, we don’t just need knowledge about the problem but also values, and science cannot tell us what those values should be. In essence we can’t say that science requires us to do this or that. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span>This difference between facts and values, between what is and what we ought to do, is something we humans have been aware of for centuries. The philosopher David Hume stated already back in the 18th century that we cannot derive an ‘ought’ from an ‘is’. Time after time many people fall back on the idea that science can tell us what we ought to do. It’s a wrong and unfortunate idea. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>But politicians are not experts on the climate, energy technologies, human behaviour, policy instruments and so on, nor can we expect them to be. Shouldn’t the experts decide when the issues are so complex? That’s why we have experts. </strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span>Yes, but it’s matter of exercising care. What’s needed is some sort of balance. Experts have to determine how to operate an electrical power grid or a nuclear power plant, and I would obviously rather be operated on by a surgeon than a politician. But when it comes to how much money should be invested in healthcare, the environment or schools, we can’t let experts decide that since these are interests that compete with one another, and it’s a matter of what we value most. These issues are quite central to both the climate issue and the pandemic (where a similar discussion about pitting experts and politicians against one another has emerged). How different goals should be valued against one another is ultimately a political question. We can’t get away from that. </div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong>Why is this important?</strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">I think there are two reasons for that. </span><span style="background-color:initial">Firstly, it’s a matter of trust. If researchers say that “the science requires” something when that’s not correct, then there’s a risk that we undermine people's trust in science. I believe that that is something we should be careful about because many powerful actors are already trying to feed that mistrust – for instance politicians like Donald Trump – but for completely different reasons. We should simply be careful not to give them legitimate cause for complaint.</span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span>Secondly, it’s a matter of democracy. If some experts were to decide what we should do in key issues for our society, then we’d be giving up democracy to some extent. This is particularly important in matters such as the climate issue since this is an issue we’ll need to wrestle with for decades to come – and where some actors – scientists, policy makers and environmental movements alike – argue that people have to change large parts or their entire way of life to solve the climate challenge. However, in order to be able to implement major changes over an extended period, it’s necessary for them to have democratic legitimacy. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What does this mean for the discussion on <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Planetary_boundaries">planetary boundaries​</a> – a key concept in the sustainability debate? They are often presented as boundaries set by science for how much impact we can have on the planet. Researchers such as Johan Rockström, who has been a driving force in the development of these boundaries, say that they are “non-negotiable”. </strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span>I think that such formulations are very unfortunate. The goals formulated in their articles may be produced by researchers, but they are also subjective and something reasonable people may disagree about. The more of various pollutants we emit the greater the damage to nature, but the precise level of damage we should accept is a matter of values and not something that science can determine as being correct or not. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">The same applies to risks. There’s a great deal of uncertainty in the climate system, for example. Let’s assume that we believe that extremely serious damage would arise if the temperature were to rise by two degrees, but we are not certain. The damage could also arise below or above two degrees. What level should we then aim for? We’d like to have a certain safety margin against really dire consequences. But how great should that margin be? It depends on how much risk we want to take and that has to do with our values. It’s not something science can determine for us. </span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span>Finally, I’d also like to stress that I don’t think that there is anything wrong with researchers taking part in the public debate. We researchers are also citizens. I also think it’s reasonable for researchers to be involved and suggest targets for various environmental problems – the issues are so complex that experts are needed in the process and it can’t just be left to politics. So there needs to be an interaction between experts in specific areas and politicians – it’s entirely unavoidable. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span>The problem comes when researchers (and others) try to make it appear that their proposals are pure science when they are not. Instead, they should acknowledge that the proposed goals are also based on their values and ethical aspects – and that these values can, of course, also be discussed and questioned. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In addition to the filmed presentation, you can also read <a href="https://www.dn.se/kultur-noje/christian-azar-misstag-att-lata-vetenskap-ga-fore-politik-i-klimatfragan">Azar’s article about the boundary between politics and science in the newspaper Dagens Nyheter</a> (only available in Swedish though).</div>Wed, 10 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Electromobility-test-bed-is-being-established.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Electromobility-test-bed-is-being-established.aspxElectromobility test bed is being established<p><b>​Chalmers and RISE are now commencing construction of Sweden&#39;s electromobility test centre: Swedish Electric Transport Laboratory (SEEL). Electrification of the transport sector is to be speeded up at SEEL&#39;s three plants in Gothenburg, Nykvarn and Borås.</b></p><div>​Through close collaboration between the twin owners Chalmers and RISE, the Swedish government and the industrial partners CEVT, Scania, Volvo Cars and the Volvo Group, the test centre will be a key resource – open to collaboration with players throughout Europe – in terms of making Sweden a world leader in the field of electromobility. Together, the governmental allocation, the industry partners’ commitments and proprietorial responsibility on the part of RISE and Chalmers will allow an investment of SEK 1.3bn in the test centre. </div> <div> </div> <div>“Sweden has a long tradition of vehicle manufacture, and we are at the same time one of the world's most innovative countries. Through SEEL we are making use of these strengths to electrify the transport sector, reduce emissions and simultaneously increase Sweden's competitiveness and create jobs in Sweden. This will be an important tool with which the Swedish automotive industry can steer global development towards increased sustainability,&quot; says Ibrahim Baylan, Sweden’s Minister for Business, Industry and Innovation.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Diversity of test possibilities for electrification</h2> <div>At the test centre’s three plants, industry, institutes and academia will test most of the types of technology and safety consideration required for electrified transport – including innovative new concepts at early stages of development. The test objects comprise a number of different kinds of components for electrical drivelines and energy storage intended for vehicles and ships, as well as systems for propulsion and energy management. Physically this means gearboxes, shaft systems, hubs, electric motors, power electronics, batteries and fuel cells.</div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20210101-20210631/Stefan%20Bengtsson_175x225px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /> <div>The marine sector and aviation will also greatly benefit from the test centre – for testing and as a meeting place and platform for wide-ranging knowledge development in the field of electromobility.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Together with RISE, Chalmers has chosen to assume active proprietorial responsibility for the test bed, so as to facilitate the most efficient support for the Swedish and European automotive industries in their rapid transition to electromobility. The venture simultaneously provides us with excellent opportunities to further consolidate our research and education in the field of electromobility,&quot; says Stefan Bengtsson, President and CEO of Chalmers.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">A wide range will be offered at the biggest plant in Gothenburg<br /></h2> <div>The biggest of SEEL's three plants is being constructed in Säve, Gothenburg, involving a planned area of 13,000 square metres. The plant will be able to meet the needs of developers of heavy and light vehicles, trucks and buses, construction equipment, aircraft and ships. Tests will be possible on all types of battery systems, including components from subcontractors. A wide range of testing in the field of electromobility will be offered at Säve. </div> <div> </div> <div>Safety tests will be the focus of the Borås plant, related to charging, short circuits, vibrations, mechanical shock, extreme temperatures and fire risks. In Nykvarn the emphasis of work will be on research and testing in the field of battery technology, and dynamic testing of components for heavy vehicles.</div> <div> </div> <div>“SEEL will increase the Swedish automobile industry’s competitiveness and contribute towards Sweden remaining at the cutting edge with regard to innovation within the transport sector. SEEL is very well placed to become a world-leading test centre for electromobility, and it will assume an important role in the automobile industry's transitional work,&quot; says Pia Sandvik, CEO of RISE.</div> <div> </div> <div>The automotive industry in Sweden has set ambitious targets for its technology transition, and the companies' active involvement is promoting the strategic relevance of the technical testing opportunities currently being established. The test centre will simultaneously act as an open platform that will also welcome researchers, other big industrial companies, SMEs, professionals and students wishing to develop their knowledge. </div> <div> </div> <div>The Swedish Electric Transport Laboratory will be operational by the second quarter of 2023. Procurement of contracts and equipment is currently in progress.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about the Swedish Electric Transport Laboratory (SEEL)</h3> <div>The Swedish Electric Transport Laboratory (SEEL) is a test centre for research and development in the field of electromobility, and is owned and run by Chalmers and RISE as a joint venture. The aim is to consolidate efficient knowledge development and improve the conditions for collaboration in the field of electrified transport in Sweden and Europe. Players in the automotive, aerospace and maritime sectors plus other companies developing technology in relevant areas will gain a common platform on which to meet, and will jointly benefit from the knowledge development and technology shift currently taking place. Researchers at colleges of higher education, universities and research institutes will at the same time gain access to advanced research infrastructure in the field of electromobility. The test bed will be operational by 2023.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about the test bed as part of a European investment in a value chain for batteries </h3> <div>The SEK 575m state aid from the Swedish Energy Agency for the electromobility lab SEEL is being provided within the parameters of an Important Project of Common European Interest (IPCEI), in order to create a European value chain for batteries. The ten-year project involves 17 participants from seven member states. It includes major European investments in the field of raw and advanced materials for batteries, battery cells &amp; modules and entire battery systems, as well as in the use, recycling and refinement of recycled materials. The investment is being made within the parameters of the <a href="https://www.eba250.com/" target="_blank">European Battery Alliance</a>.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read more: <a href="https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/ip_19_6705" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />State aid: The European Commission is approving public aid totalling €3.2 billion from seven member states for a pan-European research &amp; innovation project across the entire value chain for batteries</a></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Photo:</strong> Anna-Lena Lundqvist<br /></div>Mon, 08 Mar 2021 11:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/The-awareness-has-increased--but-its-not-time-to-lean-back.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/The-awareness-has-increased--but-its-not-time-to-lean-back.aspxThe awareness has increased but it is not time to lean back<p><b>​Today, March 8, the International Women&#39;s Day, celebrates globally the women&#39;s economic, political and social progress around the world. It is also a day highlights the changes that are needed for us to achieve a more equal world. Maria Abrahamsson and Maria Grahn, leaders of the materials and energy areas at Chalmers, two traditionally male-dominated areas in society, reflects on the situation at Chalmers when it comes to gender equality.</b></p><a href="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/nyheter/Sidor/Medvetenheten-har-okat-men-vi-kan-inte-sla-oss-till-ro.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />​Rea​d more in Swedish</a>Mon, 08 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Prestigious-knowledge-prize-awarded-to-Filip-Johnsson.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Prestigious-knowledge-prize-awarded-to-Filip-Johnsson.aspxPrestigious prize awarded to energy researcher<p><b>​Filip Johnsson, Professor of Sustainable Energy Systems at Chalmers, is the recipient of the Åforsk Foundation&#39;s prestigious Knowledge Award for 2021. The prize money is SEK 100,000, with candidate prize winners being nominated by the rectors of universities and colleges.​</b></p>​The Åforsk Foundation awards the prize each year to a researcher who has conducted outstanding dissemination of knowledge. The 2021 award goes to Filip Johnsson at the Department Space, Earth and Environment. Filip is one of Sweden's most prominent researchers in the field of sustainable energy systems.​<div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>Congratulations on being awarded this prize! How does it feel?</strong></div> <div>&quot;I was very happy and surprised when I got the phone call that I had received the award. It is of course a great honor, and it reflects the fact that the research group that I have built up together with my talented colleagues produces relevant results&quot;.</div> <div> </div> <div>The motivation for the award states, among other things, that you are very active as a committed disseminator of knowledge outside the academic sphere. This is exemplified, among other things, by the countless interviews that you gave given to newspapers and on radio and television, your strong participation in the public discussion forum, and a number of debate articles that have appeared in the daily press. <em>&quot;Filip does not shy away from the big issues and his multifaceted work is permeated by knowledge as a means of contributing to sustainable societal development.&quot;</em></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Why is it important to get involved in the public debate?</strong></div> <div>&quot;My research is concerned with studying how the current energy system can be switched to a more sustainable system. In this arena, many exciting things are happening right now, even though there remain great challenges and different views as to what should be done. Hopefully, a commitment to the public debate can contribute to the debate becoming more objective and the avoidance of “non-fact-based” polarization of opinions&quot;, says Filip Johnsson.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Here is Åforsk's motivation for the 2021 winners:</strong></div> <div>&quot;Professor Filip Johnsson, who is active at the Department of Space, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Energy Technology at Chalmers University of Technology, is awarded the 2021 Knowledge Prize by the ÅForsk Foundation. Filip Johnsson is one of Sweden's most prominent researchers in the field of sustainable energy systems, and is very active as a committed disseminator of knowledge outside the academic sphere. This is exemplified, among other things, by countless interviews in newspapers, radio and television, participation with great commitment in the public discussion, and a number of debate articles in the daily press. Filip does not shy away from the big issues and his multifaceted work is permeated by knowledge as a means of contributing to sustainable societal development. ”</div> <div> </div> <div>Information about previous prize winners can be found on the foundation's website: <a href="https://aforsk.com/">aforsk.se​</a></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>About the prize</strong></div> <div>Every year since 1995, the Åforsk Foundation has awarded a prize for outstanding contributions to the dissemination of knowledge from universities and colleges. The disseminators of one's own knowledge, as well as messages about the importance of research have previously been awarded prizes. The prize of SEK 100,000 is personal.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>About</strong> <strong>ÅForsk</strong></div> <div>Since its inception in 1985, ÅForsk has had the purpose of working for research and development as its main areas. The foundation is the largest shareholder in the listed company ÅF Pöyry AB (AFRY). The grants that are distributed come from share dividends from the company. The board consists of members from the founders - King. The Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, IVA, Skogsindustrierna, Energiföretagen Sverige, and ÅF Pöyry AB (AFRY).</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>By: Ann-Christine Nordin​</div> <div><br /></div>Fri, 05 Mar 2021 01:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Goran-Gustafsson-prize-to-Kasper-Moth-Poulsen.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Goran-Gustafsson-prize-to-Kasper-Moth-Poulsen.aspxGöran Gustafsson prize to Kasper Moth-Poulsen<p><b>Kasper Moth-Poulsen, Professor at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Chalmers, receives Göran Gustafsson Prize &quot;for the development of molecular energy storage systems&quot;. The prize is considered as one of Sweden´s largest, for researchers.</b></p><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;To be awarded the Göran Gustafsson Prize means a lot to me. It shows that one has done something good, and it is nice to be noticed for that&quot;, says Kasper Moth-Poulsen in a press release from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.</span><div>How we can store energy from the sun is one of our big problems for a sustainable future. Kasper Moth-Poulsen believes that he has found part of the solution. His group of researchers at Chalmers has, among other things, developed a specially designed molecule that can capture the energy from the sun's rays and emit it as heat much later. When the molecule is hit by the sunlight it changes shape into an energy-rich isomer that can be stored. By using the molecule in a window film, it may be possible to heat homes and have a comfortable indoor environment, throughout the day.<br /><br /></div> <div>With the help of the solar energy storage system, Most, which the research group has developed, it is possible to save energy for up to 18 years. But very recently, they have also started a new project to develop a material that can both store solar energy and absorb energy from the environment, as well as emit it as heat. Instead of liquids, they will now use solids. The material should be able to do several things at the same time, and the hope is that the two different systems will be able to be combined in the future.</div> <div>This year it is 30 years since the Göran Gustafsson Prize for Young Researchers in Sweden was awarded for the first time. In addition to Chalmers the 2021 prize winners are from Linköping University, Karolinska Institutet and KTH. They will each receive more than SEK 5 million. Most famous among previous laureates is Emmanuelle Charpentier, last year's Nobel laureate in chemistry, who received the Göran Gustafsson Prize in 2014.</div> <div><br /><strong>Read More:</strong></div> <div><a href="https://www.kva.se/sv/pressrum/pressmeddelanden/goran-gustafssonprisen-2021-forskare-som-lagrar-solenergi-och-studerar-celler-far-27-miljoner"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />More on Göran Gustavsson Prize in press release from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences</a>  (Swedish)<br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/kasper-moth-poulsen.aspx" style="outline:0px"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Kasper Moth-Poulsen​</a><br /></div> <div><br /></div>Thu, 04 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/ict/news/Pages/Call-for-ICT-seed-projects-2022.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/ict/news/Pages/Call-for-ICT-seed-projects-2022.aspxCall for ICT seed projects 2022<p><b>Call for proposals within ICT strategic areas and involving interdisciplinary approaches.​</b></p><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Important dates:</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li><b>Submission date: </b>April 29, 2021</li> <li><b>Notification:</b> mid-June, 2021</li> <li><b>Expected start of the project:</b> January 2022</li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Background</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><b>The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Area of Advance</b> (AoA) provides financial support for SEED projects, i.e., projects involving innovative ideas that can be a starting point for further collaborative research and joint funding applications. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>We will prioritize research projects that <strong>involve researchers from different research communities</strong> (for example across ICT departments or between ICT and other Areas of Advances) and who have not worked together before (i.e., have no joint projects/publications). </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Research projects involving a <strong>gender-balanced team and younger researchers</strong>, e.g., assistant professors, will be prioritized. Additionally, proposals related to <strong>sustainability</strong> and the UN Sustainable Development Goals are encouraged.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><b><em>Note: </em></b><em>Only researchers employed at Chalmers can apply and can be funded. PhD students cannot be supported by this call.  Applicants and co-applicants of research proposals funded in the 2020 and 2021 ICT SEED calls cannot apply. </em></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><b>The total budget of the call is 1 MSEK.</b> We expect to fund 3-5 projects</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Details of the call</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li>The project should include at least two researchers from different divisions at Chalmers (preferably two different departments) and who should have complementary expertise, and no joint projects/publications.</li> <li>Proposals involving teams with good gender balance and involving assistant professors will be prioritized.</li> <li>The project should contribute to sustainable development. </li> <li>The budget must be between 100 kSEK and 300 kSEK, including indirect costs (OH). The budget is mainly to cover personnel costs for Chalmers employees (but not PhD students). The budget cannot cover costs for equipment or travel costs to conferences/research visits. </li> <li>The project must start in early 2022 and should last 3-6 months. </li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">What must the application contain?</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The application should be at most 3 pages long, font Times–roman, size 11. In addition, max 1 page can be used for references. Finally, an additional one-page CV of each one of the applicants must be included (max 4 CVs). Proposals that do not comply with this format will be desk rejected (no review process).</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The proposal should include:</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>a)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>project title </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>b)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>name, e-mail, and affiliation (department, division) of the applicants</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>c)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the research challenges addressed and the objective of the project; interdisciplinary aspects should be highlighted; also the applicant should discuss how the project contributes to sustainable development, preferably in relation to the <a href="https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/" title="link to UN webpage">UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)</a>. Try to be specific and list the targets within each Goal that are addressed by your project.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>d)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the project description </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>e)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the expected outcome (including dissemination plan) and the plan for further research and funding acquisition</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>f)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the project participants and the planned efforts</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>g)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the project budget and activity timeline
</div> <div><div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Evaluation Criteria</h3> <div><ul><li>Team composition</li> <li>Interdisciplinarity</li> <li>Novelty</li> <li>Relevance to AoA ICT and Chalmers research strategy as well as to SDG</li> <li>Dissemination plan</li> <li>Potential for further research and joint funding applications</li> <li>Budget and project feasibility​</li></ul></div></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Submission</span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The application should be submitted as one PDF document to</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="https://easychair.org/my/conference?conf=seed2022">https://easychair.org/conferences/?conf=seed2022</a></span></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><br /></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The proposals will be evaluated by the AoA ICT management group and selected Chalmers researchers.

</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><b><br /></b></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><b>Questions</b> can be addressed to <a href="mailto:erik.strom@chalmers.se">Erik Ström</a> or <a href="mailto:durisi@chalmers.se">Giuseppe Durisi​</a> </span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">General information about the ICT Area of Advance can be found at <a href="/en/areas-of-advance/ict/Pages/default.aspx">www.chalmers.se/ict ​</a></span><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Information%20and%20Communication%20Technology/About%20us/IKT_logo_600px.jpg" alt="" /><span style="background-color:initial">​​<br /></span></div>Mon, 01 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/How-short-circuits-in-lithium-metal-batteries-can-be-prevented.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/How-short-circuits-in-lithium-metal-batteries-can-be-prevented.aspxHow lithium metal batteries can be safe and effective<p><b>There are high hopes for the next generation of high energy-density lithium metal batteries, but before they can be used in our vehicles, there are crucial problems to solve. An international research team led by Chalmers has now developed concrete guidelines for how the batteries should be charged and operated, maximising efficiency while minimising the risk of short circuits.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Lithi</span><span style="background-color:initial">um metal batteries are one of several promising concepts that could eventually replace the lithium-ion batteries which are currently widely used – particularly in various types of electric vehicles.</span><div><span style="background-color:initial"><div>The big advantage of this new battery type is that the energy density can be significantly higher. This is because one electrode of a battery cell – the anode – consists of a thin foil of lithium metal, instead of graphite, as is the case in lithium-ion batteries. Without graphite, the proportion of active material in the battery cell is much higher, increasing energy density and reducing weight. Using lithium metal as the anode also makes it possible to use high-capacity materials at the other electrode – the cathode. This can result in cells with three to five times the current level of energy-density.</div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Avoiding the ’needles’ which cause punctures and internal short circuits</span></h2></div> </span><span style="background-color:initial"><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Dendrites_ENG_250x250.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:200px" />​The big problem, however, is safety. In two recently published scientific articles in the prestigious journals Advanced Energy Materials and Advanced Science, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, together with colleagues in Russia, China and Korea, now present a method for using the lithium metal in an optimal and safe way. It results from designing the battery in such a way that, during the charging process, the metal does not develop the sharp, needle-like structures known as dendrites, which can cause short circuits, and, in the worst cases, lead to the battery catching fire. Safety during charging and discharging is the key factor. </div> <div><div><br /></div></div> </span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Shizhao_Xiong_.jpg_webb.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:138px;width:120px" /><div><span style="background-color:initial">“Sho</span><span style="background-color:initial">rt circ</span><span style="background-color:initial">uiting in lithium metal batteries usually occurs due to the metal depositing unevenly during the charging cycle and the formation of dendrites on the anode. These protruding needles cause the anode and the cathode to come into direct contact with one another, so preventing their formation is therefore crucial. Our guidance can now contribute to this,” says researcher Shizhao Xiong at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</span><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial"> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Optimised charging provides safer batteries</h2> <div>There are a number of different factors that control how the lithium is distributed on the anode. In the electrochemical process that occurs during charging, the structure of the lithium metal is mainly affected by the current density, temperature and concentration of ions in the electrolyte.</div> <div>The researchers used simulations and experiments to determine how the charge can be optimised based on these parameters. The purpose is to create a dense, ideal structure on the lithium metal anode.</div></span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Aleksandar%20Matic%20200930_webb.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:140px;width:120px" /><span style="background-color:initial"><div><br /></div> <div>“Getting the ions in the electrolyte to arrange themselves exactly right when they become lithium atoms during charging is a difficult challenge. Our new knowledge about how to control the process under different conditions can contribute to safer and more efficient lithium metal batteries,” says Professor Aleksandar Matic from Chalmers’ Department of Physics.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Mia Halleröd Palmgren</div> <div><strong>Portrait photos: </strong>Anna-Lena Lundqvist (Aleksandar Matic), Chalmers (Shizhao Xiong)</div></span><span style="background-color:initial"> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More about: The research project</h2> <div>The international research collaboration between Sweden, China, Russia and Korea is led by Professor Aleksandar Matic and researcher Shizhao Xiong at the Department of Physics at Chalmers. The research in Sweden is funded by FORMAS, STINT, the EU and Chalmers Areas of Advance.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Read the scientific article <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/advs.202003301">‘Insight into the Critical Role of Exchange Current Density on Electrodeposition Behavior of Lithium Metal’</a> in Advanced Science. The article is written by Yangyang Liu, Xieyu Xu, Matthew Sadd, Olesya O. Kapitanova, Victor A. Krivchenko, Jun Ban, Jialin Wang, Xingxing Jiao, Zhongxiao Song, Jiangxuan Song, Shizhao Xiong and Aleksandar Matic. </div> <div>The researchers are active at Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology in Russia, Xi’an Jiaotong University in China and at Chalmers University of Technology.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read the scientific article <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/aenm.202002390">‘Role of Li ‐ Ion Depletion on Electrode Surface: Underlying Mechanism for Electrodeposition Behavior of Lithium Metal Anode’ ​</a>in Advanced Energy Materials. The article is written by Xieyu Xu, Yangyang Liu, Jang ‐ Yeon Hwang, Olesya O. Kapitanova, Zhongxiao Song, Yang ‐ Kook Sun, Aleksandar Matic and Shizhao Xiong. </div> <div>The researchers are active at Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia, Xi’an Jiaotong University in China, Chonnam National University and Hanyang University in Korea, as well as at Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More about: Next generation batteries</h2> <div>There are a number of battery concepts which researchers hope will eventually be able to replace today's lithium-ion batteries. Solid state batteries, lithium-sulphur batteries and lithium air batteries are three oft-mentioned examples. In all these concepts, lithium metal needs to be used on the anode side to match the capacity of the cathode and maximise the energy density of the cell.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The goal is to produce safe, high energy-density batteries that take us further, at lower cost – both economically and environmentally. So far, researchers estimate that a breakthrough to the next generation of batteries is at least ten years away.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At Chalmers, research is conducted in a number of projects in the field of batteries and the researchers participate in both national and international collaborations and are part of the large European initiative 2030+ in the <a href="https://www.big-map.eu/">BIGMAP ​</a>project.</div> <div style="text-align:right"><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/Battery_Illustration_Muhammad750x340.jpg" alt="" />​<span style="background-color:initial">​Illustration: Muhammad Abdelhamid​</span><span style="background-color:initial;font-family:inherit;font-size:20px"> </span></div></div></span><span style="background-color:initial"> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More battery news from Chalmers.</h2> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-spreadable-way-to-stabilise-solid-state-batteries.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />A spreadable way to stabilise solid state batteries</a></div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/Testbed-for-electromobility-gets-575-million-SEK.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Testbed for electromobility gets 575 million SEK</a></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-new-concept-could-make-more-environmentally-friendly-batteries-possible-.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />A new concept for more sustainable batteries </a></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Graphene_sponge_paves_the_way_for_future_batteries.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Graphene sponge paves the way for future batteries​</a></div> <div><a href="/en/news/Pages/Three-out-of-eight-to-Chalmers-in-Vinnova-investment.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />New center for Swedish batteries</a></div> <div><br /></div> </span><a href="https://www.batteriessweden.se/"></a><div style="display:inline !important"><a href="https://www.batteriessweden.se/">Read more about Swedish battery research on the website for Batteries Sweden (BASE)</a><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://www.batteriessweden.se/">  ​</a> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>For m</span><span>ore information contact:</span></h2></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Shizhao-Xiong.aspx">Shizhao Xiong</a>, Researcher, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 7726284, <a href="mailto:shizhao.xiong@chalmers.se">shizhao.xiong@chalmers.se</a></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Aleksandar-Matic.aspx">Aleksandar Matic​</a>, Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 772 51 76, <a href="mailto:%20matic@chalmers.se">matic@chalmers.se​</a></div> <div></div></span></div>Tue, 19 Jan 2021 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/production-gap.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/production-gap.aspxDo something constructive of the report&#39;s message<p><b>​The pandemic may offer a rare opportunity for countries to transition to a new and more sustainable world, when recovery packages are to be distributed. This is stated by researchers in a new report, which also shows that current emission levels of carbon dioxide are incompatible with the climate targets of 1.5 to 2 degrees temperature increase. Filip Johnsson, professor of sustainable energy systems at Chalmers University of Technology, has read the report and comments on it here.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">It has been five years since the Paris Agreement was concluded. The planned extraction of fossil fuels in the world will make the agreement’s global warming goals impossible to meet. A special report, <a href="https://productiongap.org/">The Production Gap​</a>, was launched in December 2020. Researchers from several research institutes together with the UN's environmental program examined how much fossil fuels are planned to be used by 2030 and compared their use with the fossil-fuel reduction required to limit global warming according to climate goals. The gap has grown since last year.<br /><br /></span><div><img src="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/nyheter/PublishingImages/filipj.jpg" alt="Filip Johnsson" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />“The report shows a far too large gap between how much the world's fossil fuel use would need to be reduced and different countries' plans to utilize their fossil fuels. In many cases, plans are being made for the expansion of fossil fuel use, and in many cases fossil fuels are being subsidized. It is important to remember that there are many countries, unlike countries such as Sweden, which have large domestic reserves of fossil fuels and they tend to use their resources. We pointed out that challenge a couple of years ago in Dagens Nyheter: <a href="https://www.dn.se/debatt/ingen-minskning-av-fossil-energi-trots-storsatsning-pa-fornybart/">No reduction in fossil energy despite a major investment in renewables​</a>”, says Filip Johnsson.<br /><br /></div> <div>“The positive thing is that many companies have started to communicate that they intend to become climate neutral at a certain year and that this should include all emissions resulting from their products, including emissions in connection with the extraction of materials and inputs, emissions of production and emissions caused by using the product”, says Filip Johnsson, who hopes that many politicians, business leaders and actors in the financial market will embrace the message in the report.<br /><br /></div> <div><div><strong>The pandemic has been going on for a while</strong>. Is it even possible to change course and meet climate targets now when many industries are fighting for their survival and the government is forced to present crisis package after crisis package?</div> <div>“I think there is a will among many politicians. But much of the measures and the support that has been decided on so far are to eliminate short-term effects on redundancies and unemployment, and then the capacity to act to influence is not so great. But now time has come to plan for a change”.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>What do you think is the best thing about the report?</strong></div> <div>“That it shows in black and white that it is urgent to change the development. Not least to find ways for the EU and Sweden to establish so-called border adjustments so that carbon intensive products imported from fossil-rich countries are subject to the same carbon dioxide tax as we will have within the EU. There are many indications that it would accelerate the phasing out of fossil fuels in countries such as China and other countries, from which we import much of our consumer goods. It must be “out of fashion” with fossil fuels”.</div></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Who should read the report?</strong></div> <div>“It is more like the opposite, who shouldn’t read it? However, it is important not to become too pessimistic and instead start doing something constructive of the report's message”, Filip Johnsson concludes.<br /><br />By: Ann-Christine Nordin</div> <div><br /></div> Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/50-million-for-research-on-a-sustainable-energy-system.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/50-million-for-research-on-a-sustainable-energy-system.aspx50 million for research on a sustainable energy system<p><b>​Mistra, the Swedish foundation for strategic environmental research has decided to grant the program proposal Mistra Electric Transition with Energiforsk and Chalmers University of Technology as the main applicant for the call &quot;Energy transitions - a systems perspective&quot;. The program’s vision is to accelerate a fair and competitive transition to a sustainable and efficient energy system.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Mistra Electric Transition has three primary goals:<br /><br /></span><div><ul><li><span style="text-indent:-18pt;background-color:initial">To describe technically feasible and cost-effective solutions that lead to a fossil-free energy system, with a special focus on electrification and to connect different sectors.</span></li> <li>To analyze how fossil-free technologies and infrastructures can implement at the pace required to achieve Sweden's emissions targets.</li> <li>To show how the energy transition can support a positive socio-economic development. The program is allocated a maximum of SEK 50 million over four years</li></ul> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“Mistra Electric Transition can make a real difference to accelerate the ongoing positive transformation of the Swedish energy system. We are very happy and proud that Mistra gives us the confidence to implement the program together with a fantastic team. The issues we will work with are at the absolute forefront of the field, and through close collaboration between researchers and companies, we hope that the results will have a direct impact and application”, says Markus Wråke, CEO of Energiforsk, which will be the program host.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“I am very much looking forward to working with the program. Together with the Swedish energy industry and Energiforsk, I believe that we will show the great potential in connecting the energy sector and other industries, and also provide support for how the transition can be carried out in the best way”, says Filip Johnsson, professor of sustainable energy systems at Chalmers, who led the work of drafting the program proposal.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">The programme's objectives involve technical, as well as social and economic methods and aspects, to increase the possibilities for an energy system in line with Sweden's climate goal of net zero emissions by 2045. Technical results and conclusions will be balanced together with political and social feasibility.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“In the current call, we received many exciting ideas and high-quality proposals. The program that is now being funded focuses on the possibilities of electrification and the interaction between different sectors. Technically feasible and cost-effective development paths are in focus, as is the connection to social and political opportunities. The program is characterized by an innovative methodological approach and a strong focus on societal benefits, fair adjustment and industrial competitiveness. All these parts will be needed in the transition to a fossil-free welfare society”, says Linda Bell, Mistra's program manager.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><b>Special studies in the transport and industrial sectors</b></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Instead of focusing on electricity, heating, transport and industry separately, the approach is electrification and sector connections. However, Mistra Electric Transition will in particular study the transport and industrial sectors, the connections between them and their relationship to the electricity system, in order to increase the understanding of how each sector can contribute to a change. Case studies with the companies involved and other stakeholders will be an important part of the results' application.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“There are a number of research initiatives in the energy field and our approach at Mistra has been to address the complexity of the system as a whole, with an environmental strategic and long-term perspective. Our programs work transdisciplinary and intersectoral, leading to innovative approaches and solutions. Now that many regions and countries have set goals and roadmaps to achieve fossil freedom, there is a great demand for research and innovation that contributes with knowledge and concrete solutions along the way”, says Linda Bell.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><b>FACTS:<br /> </b><span lang="EN-US">Energiforsk will host the program and the work will be carried out in an interdisciplinary consortium together with Chalmers, IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, University of Exeter, Lund University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU. <b></b></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Svenska Kraftnät, Stockholm Exergi, Fortum, Nordion Energi, Göteborg Energi, Vattenfall, Hitachi-ABB, Egain and Utilifeed, as well as other stakeholders also participate in the program.</span></p> </div>Mon, 14 Dec 2020 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/66-million-to-Mistra-Carbon-Exit-for-a-second-research-phase.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/66-million-to-Mistra-Carbon-Exit-for-a-second-research-phase.aspx66 million to Mistra Carbon Exit for the conversion to net zero emissions<p><b>​​Mistra has decided to allocate funding for a second phase of Mistra Carbon Exit of up to SEK 66 million over the next four years. Program manager Lars Zetterberg is convinced that the program results will contribute to Sweden&#39;s conversion to net zero emissions.</b></p>Following an evaluation by an international panel of experts,  the Mistra board has decided to allocate research funding for the program for a second phase. The panel recommends that the various parts of the program be linked together and that the program work to ensure that content and results have a clearer impact on society. ​<br /><div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– At a time when the consequences of a changing climate are becoming increasingly clear, Mistra Carbon Exit plays an extremely important role by contributing with scientific knowledge on how the transition to a fossil-free society should take place. It’s very satisfying that the program has been approved in the evaluation and now can proceed in a second phase, says Thomas Nilsson, program manager Mistra. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Lars Zetterberg, Program Manager for Mistra Carbon Exit:  </div> <div>– We are very happy that Mistra gives us continued confidence and support for Mistra Carbon Exit. We are convinced that our results will contribute to Sweden's conversion to net zero emissions. Our approach to value chains has proven to be effective as it helps us understand obstacles and identify new opportunities. Our close collaboration with companies and authorities is a strong contribution to making research relevant and facilitating its application. It will be very fun to continue working with this group. We feel very honored and will take on the task with great enthusiasm. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Mistra Carbon Exit, with IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute as prog</span><span style="background-color:initial">ram host, started April 1, 2017. </span><span style="background-color:initial">The program develops new knowledge and strategies for how Swedish society and Swedish companies can be pioneers in offering products and services with low or no carbon dioxide emissions. The vision is to contribute to making Sweden an important international role model in climate work. </span><span style="background-color:initial"> ​</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– It will be extremely exciting and stimulating to continue working in this program. The work in the first phase will now be a solid basis for further analysis. We have also created a fantastic collaboration between the researchers and also with various customers for the program, says Filip Johnsson, professor of energy technology at Chalmers University of Technology, and scientific chef, Mistra Carbon Exit.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about Mistra Carbon Exit</h3> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Mistra has contributed SEK 56 million in the first phase of four years.  The program's consortium also includes Chalmers </span><span style="background-color:initial">University of Technology</span><span style="background-color:initial">, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Gothenburg University, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Linköping University and the Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, as well as the three research institutes Resources for the Future in Washington DC, the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin and the Center for European Policy Studies in Brussels. A large number of companies, authorities and interest groups also participate.  </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://www.mistracarbonexit.com/news/2020/12/9/sek-66-million-to-mistra-carbon-exit-for-the-conversion-to-net-zero-emissions">Mistra Carbon Exit website</a>. </span></div>Thu, 10 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Plug-in-hybrid-vehicles-have-an-important-role-to-play-for-electrification-of-personal-transport.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Plug-in-hybrid-vehicles-have-an-important-role-to-play-for-electrification-of-personal-transport.aspxPlug-in hybrid vehicles have an important role to play for electrification of personal transport<p><b>​Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are those which can run on both electricity and fossil fuels. So how environmentally friendly are they? And how well can they help prepare for an eventual transition to a fully fossil-free vehicle sector? A unique study from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, now shows that PHEVs are often driven as much on electricity as ‘pure’ electric cars, with a range of about 130 km.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Profilbilder/Ahmet_Mandev_170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">“In comparing a large number of multi-car households, we can see that households owning a fossil-fuel vehicle, and a PHEV,  can drive as many purely electric kilometres as a household owning a fossil fuel vehicle and a fully electric one,” says Ahmet Mandev, doctoral student at Chalmers.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>After processing the data of four million driving days of PHEVs, Ahmet Mandev can also say how charging should take place to maximise electric power, while minimising fuel consumption and emissions.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Despite the fact that over 20 years have passed since the first mass-produced PHEV car appeared on the market, many questions remain regarding optimal usage of such vehicles. These are questions that Ahmet Mandev, a doctoral student at the Department of Space, Earth and Environmental Science at Chalmers, aimed to answer in his doctoral studies, supervised by Associate Professor Frances Sprei.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The reason why we want to take a closer look at PHEVs is that there are different views on their role in electrifying personal transport. It is vital to learn as much as we can about their electrical potential, so that we can determine which policy instruments – laws, regulations and subsidies – can be most effective for such vehicles,” says Ahmet Mandev.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the first of the studies included in his licentiate thesis The Role of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Electrifying Personal Transport - Analysis of Empirical Data from North America, he processed and analysed one year of driving data for 71 households in California.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“It is easy to see the breakdown of the kilometres for which a PHEV uses the electric motor or the internal combustion engine. But the unique thing about this study is that we looked at the household level – we mapped all the vehicles in different multi-car households. Then we saw how many kilometres a household travelled using electric power and compared that between households which own a fully electric car, or a PHEV, alongside a conventional vehicle,” he explains.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>As usual with all types of electric vehicles, range is an important factor. The study shows that households with a fully  electric car and a conventional car, drive on average 45 percent of their total kilometres on electricity, while the households with a PHEV, and a conventional car, reached 46 percent electric operation on average. This is despite the fact that the range for the vehicles at full electric operation was 130 km for the electric car – in the case of this study, the Nissan Leaf – and just under half for the plug-in hybrid - 56 kilometres.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/EoM/Profilbilder/Frances_Sprei_170x220_2.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />&quot;​The reason that the PHEV performs better, despite the considerably shorter range, is that it is taken more often for the longer journeys. So then at least some distance of those trips is driven using electricity. The figures also show that the PHEVs are more often used while another person in the household is using the conventional vehicle. The range for both BEVs and PHEVs have increased since the study, but the results are still relevant and show that plug-in hybrid vehicles have an important role to play when it comes to electrification of personal transport. As the next step it will be interesting to follow up the effect of these longer ranges on electrification rates”, says Frances Sprei.</div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Most important to charge overnight</h3> <div>Another issue that Ahmet Mandev investigated was how and when to charge a PHEV to get as many electrically driven kilometres as possible, with the lowest possible fuel consumption and emissions. In two other studies, he used about 4 million driving days of data, collected over a ten-year period from the plug-in hybrid model Chevrolet Volt. By processing the data, Ahmet Mandev calculated how often the vehicles were charged, and can thus empirically prove several points about the PHEVs.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The most positive effects result from charging your car once a day – perhaps not so surprising. But Ahmet Mandev made a further discovery which did stand out.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“If you decrease from charging your car every night, to 90 percent of nights, emissions triple – from 1.7 kg of carbon dioxide to 5.7 kg for 100 kilometres of driving. Fuel consumption increases in a similar way, from 0.7 liters for 100 kilometers to 2.5 liters. These are still low emissions and low levels of fuel consumption, but it is a big difference for such a small change in behaviour,” he explains.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The PHEVs in the study achieve a high share of 76 percent of kilometers driven on electricity, provided, that they are fully charged once a day. Ahmet Mandev and Frances Sprei point out that supplementary charging during the day also gives positive effects, but for maximum effect, a full charge overnight is the best option.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“In our studies, we focused on studying data and drawing conclusions about charging and electric operation based on that. But if one were to translate our results into policy suggestions, it would be to give more people the opportunity to recharge vehicles overnight. Currently, many people, for example those who live in apartment buildings, do not have that opportunity,” says Ahmet Mandev.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In his further doctoral studies, he plans to make international comparisons, to see how charging patterns and electric power differ between countries with different conditions, laws and guidelines regarding PHEVs. Based on this, it will then be possible to see which policy guidelines and recommendations would make the biggest difference. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text and photos: Christian Löwhagen. </em></div> <div><em>Illustration by </em><a href="https://thenounproject.com/term/hybrid-car/1962529/"><em>Chaowalit Koetchuea​, the Noun Project</em></a><em>, arranged by Christian Löwhagen. </em></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research was financed by the Swedish Electromobility centre and carried out in collaboration with UC Davis in California and the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovations Research in Germany. </div> <div><br /></div> </div>Fri, 04 Dec 2020 07:00:00 +0100