News: Energi related to Chalmers University of TechnologyWed, 20 Jan 2021 10:39:36 +0100 lithium metal batteries can be safe and effective<p><b>There are high hopes for the next generation of high energy-density lithium metal batteries, but before they can be used in our vehicles, there are crucial problems to solve. An international research team led by Chalmers has now developed concrete guidelines for how the batteries should be charged and operated, maximising efficiency while minimising the risk of short circuits.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Lithi</span><span style="background-color:initial">um metal batteries are one of several promising concepts that could eventually replace the lithium-ion batteries which are currently widely used – particularly in various types of electric vehicles.</span><div><span style="background-color:initial"><div>The big advantage of this new battery type is that the energy density can be significantly higher. This is because one electrode of a battery cell – the anode – consists of a thin foil of lithium metal, instead of graphite, as is the case in lithium-ion batteries. Without graphite, the proportion of active material in the battery cell is much higher, increasing energy density and reducing weight. Using lithium metal as the anode also makes it possible to use high-capacity materials at the other electrode – the cathode. This can result in cells with three to five times the current level of energy-density.</div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Avoiding the ’needles’ which cause punctures and internal short circuits</span></h2></div> </span><span style="background-color:initial"><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Dendrites_ENG_250x250.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:200px" />​The big problem, however, is safety. In two recently published scientific articles in the prestigious journals Advanced Energy Materials and Advanced Science, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, together with colleagues in Russia, China and Korea, now present a method for using the lithium metal in an optimal and safe way. It results from designing the battery in such a way that, during the charging process, the metal does not develop the sharp, needle-like structures known as dendrites, which can cause short circuits, and, in the worst cases, lead to the battery catching fire. Safety during charging and discharging is the key factor. </div> <div><div><br /></div></div> </span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Shizhao_Xiong_.jpg_webb.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:138px;width:120px" /><div><span style="background-color:initial">“Sho</span><span style="background-color:initial">rt circ</span><span style="background-color:initial">uiting in lithium metal batteries usually occurs due to the metal depositing unevenly during the charging cycle and the formation of dendrites on the anode. These protruding needles cause the anode and the cathode to come into direct contact with one another, so preventing their formation is therefore crucial. Our guidance can now contribute to this,” says researcher Shizhao Xiong at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</span><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial"> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Optimised charging provides safer batteries</h2> <div>There are a number of different factors that control how the lithium is distributed on the anode. In the electrochemical process that occurs during charging, the structure of the lithium metal is mainly affected by the current density, temperature and concentration of ions in the electrolyte.</div> <div>The researchers used simulations and experiments to determine how the charge can be optimised based on these parameters. The purpose is to create a dense, ideal structure on the lithium metal anode.</div></span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Aleksandar%20Matic%20200930_webb.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:140px;width:120px" /><span style="background-color:initial"><div><br /></div> <div>“Getting the ions in the electrolyte to arrange themselves exactly right when they become lithium atoms during charging is a difficult challenge. Our new knowledge about how to control the process under different conditions can contribute to safer and more efficient lithium metal batteries,” says Professor Aleksandar Matic from Chalmers’ Department of Physics.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Mia Halleröd Palmgren</div> <div><strong>Portrait photos: </strong>Anna-Lena Lundqvist (Aleksandar Matic), Chalmers (Shizhao Xiong)</div></span><span style="background-color:initial"> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More about: The research project</h2> <div>The international research collaboration between Sweden, China, Russia and Korea is led by Professor Aleksandar Matic and researcher Shizhao Xiong at the Department of Physics at Chalmers. The research in Sweden is funded by FORMAS, STINT, the EU and Chalmers Areas of Advance.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Read the scientific article <a href="">‘Insight into the Critical Role of Exchange Current Density on Electrodeposition Behavior of Lithium Metal’</a> in Advanced Science. The article is written by Yangyang Liu, Xieyu Xu, Matthew Sadd, Olesya O. Kapitanova, Victor A. Krivchenko, Jun Ban, Jialin Wang, Xingxing Jiao, Zhongxiao Song, Jiangxuan Song, Shizhao Xiong and Aleksandar Matic. </div> <div>The researchers are active at Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology in Russia, Xi’an Jiaotong University in China and at Chalmers University of Technology.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read the scientific article <a href="">‘Role of Li ‐ Ion Depletion on Electrode Surface: Underlying Mechanism for Electrodeposition Behavior of Lithium Metal Anode’ ​</a>in Advanced Energy Materials. The article is written by Xieyu Xu, Yangyang Liu, Jang ‐ Yeon Hwang, Olesya O. Kapitanova, Zhongxiao Song, Yang ‐ Kook Sun, Aleksandar Matic and Shizhao Xiong. </div> <div>The researchers are active at Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia, Xi’an Jiaotong University in China, Chonnam National University and Hanyang University in Korea, as well as at Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More about: Next generation batteries</h2> <div>There are a number of battery concepts which researchers hope will eventually be able to replace today's lithium-ion batteries. Solid state batteries, lithium-sulphur batteries and lithium air batteries are three oft-mentioned examples. In all these concepts, lithium metal needs to be used on the anode side to match the capacity of the cathode and maximise the energy density of the cell.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The goal is to produce safe, high energy-density batteries that take us further, at lower cost – both economically and environmentally. So far, researchers estimate that a breakthrough to the next generation of batteries is at least ten years away.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At Chalmers, research is conducted in a number of projects in the field of batteries and the researchers participate in both national and international collaborations and are part of the large European initiative 2030+ in the <a href="">BIGMAP ​</a>project.</div> <div style="text-align:right"><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/Battery_Illustration_Muhammad750x340.jpg" alt="" />​<span style="background-color:initial">​Illustration: Muhammad Abdelhamid​</span><span style="background-color:initial;font-family:inherit;font-size:20px"> </span></div></div></span><span style="background-color:initial"> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More battery news from Chalmers.</h2> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-spreadable-way-to-stabilise-solid-state-batteries.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />A spreadable way to stabilise solid state batteries</a></div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/Testbed-for-electromobility-gets-575-million-SEK.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Testbed for electromobility gets 575 million SEK</a></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-new-concept-could-make-more-environmentally-friendly-batteries-possible-.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />A new concept for more sustainable batteries </a></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Graphene_sponge_paves_the_way_for_future_batteries.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Graphene sponge paves the way for future batteries​</a></div> <div><a href="/en/news/Pages/Three-out-of-eight-to-Chalmers-in-Vinnova-investment.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />New center for Swedish batteries</a></div> <div><br /></div> </span><a href=""></a><div style="display:inline !important"><a href="">Read more about Swedish battery research on the website for Batteries Sweden (BASE)</a><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial"><a href="">  ​</a> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>For m</span><span>ore information contact:</span></h2></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Shizhao-Xiong.aspx">Shizhao Xiong</a>, Researcher, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 7726284, <a href=""></a></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Aleksandar-Matic.aspx">Aleksandar Matic​</a>, Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 772 51 76, <a href="">​</a></div> <div></div></span></div>Tue, 19 Jan 2021 07:00:00 +0100 something constructive of the report&#39;s message<p><b>​The pandemic may offer a rare opportunity for countries to transition to a new and more sustainable world, when recovery packages are to be distributed. This is stated by researchers in a new report, which also shows that current emission levels of carbon dioxide are incompatible with the climate targets of 1.5 to 2 degrees temperature increase. Filip Johnsson, professor of sustainable energy systems at Chalmers University of Technology, has read the report and comments on it here.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">It has been five years since the Paris Agreement was concluded. The planned extraction of fossil fuels in the world will make the agreement’s global warming goals impossible to meet. A special report, <a href="">The Production Gap​</a>, was launched in December 2020. Researchers from several research institutes together with the UN's environmental program examined how much fossil fuels are planned to be used by 2030 and compared their use with the fossil-fuel reduction required to limit global warming according to climate goals. The gap has grown since last year.<br /><br /></span><div><img src="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/nyheter/PublishingImages/filipj.jpg" alt="Filip Johnsson" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />“The report shows a far too large gap between how much the world's fossil fuel use would need to be reduced and different countries' plans to utilize their fossil fuels. In many cases, plans are being made for the expansion of fossil fuel use, and in many cases fossil fuels are being subsidized. It is important to remember that there are many countries, unlike countries such as Sweden, which have large domestic reserves of fossil fuels and they tend to use their resources. We pointed out that challenge a couple of years ago in Dagens Nyheter: <a href="">No reduction in fossil energy despite a major investment in renewables​</a>”, says Filip Johnsson.<br /><br /></div> <div>“The positive thing is that many companies have started to communicate that they intend to become climate neutral at a certain year and that this should include all emissions resulting from their products, including emissions in connection with the extraction of materials and inputs, emissions of production and emissions caused by using the product”, says Filip Johnsson, who hopes that many politicians, business leaders and actors in the financial market will embrace the message in the report.<br /><br /></div> <div><div><strong>The pandemic has been going on for a while</strong>. Is it even possible to change course and meet climate targets now when many industries are fighting for their survival and the government is forced to present crisis package after crisis package?</div> <div>“I think there is a will among many politicians. But much of the measures and the support that has been decided on so far are to eliminate short-term effects on redundancies and unemployment, and then the capacity to act to influence is not so great. But now time has come to plan for a change”.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>What do you think is the best thing about the report?</strong></div> <div>“That it shows in black and white that it is urgent to change the development. Not least to find ways for the EU and Sweden to establish so-called border adjustments so that carbon intensive products imported from fossil-rich countries are subject to the same carbon dioxide tax as we will have within the EU. There are many indications that it would accelerate the phasing out of fossil fuels in countries such as China and other countries, from which we import much of our consumer goods. It must be “out of fashion” with fossil fuels”.</div></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Who should read the report?</strong></div> <div>“It is more like the opposite, who shouldn’t read it? However, it is important not to become too pessimistic and instead start doing something constructive of the report's message”, Filip Johnsson concludes.<br /><br />By: Ann-Christine Nordin</div> <div><br /></div> Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 million for research on a sustainable energy system<p><b>​Mistra, the Swedish foundation for strategic environmental research has decided to grant the program proposal Mistra Electric Transition with Energiforsk and Chalmers University of Technology as the main applicant for the call &quot;Energy transitions - a systems perspective&quot;. The program’s vision is to accelerate a fair and competitive transition to a sustainable and efficient energy system.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Mistra Electric Transition has three primary goals:<br /><br /></span><div><ul><li><span style="text-indent:-18pt;background-color:initial">To describe technically feasible and cost-effective solutions that lead to a fossil-free energy system, with a special focus on electrification and to connect different sectors.</span></li> <li>To analyze how fossil-free technologies and infrastructures can implement at the pace required to achieve Sweden's emissions targets.</li> <li>To show how the energy transition can support a positive socio-economic development. The program is allocated a maximum of SEK 50 million over four years</li></ul> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“Mistra Electric Transition can make a real difference to accelerate the ongoing positive transformation of the Swedish energy system. We are very happy and proud that Mistra gives us the confidence to implement the program together with a fantastic team. The issues we will work with are at the absolute forefront of the field, and through close collaboration between researchers and companies, we hope that the results will have a direct impact and application”, says Markus Wråke, CEO of Energiforsk, which will be the program host.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“I am very much looking forward to working with the program. Together with the Swedish energy industry and Energiforsk, I believe that we will show the great potential in connecting the energy sector and other industries, and also provide support for how the transition can be carried out in the best way”, says Filip Johnsson, professor of sustainable energy systems at Chalmers, who led the work of drafting the program proposal.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">The programme's objectives involve technical, as well as social and economic methods and aspects, to increase the possibilities for an energy system in line with Sweden's climate goal of net zero emissions by 2045. Technical results and conclusions will be balanced together with political and social feasibility.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“In the current call, we received many exciting ideas and high-quality proposals. The program that is now being funded focuses on the possibilities of electrification and the interaction between different sectors. Technically feasible and cost-effective development paths are in focus, as is the connection to social and political opportunities. The program is characterized by an innovative methodological approach and a strong focus on societal benefits, fair adjustment and industrial competitiveness. All these parts will be needed in the transition to a fossil-free welfare society”, says Linda Bell, Mistra's program manager.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><b>Special studies in the transport and industrial sectors</b></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Instead of focusing on electricity, heating, transport and industry separately, the approach is electrification and sector connections. However, Mistra Electric Transition will in particular study the transport and industrial sectors, the connections between them and their relationship to the electricity system, in order to increase the understanding of how each sector can contribute to a change. Case studies with the companies involved and other stakeholders will be an important part of the results' application.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“There are a number of research initiatives in the energy field and our approach at Mistra has been to address the complexity of the system as a whole, with an environmental strategic and long-term perspective. Our programs work transdisciplinary and intersectoral, leading to innovative approaches and solutions. Now that many regions and countries have set goals and roadmaps to achieve fossil freedom, there is a great demand for research and innovation that contributes with knowledge and concrete solutions along the way”, says Linda Bell.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><b>FACTS:<br /> </b><span lang="EN-US">Energiforsk will host the program and the work will be carried out in an interdisciplinary consortium together with Chalmers, IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, University of Exeter, Lund University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU. <b></b></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Svenska Kraftnät, Stockholm Exergi, Fortum, Nordion Energi, Göteborg Energi, Vattenfall, Hitachi-ABB, Egain and Utilifeed, as well as other stakeholders also participate in the program.</span></p> </div>Mon, 14 Dec 2020 07:00:00 +0100 million to Mistra Carbon Exit for the conversion to net zero emissions<p><b>​​Mistra has decided to allocate funding for a second phase of Mistra Carbon Exit of up to SEK 66 million over the next four years. Program manager Lars Zetterberg is convinced that the program results will contribute to Sweden&#39;s conversion to net zero emissions.</b></p>Following an evaluation by an international panel of experts,  the Mistra board has decided to allocate research funding for the program for a second phase. The panel recommends that the various parts of the program be linked together and that the program work to ensure that content and results have a clearer impact on society. ​<br /><div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– At a time when the consequences of a changing climate are becoming increasingly clear, Mistra Carbon Exit plays an extremely important role by contributing with scientific knowledge on how the transition to a fossil-free society should take place. It’s very satisfying that the program has been approved in the evaluation and now can proceed in a second phase, says Thomas Nilsson, program manager Mistra. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Lars Zetterberg, Program Manager for Mistra Carbon Exit:  </div> <div>– We are very happy that Mistra gives us continued confidence and support for Mistra Carbon Exit. We are convinced that our results will contribute to Sweden's conversion to net zero emissions. Our approach to value chains has proven to be effective as it helps us understand obstacles and identify new opportunities. Our close collaboration with companies and authorities is a strong contribution to making research relevant and facilitating its application. It will be very fun to continue working with this group. We feel very honored and will take on the task with great enthusiasm. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Mistra Carbon Exit, with IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute as prog</span><span style="background-color:initial">ram host, started April 1, 2017. </span><span style="background-color:initial">The program develops new knowledge and strategies for how Swedish society and Swedish companies can be pioneers in offering products and services with low or no carbon dioxide emissions. The vision is to contribute to making Sweden an important international role model in climate work. </span><span style="background-color:initial"> ​</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– It will be extremely exciting and stimulating to continue working in this program. The work in the first phase will now be a solid basis for further analysis. We have also created a fantastic collaboration between the researchers and also with various customers for the program, says Filip Johnsson, professor of energy technology at Chalmers University of Technology, and scientific chef, Mistra Carbon Exit.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about Mistra Carbon Exit</h3> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Mistra has contributed SEK 56 million in the first phase of four years.  The program's consortium also includes Chalmers </span><span style="background-color:initial">University of Technology</span><span style="background-color:initial">, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Gothenburg University, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Linköping University and the Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, as well as the three research institutes Resources for the Future in Washington DC, the German Institute for Economic Research in Berlin and the Center for European Policy Studies in Brussels. A large number of companies, authorities and interest groups also participate.  </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="">Mistra Carbon Exit website</a>. </span></div>Thu, 10 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 hybrid vehicles have an important role to play for electrification of personal transport<p><b>​Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are those which can run on both electricity and fossil fuels. So how environmentally friendly are they? And how well can they help prepare for an eventual transition to a fully fossil-free vehicle sector? A unique study from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, now shows that PHEVs are often driven as much on electricity as ‘pure’ electric cars, with a range of about 130 km.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Profilbilder/Ahmet_Mandev_170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">“In comparing a large number of multi-car households, we can see that households owning a fossil-fuel vehicle, and a PHEV,  can drive as many purely electric kilometres as a household owning a fossil fuel vehicle and a fully electric one,” says Ahmet Mandev, doctoral student at Chalmers.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>After processing the data of four million driving days of PHEVs, Ahmet Mandev can also say how charging should take place to maximise electric power, while minimising fuel consumption and emissions.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Despite the fact that over 20 years have passed since the first mass-produced PHEV car appeared on the market, many questions remain regarding optimal usage of such vehicles. These are questions that Ahmet Mandev, a doctoral student at the Department of Space, Earth and Environmental Science at Chalmers, aimed to answer in his doctoral studies, supervised by Associate Professor Frances Sprei.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The reason why we want to take a closer look at PHEVs is that there are different views on their role in electrifying personal transport. It is vital to learn as much as we can about their electrical potential, so that we can determine which policy instruments – laws, regulations and subsidies – can be most effective for such vehicles,” says Ahmet Mandev.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the first of the studies included in his licentiate thesis The Role of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles in Electrifying Personal Transport - Analysis of Empirical Data from North America, he processed and analysed one year of driving data for 71 households in California.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“It is easy to see the breakdown of the kilometres for which a PHEV uses the electric motor or the internal combustion engine. But the unique thing about this study is that we looked at the household level – we mapped all the vehicles in different multi-car households. Then we saw how many kilometres a household travelled using electric power and compared that between households which own a fully electric car, or a PHEV, alongside a conventional vehicle,” he explains.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>As usual with all types of electric vehicles, range is an important factor. The study shows that households with a fully  electric car and a conventional car, drive on average 45 percent of their total kilometres on electricity, while the households with a PHEV, and a conventional car, reached 46 percent electric operation on average. This is despite the fact that the range for the vehicles at full electric operation was 130 km for the electric car – in the case of this study, the Nissan Leaf – and just under half for the plug-in hybrid - 56 kilometres.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/EoM/Profilbilder/Frances_Sprei_170x220_2.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />&quot;​The reason that the PHEV performs better, despite the considerably shorter range, is that it is taken more often for the longer journeys. So then at least some distance of those trips is driven using electricity. The figures also show that the PHEVs are more often used while another person in the household is using the conventional vehicle. The range for both BEVs and PHEVs have increased since the study, but the results are still relevant and show that plug-in hybrid vehicles have an important role to play when it comes to electrification of personal transport. As the next step it will be interesting to follow up the effect of these longer ranges on electrification rates”, says Frances Sprei.</div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Most important to charge overnight</h3> <div>Another issue that Ahmet Mandev investigated was how and when to charge a PHEV to get as many electrically driven kilometres as possible, with the lowest possible fuel consumption and emissions. In two other studies, he used about 4 million driving days of data, collected over a ten-year period from the plug-in hybrid model Chevrolet Volt. By processing the data, Ahmet Mandev calculated how often the vehicles were charged, and can thus empirically prove several points about the PHEVs.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The most positive effects result from charging your car once a day – perhaps not so surprising. But Ahmet Mandev made a further discovery which did stand out.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“If you decrease from charging your car every night, to 90 percent of nights, emissions triple – from 1.7 kg of carbon dioxide to 5.7 kg for 100 kilometres of driving. Fuel consumption increases in a similar way, from 0.7 liters for 100 kilometers to 2.5 liters. These are still low emissions and low levels of fuel consumption, but it is a big difference for such a small change in behaviour,” he explains.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The PHEVs in the study achieve a high share of 76 percent of kilometers driven on electricity, provided, that they are fully charged once a day. Ahmet Mandev and Frances Sprei point out that supplementary charging during the day also gives positive effects, but for maximum effect, a full charge overnight is the best option.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“In our studies, we focused on studying data and drawing conclusions about charging and electric operation based on that. But if one were to translate our results into policy suggestions, it would be to give more people the opportunity to recharge vehicles overnight. Currently, many people, for example those who live in apartment buildings, do not have that opportunity,” says Ahmet Mandev.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In his further doctoral studies, he plans to make international comparisons, to see how charging patterns and electric power differ between countries with different conditions, laws and guidelines regarding PHEVs. Based on this, it will then be possible to see which policy guidelines and recommendations would make the biggest difference. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text and photos: Christian Löwhagen. </em></div> <div><em>Illustration by </em><a href=""><em>Chaowalit Koetchuea​, the Noun Project</em></a><em>, arranged by Christian Löwhagen. </em></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research was financed by the Swedish Electromobility centre and carried out in collaboration with UC Davis in California and the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovations Research in Germany. </div> <div><br /></div> </div>Fri, 04 Dec 2020 07:00:00 +0100 the webinar: Hydrogen – A silver bullet in the energy system?<p><b>​Thank all of you who participated in the webinar, 4 November: Hydrogen – A silver bullet in the energy system? Watch the seminar and download the speaker&#39;s presentations:​</b></p>​<a href="">​Watch the webinar on Chalmers Play: Hydrogen – A silver bullet in the energy system?</a><div><a href=""></a><div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Program</span><ul><li>Moderator: Anders Ådahl, Energy Area of Advance Co-Director.</li> <li><a href="">Maria Grahn</a>, Senior researcher, department of Mechanics and Maritime Science. Maritime Environmental Science. Director of Energy Area of Advance, Chalmers.<br /><span style="font-weight:700">Download the presentation:</span> <a href="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/nyheter/Documents/Hydrogenwebinar_M.G__overview_4%20Nov%202020_final.pdf">“Main possibilities and challenges for using hydrogen in the energy and transport sector​”​</a>​,</li> <li><a href="">Thierry Lepercq​</a>, founder of Soladvent. Former Executive Vice-President in charge of Research &amp; Technology and Innovation, ENGIE. Author of the book &quot;Hydrogen is the new oil&quot;.​<br /><span style="font-weight:700">Download the presentation:</span> <a href="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/nyheter/Documents/Hydrogenwebinar_TL_Prez%20Chalmers%204%20November%202020.pdf"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icpdf.png" alt="" />“The view on hydrogen in Europe”, </a></li> <li><a href="">Björn Wickman​</a>, Associate Professor, Chemical Physics, Department of Physics, Chalmers.<br /><span style="font-weight:700">Download the presentation:</span> <a href="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/nyheter/Documents/Hydrogenwebinar_BW_Fuel%20Cells_4%20Nov_2020.pdf"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icpdf.png" alt="" />“Improved fuels cells to enable a sustainable energy system”.​</a></li></ul> <div><span style="font-weight:700"><br /></span><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Panel: </span><br /><span style="font-weight:700"></span><div><ul><li><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/karin-andersson.aspx">Karin Andersson</a>, Professor in Maritime Environmental Science Expert in sustainable shipping, Chalmers. </li> <li><a href="/en/staff/Pages/tomas-gronstedt.aspx">Tomas Grönstedt</a>, Professor at Fluid Dynamics/Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Chalmers.</li> <li><a href="">Anna-Karin Jannasch</a>, Rise, Director of the Swedish testbed for hydrogen electrolysis and industrial application </li> <li>Monica Johansson, Principal Energy &amp; Fuel Analyst, Volvo group. Expert in alternative fuels, with knowledge in hydrogen infrastructure. </li> <li><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/koopmans.aspx">Lucien Koopmans</a>, Professor, head of the division Combustion and Propulsion Systems, Chalmers.</li> <li>Mattias Wondollek, Program Director, <a href="">Energiforsk</a>.​</li></ul></div></div></div></div>Mon, 09 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100 technology favours offshore wind power<p><b>​Compact, environmentally sustainable and inventive. These are three important features of the medium frequency transformer that is being developed by Mohammad Kharezy, industrial doctoral student in Electric Power Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology, and at RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">In today's offshore wind farms, there are one or more transformer platforms connected to the wind turbines to collect and convert the electricity into high-voltage direct current (DC) before it is transmitted via cable to land.</span><div><br /></div> <div>“These kind of converter platforms account for a significant part of the investment cost for offshore wind power”, says Torbjörn Thiringer, Professor of applied power engineering at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers. “It would therefore be a great advantage if offshore wind farms could be connected to land using fewer such platforms, which is the underlying idea of this concept.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The alternative to free-standing platforms is to place the equipment needed for electricity conversion attached to the wind power towers themselves. One option is to put parts of the appliances in the nacelle as well as further down in the towers, or in a container on the outside of the towers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Size and weight matter</strong></div> <div>“To be able to install it attached to the towers, the equipment must be shrunk in size. Over the past 20 years, we have worked on this problem every now and then. Thanks to the prototype designed by Mohammad Kharezy for his licentiate thesis, the solution is taking a significant step forward”, says Torbjörn Thiringer.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The key is the compact feature of the component and its comparatively low weight. The design implies that several inverters are connected in series on the high voltage side in order to obtain a high DC voltage. Because of the small physical distances combined with the large difference in potential, the electrical insulation capacity towards ground must then be very good, otherwise it will result in discharges and a short circuit.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“As insulation medium, I am using a biodegradable vegetable oil, instead of fossil-based transformer oil that is more commonly used. The latter is associated with negative environmental risks”, says Mohammad Kharezy. “Combined with cellulose, this oil implies a promising solution to the insulation problem, and in addition it brings evident environmental advantages.”</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Kompaktare%20teknik%20gynnar%20vindkraft%20till%20havs/vindkraftprototyp_400x300px.jpg" alt="Prototype frequency transformer" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><br /></div> <div><em>In the electric power engineering lab at Chalmers, as well as at RISE in Borås, Mohammad Kharezy has built a magnetic and a high-voltage prototype of the novel frequency transformer, in a scale of 1:200. The photo shows the measurement of the transformer's core loss using a precision wattmeter. This experiment requires a high frequency voltage generator, a California Instrument 4500LX PWM converter.</em></div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Promising for the future</strong></div> <div>The research project is funded by the<a href="" target="_blank"> Swedish Energy Agency​</a> within the VindEL 2017 program. The purpose is to contribute to the transition to a sustainable and renewable energy system through research and development that makes wind power technology more functional and competitive.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers are now hoping to get continued funding to further develop the concept of the medium frequency transformer, and to be able to study in detail how the design of the insulation can be improved to make the function more predictable.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“So far, the concept is very promising”, says Mohammad Kharezy. “I hope and believe that my research will be part of the solution required for connecting offshore wind farms to land in the future, without the need of any large and expensive free-standing platforms to house big transformers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Yvonne Jonsson</div> <div>Photo: Tatu Nieminen and Mohammad Kharezy​</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>More about the research</strong></div> <div>Download Mohammad Kharezy’s licentiate thesis: <a href="" target="_blank">A Novel Oil-immersed Medium Frequency Transformer for Offshore HVDC Wind Farms​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Contact persons</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Mohammad-Kharezy.aspx">Mohammad Kharezy​</a>, industrial doctoral student at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology, <a href=""></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/torbjorn-thiringer.aspx">Torbjörn Thiringer</a>, Professor at the department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology, <a href="">​</a></div> <div><br /></div> Wed, 04 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100 to the EU’s work to electrify the transport sector<p><b>The climate change has long been a driving force for the electrification of the transport sector, but the benefit to the environment has sometimes been questioned.​ “The new EU report shows that the electric car is less harmful to the environment than fossil-powered vehicles, but there are challenges when it comes to raw materials for battery production”, says Anders Nordelöf, leader of the SEC theme Electromobility in society and researcher at the Department of Technology Management and Economics at Chalmers University of Technology.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">he European Commission has taken a holistic approach and ordered a life cycle analysis to get answers on the environmental impact of different vehicle types. The aim is to summarize the research situation for the environmental assessment of vehicles in order to provide the Commission with a better basis for decision-making in its work to ​drive the electrification of the transport sector in order to reduce climate and environmental impact. </span><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">he compilation includes light and heavy vehicles powered by electric, hybrid and internal combustion engines, and is one of the largest compilations of research literature ever made within the field. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><strong>“Now that the research field</strong> is thoroughly reviewed and important messages from the research field have been assessed, it is appreciated to see that the work I did several years ago during my doctoral studies, is quoted several times”, says Anders Nordelöf.</div> <div>Above all, he refers to an article published in 2014 which was a literature review of the research field until 2013. Anders Nordelöf then studied fully electric vehicles, but also rechargeable hybrids. But just a few heavy vehicles because there were not so many studies at that time.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“My work was one of the major reviews of the research area. These are the same main lines you come back to here in the new report. I compiled and analyzed the research literature that existed based on method choices and system boundaries and outlined the types of LCA studies that answer certain types of questions”.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>“In the EU's large report, </strong>they have also made their own calculations and methodological choices for different type vehicles. It is a broad compilation with over 300 different literature sources and a variety of actors such as Scania, Volvo Cars, IVL and Northvolt have contributed views”, says Anders Nordelöf.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The EU study then used additional parts of Anders Nordelöf’s research – computer models that he developed for driveline components and manufacturing processes within the framework of his PhD thesis. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>“You hope that what you</strong> do will contribute to knowledge building. So, it feels great when the work is used in such an important compilation which is then is passed on to decision-makers in the EU”.</div> <div>Anders Nordelöf describes his work as footwork for improved data quality in life cycle analysis on electric vehicles, which others can build on to make better analyzes.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>“This is how you should look </strong>at these inventory data models that I have developed. They are tools for LCA analysts, who then pass on their knowledge to decision makers. My work in this case is a subset of the bottom of the pyramid. I have contributions with some important stones for the foundation. Then, of course, I benefit from these models in my own research too”, he concludes.<br /><br />Text: Ann-Christine Nordin<br />Photo: Ulrika Ernström</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>More:</strong></div> <div>The EU: report <a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icpdf.png" alt="" />Determining the environmental impacts of conventional and alternatively fueled vehicles through LCA.</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The EU report cites and uses research described in five articles from Anders Nordelöf's dissertation. The doctoral project, which ended in 2017, was implemented with funding from the Energy area, and the data model development also received support from the <a href="">Swedish Electromobility Center.</a><br /><br /></div> <div><a href="/sv/personal/redigera/Sidor/anders-nordelof.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about Anders Nordelöf.</a></div>Fri, 02 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Action Plan puts nature at the heart of economy<p><b>A new study with a ​​10-point Action Plan to Create a Circular Bioeconomy of Wellbeing published by the European Forest Institute calls for collective action to put nature at the heart of the economy and set the world on a sustainable path.​​</b></p><span></span><div><span style="font-size:14px"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/goran_berndes_200.jpg" alt="Göran Berndes" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />“The transition away from fossil carbon is sometimes considered a matter of mobilising new resources to enable us to proceed in the business-as-usual direction. The 10 Point Action Plan brings forward an alternative paradigm. Contrary to the extractive and linear fossil-based economy, the circular bioeconomy relies on healthy, biodiverse and resilient ecosystems and aims to provide sustainable wellbeing for society at large”, said Göran Berndes, Professor, Biomass and Land Use at Chalmers University of Technology.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>Written by a multidisciplinary team</strong> of over 25 authors, led by EFI Director Marc Palahí, the 10-point Action Plan for a Circular Bioeconomy of Wellbeing brings together the latest scientific insights and breakthrough technologies to offer a solution to current global challenges.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The publication features a Foreword by His Royal Highness The Prince of Wales, who says: “I have been deeply encouraged by the number of scientists and practitioners who have come together to develop a 10-point Circular Bioeconomy Action Plan inspired by my Sustainable Markets Initiative and its Circular Bioeconomy Alliance. It is time for leaders, across all disciplines, to step forward, be bold in their ambition and demonstrate what is possible so that others can follow.”</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>The Action Plan emphasises the importance</strong> of moving towards a circular bioeconomy to holistically transform and manage our land, food, health and industrial systems with the goal of achieving sustainable wellbeing in harmony with nature.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“It has been an honour to work with The Prince of Wales, who inspired and contributed to The Action Plan”, said Marc Palahí. “The Action Plan forms the framework for the Circular Bioeconomy Alliance established by His Royal Highness to accelerate the transition towards a Circular Bioeconomy. I am proud that EFI will coordinate such a transformative initiative.”</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>“Global challenges like climate change</strong>, and biodiversity loss, coupled with a growing and highly urbanised population call for new ways of producing and consuming within our planetary boundaries”, says co-author Mari Pantsar, who is Director of Carbon-neutral circular economy at The Finnish Innovation Fund Sitra. “We need a transition to a circular economy.”</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">At</span><span style="background-color:initial"> the same time, we need to achieve sustainability w</span><span style="background-color:initial">hile ensuring equitable prosperity. The health and wellbeing of our citizens is a strong incentive to rethink our land, food and health systems, transform our industries and reimagine our cities.</span><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>The study sets out 10 Action Points</strong> which are needed to create a circular bioeconomy based on a synergistic relationship between economy and ecology:</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><ol><li><span style="font-size:14px">Focus on sustainable wellbeing</span></li> <li>I<span style="background-color:initial">nvest in nature and biodiversity</span></li> <li>Generate <span style="background-color:initial">an equitable distribution of prosperity</span></li> <li>Rethink land, food and health systems holistically</li> <li>Transform industrial sectors </li> <li>Reimagine cities through ecological lenses</li> <li>Create an enabling regulatory framework</li> <li>Deliver mission-oriented innovation to the investment and political agenda</li> <li>Enable access to finance and enhance risk-taking capacity</li> <li>Intensify and broaden research and education</li></ol></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">Palahí, M., Pantsar, M., Costanza, R., Kubiszewski, I., Potočnik, J., Stuchtey, M., Nasi, R., Lovins, H., Giovannini, E., Fioramonti, L., Dixson-Declève, S., McGlade, J., Pickett, K., Wilkinson, R., Holmgren, J., Trebeck, K., Wallis, S., Ramage, M., Berndes, G., Akinnifesi, F.K., Ragnarsdóttir, K.V., Muys, B., Safonov, G., Nobre, A.D., Nobre, C., Ibañez, D., Wijkman, A., Snape, J., Bas, L. 2020. Investing in Nature as the true engine of our economy: A 10-point Action Plan for a Circular Bioeconomy of Wellbeing. Knowledge to Action 02, European Forest Institute. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Download the study</a></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The publication was developed within the framework of the Sustainable Markets Initiative of</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. It received support from Sitra, the Finnish Innovation Fund.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />About EFI</a></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Th</span><span style="background-color:initial">e European Forest Institute (EFI) is an independent international science organization which generates, connects and shares knowledge at the interface between science and policy. EFI has 29 member countries who have ratified the Convention, and c.120 member organizations in 38 countries, working in diverse research fields.</span><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">​<br /></span></div>Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0200 of Advance Award for wireless centre collaboration<p><b>​Collaboration is the key to success. Jan Grahn and Erik Ström, who have merged two Chalmers competence centres, GigaHertz and ChaseOn, to form a consortium with 26 parties, know this for sure. Now they receive the Areas of Advance Award 2020 for their efforts.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">A competence centre is a platform for knowledge exchange and joint projects. Here, academia and external parties gather to create new knowledge and innovation. The projects are driven by need, and can be initiated from industry – who have a problem to solve – or from the research community, as new research results have generated solutions that may be applied in industry.</span><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Stronger as one unit</h2> <div>The competence centre GigaHertz focuses on electronics for high frequencies, while ChaseOn focuses on antenna systems and signal processing. They overlap in microwave technology research, which is relevant for communication and health care, as well as defense and space industry. And even if some areas differ between the two centres, numerous points of contact have been developed over the years. The two directors – Jan Grahn, Professor at Microtechnology and Nanoscience, and Erik Ström, Professor at Electrical Engineering – saw that close collaboration would result in obvious advantages. In 2017, the two centres therefore formed a joint consortium, bringing together a large number of national and international companies.</div> <div>“Formally, we are still two centres, but we have a joint agreement that makes it easy to work together”, says Erik Ström.</div> <div>“For Chalmers, it is a great strength that we are now able to see the whole picture, beyond departmental boundaries and research groups, and create a broad collaboration with the companies. This is an excellent example of how Chalmers can gather strength as one unit”, says Jan Grahn.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Multiplicity of applications</h2> <div>Technology for heat treatment of cancer, detection of foreign objects in baby food, antenna systems for increased traffic safety, components to improve Google’s quantum computer, 5G technology and amplifiers for the world’s largest radio telescope… The list of things that have sprung from the two competence centres is long. The technical development has, of course, been extreme; in 2007, as GigaHertz and ChaseOn were launched in their current forms, the Iphone hit the market for the very first time. Technology that today is seen as a natural part of everyday life – such as mobile broadband, now almost a necessity alongside electricity and water for most of us – was difficult to access or, at least, not to be taken for granted.</div> <div>The companies have also changed, which is noticeable in the flora of partners, not least for GigaHertz.</div> <div>“In the early 2000s, when our predecessor CHACH centre existed, the collaboration with Ericsson was dominant. Today, we collaborate with a much greater diversity of companies. We have seen an entrepreneurial revolution with many small companies, and even though the technology is basically the same, we are now dealing with a multiplicity of applications”, says Jan Grahn.</div> <div>As technology and applications developed and changed, the points of contact between the two centres grew, and this is also what initiated the merger:</div> <div>“When we started, in 2007, we were competing centres. The centres developed completely independently of each other, but have now grown into one. The technical convergence could not be ignored, we simply needed to start talking to each other across competence boundaries – which in the beginning was not so easy, even though today we view this as the obvious way forward”, says Erik Ström.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Research to benefit society</h2> <div>The knowledge centres are open organisations, where new partners join and collaborations may also come to an end. Several companies are sometimes involved together in one project. Trust and confidence are important components and take time to build. One ground-rule for activities is the focus on making research useful in society in the not too distant future.</div> <div>Chalmers Information and Communication Technology Area of Advance can take some of the credit for the successful collaboration between GigaHertz and ChaseOn, according to the awardees.</div> <div>“Contacts between centres were initiated when I was Director of the Area of Advance”, says Jan Grahn.</div> <div>“The Areas of Advance show that we can collaborate across departmental boundaries, they point to opportunities that exist when you work together.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">They believe in a bright future</h2> <div>The competence centres are partly financed by Vinnova, who has been nothing but positive about the merger of the two. Coordination means more research for the money; partly through synergy effects and partly by saving on costs in management and administration.</div> <div>The financed period for both GigaHertz and ChaseOn expires next year. But the two professors are positive, and above all point to the strong support from industry.</div> <div>“Then, of course, we need a governmental financier, or else we must revise the way we work. I hope that Vinnova gives us the opportunity to continue”, says Erik Ström.</div> <div>“The industry definitely wants a continuation. But they cannot, and should not, pay for everything. If they were to do so, we would get a completely different type of collaboration. The strength lies in sharing risks in the research activities by everyone contributing funds and, first and foremost, competence”, says Jan Grahn.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">“Incredibly fun”</h2> <div>Through their way of working, Erik Ström and Jan Grahn have succeeded in renewing and developing collaborations both within and outside Chalmers, attracting new companies and strengthening the position of Gothenburg as an international node for microwave technology. And it is in recognition of their dynamic and holistic leadership, that they now receive the Areas of Advance Award.</div> <div>“This is incredibly fun, and a credit for the entire centre operation, not just for us”, says Erik Ström.</div> <div>“Being a centre director is not always a bed of roses. Getting this award is a fantastic recognition, and we feel great hope for the future”, concludes Jan Grahn.<br /><br /><div><em>Text: Mia Malmstedt</em></div> <div><em>Photo: Yen Strandqvist</em></div> <br /></div> <div><strong>The Areas of Advance Award</strong></div> <div>With the Areas of Advance Award, Chalmers looks to reward employees who have made outstanding contributions in cross-border collaborations, and who, in the spirit of the Areas of Advance, integrate research, education and utilisation. The collaborations aim to strengthen Chalmers’ ability to meet the major global challenges for a sustainable development.<br /><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/centres/ghz/Pages/default.aspx">Read more about GigaHertz centre</a></div> <div><a href="/en/centres/chaseon/Pages/default.aspx">Read more about ChaseOn centre​</a></div> <div>​<br />Areas of Advance Award 2019: <a href="/en/news/Pages/Areas-of-Advance-Award-given-to-research-exploring-the-structure-of-proteins.aspx">Areas of Advance Award for exploring the structure of proteins​</a></div> Thu, 10 Sep 2020 08:00:00 +0200 the dokumentary about the Hydrogen house<p><b>​Professor David Blekhman is an expert in the field of hydrogen infrastructure and has been selected as a Fulbright Distinguished Chair of Alternative Energy Technology for the 2019-20 academic year.A part of David Blekhman´s project in Scandinavia was to visit all hydrogen stations. “But as I explored hydrogen in Gothenburg, everyone was praising the Nilsson Energy House”, says Blekhman.​</b></p><span lang="EN-US"><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px"></span></font><span></span><div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px">Of course, he had to visit and make a documentary about the off-grid house at the west coast of Sweden for his students back in Los Angeles. <a href="">You can watch it here</a>.</span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px">Below, Dr. Blekhman answers a few questions explaining his interest in this project.</span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px"><br /></span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px"><strong>Was there anything that surprised you in the meeting with Hans-Olof Nilsson?</strong></span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px">” When visiting the house, I was pleasantly surprised to see how much thought and effort went into creating the house of the future, which is completely energy independent. Of course, hospitality was also the top notch. Overall, I was so impressed with the Hans-Olof house that I wanted to make a good record for my students. Eventually, that inspiration transformed into this documentary where you will see many technical details. Nilsson Energy is growing rapidly by taking on building new energy independent communities”. </span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px"><br /></span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px">The house is powered by solar cells, batteries and hydrogen. The solar energy is stored in hydrogen during summer and used to make electricity and heating through fall and in winter. </span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px">“The waste heat from the fuel cell is used to keep it warm. Storing hydrogen seasonally is addressing a different need that we would typically have in Los Angeles. Batteries, and that is a relatively large storage, also play an important role in regulating short term one-to-few days needs of the house to store and use the solar energy”.</span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px"><br /></span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px"><strong>What opportunities do you see for hydrogen?</strong></span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px">“While ten years ago we were thinking of hydrogen as a fuel for passenger cars and that it was in a fierce competition with electric, cars, in recent years, hydrogen has won the battle by becoming the primary choice for massive storage of growing solar and wind energy. That is because it does not need the bulk of rare metals to be stored, just volume and pressure. The European Union is aggressively pursuing hydrogen as the next big energy revolution by offering economic growth opportunities to many countries and companies. Choices for lithium ion batteries are more limiting in this sense.”</span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px"><br /></span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px"><strong>What are the major challenges for hydrogen?</strong></span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px">“Hydrogen, however, is not without its own challenges. Both the electrolyzer and fuel cell technologies are still maturing. Hydrogen infrastructure need to grow while watching out for safe practices of handling pressurized hydrogen”.</span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px"><br /></span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px"><strong>Is there anything else you want to tell us?</strong></span></font></div> <div><font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span></span><span style="font-size:16px">&quot;I would like to express my gratitude to Chalmers University of Technology for hosting me while on the Fulbright program. I met many wonderful people here. Special thanks go to Dr. Maria Grahn and the AoA Energy for support in producing this video,” concludes David Blekhman. <br /><br />By: Ann-Christine Nordin<br /><br /></span></font><a href=";;ab_channel=SikandSITICenter" style="outline:0px;font-family:calibri, sans-serif;font-size:16px"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />The Documentary: The Hydrogen House</a> (15.47 min)<br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Trailer</a> (2.40 min)<font face="calibri, sans-serif"><span style="font-size:16px"><br /></span></font><div class="page-content"><a href=";"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Fulbright inaugural lecture with Professor David Blekhman </a><div><br /></div> <div><strong>Interview with David Blekhman:</strong><br /><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Fulbright-inaugural-lecture---How-can-hydrogen-be-the-fuel-of-the-future.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />How can hydrogen be the fuel of the future?</a><br /><br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Cal State LA technology professor named a Fulbright Distinguished Chair in Alternative Energy Technology</a></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​</span><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />UB alum David Blekhman inspires students to develop a passion for clean energy</a><br /></div> <div><br /></div></div></div> </span>Thu, 10 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0200 the future for feasible climate action<p><b>Jessica Jewell, assistant professor in Energy Transitions at Chalmers University of Technology, has been awarded a 1.5€ million grant by the European Research Council for a project entitled MechANisms and actors of Feasible Energy Transitions (MANIFEST) which will run from 2021-2026. The project will advance our understanding of whether and under what conditions it is feasible to avoid dangerous climate change. – We know how to solve the climate change problem in mathematical models, but we need to understand how to solve it in the real world, says Jessica Jewell, at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment.​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Technologies needed to decarbonize the electricity system are already commercially available. And there are mathematical models of how these technologies can be deployed sufficiently fast and at a large enough scale to displace fossil fuels and meet climate targets. Yet there is no scientific method to evaluate whether these scenarios are feasible in the real world, given the socio-political and technological constraints in different countries and regions. </span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>The project MANIFEST will develop a new scientific understanding of the feasibility to decarbonize the electricity sector focusing on both launching low-carbon electricity in developing countries and sustaining the growth of renewable electricity already in place in front-runner countries.  </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Profilbilder/Jessica_Jewell_170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />We asked Jessica Jewell a few questions about the grant, the project MANIFEST and the greatest challenges to overcome for the electricity sector. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>How did it feel when you heard that you were to receive this grant? </strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– I was surprised and super excited. My research is really interdisciplinary which is typically pretty hard to get endorsed by scientific review panels. I also feel very grateful for everyone who helped me develop as a scientist: first at Central European University where I was a doctoral student, then at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and the University of Bergen and now at Chalmers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>You describe the project MANIFEST as a &quot;shift in the thinking about the feasibility of climate change mitigation&quot;. Can you describe that change, and why a change is needed? </strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– We know how to solve the climate change problem in mathematical models, but we need to understand how to solve it in the real world. The main scholarly approach to assess whether something is feasible in the real world is to look at whether anything similar happened in the past. But for climate change this runs into a problem because both the challenge and what we need to do are unprecedented so there are no direct historical analogues. Thus, analysing the feasibility of successful climate change mitigation may scientifically seem to be at a dead end. I overcome this stalemate by looking at the past and ongoing climate actions through a particular social science lens called ‘causal mechanisms’. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– My hypothesis is that while a lot of things are changing (e.g. clean technologies are becoming cheaper, population and energy demand grow), the political, economic and social mechanisms that shape our capacity to act on climate are the same. By understanding these mechanisms through empirically observing the past I hope to be able to predict what is and is not possible to do in the future.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>One of the methods described in this project is called &quot;dynamic feasibility space&quot;. What does that entail, and how can you use that method in this project?</strong> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– A dynamic feasibility space is a tool I have developed to map empirical observations of past climate actions or energy transitions in order to tease out the underlying mechanisms shaping them. I’ve used this tool to map and understand the feasibility of rapid coal phase-out and in MANIFEST I want to similarly map and compare historical expansion of renewables to the expansion that countries plan in the future and that we need to see to reach the climate targets. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What do you see as the greatest obstacles to overcome, in the shift to a fossil free electricity system? </strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– I see two main obstacles. First is how to sustain high growth rates in technology front-runners, countries which already have viable renewable electricity sectors providing up to 40% of their electricity supply, such as Denmark and Germany. For these nations it is important to sustain high growth rates to reach even higher levels of use of renewables. For example, recently, the growth of onshore wind power in Germany has significantly slowed down, primarily because of the lack of available sites. We need to understand whether this obstacle is simply a bureaucratic complication of handling planning permits, or whether it reflects the deeper mechanism of increasing social resistance and conflicts over land use which would be more difficult to overcome.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– The second and bigger challenge is to figure out how to launch low-carbon electricity in developing countries, on what is called ‘the technology periphery’. Today the US and Europe with only 10% of the world’s population have 50% of global wind and solar power, but if we are to achieve climate targets, we need to deploy massive amounts of low-carbon technologies where the bulk of energy use in the 21st century will occur, i.e. in the Global South. This is a very different challenge because most of these countries do not yet have viable low-carbon electricity sectors (manufacturers of equipment, project developers and operators, functioning regulation and electricity markets) as in front-runners. How fast can all this knowledge, institutions, policies and business models diffuse from the front-runners (or emerge domestically) is a critical question, because only then can we expect the beginning of sustained growth of renewables.</div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More info on the ERC: ​</h3> <div>The European Research Council (ERC), supports excellence in research in EU member countries. The Council primarily does this by three major systems for research that fits within the EU's Seventh Framework Programme. ERC Starting Grants for outstanding scientists who are at the beginning of his career, ERC Consolidator Grant to support researchers at the stage at which they are consolidating their own independent research team or programme and ERC Advanced Grants that can be awarded to researchers who has established their own research groups.</div> <div><a href="/en/research/our-scientists/Pages/ERC-funded-scientists.aspx"><span style="background-color:initial">Read more about the ERC funded scientists</span><span style="background-color:initial"> at Chalmers</span>​</a><span style="background-color:initial">. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Text:</strong> Christian Löwhagen</span></div> </div>Thu, 03 Sep 2020 18:00:00 +0200 Energy Podcast<p><b>​Is nuclear power one of the solutions to the climate change? Can the forest replace fossil fuels? Hydropower, how climate-smart is it? How do we convert to a sustainable energy system? Welcome to Chalmers Energy Area of Advance podcast. Here you get to meet researchers, entrepreneurs and others who are involved in some of the most important issues of our time.</b></p>​<span style="font-size:14px"><span style="background-color:initial">In our first podcast, we talk about carbon capture and storage, so-called CCS technology, and how Sweden can achieve negative emissions, ie remove carbon  that already is in the atmosphere, to meet the climate goals.</span></span><div><span style="font-size:14px">The Paris Agreement of 2015 called on the countries involved to develop long-term strategies to describe greenhouse gas emissions by 2020. In Sweden, this has resulted in the investigation &quot;Klimatpolitiska vägvalsutredningen&quot;. It presents strategies for how Sweden can achieve net negative emissions of greenhouse gases after 2045. Three Chalmers researchers participated in the investigation. We've talked to two of them:</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">Anders Lyngfelt, Professor of Energy technology and Christel Cederberg, Assistant Professor of Physical resource theory.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><a href="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/nyheter/Sidor/Energipodden.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more (Swedish)​</a><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Listen (Swedish): &quot;Negative emissions necessary to achieve our climate goals&quot; (22 min)</a></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"></span><span></span><div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">Editors for the energy podcast are Julia Franzén and Ann-Christine Nordin.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">Original music: EleckTrick by Stefan Karlsson.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">Responsible publisher and project manager: Maria Grahn.</span></div></div>Wed, 05 Aug 2020 00:00:00 +0200 ambitious climate policy is economically beneficial<p><b>​An economically optimal climate policy is in line with the Paris Agreement’s 2-degree temperature target. This is according to a new study involving the University of Gothenburg, Chalmers University of Technology and others. The study updates the cost/benefit analyses of climate measures made by Economics Laureate William Nordhaus.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The economist William Nordhaus was awarded the 2018 The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel for his research on climate-related questions. In particular, the prize recognized his development of the DICE model (Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy), which has gained widespread influence. When he calibrates his model, he found that an increase in the average temperature of 3.5 degrees until 2100 is economically most optimal. This new level was well above the Paris Agreement’s 2-degree target and would have resulted in extensive negative consequences for nature and society in large parts of the world.<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Daniel_Johansson_256x344px.jpg" alt="Daniel Johansson" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:10px;width:190px;height:255px" /><br /></span><div><br /></div> <div>In a new study published in Nature Climate Change, a team of researchers in Sweden, England and Germany has updated this DICE model.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We made a number of important changes. In part, it was about an improved calibration of how much carbon dioxide and heat is absorbed by the oceans, and in part updating calculations of how much climate damage will cost in economic terms,” says Daniel Johansson, associate professor in physics resource theory at Chalmers University of Technology, and one of the authors of the study.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>An important factor that determines what is economically optimal involves discounting or comparing future costs to current costs. Fundamentally, this is a value judgement, and in the study the research team used a large number of expert assessments of these ethical questions, which deal with how the current and future generations’ interests should be weighed against each other.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Thomas-Sterner_256x344px.jpg" alt="Thomas Sterner" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:10px;width:190px;height:255px" /><br /></div> <div>These changes to the model lead to the conclusion that a 1.5–2 degree increase in average temperature is economically optimal.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Nordhaus has shown the way forward in these questions, like the need for a significant price on carbon dioxide emissions throughout the world, but compared to his previous analyses, our results show that more ambitious targets can be supported with economic arguments,” says Thomas Sterner, professor of environmental economics at the School of Business, Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>According to the researchers, in wider international climate policy discussions, the study can support climate targets in line with those adopted in the Paris Agreement and thereby increase acceptance for setting a tax on emissions that meets the adopted climate targets. The model points to a carbon dioxide tax of around USD 100 per tonne, which is in line with the current carbon dioxide tax in Sweden and four times higher than the price in EU’s emissions trading scheme, ETS.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/christian-azar_256x344px.jpg" alt="Christian Azar" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:10px;width:190px;height:255px" /><br /></div> <div>“Achieving ambitious climate targets requires politicians to introduce a significant tax on carbon dioxide, but it also requires investments in new technology like electric cars, solar cells, hydrogen and carbon capture, to name a few examples. If this is done, it is possible to achieve ambitious climate targets like the 2-degree target. But we also must be aware that there is significant political resistance in large parts of the world, presenting us with a major challenge. This is not a simple question,” says Christian Azar, professor of physical resource theory at Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>For more information, please contact:</strong></div> <div><div><ul><li>Christian Azar, professor of physical resource theory at Chalmers University of Technology<br />e-mail: <a href=""></a>, telephone: +46-(0)31–772 31 32</li> <li>Daniel Johansson, associate professor of physical resource theory at Chalmers University of Technology<br />e-mail: <a href=""></a>, telephone: +46-(0)31–772 28 16</li> <li>Thomas Sterner, professor of environmental economics at the School of Business, Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg<br />e-mail: <a href="">​</a>, telephone: +46-(0)70–816 3306</li></ul></div></div>Tue, 14 Jul 2020 07:00:00 +0200 design experiments develop next generation aircraft engine<p><b>​Open Rotor is a new type of aircraft engine delivering up to 20 percent reduced fuel burn than today&#39;s turbofan engines. Chalmers, together with the University of Cambridge and Fraunhofer FCC, is leading a project that studies aspects of manufacturing during the design phase.</b></p><p></p> <div>The next generation of aircraft engines is being developed in the large European Joint Undertaking <a href="">Clean Sky 2</a>. Open Rotor is one of the concepts that has shown promising results when it comes to reducing both CO<sub>2</sub> emissions and noise. Open rotor is a new engine type with two, counterrotating, propellers that radically improve propulsive efficiency. This type of technology radically changes how the engines are designed and integrated with the aircraft. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/Open%20Rotor%203%20-®%20Eric%20Drouin%20Safran_400px.jpg" alt="Open Rotor 3 -® Eric Drouin Safran" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px 15px;width:170px;height:259px" />Within Clean Sky 2, Chalmers, together with Cambridge University and Fraunhofer FCC, is now leading a project called Development of Interdisciplinary Assessment for Manufacturing and Design (DIAS).<br /><br />DIAS is a targeted support project, where the goal is to develop support for integrating manufacturability aspects already in the design phase, where advanced decision support models are developed. For example, it is critical that robots get to weld the components properly. In the DIAS project, Chalmers latest research results are used in modeling alternative concepts enabling digital experimentation of alternative product architecture, with Fraunhofer's expertise in simulating robotic paths, and Cambridge's expertise in interactive decision-making and modeling-based risk analysis.<br /><br /></div> <div><br /><em>–    We have a unique opportunity to combine the latest achievements from Chalmers, Fraunhofer FCC and Cambridge, into a new and powerful way to support GKN Aerospace in their integration of next generation technologies already in the concept phase, says Ola Isaksson, researcher at Chalmers and leader of the consortium.</em><br /><br />GKN Aerospace Sweden AB in Trollhättan is responsible for critical engine components of Open Rotor engines. Ultimately, the goal is to enable the methods developed in the DIAS project to enable GKN Aerospace to offer the technologies demonstrated in Clean Sky in future business.<br /> <br /><em>–    We are very happy that this Chalmers led consortium won this Call for Partners. The competition was indeed very tough and this shows that Chalmers is a leading University in this important area in Europe, says Robert Lundberg (Director EU Programmes) at GKN Aerospace Sweden.</em><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More information about DIAS and Clean Sky</h2> <div><a href="" title="Link to the DIAS project"><br /></a></div> <div><span>This project has received funding from the Clean Sky 2 Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 887174. The JU receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and the Clean Sky 2 JU members other than the Union. The information on this web page reflects only the author's view and that the JU is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/EU_logo.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px 20px;width:258px;height:179px" /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/JU_logo.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 25px;width:330px;height:186px" /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><br /></h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Contact</h2> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/iola.aspx">Ola Isaksson</a>, professor Department of Industrial and Materials Science at Chalmers University of Technology<br /></div> <div></div> <div><span style="float:none;font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;letter-spacing:normal;text-align:center;text-decoration:none;text-indent:0px;text-transform:none;white-space:normal;word-spacing:0px;display:inline !important">+46 31 7728202</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Robert Lundberg<em>, </em><span>Director EU Programmes GKN Aerospace</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:calibri, sans-serif"></span>+46 700 872371 </div> <div><a href=""></a></div></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p></p> <br /><p></p>Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0200