News: Energi related to Chalmers University of TechnologySat, 04 Jul 2020 11:47:43 +0200 design experiments develop next generation aircraft engine<p><b>​Open Rotor is a new type of aircraft engine delivering up to 20 percent reduced fuel burn than today&#39;s turbofan engines. Chalmers, together with the University of Cambridge and Fraunhofer FCC, is leading a project that studies aspects of manufacturing during the design phase.</b></p><p></p> <div>The next generation of aircraft engines is being developed in the large European Joint Undertaking <a href="">Clean Sky 2</a>. Open Rotor is one of the concepts that has shown promising results when it comes to reducing both CO<sub>2</sub> emissions and noise. Open rotor is a new engine type with two, counterrotating, propellers that radically improve propulsive efficiency. This type of technology radically changes how the engines are designed and integrated with the aircraft. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/Open%20Rotor%203%20-®%20Eric%20Drouin%20Safran_400px.jpg" alt="Open Rotor 3 -® Eric Drouin Safran" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px 15px;width:170px;height:259px" />Within Clean Sky 2, Chalmers, together with Cambridge University and Fraunhofer FCC, is now leading a project called Development of Interdisciplinary Assessment for Manufacturing and Design (DIAS).<br /><br />DIAS is a targeted support project, where the goal is to develop support for integrating manufacturability aspects already in the design phase, where advanced decision support models are developed. For example, it is critical that robots get to weld the components properly. In the DIAS project, Chalmers latest research results are used in modeling alternative concepts enabling digital experimentation of alternative product architecture, with Fraunhofer's expertise in simulating robotic paths, and Cambridge's expertise in interactive decision-making and modeling-based risk analysis.<br /><br /></div> <div><br /><em>–    We have a unique opportunity to combine the latest achievements from Chalmers, Fraunhofer FCC and Cambridge, into a new and powerful way to support GKN Aerospace in their integration of next generation technologies already in the concept phase, says Ola Isaksson, researcher at Chalmers and leader of the consortium.</em><br /><br />GKN Aerospace Sweden AB in Trollhättan is responsible for critical engine components of Open Rotor engines. Ultimately, the goal is to enable the methods developed in the DIAS project to enable GKN Aerospace to offer the technologies demonstrated in Clean Sky in future business.<br /> <br /><em>–    We are very happy that this Chalmers led consortium won this Call for Partners. The competition was indeed very tough and this shows that Chalmers is a leading University in this important area in Europe, says Robert Lundberg (Director EU Programmes) at GKN Aerospace Sweden.</em><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More information about DIAS and Clean Sky</h2> <div><a href="" title="Link to the DIAS project"><br /></a></div> <div><span>This project has received funding from the Clean Sky 2 Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 887174. The JU receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and the Clean Sky 2 JU members other than the Union. The information on this web page reflects only the author's view and that the JU is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/EU_logo.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px 20px;width:258px;height:179px" /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/JU_logo.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 25px;width:330px;height:186px" /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><br /></h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Contact</h2> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/iola.aspx">Ola Isaksson</a>, professor Department of Industrial and Materials Science at Chalmers University of Technology<br /></div> <div></div> <div><span style="float:none;font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;letter-spacing:normal;text-align:center;text-decoration:none;text-indent:0px;text-transform:none;white-space:normal;word-spacing:0px;display:inline !important">+46 31 7728202</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Robert Lundberg<em>, </em><span>Director EU Programmes GKN Aerospace</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:calibri, sans-serif"></span>+46 700 872371 </div> <div><a href=""></a></div></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p></p> <br /><p></p>Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0200 has a new wind turbine for research<p><b>​At the island of Björkö outside Gothenburg, there is a new wind turbine - a prototype to be used for research and testing of energy efficient and sustainable wind turbine technology. The tower is made of wood, which is unique, and sensors will provide researchers with information about the loads that the wind turbine is exposed to under different operating and wind conditions.</b></p><p></p> The construction of the new wind turbine has been made possible by support from Region Västra Götaland and the Swedish Energy Agency. It has attracted the interest of both domestic and European research colleagues.<p></p> <p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Chalmers%20har%20ett%20nytt%20vindkraftverk%20för%20forskning/Sara_Fogelstrom-2_150x210px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />“For a university, it is unique to have access to a test wind turbine that is made to scale and equipped with that many different sensors. The ability to control and adjust the various parameters of the wind turbine enables new research opportunities”, says Sara Fogelström, coordinator of the Swedish Wind Power Technology Centre, SWPTC.</p> <p>Within a couple of decades, wind power is expected to be the largest, or second largest, energy source for electricity generation in Sweden. It puts high demands on cost-effective and sustainable wind power turbines with high electricity generation. Wind power must also contribute to the development of system support services for the electricity grid. Integrating wind turbines into the grid requires many different competences working together. Chalmers hosts the Swedish Wind Power Technology Centre, which brings together players in both the wind power industry and academia.</p> <p>“Operators, windfarm owners and project developers within the centre will work together with researchers from academia in various projects on the new wind turbine. We hope that even more researchers and companies will get in touch and want to test their research”, Sara adds.</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Test platform for the industry</h2> <p>In addition to being an important research facility, the wind turbine also serves as a prototype turbine for the wind power industry. For example, a new type of tower is being tested for the first time. It is the company Modvion, which is part of Chalmers Ventures’ company portfolio, which has developed a wooden tower manufactured in modules. The tower is climate neutral from the start and costs significantly less to manufacture than conventional steel towers. As where steel emits a lot of carbon dioxide in the manufacturing process, wood can act as a carbon sink as the material can store carbon dioxide. The conditions for large-scale manufacturing in Sweden are good. Wood is an indigenous raw material for which there is good access and Sweden has a traditionally strong laminated timber industry.</p> <div>Press releases from Chalmers Ventures:</div> <div><a href="" target="_blank" title="Read the press release"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />The first wooden wind power tower has been erected in Sweden</a></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank" title="Read the press release"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Modvion awarded multimillion-Euro EU grant for wooden wind turbine towers</a></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Contributes to efficient and sustainable electricity generation</h2> <p>Chalmers’ test wind turbine is equipped with eight different sensors in each rotor blade that provide data of incoming wind. The tower is equipped with sensors in both the wooden structure and in the steel joints. The foundation also has sensors that collect data on how the concrete is affected over time. The sensors measure the loads that the different parts of the wind turbine are exposed to under various operating and wind conditions.</p> <p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Chalmers%20har%20ett%20nytt%20vindkraftverk%20för%20forskning/Ola_Carlson-2_150x210px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />“If you know which loads the wind turbine is exposed to, you can control it in a smarter way. You save material in the design and become more cost-effective in electricity generation”, says Ola Carlson, Professor in sustainable electric power production and director of the Swedish Wind Power Technology Centre.</p> <p>The first research project to be carried out on the test wind turbine is a project that deals with frequency control. As the proportion of wind power increases in the electricity grid, wind turbines must also be involved in contributing to better grid stability. It requires that the frequency is kept constant at 50 Hz. The research project, led by Ola Carlson, will test different models for frequency control and look at how to further develop the control services that exist today.</p> <p></p> <p><strong>Contact</strong><br />Sara Fogelström, coordinator of the Swedish Wind Power Technology Centre<br /><a href=""> </a><br /> </p> <p></p> Ola Carlson, professor and director of the Swedish Wind Power Technology Centre<br /><a href=""></a> <br /> <p></p> <a href="/sv/centrum/SWPTC/Sidor/default.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the Swedish Wind Power Technology Centre, SWPTC</a><br /> <p></p> More news articles on wind power technology:<br /><div><a href="/sv/institutioner/e2/nyheter/Sidor/Tre-utmaningar-for-att-na-okad-andel-vindkraft.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Tre utmaningar för att nå ökad andel vindkraft </a></div> <div><a href="/sv/institutioner/e2/nyheter/Sidor/Vindkraftsforskning-rustar-branschen-för-snabbare-energiomstallning.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Vindkraftsforskning rustar branschen för omställning<br /></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Anna Wallin<br />Portrait photos: Oscar Mattsson<br /></div> <p></p>Wed, 17 Jun 2020 12:00:00 +0200’s-largest-carbon-capture-and-storage-plant.aspx’s largest CO2 capture and storage plant launched<p><b>​Sweden’s largest test facility for carbon dioxide capture has begun operation at Preem&#39;s refinery in Lysekil. Within the pilot project the entire value chain will be analyzed – from the capture of carbon dioxide to its storage. The outcome of the project will enable more companies to use the technology and reduce their carbon dioxide emissions.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px">“This is an important project to test CCS technology on a larger scale. Chalmers participation is about studying how the technology being tested could be scaled up. Together with research in other projects, we believe that this gives an important piece to the puzzle how Swedish industry can meet our climate goals for net zero emissions by 2045”, says Filip Johnsson, professor in sustainable energy systems at Chalmers.</span><div><span style="font-size:14px">The results of the pilot project will  be made public – in order for more companies to be able to use the technology and reduce their carbon dioxide emissions.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br />In</span><span style="background-color:initial"> 2020, the test facility will capture carbon dioxide from the flue gases from Preem’s hydrogen gas plant at the Lysekil refinery.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The technology for capturing and storing carbon dioxide is an important component for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and for achieving Sweden’s climate goals. For Preem, this is an important piece of the puzzle to reduce carbon dioxide emissions and to become climate neutral by the year 2045. The goal is for the tests to form the basis for a full-scale CCS plant that can be operational by 2025.<br /><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“We see carbon capture and storage as a vital measure to reduce global carbon emissions. For Preem, a full-scale CCS plant could initially reduce emissions from our Lysekil refinery by 500,000 tonnes, which is close to a quarter of the refinery’s total carbon emissions,” says Petter Holland, CEO of Preem.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The carbon dioxide is planned to be stored in Norway, which is leading in this area and has better geological conditions for storage than Sweden. </span><br /><br /><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>Read more about the project:</strong></span><br /><span style="font-size:14px"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Launch of Sweden’s largest carbon capture and storage plant</a></span><br /><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div>Wed, 27 May 2020 09:00:00 +0200 spreadable way to stabilise solid state batteries<p><b>Solid state batteries are of great interest to the electric vehicle industry. Scientists at Chalmers and Xi&#39;an Jiaotong University, China now present a new way of taking this promising concept closer to large-scale application. An interlayer, made of a spreadable, ‘butter-like’ material helps improve the current density tenfold, while also increasing performance and safety.​​​​​​​​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/Shizhao_Xiong_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Porträtt av forskaren Shizhao Xiong " style="margin:5px;width:170px;height:150px" /><div>“This interlayer makes the battery cell significantly more stable, and therefore able to withstand much higher current density. What is also important is that it is very easy to apply the soft mass onto the lithium metal anode in the battery – like spreading butter on a sandwich,” says researcher Shizhao Xiong at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Alongside Chalmers Professor Aleksandar Matic and Professor Song's research group in Xi'an, Shizhao Xiong has been working for a long time on crafting a suitable interlayer to stabilise the interface for solid state battery. The new results were recently presented in the prestigious scientific journal Advanced Functional Materials.</div> <div><br /></div></span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/solidstatebatterilabb750x.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Bild från batterilabbet på Fysik på Chalmers." style="margin-top:5px;margin-bottom:5px;margin-left:10px;height:263px;width:350px" /><span style="background-color:initial"><div>Solid state batteries could revolutionise electric transport. Unlike today's lithium-ion batteries, solid-state batteries have a solid electrolyte and therefore contain no environmentally harmful or flammable liquids.</div> <div>Simply put, a solid-state battery can be likened to a dry sandwich. A layer of the metal lithium acts as a slice of bread, and a ceramic substance is laid on top like a filling. This hard substance is the solid electrolyte of the battery, which transports lithium ions between the electrodes of the battery. But the ‘sandwich’ is so dry, it is difficult to keep it together – and there are also problems caused by the compatibility between the ‘bread’ and the ‘topping’. Many researchers around the world are working to develop suitable resolutions to address this problem.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The material which the researchers in Gothenburg and Xi'an are now working with is a soft, spreadable, ‘butter-like’ substance, made of nanoparticles of the ceramic electrolyte, LAGP, mixed with an ionic liquid. The liquid encapsulates the LAGP particles and makes the interlayer soft and protective. The material, which has a similar texture to butter from the fridge, fills several functions and can be spread easily.</div> <div>Although the potential of solid-state batteries is very well known, there is as yet no established way of making them sufficiently stable, especially at high current densities, when a lot of energy is extracted from a battery cell very quickly, that is at fast charge or discharge. The Chalmers researchers see great potential in the development of this new interlayer.</div></span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/AleksandarMatic_200314_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Porträtt av professor Aleksandar Matic" style="margin:5px;height:150px;width:170px" /><span style="background-color:initial"><div><br /></div> <div>&quot;This is an important step on the road to being able to manufacture large-scale, cost-effective, safe and environmentally friendly batteries that deliver high capacity and can be charged and discharged at a high rate,&quot; says Aleksandar Matic, Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers, who predicts that solid state batteries will be on the market within five years.</div> <div><br /></div></span></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the scientific paper in </a><span style="font-size:10pt;background-color:initial"><a href="">Advanced Functional Materials.</a></span></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release and dowload high resolution images. ​</a></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><strong>Text and photo​: </strong>Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href=""></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Caption: </span><span style="background-color:initial">A large part of the experimental work on developing a multifunctional spreadable interlayer for the solid-state batteries of the future has been done in the battery lab at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on the scientific paper </h2> <div>The paper <a href="">”Design of a Multifunctional Interlayer for NASCION‐Based Solid‐State Li Metal Batteries”</a>  has been published in Advanced Functional Materials. It is written by <span style="background-color:initial">Shizhao Xiong, Yangyang Liu, Piotr Jankowski, Qiao Liu, Florian Nitze, Kai Xie, Jiangxuan Song and Aleksandar Matic. </span></div> <div>The researchers are active at Chalmers University of Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong University, China, the Technical University of Denmark and the National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan, China.</div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">For more information, contact: </h2> <div><strong><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Shizhao-Xiong.aspx">Shizhao Xiong</a></strong>, Post doc, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 772 62 84, <a href=""> </a></div> <div><strong><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Aleksandar-Matic.aspx">Aleksandar Matic​</a></strong>, Professor, <span style="background-color:initial">Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,</span><span style="background-color:initial"> +46 </span><span style="background-color:initial">31 772 51 76, </span><a href=""> ​</a></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Further battery research at Chalmers​</h2> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/Testbed-for-electromobility-gets-575-million-SEK.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Testbed for electromobility gets 575 million SEK​​</a><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-new-concept-could-make-more-environmentally-friendly-batteries-possible-.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />A new concept for more sustainable batteries</a></div> <div><span></span><a href="/sv/institutioner/fysik/nyheter/Sidor/Grafensvamp-kan-gora-framtidens-batterier-mer-effektiva.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><span style="background-color:initial"><font color="#5b97bf"><b><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Graphene_sponge_paves_the_way_for_future_batteries.aspx">Graphene sponge paves the way for future batteries​</a></b></font></span></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><span style="background-color:initial"><font color="#5b97bf"><b><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspx">Carbon fibre can store energy in the body of a vehicle</a></b></font></span></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Liquid-storage-of-solar-energy-–-more-effective-than-ever-before.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Liquid storage of solar energy – more effective than ever before</a></div>Tue, 19 May 2020 07:00:00 +0200's-technology.aspx's-technology.aspxEmissions from road construction could be halved<p><b>​The construction sector accounts for a quarter of carbon dioxide emissions, in Sweden and globally. Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg studied the construction of an eight km stretch of road in detail and calculated how much emissions can be reduced now and until 2045, looking at everything from materials choice, production technology, supply chains and transport.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">“We identified several low hanging fruits, and if we address those first, it will become easier and cheaper to make bigger emission reductions in the future,” says Ida Karlsson, PhD student at Chalmers, and participant in the Mistra Carbon Exit project.</span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The researchers evaluated opportunities for reducing emissions in an eight kilometre stretch of the Swedish highway 44 between Lidköping and Källby, which was finished in 2019. It was one of the Swedish Transport Agency’s first projects in which a complete climate calculation was made. All the materials and activities involved in its construction were calculated for their total climate impact – energy and materials used in the construction and what emissions these contribute to.<br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“We used the contractor Skanska's climate calculation as an input for breaking down emissions by materials and activities and then analysed how much they could be reduced. What materials are used? How are they produced? What alternatives are available, and how might those alternatives develop until 2045?” explains Ida Karlsson.  </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The climate calculation showed that the contractor would be able to reduce emissions by 20 percent compared to the Swedish Transport Agency's reference values. But the researchers also demonstrated that emissions could be halved with technology already available today – and completely eliminated by the year 2045.<br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Ida Karlsson's research is part of the project Mistra Carbon Exit, which focuses on what are termed transformative solutions. These require both time and large investments and include, for example, production of steel, cement, concrete and asphalt without carbon dioxide emissions, as well as fossil-free or electric vehicles. Solutions are being developed and implemented, but climate-saving technologies and choices exist already today. Ida Karlsson wants to highlight four of these:</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>• Transport optimisation</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>• Recycling and reuse of excavation masses, asphalt and steel</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>• Material efficiency and design optimisation</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>• Replacement of cement clinker as a binder in concrete</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“If you were to optimise the transportation of materials, excavation masses and waste, for example, large gains could be made. We could be better at transport logistics in Sweden. In addition to transporting materials and waste to and from a road construction site, many movements also take place within projects,” she explains. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The study ‘Reaching net-zero carbon emissions in construction supply chains - Analysis of a Swedish road construction project’ was published earlier this year in the journal Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, and was written by Ida Karlsson together with colleague Filip Johnsson of Chalmers and Johan Rootzén, at the Gothenburg School of Business, Economics and Law.</div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Biomass an important issue</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Biomass plays an important role in both the short and long term. Many industries need biomass to reduce their emissions. It can be used for example as a fuel in the production of asphalt, cement and steel, for electricity production or as a vehicle fuel. Already today Sweden imports 95 per cent of the raw materials needed for transport biofuel because it is cheaper than using domestic material. It is hardly a sustainable solution when more and more countries import biomass. Ida believes that we need a coherent national strategy for biomass production and use.<br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“Where there are fossil-free alternatives, such as electrification, these should be used. But then the politics must clearly steer towards such a development. Otherwise, the biomass will simply go to the one who pays the most and not to where it would have the best use.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Further areas for improvement</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Another area for improvement could be the recycling of asphalt, explains Ida Karlsson.<br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“The legislation for this has recently changed but new, more efficient ways of working are not yet fully implemented. There are also different technologies to choose from depending on the quality of the tarmac, how heavy the vehicles which travel the route are and so on. Recycling requires energy but can still reduce emissions considerably, since asphalt is largely made up of bitumen, a variant of crude oil.” <br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Concrete is another major source of emissions. In Sweden, cement clinker is used as a binder in infrastructural concrete, but in other countries, materials such as slag from steel production or fly ash from coal-fired power plants is used as partial replacement of cement clinker, reducing emissions considerably.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“Here we must dare to recognise the long positive experiences from its use in other countries, like Norway, and adopt these techniques and measures even if they have not been used before in Sweden.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Time to take a clear path forward</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Ida Karlsson calls for clear plans, first until 2030, then onwards to 2045 as well.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“If you already know what you want in 2030, you can make demands today. And then companies can also know that ‘OK, if we have to be able to meet these requirements by 2030, then we have the opportunity to invest in technology to achieve that’. Because large investments will be needed to change production and haulage operations. Then you have to make sure that there are requirements, needs, incentives and not least that there is climate neutral electricity available.”<br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“The transformative solutions - electrification, carbon capture, carbon-free steel and concrete - require time and significant investment. But if we have already picked the low hanging fruits, the cost increase for the transformative solutions need not be so great. That is why the low-hanging fruits are so important to get started with, because they make it easier cut emissions further in the future, at a lower cost.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><div><strong>For more information, contact:</strong></div> <div>Ida Karlsson</div> <div>PhD student, Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div><a title="mail" href=""><span>​​</span>​</a><br /></div> <div>+46317726517</div></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /> </div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Christian Löwhagen </div>Mon, 18 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 for electromobility gets 575 million SEK<p><b>​One of Europe’s leading testbeds for electric and charging vehicles is now one step closer to realisation. The Swedish Energy Agency grants SEEL, Swedish Electric Transport Laboratory, 575 million SEK in support.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The important development of electrified vehicles, vessels and aircraft is in full progress. But there are knowledge gaps in the area of electric and charging vehicles, at both industrial and societal levels. New experience is needed, and innovative concepts are tested and evaluated.<br /></span><div>Swedish Electric Transport Laboratory, SEEL, is a comprehensive investment in a testbed for electric and charging vehicles. The corporation Swedish Electric Transport Laboratory AB is founded by Chalmers University of Technology and RISE (Research Institutes of Sweden), and a wide range of players will operate within the SEEL testbed.</div> <div><div> “It is very positive news to now have another piece of this puzzle in place. In order to deliver world-leading expertise within electrified transportation, we now also need to secure the conditions for academic research and education of the highest international standard. This requires new public research resources within SEEL’s field of activity”, says Stefan Bengtsson, President and CEO of Chalmers.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">&quot;A big step towards a more sustainable society&quot;</h2></div> <div>Robert Andrén, Director General at the Swedish Energy Agency, is counting on the project to help fight climate change as it focuses on batteries and electromobility.</div> <div>“Also, it is a big step towards a more sustainable society and more green jobs. In these Corona times, it is especially important that we support this type of forward-looking efforts that contribute to a climate-smart restart of society”, he says.</div> <div>Advanced knowledge development is required in the field of electromobility, and in the conditions for translating new insights into innovative solutions. In order to achieve this, close cooperation between academia, research institutes and industry is required.</div> <div> “SEEL has the right conditions to become a world-leading test facility for electromobility and thus very important for the vehicle industry’s conversion. SEEL will strengthen the competitiveness of the Swedish automotive industry, and help Sweden to remain at the forefront of innovations in the transport sector”, says RISE CEO Pia Sandvik.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">FACTS: SEEL</h2> <div>Swedish Electric Transport Laboratory, SEEL, is an electromobility testbed for electric and charging vehicles. The purpose of the initiative is to strengthen the conditions for cooperation within electromobility. Actors in small and medium-sized companies in the automotive industry, the aviation industry and the maritime sector, as well as other companies that develop technology in relevant areas, will have a common platform at SEEL. Researchers at universities and research institutes will also have access to an advanced research infrastructure. SEEL is expected to be operational by 2023.</div> <div>In the summer of 2018, the Swedish Energy Agency was commissioned by the Swedish Government to provide funding of 575 million SEK for the construction of a test center for electromobility. In December 2019, the European Commission approved state support for SEEL within the framework of an IPCEI, i.e. an important project of common European interest, to build a European battery value chain.<br /><br /></div> <div><a href="">Read the full text in Swedish at the Swedish Energy Agency.​</a></div> Wed, 29 Apr 2020 16:00:00 +0200 can become a tool for biofuel extraction<p><b>At Chalmers 2D-Tech center researchers utilize graphene to extract the biofuels from cell factories and try to optimize a method for extraction of biofuels in larger scale. What could we in the energy field learn from this new technique? We had an email chat with Dr Santosh Pandit, at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering. He is an expert in energy transitions. His research focuses on graphene antibacterial coatings for biomedical as well as industrial applications.​​</b></p><span></span><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:12pt"><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>What is your research about</strong>?<br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">Currently many biotechnologists are trying to produce Biofuel and many pharmaceutical compounds from genetically engineered cell factories such as bacteria and yeasts. These cell factories can produce such biofuel, chemical compounds for example by using sugar but could not excrete to external environment by themselves. Hence, we need to extract them from cells. Current extraction method needs toxic chemicals to damage such cells to extract the intracellular compound produced by these cell factories. Here we are planning to use nanoparticles containing vertical graphene spikes which could partly tear the cell membrane to leak-out such intracellular compounds without totally damaging the cells in cell factories. This approach will be doubly beneficial, which gives the re-utilization of graphene coated nanomaterials several times and microbial cells after interaction with graphene will leak out the biofuels and possibly reach back to normal metabolic stage and start producing biofuels again. This will make this process more sustainable and reduce the use of toxic chemical in biotech industries”.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:12pt"><span style="font-size:14px">Your research on graphen and biofuels a part of the new center for research on two-dimensional materials, 2D-Tech. </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:12pt"><span style="font-size:14px"><strong><img src="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/PublishingImages/Santosh_Pandit1.jpg" alt="Santosh Pandit PhD" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />Can you tell us something about this?</strong><br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">In the 2D-Tech consortium we are jointly working with Bio-Petrolia, which is startup company, having various cell factories with potential to produce biofuels and pharmaceuticals in large scale. We will utilize graphene to extract the biofuels from these cell factories and try to optimize our method for online extraction of biofuels in larger scale which could be useful for larger biotech as well as Pharma industries”.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:12pt"><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>What has your research found? </strong><br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">Now we are at the primary stage. However, our preliminary results are exiting and driving us forward to utilize this nanotechnological method for the biofuels extraction from microbial cell factories”.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:12pt"><span style="font-size:14px">With your results, you highlight new opportunities for biofuel production. </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:12pt"><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>Who could benefit from your research?</strong><br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">Since our approach will be sustainable and ecofriendly, primary beneficiaries will be biotech and pharmaceutical industries who are using cell factories to produce such chemicals. We believe that our approach will be cost effective by decreasing the extraction time and cost that needs in current methods. That will probably reduce the overall price of such biofuels and chemical compounds for end users, which are general public”.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:12pt"><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>How can these materials be used in the production of biofuels? </strong><br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">Gr</span><span style="background-color:initial">aphene is lipophilic material and are known to interact with the microbial cell membrane. We have already seen the evidence of the interaction between graphene nanoflakes and microbial cell membrane and protrude intracellular materials. These excellent behaviors of graphene will help us to extract the intracellular biofuels or chemicals from microbial cell factories”. </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:12pt"><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>What are you and your colleagues hoping for? </strong><br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">I</span><span style="background-color:initial">n long term we are hoping to develop facile and strategic methods which can be used to extract intracellular biofuels from cell factories in larger industrial scale replacing the currently used toxic chemicals to completely damage microbial cells to extract the intracellular chemicals”. </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:12pt"><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>Do you have any insights that might be interesting to tell us in the energy field?</strong><br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">“Currently biofuels are getting much more attention due to the raising concern in environmental sustainability. Here microbial cell factories are providing the excellent platform to produce such energy associated chemicals. With the advancement in the science and technology, there is lots of improvement in the large-scale production of biofuels by using microbial cells, that is quite exciting and give us hope to replace the non-sustainable energy sources with bio-based energy in near future”.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:12pt"><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>What is the next step?</strong><br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">Next step is the optimization of graphene coatings which could efficiently extract the intracellular biofuels while being minimally harmful to cells and design online biofuel extraction system which can be useful for biotech industries”, Santosh Pandit concludes. <br /><br /><strong>Read More:</strong><br /><span style="font-size:14px"><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/The-major-investment-that-will-take-the-2D-materials-into-society.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />​Major investment to take the 2D materials into the society</a><br /></span><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/pandit.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Santosh Pandit</a></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:12pt">By: Ann-Christien Nordin</p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:12pt"><br /></p> <div><br /></div>Mon, 27 Apr 2020 09:00:00 +0200 drivers use the most energy<p><b>​​The number of people in each vehicle is the single most important factor explaining the energy and greenhouse gas intensity of travel. This is shown in a new study by researchers from Chalmers and University College London, who also warn that self-driving vehicles could increase both energy consumption and emissions from passenger transport.– On average, about 1.5 people travel in each car in industrialized countries. But that number could actually decrease to less than one person per car, when automated vehicles enter the market. This could lead to a tripling in light-duty vehicle energy intensity, says Sonia Yeh, at the department of Space, Earth and Environment.</b></p><div>Occupancy is a central concept when it comes to calculating and assessing energy consumption and emissions for passenger transport. If you drive a car alone, the occupancy is 1 person kilometer per vehicle kilometer, or 1pkm/vkm. With two people in the car, the occupancy rate increases to 2 pkm/vkm. But there are also trips that have fewer than one person in the car. Sonia Yeh, professor in the division of Physical Resource Theory explains:</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Profilbilder/Sonia_Yeh_170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />– In taxi travel, we don’t count the driver. For example, if a taxi driver drives 15 km to pick up a passenger,  and drive the customer 20 km to the destination, and drive another 5 km to finish the shift and go home. Since half the trips is empty, the trip average occupancy is 0.5, or 0.5 passenger kilometers for every vehicle kilometer. So the problem with taxi, some shared mobility, and automated vehicles, is that there are a lot of “empty miles” to pick up or drop off passengers or moving vehicles around. This could lead to even a tripling in light-duty vehicle energy intensity, an increase that would be difficult to compensate by fuel-saving technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>An increased occupancy rate in the cars would reduce both emissions and energy consumption per passenger kilometer, but the occupancy has instead decreased for the last several decades due to the increase of two car household for example. Today, there are really no examples where that trend has been broken.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– Price based incentives, such as making single driver rides more expensive or shared rides cheaper, can be implemented. But previous studies show that people are generally not very sensitive to price, especially if they have to wait longer or if the trip takes longer. says Sonia.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– Public transportation in Sweden has very low GHG emissions in general. To reduce transport GHG emissions further, the most effective strategies are to reduce trip distance, decarbonize fuels and increase occupancy. The current situation with the corona pandemic makes the situation trickier, as people are avoiding public transportation or shared mobility to reduce transmissions. There remains the hope for electric vehicles powered by fossil-free electricity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from passenger transport.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Sonia Yeh and her colleague at University College London, Andreas W Schaefer's, article “<a href="">A holistic analysis of passenger travel energy and greenhouse gas intensities</a>” was recently published in Nature Sustainability.</div> <div><br /></div>Fri, 24 Apr 2020 07:00:00 +0200 between organic and conventional agriculture need to be better<p><b>​The environmental effects of agriculture and food are hotly debated. But the most widely used method of analysis often tends to overlook vital factors, such as biodiversity, soil quality, pesticide impacts and societal shifts, and these oversights can lead to wrong conclusions on the merits of intensive and organic agriculture. This is according to a trio of researchers writing in the journal Nature Sustainability.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The most common method for assessing the environmental impacts of agriculture and food is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Studies using this method sometimes claim that organic agriculture is actually worse for the climate, because it has lower yields, and therefore uses more land to make up for this. For example, <a href="">a recent study in Nature Communications</a> that made this claim was widely reported by many publications, <a href="">including the BBC</a> and others. </span><div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">But according to three researchers from France, Denmark and Sweden, presenting an analysis of many LCA studies in the journal Nature Sustainability, this implementation of LCA is too simplistic, and misses the benefits of organic farming. </span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>“We are worried that LCA gives too narrow a picture, and we risk making bad decisions politically and socially. When comparing organic and intensive farming, there are wider effects that the current approach does not adequately consider,” says Hayo van der Werf of the French National Institute of Agricultural Research.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Biodiversity, for example, is of vital importance to the health and resilience of ecosystems. But globally, it is declining, Intensive agriculture has been shown to be one of the main drivers of negative trends such as insect and bird decline. Agriculture occupies more than one-third of global land area, so any links between biodiversity losses and agriculture are hugely important.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“But our analysis shows that current LCA studies rarely factor in biodiversity, and consequently, they usually miss that wider benefit of organic agriculture,” says Marie Trydeman Knudsen from Aarhus University, Denmark. “Earlier studies have already shown that organic fields support biodiversity levels approximately 30% higher than conventional fields.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Usage of pesticides is another factor to consider. Between 1990 and 2015, pesticide use worldwide has increased 73%. Pesticide residues in the ground and in water and food can be harmful to human health, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and cause biodiversity losses. Organic farming, meanwhile, precludes the use of synthetic pesticides. But few LCA studies account for these effects. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Land degradation and lower soil quality resulting from unsustainable land management is also an issue – again, something rarely measured in LCA studies. The benefits of organic farming practices such as varied crop rotation and the use of organic fertilisers are often overlooked in LCA studies.</span></div> <div>Crucially, LCA generally assesses environmental impacts per kilogram of product. This favours intensive systems that may have lower impacts per kilogram, while having higher impacts per hectare of land. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/ChristelCederberg_230.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />“LCA simply looks at the overall yields. Of course, from that perspective, it’s true that intensive farming methods are indeed more effective. But this is not the whole story of the larger agroecosystem. A diverse landscape with smaller fields, hedgerows and a variety of crops gives other benefits – greater biodiversity, for example,” says Christel Cederberg of Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, (photo). </div> <div><br /></div> <div>LCA’s product-focused approach also fails to capture the subtleties of smaller, diverse systems which are more reliant on ecological processes, and adapted to local soil, climate and ecosystem characteristics. LCA needs a more fine-grained approach. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We often look at the effects at the global food chain level, but we need to be much better at considering the environmental effects at the local <span style="background-color:initial">level,” says Marie Trydeman Knudsen. </span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers note in their study that efforts are being made in this area, but much more progress is needed. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>A further key weakness is when hypothetical “indirect effects” are included, such as assuming that the lower yields of organic agriculture lead to increased carbon dioxide emissions, because more land is needed. For example, another prominent study – from a researcher also based at Chalmers University of Technology – suggested that organic agriculture was worse for the climate, because the requirement for more land leads indirectly to less forest area. But accounting for these indirect effects is problematic. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“For example, consider the growing demand for organic meat. Traditional LCA studies might simply assume that overall consumption of meat will remain the same, and therefore more land will be required. But consumers who are motivated to buy organic meat for environmental and ethical reasons will probably also buy fewer animal-based products in the first place. But hardly any studies into this sort of consumer behaviour exist, so it is very difficult to account for these types of social shifts now,” says Hayo van der Werf. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Current LCA methodology and practice is simply not good enough to assess agroecological systems such as organic agriculture. It therefore needs to be improved and integrated with other environmental assessment tools to get a more balanced picture” says Christel Cederberg. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read the article “<a href="">Towards better representation of organic agriculture in life cycle assessment​</a>” in Nature Sustainability. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">For more information, contact: </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Christel Cederberg, <span style="background-color:initial">Professor, Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology</span></div> <div></div> <div>+46 31 772 22 18</div> <div>​<br /></div> Tue, 17 Mar 2020 07:00:00 +0100 more business as usual with respect to energy<p><b>Recently, the media reported that both investments in fossil energy and carbon dioxide emissions are increasing, though at a slower rate than before. How should we interpret this message? We had an email chat with Dr Jessica Jewell, an expert in energy transitions. Her research focuses on mechanisms of energy transitions, particularly fossil fuel phase-out and low-carbon electricity growth. This is what she responded:​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20190101-20190630/jessica-jewell_portrait.jpg" alt="Portrait: Jessica Jewell" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />Fi</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>rst, can you tell us a little about your research? </strong></span><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">&quot;It's focused on political feasibility of energy transitions. I research national trends in energy use seeking to understand how individual countries respond to the global challenge of climate change given their specific national circumstances. More specifically, my research can be divided into two broad streams:<br /><br /></span></div> <div><ul><li><span style="font-size:14px">​What drives and constrains the expansion of low-carbon technologies. I have done work on nuclear power and I am now also <span></span>looking into renewable electricity investigating which countries introduce it earlier and where renewables can be expanded faster.</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:14px">What drives and constrains the decline of carbon-intensive technologies. I am measuring the global and national rates of decline in carbon-intensive sectors and comparing them to what we need to mitigate climate change; I also research social factors and mechanisms that differentiate countries that phase out fossil fuels from those that expand them.</span></li></ul></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>How to interpret these media reports about carbon dioxide emissions?</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“The use of fossil fuels is still increasing because of the increasing demand for fossil fuels. Part of this trend is easier to understand: for example, demand for oil primarily depends on the growth of transportation and there are more and more vehicles in the world, particularly in the emerging economies such as China. The vast majority of cars and trucks sold today are still driven by oil, not to mention ships and airplanes which explains rising oil demand. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">What is more paradoxical is that in many parts of the world, emissions from the power sector are increasing. This is particularly interesting for social scientists, because we have technical solutions to produce low carbon electricity: hydropower, nuclear power, wind and solar power. Some of these technologies are already cheaper than coal or gas in some markets. However, some developing countries are making paradoxical energy choices of investing in new coal power instead of renewables”.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>Is the emission curve broken?</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“Global emissions are growing, but at a slower rate than before. If we look at the business-as-usual emission forecasts from a few decades ago and compare them with what we have now, we can clearly see that we’re doing much better than ‘business as usual’ as it was imagined in the 1990s and the early 2000s. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The global emission curve reflects the combination of distinct trends: in some countries emissions are plateauing or slowly declining and in some countries they are still growing. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">In other words, there is a gradual evolution of the emission curve rather than radical breaking with the past”.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"> </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>What is politically feasible in Europe, China and the United States?</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“First of all, this depends on global technological developments and breakthroughs. Political feasibility in all three regions will be influenced by breakthroughs in different technologies such as small modular nuclear power reactors, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), batteries and hydrogen technologies. Incremental developments such as falling the cost of solar PV panels and offshore wind power will also be important in a near future; Equally important to these global factors are national socio-political circumstances which shape political feasibility what can be done in a given context. I believe three such factors are particularly critical: </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><ul><li><span style="font-size:14px">How fast energy demand is growing; this mostly depends on population and economic growth in a given country and thus is difficult to change by policies. Energy demand in China is growing much faster than in the EU and the US which means that China needs much faster expansion of low-carbon energy to reduce emissions and as long as low-carbon energy grows slower than demand, emissions will keep growing<br /></span></li> <li>How fast low-carbon energy technologies can expand. For example, in recent research I and co-authors show that Europe and the United States introduced nuclear, solar and wind power earlier than China. We now need to understand what determines how fast low-carbon technologies expand. The market in China is more favorable (because it is growing), so perhaps renewables can be expanded even faster with right policies.<br /></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">How fast we can phase-out carbon-intensive sectors. This may be even more challenging to do than expanding low-carbon energy. This is because growing a new sector brings jobs and profits and no one is in principle against it. However, phasing out an industry leads to job and economic losses, which is a political challenge. In a recent article I and co-authors explore this dilemma by looking at which countries pledge to phase out coal power. What we found out is that these countries extract and use little coal, have older power plant fleets, slow demand growth, higher incomes and exceptionally transparent governments which are able to deal with political challenges of coal phase out. There are many such countries in Europe and many of the US states have the same characteristics, so no wonder that coal use in Europe and North America is rapidly declining. In contrast, China has a very young coal power plant fleet (with an average age of only 12 years), produces most of its electricity from the domestically extracted coal, has rapidly expanding electricity demand, and less transparent government. So it is less feasible for China to phase out coal in the near term&quot;.</span></li></ul></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial">Is there anything more you want to say?</strong><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“I joined Chalmers about six months ago and I’m so happy I did. I have been struck by the wonderful combination of inspiring intellectual interactions and a supportive working environment. Chalmers offers great opportunities for young international scholars to build on and expand their networks and science”.<br /><br />By: Ann-Christine Nordin <br />Photo: Oil field <span style="font-size:14px"></span></span><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px">Haizhen Du/Shutterstock​</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><strong>RELATED:</strong><br /><span style="font-size:14px"><a href="/en/departments/see/news/Pages/current-pledges-to-phase-out-coal-power-are-critically-insufficient-to-slow-down-climate-change,-analysis-shows.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />​Current coal phase-out pledges are insufficient</a><br /></span><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Jessica Jewell, Assistant Professor, Department of Space, Earth and Environment​</a></div>  ​Tue, 21 Jan 2020 09:00:00 +0100 tickets to Göteborg Film Festival<p><b>​Compete with Göteborg Film Festival, Genie, Chalmers student center and Chalmers Energy Area of Advance.On January 24, the 43nd Göteborg Film Festival opens with cinemas all over the town, including Chalmers Student Union Building. This year the festival has two focus: feminism and Brazil! More than 400 films from nearly 80 countries will be screened during the festival week. Of course we are going to have a competition! Email the answers to the questions to at the latest on January 24. The winners will be contacted by email shortly thereafter.</b></p><strong>​</strong><span style="font-size:14px"><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>COMPETITION:</strong></span></span><div><span style="font-size:14px">1. Who has created the poster for the 2020 festival?</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">2. Which actor is nominated to the 2020 Nordic Honorary Dragon Award?</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">3. In Hollywood, 96 percent of movie directors are men. In Europe, 81 percent of the films are directed by men. This year, half of the festival's films are directed by women. What does the festival call that initiative?</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">4. <span></span>One of the festival's movies deals with the freedom fighter Harriet Tubman. Which dollar bill she was supposed to adorn in connection with the women's suffrage in the United States celebrate 100 years in 2020?</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">Send you answers to </span><span style="font-size:16px;background-color:initial"><a href="">​​</a></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>PRIZES:</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">1-3prize: A gift card with two tickets and two festival passes.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">More exactly is the kit a digital gift card worth SEK 305 each which you can solve with a code on the festival's program here:</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">Each gift card is two tickets and two festival passes.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">One thing though. The winner has to pay 1 SEK for it to work in the film festival's system.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><b style="font-size:14px">Related:</b><br /><span style="font-size:14px"></span><span style="font-size:14px"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Brazil in Focus at Göteborg Film Festival 2020</a><br /></span><div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="" style="outline:0px"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Fokus feminism</a></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Göteborg Film Festival​</a></span></div></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"></span><span></span><div><a href="/en/about-chalmers/Chalmers-for-a-sustainable-future/initiatives-for-gender-equality/gender-initiative-for-excellence/Pages/default.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /><span style="background-color:initial">G</span><span style="background-color:initial">enie | Gender Initiative for Excellence</span></a><br /></div></div> ​Mon, 20 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0100 storage at sea augments grid stability<p><b>​To reach the climate goals, society will have to rely more on renewable energy. However, solar and wind power, do not necessarily supply electricity exactly when needed. Now researchers at Chalmers have received EUR 420,000​ from the EU to develop offshore energy storage to stabilize the electricity production.​</b></p>Wind-, hydro- and solar power are seen by many as the main methods to produce sustainable electric power. But when it is calm or cloudy, wind and solar power cannot supply enough electricity to the grid. And if there is no prerequisite for controllable hydropower, the risk of electricity shortages increases. To satisfy the need for electricity at any moment, the surplus energy generated under favourable conditions needs to be stored for later occasions.<p></p> <p>“With the entire society and our modern lifestyle built around electric power, it is incredibly important to have a stable electricity supply. Our project will develop techniques to stabilize the electricity grid by storing energy in seawater reservoirs. The idea is that seawater is pumped into the reservoirs when there is an excess of electricity and then release it through turbines to ‘get back’ the electricity when there is a deficit”, says Håkan Nilsson, professor in the Department of Fluid Science at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences.</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">New technology at sea</h2> <p>The technique of storing water in reservoirs already exists in mountainous areas where there are large differences in altitude. This project aims to develop corresponding technology for flat coastal areas. Since the space is limited in existing coastal regions, an alternative is to build so-called &quot;energy islands&quot; offshore. The offshore plants are required to handle very small altitude differences and to be able to operate with saltwater instead of freshwater.</p> <p>The project has received EUR 5 million in total and is coordinated by TU Delft. In addition to the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers, another 11 industries and universities in Europe are participating, with broad expertise to meet the goal. The competencies include civil engineering, fluid mechanics, electromechanics, machine design, economy and environment. <span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers has received EUR </span><span style="background-color:initial">420,000</span><span style="background-color:initial"> over 4 years.​</span></p> <p>“The role we have at Chalmers is to design and optimize pump turbines for these specific conditions. We will also look at what loads and deformations these are exposed to in different operating cases and change between pumping and running as a turbine. We will also conduct a smaller validation experiment for one of the techniques”, says Håkan Nilsson.</p> <p>Read more about the project: <a href="">Augmenting grid stability through Low-head Pumped Hydro Energy Utilization &amp; Storage​</a></p> <p>Text: Anders Ryttarson Törneholm​</p>Fri, 17 Jan 2020 10:00:00 +0100 material for carbon dioxide capture<p><b>​In a joint research study from Sweden, scientists from Chalmers University of Technology and Stockholm University have developed a new material for capturing carbon dioxide. The new material offers many benefits – it is sustainable, has a high capture rate, and has low operating costs. The research has been published in the journal ACS Applied Materials &amp; Interfaces.</b></p><p>​Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is a technology that attracts a lot of attention and debate. Large investments and initiatives are underway from politicians and industry alike, to capture carbon dioxide emissions and tackle climate change. So far, the materials and processes involved have been associated with significant negative side effects and high costs. But now, new research from Chalmers University of Technology and Stockholm University in Sweden has demonstrated the possibility of a sustainable, low-cost alternative with excellent, selective carbon dioxide-capturing properties. </p> <p>The new material is a bio-based hybrid foam, infused with a high amount of CO2-adsorbing ‘zeolites’ – microporous aluminosilicates. This material has been shown to have very promising properties. The porous, open structure of the material gives it a great ability to adsorb the carbon dioxide.</p> <p><img width="250" height="195" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Walter%20250.png" alt="" style="height:189px;width:202px;margin:5px" />“In the new material, we took zeolites, which have excellent capabilities for capturing carbon dioxide, and combined them with gelatine and cellulose, which has strong mechanical properties. Together, this makes a durable, lightweight, stable material with a high reusability. Our research has shown that the cellulose does not interfere with the zeolites’ ability to adsorb carbon dioxide. The cellulose and zeolites together therefore create an environmentally friendly, affordable material,” says <a href="/en/staff/Pages/arbelaez.aspx">Walter Rosas Arbelaez</a>, PhD student at Chalmers' Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and one of the researchers behind the study.</p> <p><br /></p> <p><strong>Fits well with the ongoing developments within CCS and CCU</strong><br />The researchers’ work has yielded important knowledge and points the way for further development of sustainable carbon capture technology. Currently, the leading CCS technology uses ‘amines’, suspended in a solution. This method has several problems – amines are inherently environmentally unfriendly, larger and heavier volumes are required, and the solution causes corrosion in pipes and tanks. Additionally, a lot of energy is required to separate the captured carbon dioxide from the amine solution for reuse. The material now presented avoids all of these problems. In future applications, filters of various kinds could be easily manufactured.<img width="500" height="478" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Anders%20500.png" alt="" style="height:194px;width:205px;margin:5px" /></p> <p>“This research fits well with the ongoing developments within CCS and CCU (Carbon Capture and Utilisation) technology, as a sustainable alternative with great potential. In addition to bio-based materials being more environmentally friendly, the material is a solid – once the carbon dioxide has been captured, it is therefore easier and more efficient to separate it than from the liquid amine solutions,” says <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Anders-Palmqvist.aspx">Professor Anders Palmqvist</a>, research leader for the study at Chalmers.</p> <p><br /></p> <p><strong>Overcoming a difficult obstacle – vital breakthrough </strong><br />Zeolites have been proposed for carbon capture for a long time, but so far, the obstacle has been that ordinary, larger zeolite particles are difficult to work with when they are processed and implemented in different applications. This has prevented them from being optimally used. But the way the zeolite particles have been prepared this time – as smaller particles in a suspension – means they can be readily incorporated in and supported by the highly porous cellulose foam. Overcoming this obstacle has been a vital breakthrough of the current study. </p> <p>“What surprised us most was that it was possible to fill the foam with such a high proportion of zeolites. When we reached 90% by weight, we realized that we had achieved something exceptional. We see our results as a very interesting piece of the puzzle in the search for a solution to the complex challenge of being able to reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the Earth's atmosphere quickly enough to meet climate goals,” says Walter Rosas Arbelaez.</p> <p><br />Read the article, <a href="">Bio-based Micro-/Meso-/Macroporous Hybrid Foams with Ultrahigh Zeolite Loadings for Selective Capture of Carbon Dioxide </a>in the journal ACS Applied Materials &amp; Interfaces. </p> <p>    </p> <img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/blomma.png" alt="" style="height:213px;width:235px;margin:5px" /><p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p>A sample of the new material resting on a flower, demonstrating its extremely low weight<br /><br /></p> <p><strong></strong> </p> <p> </p> <p><strong>For more information, contact:</strong><br /><a href="/en/staff/Pages/arbelaez.aspx">Walter Rosas Arbelaez</a><br />PhD student, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology<br />0765609973</p> <div><br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Anders-Palmqvist.aspx">Anders Palmqvist</a><br />Professor, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology<br />031 772 29 61</div> <div><br /><strong>Managing captured carbon dioxide </strong></div> <div>After capture, the carbon dioxide can then be stored (CCS) or converted in a reaction (CCU). The latter is undergoing interesting and promising parallel research at Chalmers right now to enable the conversion of carbon dioxide to methanol. The results need further evaluation and comparison with other conversion methods. </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>More information about the research:</strong><br />The two main authors, doctoral students Walter Rosas from Chalmers University of Technology and Luis Valencia from Stockholm University, met within an EU project and started collaborating. The aim of their research has been to investigate the combination of a very porous biomaterial that can be manufactured at a low cost, with the specific function of the zeolite to adsorb/capture carbon dioxide. The research showed that microporous (&lt;2 nm) crystalline aluminosilicates – ‘zeolites’ – made with small particle size (&lt;200 nm), could be readily supported by the biomaterial and thereby offer great potential as effective adsorbents for atmospheric carbon dioxide.<br />In the study, the researchers managed to overcome the difficult-to-handle properties that ordinary larger zeolite particles have, an obstacle which has until now made them difficult to implement in this type of application. The key was that the smaller particles could be combined with a meso- and macroporous support material based on a foam of gelatin and nanocellulose, which could then contain ultra-high amounts of the zeolite without losing too much of its strong mechanical network properties. Up to 90% by weight of zeolite content could be achieved, giving the material a very good ability to selectively adsorb carbon dioxide in combination with a very open pore structure, enabling high gas flows. The zeolite used was of the type silicalite-1 and can be seen as a model that can be replaced by other zeolites if needed.<br /></div> <p> </p> <p> </p> <p>Text: Jenny Jernberg <br />Translation: Joshua Worth <br />Illustration: Yen Strandqvist </p>Mon, 09 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100 some countries do more than others?<p><b>​If we are to meet the climate goals, we need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition, we need to capture some of the carbon dioxide that we have already released to the atmosphere. This is a big challenge.We had a chat with climate scientist Sabine Fuss, who holds Chalmers Jubilee professorship 2019.</b></p>​<img src="/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/PublishingImages/Sabine-Fuss_Photo-MCC.jpg" alt="Sabine Fuss" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px">“My research has been focused on deep decarbonisation in recent years – especially in the context of the ambitious climate goals of the Paris Agreement. In particular, I have been assessing the potential and costs of technologies and practices for removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere as a lead author of the IPCC Special Report on 1.5°C Global Warming”, says professor Sabine Fuss, head of a working group on sustainable resource management at the Mercator Research Institute on Global Commons and Climate Change in Berlin. </span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px"></span><div><span style="font-size:14px">She is also one of Chalmers´ four Jubilee Professors in 2019. The Department of Space, Earth and Environment is her host. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>What has the cooperation with the scientist at Chalmers meant to you? </strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“Just coming out of the IPCC process and having developed a lot of expertise on deep decarbonization pathways and carbon removal technologies, I brought with me both bottom-up knowledge and a systems perspective of the Paris challenge. Being an economist by background, I hope that I managed to complement the expertise of my Chalmers colleagues, jointly taking the work I had previously done further. In particular, we took first steps at conceptualizing the policies needed to move towards implementation, benefiting both from the exchange with the very experienced Chalmers researchers as well as ongoing reflections on the Swedish plans to go carbon-negative”, she says.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">In the near future, she hope to take these insights back to the international context and also return to Chalmers for the International Conference on Negative Emissions next May.<br /><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">” It has been a great pleasure and benefit for us to have Sabine here”, says Daniel Johansson, Associate Professor, Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">He has known Sabine since 2007 when both were at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIASA in Austria. They collaborated in a project on investments in electricity production carried out given uncertainty in future CO2 prices.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“Sabine has since then developed into one of the leading researchers in the world on issues related to investments under uncertainty as well as on issues related to negative CO2 emissions. It was her focus on the latter subject that was the main reason why she came here as a Jubilee professor”, says Daniel. <br /><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>How can we achieve negative emissions? </strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“We can remove CO2 emissions from the atmosphere in very different ways. For example: </span></div> <div><ul><li><span style="font-size:14px">Planting new forests leads to sequestration of CO2 through photosynthesis, </span></li> <li>Absorbing CO2 directly from the ambient air by means of a chemical reaction with subsequent geological storage. </li> <li>As a hybrid option, BioEnergy generation can be coupled with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS), so that the CO2 sequestered in the additionally grown biomass does not escape into the atmosphere but is instead captured and locked away”, Sabine Fuss says.</li></ul></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">Sabine says we have to keep in mind that practices and technologies, which are associated with additional needs for land, for example for afforestation or growing biomass for BECCS, have been debated controversially. This is because land is a finite resource that will also be needed for other policy goals such as conserving biodiversity, producing food for a growing population, and so on. <br /><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“But they can indeed complement each other: by composing a careful portfolio of options, we can decrease risks to a certain extent. The best way to mitigate climate change remains to avoid emitting CO2 in the first place, of course!” </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>If we have to be carbon-negative must some countries do more than others?</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“Carbon-neutrality is a necessary condition for keeping our option to reach the 1.5°C target open. However, uncertainties surround the amount of CO2 that we are still allowed to emit, the so-called carbon budget. This makes it difficult to predict exact years in which carbon-neutrality must be reached. If we are to be carbon-neutral around mid-century, we will need to remove any emissions that still occur after that point. Who exactly will need to go carbon-negative depends on technology and potential as much as distributional considerations”, Sabine Fuss explains. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The implementation will ultimately happen in industry and individual companies, but politicians will have to set the governance framework and create the incentives. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>What concrete action do you see as a first step?</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“An enquiry of the scope carried out in Sweden at the moment – which maps out both technology roadmaps and policy options – is needed to move forward. Close interaction of government, industry and society will be needed to determine the viable pathways to carbon-neutrality”. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">Fossil Free Sweden is an initiative to encourage business sectors to draw up their own roadmaps as to how they will be fossil free while also increasing their competitiveness. Currently, thirteen roadmaps have been handed over to the Swedish Government and more are in progress.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>What role can researchers take to drive the development?</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“Researchers can help the dialogue described above by compiling the relevant knowledge and mapping the different pathways to 1.5°C. In our work we find that there is a gap in knowledge when it comes to implementation of carbon removal technologies and practices and active research is needed to enable policymakers and industry to take the next steps”.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>RELATED:</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Professor Sabine Fuss</a></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href="/en/research/our-scientists/Pages/Jubilee-Professors.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />More about Chalmers´ Jubilee Professors</a></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />The 2nd International Conference on Negative CO2 Emissions</a></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Roadmaps for fossil free competitiveness</a></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px"><a href="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/kalendarium/Sidor/Carbon-neutral-or-carbon-negative.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Carbon-neutral or carbon-negative? Can we still keep global warming below 1.5°C?​</a></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px"></span><span style="font-size:14px">Together with Christian Azar and Ottmar Edenhofer, she wrote an debate article in Svenska Dagbladet: </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />&quot;No, the UN Climate Panel does not recommend nuclear power&quot;.</a> (Swedish)</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />CCS (Wiki)</a></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />BECCS (Wiki)</a></span></div> <div><br /></div> ​By: Ann-Christine Nordin, <br />Photo Sabine Fuss: David Ausserhofer.</div>Tue, 26 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0100 the Fulbright inaugural lecture with Professor David Blekhman<p><b>We are standing in the doorway of a transportation revolution with the advent of electrified and autonomous vehicles&quot;. How can hydrogen be the fuel of the future? Professor David Blekhman is an expert in the field of hydrogen infrastructure and has been selected as a Fulbright Distinguished Chair of Alternative Energy Technology. On the Sustainability Day, November 8, he gave his inaugural lecture.</b></p>​<img src="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/nyheter/PublishingImages/Blekhman21.jpg" alt="David Blekhman" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" />Watch the seminar:<br /><a href=";"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Fulbright inaugural lecture with Professor David Blekhman </a><div><br /></div> <div>Interview with David Blekhman:<br /><span style="font-size:14px"><span></span><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Fulbright-inaugural-lecture---How-can-hydrogen-be-the-fuel-of-the-future.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />How can hydrogen be the fuel of the future?</a></span><br /><br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Cal State LA technology professor named a Fulbright Distinguished Chair in Alternative Energy Technology</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>​<a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />UB alum David Blekhman inspires students to develop a passion for clean energy</a></div>Mon, 18 Nov 2019 00:00:00 +0100