News: Transport related to Chalmers University of TechnologyFri, 22 Oct 2021 02:40:15 +0200 research on how to reduce the interference in superconducting components<p><b>​In a newly published article in Science Advances, Chalmers researchers present experiments and models that explain how to reduce the interference from defects in materials for superconducting electronic components. The interference is reduced by exposing the materials to a radio frequency electric field.The new results may in particular play an important role in the production of quantum computers.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Superconducting materials contain defects that generate disturbing noise. Today, no one knows for sure exactly what these defects consist of.</span><div><br /></div> <div>– They are atoms or molecules with electric charge that exist in dielectric * materials, on the surface of metals and insulating materials. There is always a thin oxide that forms on the surface, and the oxide is not completely perfect but has defects in it, says Jonas Bylander, associate professor at the  Quantum Technology Laboratory at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the newly published research, Jonas Bylander and his colleagues show how it is possible to reduce the noise in the materials by exposing them to a radio-frequency electric field.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– We discovered that it is the same kind of defects that dominate how well different materials and components work, says Jonas Bylander. And we developed a model that explains in detail what is happening.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers discovered that the defects display so-called &quot;motional narrowing&quot; when they are exposed to the radio-frequency electric field, something that has not been previously detected in dielectric materials. Jonas Bylander compares the effect that occurs with that of reduced motion blur in a photograph.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– One can say that these existing defects can have several different positions, and when the background fluctuates, the defects can jump between these positions. But when we make the background fluctuate faster, the defects do not catch up. The result is that the defects appear to be sitting still. Unintuitively, it’s almost the opposite of motion blur.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The newly published research increases the understanding of how materials used to build superconducting circuits work – when reducing the noise, the components perform better.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– We try to build better components from better materials and design the components so that they are not so sensitive to noise, and if we understand the materials better, we will also be able to build better quantum computers.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Read the scientific article here</h3> <div><a href="" target="_blank"></a></div> <div>---</div> <div>* A dielectric material is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an applied electric field.</div>Thu, 21 Oct 2021 15:30:00 +0200 when the graduation ceremony was held on campus again<p><b>​Perhaps the long pandemic period made this year's graduation ceremony – which took place on campus in RunAn  –  extra solemn.​ </b></p>​​<span style="background-color:initial">The comperes Selma Allerbo and Philip Wramsby were able to welcome 127 graduates to Kårhuset on 16 October.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>The ceremony began with speeches by Chalmers President and CEO Stefan Bengtsson. </div> <div>&quot;We are of course extremely happy to celebrate together with you here at Chalmers,&quot; he began.</div> <div>&quot;Those of you who are now graduating from Chalmers have knowledge that gives you opportunities to contribute to a sustainable future. Chalmers stands up for fact-based decisions, critical thinking and scientific method. I hope your years at Chalmers have given you a good basis to stand on to be able to protect these important values in the future and thus protect an open and democratic society”. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Stefan Bengtsson concluded by congratulating and wishing everyone good luck on their continued journey, and welcome back to Chalmers in whatever form it is.</div> <div>“Don't forget: You continue to be chalmerists even after your studies. You're the future”.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">&quot;Part of our family&quot;</h2> <div>Subsequently, the diploma ceremony was awarded under the leadership of Chalmers Vice President for Education and Lifelong Learning, Anna Karlsson Bengtsson. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Catrin Lindberg, president of the Student Union, then addressed the examiners.</div> <div>&quot;When you talk to future students, show your diplomas and tell them that they will not only be good problem solvers, but also part of our family and find friends for life”. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Finally, the examiners were given words along the way by alumni Ulrika Lindstrand, Paul Welander, Therese Eriksson, and finally Robert Falck who urged the students:</div> <div>“Let the future happen!”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Erik Krång</div> <div><strong>Photo:</strong> Daniel Ahlqvist</div> <div>​<br /></div> </div>Thu, 21 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Yeh new Co-Director for Energy Area of Advance<p><b>–I am grateful to have Sonia Yeh in the management of the Energy area of Advance. As Area of Advance leaders, we will also have the support of Anders Hellman and Cecilia Geijer, who complement our competencies, says Tomas Kåberger, Director of Chalmers Energy area of Advance. Sonia Yeh, professor of energy and transport systems at Chalmers, replaces Anders Ådahl, as he has moved on to new assignments for the Chalmers University Foundation.​</b></p><span style="background-color:initial">– I have for some time been considering getting more involved with central strategic planning at Chalmers. And this assignment seems to mean a good balance between increased responsibility and new experiences. So I am very happy to take on the task and really look forward to working with the management team over the next three years to manage one of Chalmers' largest research areas, says Sonia Yeh.<br /><br /></span><div><strong>What do you see as your most important task?</strong></div> <div>– First and foremost, one of the most important tasks as a deputy is to support the Area of Advance leader's visions and strategies. In addition, I hope that my experience from researching, leading research programs and working in the public sector can contribute to new perspectives to complement and raise the already very high level of academic excellence at Chalmers, says Sonia Yeh.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Sonia Yeh</strong> is a professor at Physical Resource Theory at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers University of Technology. Her fields of research centres on alternative transportation fuels, consumer behaviour, urban mobility and sustainability standards. Her research has made her an internationally recognized expert on energy economics and modulation of energy systems.</div> <div> </div> <div>Among other things she co-led a large collaborative team from the University of California Davis and UC Berkeley advising the U.S. states of California and Oregon, and British Columbia, Canada to design and implement a market-based carbon policy targeting GHG emission reductions from the transport sector.</div> <div> </div> <div>Sonia Yeh came to Chalmers as Adlerbertska visiting professor and U.S Fulbright Distinguished Chair Professor in Alternative Energy Technology to foster the exchange of transport research among the U.S, Sweden and the rest of Europe.</div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/IndBio/cecilia5q_340x400.jpg" alt="Cecilia Geijer" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px;width:300px;height:348px" /><strong>Cecilia Geijer </strong>is an Assistant Professor, at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Industrial Biotechnology.</div> <div>Her research focus is to develop yeast strains that can effectively ferment all the sugar in lignocellulose into sustainable biofuels and biochemicals in a future biorefinery. To understand how yeast best absorbs and metabolizes different sugars, she works with both industrial strains of the model organism S. cerevisiae as well as non-conventional yeast species with interesting biotechnological properties.</div> <div>Cecilia Geijer and her research group use the Nobel Prize-winning CRISPR-Cas9 technology to provide the bakery yeast with genes from other organisms, which also enables fermentation of other sugars from plant biomass and broadens the yeast's areas of use.</div> Wed, 20 Oct 2021 23:00:00 +0200 limit to the human lifespan<p><b>There is no limit to how old a person can become. That is the conclusion of a recently published scientific study. Two of the researchers behind the study, Holger Rootzén and Dmitrii Zholud, are active at the Department of Mathematical Sciences.</b></p>For over a hundred years, human life expectancy in the most developed countries has increased steadily by three years per decade. But how long can that increase continue? This issue is the subject of lively discussions among researchers in the field. The first time Chalmers researchers Holger Rootzén and Dmitrii Zholud published their theory that there is no upper limit to the human lifespan was in 2017. Since then, larger amounts of data have become available, and now a new study has reached the same conclusion: there is no statistical evidence for a human maximum age. <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MV/Nyheter/Lifespan/HolgerRootzen220.gif" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Portrait of Holger Rootzén" style="margin:5px" /><div> <div>”With access to considerably larger amounts of data, we have been able to verify our previous results” says Holger Rootzén.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The result once again contradicts an earlier publication in the scientific journal Nature, in which it was concluded that the natural limit for human lifespan is 115 years.</div> <div> ”If there had been a limit below 130 years, it should have been discovered in the study, and that would have been an indication that the increase in life expectancy cannot continue indefinitely. But that is not the case” says Holger Rootzén.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Like tossing a coin</h2> <div>Knowledge about possible upper limits to the human life span is important for society, and can be a factor in, for example, the planning of pension systems. However, in the study no signs were found which suggest that human life expectancy cannot continue to increase. In fact, it seems that the chances of surviving another year increases rather than decreases at extreme old age. After the age of 108, the chances of living another year are like a tossing a coin, the researchers conclude. If it's heads, you'll live to the next birthday.</div> <div> ”If we had met Jean Calment, the world’s longest living person, who lived 122 years, when she had her 108 year birthday, we could have told her that she had to get heads 14 times in a row to reach 122. The chance is about 1 in 16,000” says Holger Rootzén.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> As the number of individuals living for a very long time increases, so does the possibility that someone will reach, for example, 130 years. But if there are no medical revolutions, according to Holger Rootzén, it is unlikely that anyone in the next 25 years will live longer than 128 years.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">No difference between men and women</h2> <div>Another interesting result in the study is that the differences in survival, between women and men, and between different lifestyles, that exist at younger ages vanish after 108 years of age.</div> <div> ”There seems to be no difference in mortality at old age between different countries or between women and men. We suspect that the plateau with a 50 percent risk of dying per year is a biological property that is common to all humans” says Holger Rootzén.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> The study was conducted in collaboration with researchers from EPFL, the Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research and HEC Montreal. The scientific article <a href="">”Human mortality at extreme age” is published in the journal Royal Society Open Science</a>. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> About the study</h2> <div>Data was collected partly through the International Database on Longevity, which contains over 1,100 so-called supercentenarians (persons over 110 years) from 13 countries* and also semi-supercentenarians (persons over 105 years) from some of the countries, and partly through data from Italy on all persons who were at least 105 years old between January 2009 and December 2015.</div> <div>The researchers used a combination of extreme value statistics, survival analysis and computer-intensive methods to analyze the mortality of Italian and French semi-supercentenarians. The findings are consistent with previous analysis of the international database on life expectancy and suggest that any biological upper limit on human life expectancy is so high that it is unlikely that anyone will reach it.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> *Austria, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, England, Wales, Finland, Germany, Norway, Spain, Sweden, USA. </div> <div> <br /><strong>For more information, please contact:</strong></div> <div>Holger Rootzén, professor at the Department of Mathematical Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology.<br />Phone: +46 31 772 35 78</div> <div>E-mail: <a href=""></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Links to media reports about the study</strong></div> <div> <a href=""></a><br /><a href=""></a><br /><a href=";guce_referrer=aHR0cHM6Ly9yb3lhbHNvY2lldHkuYWx0bWV0cmljLmNvbS9kZXRhaWxzLzExNDIwNzYxNS9uZXdz&amp;guce_referrer_sig=AQAAAGi53YiNcbL5ecQW39sB9SheW-iz4mskBC25WOE9I3_VcP8oL2dt5bXQ8NBbMLoIb13NCna25nONcN98cCZd_fTBaE66xEsPPtH8-EyRvDnHUla0_8Am94IEFPd8jqbxbls6X9EtpqzbW6x2W39FDt429la5VI7zkoiJIwXzJtgg">Lebenserwartung: Menschen könnten über 130 Jahre alt werden - WELT Want to live forever? Theoretically, you could, study says​</a> (<span style="background-color:initial">)</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Karin Wik and Anneli Andersson</div> <div>Photo: featured image Danie Franco on Unsplash. Portrait of Holger Rootzén: Helle Rootzén</div> ​​​</div>Wed, 20 Oct 2021 08:00:00 +0200 Fagerström, new Professor IMS<p><b>​​Martin held his promotion lecture &quot;Avoiding a complete failure&quot; for professor (biträdande professor) in in Computational Fracture Mechanics on 18 October 2021.</b></p>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Övriga/div%20nyheter%20o%20kalender/Martin%20Fagerström/Martin%20Fagerström%20seminarium.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:355px;height:415px" /><br /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">Martin works in the research group for Solid Mechanics. He conducts research on the computational modelling of damage and fracture of lightweight materials, with emphasis on fibre reinforced polymers. The range of application of Martin Fagerström’s research is wide, incorporating everything from crashworthiness to sports and health.</span><div class="text-normal page-content"><div><br /></div> <div>Martin Fagerström is also Co-director of Health Engineering Area of Advance, and also the coordinator of Chalmers initiative in Sports Engineering, Chalmers Sports &amp; Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700">Abstract</span></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700"><br /></span></span></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Avoiding a complete failure</span><span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700"><br /></span></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​</span><span style="background-color:initial">Increasing expectations, stronger requirements and tougher regulations from both end-users and governments are currently pushing the industry to constantly increase their efficiency in developing new, sustainable products and innovative solutions. The increasing demands for a more efficient product development and for novel products with less environmental impact thereby calls for an ever-increasing need of simulation tools that are able to accurately and efficiently predict product performance. At the same time, new research findings in terms of predictive models and improved numerical procedures are continuously opening new opportunities for simulation-assisted developments in application areas where the capability of simulations has been less utilised. </span></div> <div>In this talk, we will particularly discuss material models and numerical methods developed to describe when and how a component or structure is deforming and eventually failing to fulfil its intended function. ‘Failure’ can be defined in many ways, but common to most cases is that the models required to describe the failure are required to capture a rather complex chain of events, while at the same time being computationally efficient. Several examples of projects will be described, which all have been trying to find the delicate balance between predictability/accuracy and computationally efficiency. The discussion will mainly be centered around the needs of the automotive industry, but we will also make outlooks to interesting remaining challenges and opportunities within e.g. aeronautics and health applications.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Hopefully, after the talk it will also be clear that the safest way to avoid failure (in research) is to be open to collaborate with local, national and international colleagues with complementary – but essential! – competencies, ideas and energy!</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/martin-fagerstrom.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />More about Martin Fagerström</a></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div></div>Wed, 20 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 the Implementation of Smart Maintenance<p><b>​Camilla Lundgren, PhD Candidate at the division of Production Systems IMS, defends her doctoral thesis “Facilitating the Implementation of Smart Maintenance”. The manufacturing industry is transforming, usually referred to as the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Digital technologies are introduced, and many industrial companies are aiming for highly digitalised production systems. This technological shift changes the environment of production systems, and will especially set new requirements on the function responsible for making production systems working; the maintenance function. </b></p>​Camilla´s research focuses on the implementation of maintenance in digitalised manufacturing, called Smart Maintenance. Smart Maintenance is on the strategic agenda for many industrial companies, but they need evidence-based guidance in pursuing such an implementation. With her research, Camilla provides support for industrial companies to develop strategies for their maintenance organisations to meet the demands of digitalised manufacturing. <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>Summary</strong></div> <div>Today’s technological advancements and innovations are developing rapidly, and digital technologies have become for many of us a regular part of our daily lives. Similar technological development takes place in the manufacturing industry, where industrial companies are aiming for highly digitalised production systems. This development impacts the function responsible for keeping production systems working; the maintenance function. However, maintenance has long been a traditional field, and the traditional ways of working often prevail. Thus, there is a need for organisational innovation in maintenance to keep up with the technological innovations in digitalised manufacturing. </div> <div>Maintenance in digitalised manufacturing is called “Smart Maintenance”, and many industrial companies need guidance in pursuing such an implementation. This thesis contributes by looking at Smart Maintenance implementation through the lenses of attributes that impact innovation; relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, trialability and observability. This thesis reviews 24 models and demonstrates one example of how to evaluate new technology, to support investment in Smart Maintenance. Such models may be used to describe the relative advantage of Smart Maintenance, thus helping industry practitioners to prepare investment proposals. Moreover, the role of the maintenance manager is described, i.e. maintenance managers must ensure that Smart Maintenance presents compatibility with the rest of the organisation. This thesis also proposes a work procedure for Smart Maintenance strategy development that supports stepwise implementation with a learning focus. This increases trialability and decreases complexity. Further, this thesis reviews 170 performance indicators that may be used to follow up the work with Smart Maintenance to ensure observability. </div> <div>Taken together, this thesis provides a framework with inspiration and guidance for maintenance managers on strategically approaching the implementation of Smart Maintenance. Ideally, it supports the organisational innovation in maintenance that is needed to realise highly productive production systems in digitalised manufacturing. </div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>Public defense</strong></div> <div>November 12, 09:00 AM, <a href="" target="_blank">online at Zoom</a> and Virtual Development Laboratory</div> <div>Opponent: Associate Professor Tomohiko Sakao, Linköping University</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Contact email: <a href="" target="_blank">Camilla Lundgren​</a></div> <div><br /></div>Mon, 18 Oct 2021 11:00:00 +0200 choose Chalmers?<p><b>​Choosing a university for studying your master’s is not easy task. Here is how I decided to study at Chalmers.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/education/Student%20Life/Student%20Blogs/why_chalmers_banner_1.png" alt="Nathaly in front of Chalmers Entrance" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /><div><span style="background-color:initial">Ever since I was doing my Bachelor’s in my home country, Ecuador, I knew I wanted to study abroad. In 2018 I decided to start applying for a master’s in Biomedical Engineering in different places around the world. What was the next step? First, I needed to look for all the requirements depending on the University. But what did they all have in common? An English proficiency test! I spent the entire year preparing for the test, with the application dates in mind. So, I took it in September and prepared the rest of the documents. I applied to two universities at that time: one in Switzerland and Italy. Those were my first master’s applications; I was super nervous – you probably understand how I felt. Unfortunately, both of them gave me a negative answer.</span></div> <div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>It didn’t stop me from trying again, after asking for feedback on my applications mainly from my professors back in Ecuador. I spent one year improving my professional profile, with my eyes on my target. It was 2019 and I had everything ready to go! This time I made sure I applied to even more universities and hoping my profile was interesting enough. In my list, I had universities from Sweden, Switzerland, Italy, the US, and the UK. When the moment came, I sent all my documents to the different websites and just sat and waited for a couple of months. It was in the middle of the pandemic, April 2020, and I started to receive the results. The first one I got was from Italy, accepted! Then from Sweden, accepted there too! The UK sent me a nice rejection letter, but okay, I already had two options. Finally, Switzerland also accepted me, yay! Time for a decision, this is how I did it. And yes, of course, you know the end of the story because here I am, writing a blog for Chalmers website. But here is what I had on my mind:</div> <div><br /></div> <div><b>1. Let’s talk about money!</b></div> <div>My economical situation wasn’t the best, hence my condition to study abroad was having a scholarship. From the three universities I could choose from, I ruled out Italy because I didn’t get a scholarship there. Okay, that was “easy”, even though I really liked that university. I applied to the <a href="" title="Link to SI Scholarship website" target="_blank">SI Scholarship</a> and luckily, I got it (Teanette and I wrote about it in <a href="/en/education/studying-at-Chalmers/stuamb/Pages/Our-experience-with-the-SI-scholarship-.aspx" title="Link to SI Scholarship blog">this blog</a>). The SI scholarship covers both the tuition fees and living costs! </div> <div><br /></div> <div><b>2. Let’s talk about history!</b></div> <div>From the two universities left, I checked each website – this time thoroughly. I noticed Chalmers had a long trajectory. <a href="/en/about-chalmers/history/Pages/default.aspx" title="Link to Chalmers History">A university founded in 1829</a>  had to be excellent after so many years! There must be a reason why it has been around for over a hundred years.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><b>3.  Let’s talk about after-graduate life!</b></div> <div>I also checked the <a href="" title="Link to QS Ranking Website" target="_blank">QS ranking of universities</a>. Chalmers had a very nice punctuation in that field! It gave me confidence that my chances of getting a job after graduating, were high.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><b>4. Let’s talk about the process!</b></div> <div>Let me tell you, from the bottom of my heart, that the Swedish universities process was the smoothest, easiest, clearest one you could ever imagine (you can check more about it <a href="" title="Link to the process website">here</a>). </div> <div><br /></div> <div><b>5. Let’s talk about sustainability!</b></div> <div>It’s not a secret that Sweden breathes sustainability. I remember back in Ecuador while doing my bachelor’s in Electrical engineering, I always took my own food to campus. Why is this related? Because I believed in sustainability even then. I always carried my lunchbox, my reusable cutlery and straw, my water bottle, and my coffee mug. Yeah, sounds like a lot, but it really wasn’t. I was the weirdo back then, while in Sweden being sustainable is all very common. So, I figured, why not?</div> <div><br /></div> <div>I was a bit anxious about the fact of coming to a Nordic country from a -really- warm place. I was nervous about starting a new life, and studying in a different language -English since I come from a Spanish-speaking country. But I look back one year, and I regret NOTHING. It all falls into place once you arrive to Sweden. You’ll get new friends, explore new environments, and most importantly experience a new culture. Isn’t that the whole point of studying abroad? The education, the lifestyle, the work environment, are just a few more things I can mention right now. But in the end, why don’t you apply to Chalmers and figure it out by yourself?</div> <div><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/education/Student%20Life/Student%20Blogs/Student%20Ambassadors%20Pictures%20-%20Authors/Nathaly_studentblog.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Picture of Nathaly" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /><br />Author: Nathaly</span></div>Mon, 18 Oct 2021 09:00:00 +0200 discovery can improve industrial yeast strains<p><b>​Baker’s yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is used industrially to produce a great variety of biochemicals. These biochemicals can be produced from waste material from the agricultural or forest industry (second-generation biomass). During the mechanical and enzymatic degradation of biomass acetic acid is released. Acetic acid inhibits the growth and the biochemical production rate of yeast. Now, researchers at Chalmers have used high-resolution CRISPRi library screening to provide a new understanding of the stress response of yeast, and they found new target genes for the bioengineering of efficient industrial yeast. ​</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span>“We are presenting a massive dataset that offers an extraordinary resolution of the functional contribution of essential genes in baker’s yeast under acetic acid stress. This was never attempted before,” says Vaskar Mukherjee, researcher at the Division of Industrial Biotechnology at Chalmers, first author of the <a href="">study​</a>. </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Yvonne Nygård is Associate Professor at Chalmers and last author of the study:</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“In the strain library we screened, the expression of all essential genes was altered, something which was very difficult to do before the discovery of the CRISPR-Cas9-technology,” she adds.</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Reduced expression of essential genes using CRISPRi</h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) is a powerful tool to study cellular physiology under different growth conditions. With this derivative of the Nobel prize winning CRISPR-Cas9-technology genes are not inserted or deleted, but the regulation of the target gene can be altered. Using CRISPRi technology, the researchers can reduce the expression of the essential genes (i.e., genes that on deletion kills the organism), and thus, reduce the level of the protein encoded by the target gene.  </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“For most of the essential genes, this keeps the organism viable, and we also get to see the functional contribution of that gene at different expression levels under different nutrient or environmental conditions, in this case under acetic acid stress,” says Vaskar Mukherjee.</p> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Proteosomal genes involved in  acidic acid tolerance  ​</span></h2></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">In the study a CRISPRi library consisting of more than 9,000 yeast strains was used and over 98 per cent of all essential and respiratory growth-essential genes were targeted. The results showed that fine-tuning of the expression of proteasomal genes lead to increased tolerance to acetic acid. The proteosome is protein complexes which degrade redundant or damaged proteins by spending ATP, i.e. an organic compound that provides energy to drive many processes in living cells and particular essential in large amount in yeast cells to cope with acetic acid stress. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The authors proposed that adaptation of proteasomal degradation of oxidized proteins saves ATP and thereby increases acetic acid tolerance. The results are of wide interest, suggesting these genes can be targeted for bioengineering of improved industrial cells. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“Our results allowed us to build rational mechanistic models that expand our current understanding of molecular biology of yeast under acetic acid stress. I am sure our footsteps will be followed by many researchers to screen essential genes under many other different conditions. I believe our dataset will be used by academia or industries to identify novel genetic candidates to bioengineer robust acetic acid tolerant yeast strains,” says Vaskar Mukherjee.”</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More research on yeast and second-generation biomass</h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Currently, the Chalmers’ researchers are working on three different projects where they use similar technologies, among them a project where CRISPRi technology is used to identify novel bioengineering genetic candidates to improve co-utilisation of glucose and xylose during biochemical fermentation using second-generation biomass. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Wild<em> S. cerevisiae</em> cannot metabolize xylose and a xylose utilizing engineered strain of<em> S. cerevisiae</em> prefers glucose over xylose as the primary carbon source. As a result, consumption of xylose is often incomplete in industrial second-generation biochemical fermentation and remains as one of the major bottlenecks for the commercial production of second-generation biochemicals. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Read the study in mSystems:</strong> <a href="">A CRISPR Interference Screen of Essential Genes Reveals that Proteasome Regulation Dictates Acetic Acid Tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae</a></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Text</strong>: Susanne Nilsson Lindh<br /><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Photo: </strong>Martina Butorac</span><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(0, 0, 0)">​</span></p> <div> </div>Mon, 18 Oct 2021 07:00:00 +0200 poverty through satellite images<p><b>Algorithms are trained to detect levels of poverty by looking at sattelite images in this collaboration between computer scientists at Chalmers and poverty researchers at the University of Gothenburg.  </b></p>​Poverty <span lang="EN-US">research of today is dependent on survey data from interviews with people living under the conditions that are studied. Gathering statistics from rural areas of Africa for instance is both costly and a slow way of learning about the situation, leading to a lack of data far from being sufficient to get a good overview of the living conditions in Africa.<br /></span><span lang="EN-US" style="background-color:initial"><br />– Better</span><span lang="EN-US" style="background-color:initial"> knowledge about the living conditions would mean better tools in fighting poverty, says Adel Daoud, poverty researcher and project leader of two projects funded by the Swedish Research Council and Formas with the ambition to create an algorithm that can look at satellite images and tell us the status of both health and economic condition of the population in the area. Adel is also an affiliated researcher at Chalmers Data Science and AI division.<br /></span><span style="background-color:initial"><br />The project is a collaboration between social scientists at the University of Gothenburg and computer scientists at Chalmers. Also, researchers from the Department of Statistics at Harvard and from the Institute for Analytical Sociology, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Linköping</span><span style="background-color:initial"> University will participate in the project. In the project data from surveys and satellite images are linked together to teach the AI-system how to detect different aspects of poverty. The algorithm compares images from 1984 up to 2020.</span><div> <div><p><span lang="EN-US" style="background-color:initial"><br />– The</span><span lang="EN-US" style="background-color:initial"> algorithm learns what is characteristic for places with high poverty when viewed from above. It predicts what type of fuel that is common, if cell phones are common, are there hospitals and access to education? What are the most common means of transportation and do people in general have bank accounts in the area?</span><span lang="EN-US" style="background-color:initial">, says Fredrik Johansson, Assistant Professor at the Data Science and AI division, Chalmers. <br /></span><span style="background-color:initial"><br />A</span><span style="background-color:initial"> later part of the project deals with using the data to study so called poverty traps, where societies seem to be in a loop of poverty despite initiatives to rise from it. The AI system will provide data that may be used to evaluate factors that have impact on poverty and living conditions, like political decisions, infrastructural initiatives and more.</span></p> <p><span lang="EN-US" style="background-color:initial">– Why</span><span lang="EN-US" style="background-color:initial"> are some governments better than others in fighting poverty? Are there political strategies that are more successful than others? Is there a railroad between villages that has improved living standards or has the government in the country gone from an authoritarian regime to democracy? says Adel Daoud.</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></p></div> <div><p><span style="background-color:initial">The prospects look good. Already the algorithms have proven to be very efficient in supplying predictions of living standards.<br /></span></p></div> <div> <p><span lang="EN-US">– Our first </span><span lang="EN-US">results are very promising. In particular, we are excited to see that our models are able to predict poverty levels at different points in time than they were trained on. This takes us closer to the goal of identifying poverty traps&quot;, says Fredrik Johansson.<br /></span><span lang="EN-US" style="background-color:initial"><i><br />Adel Daoud and Fredrik Johansson, Computer Science and Engineering.<br /></i></span></p></div></div>Mon, 18 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Healthcare Design conference<p><b>​13-15 June 2022</b></p>The 8th European Healthcare Design 2022 Congress, Awards and Exhibition has been launched. It takes place 13-15 June 2022. Returning 'in person' to the Royal College of Physicians, London, the congress will also be streamed online to a global audience on SALUS TV, providing delegates the choice of attending 'face to face' or virtually.<br /><br />Themed 'Recovery, renewal and rediscovery: Planning a climate-smart healthcare system’, next year’s Congress will present an opportunity for delegates to learn how we plan for and invest in climate-smart healthcare systems that place health creation, disease prevention, disaster preparedness, and health and social equity to the fore. <br /><br />More info on <a href=""></a>Thu, 14 Oct 2021 13:10:00 +0200 of wind and solar power too slow to stop climate change<p><b>​The production of renewable energy is increasing every year. But after analysing the growth rates of wind and solar power in 60 countries, researchers at Chalmers, Lund University and Central European University in Vienna, Austria conclude that virtually no country is moving sufficiently fast to avoid global warming of 1.5°C or even 2°C. &quot;This is the first time that the maximum growth rate in individual countries has been accurately measured, and it shows the enormous scale of the challenge of replacing traditional energy sources with renewables, as well as the need to explore diverse technologies and scenarios&quot;, says Jessica Jewell, Associate Professor in Energy Transitions at Chalmers University of Technology.</b></p>​The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has identified energy scenarios compatible with keeping global warming under 1.5°C or 2°C. Most of these scenarios envision very rapid growth of renewable electricity: on average   about 1.4 per cent of total global electricity supply per year for both wind and solar power, and over 3 per cent in more ambitious solar power scenarios. But the researchers’ new findings show that achieving such rapid growth has so far only been possible for a few countries.  <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Measuring and predicting the growth of new technologies like renewable energy is difficult, as they do not grow linearly. Instead, the growth usually follows a so-called S-curve. This means that when production of wind or solar power begins in a country it first accelerates exponentially, then stabilizes to linear growth for a while, and in the end slows down as the market becomes saturated.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Jessica-Jewell-200.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />&quot;Scholars typically assess technological growth by measuring how fast a given technology reaches market saturation. But for wind and solar power this method does not work, because we don’t know when and at what levels they will saturate. We came up with a new method: to use mathematical models to measure the slope of the S-curve, i.e. the maximum growth rate achieved at its steepest point. It is an entirely novel way to look at the growth of new technologies&quot;, says Jessica Jewell. </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Analysis of 60 countries</h3> <div>The researchers use these mathematical models to estimate the maximum growth rates achieved in the 60 largest countries which together produce ca 95% of the world’s electricity. They show that the average rate of onshore wind power growth achieved at the steepest point of the S-curves is 0.8% (with half of the countries falling within the 0.6-1.1% range) of the total electricity supply per year. For solar power, these estimates are somewhat lower: 0.6% on average (range 0.4-0.9%). </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Higher rates, comparable to those required in climate scenarios, are indeed sometimes achieved, but typically in smaller countries. For example, wind power in Ireland expanded at some 2.6% per year while solar power in Chile has grown at 1.8% per year. However, fast growth is much rarer in larger countries. Among larger countries, only Germany has so far been able to sustain growth of wind power comparable with median climate scenarios (above 1.5% per year). </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Aleh-Cherp-200.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />&quot;In other words, to stay on track for climate targets, the whole world should build wind power as fast as Germany has recently&quot; says Aleh Cherp, a professor in Environmental Sciences and Policy at Central European University and Lund University. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>(As a side-note, Sweden has been growing wind power (including offshore) at about 1.6% per year in the last decade but this is at the upper end of the growth we observed in other countries.)</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>​Why late adopter grow equally slow</span></h3> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>To investigate future prospects of ren</span><span>ewables, the researchers have also compared th</span><span>eir growth in the pioneering countries (mostly in the European Union and other high-income industrialised nations) and in the rest of the world, where solar and wind power were introduced later. </span><span>The</span><span> latter group</span><span> includes most developing and emerging economies that would be responsible for the bulk of global energy use and thus need to deploy most of wind and solar power in the 21st century. It is hypothetically p</span><span>ossible that these countries could skip the trial-and-error stage which slowed down the early adopters, and thus leapfrog to higher growth rates. Unfortunately, the researchers discover that this is not the case. ​</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><br /></span></p> <div>&quot;There are usually reasons why they are late to enter the race. It can be because of vested interests, weaker institutions, and an investment environment that doesn’t support new technologies as well as from unsuitable geography. Those reasons have prevented renewable energy from taking off in the first place and make it especially difficult to replicate or exceed the growth rates achieved in leaders. Thus, we cannot automatically assume that the countries which introduce wind and solar power later would learn from prior experience and grow these technologies faster&quot;, says Cherp.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Challenges for policy makers</h3> <div>The study highlights several policy challenges. One is for high-income countries to avoid the slowdown of solar and wind expansion, recently observed in several places. Another is for major Asian economies such as India and China to increase the growth rates so that renewables start growing faster than electricity demand and eventually push out fossil fuels. This can be achieved by widening the cost gap between renewables and the fossils, which include subsidies, phasing out or taxing competing technologies and supporting grid integration. </div> <div>&quot;Finally, we should recognize that there may be natural limits to how fast wind and solar can be expanded and thus we should systematically investigate the feasibility of other climate solutions&quot;, says Cherp.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text: Christian Löwhagen</em></div> <div><em>Image credits: Main photo: Pixabay. Jessica Jewell: Udo Schlög. Aleh Cherp: Johan Persson. </em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The article <a href="">National growth dynamics of wind and solar power compared to the growth required for global climate targets</a> was published in the journal Nature Energy, written by Cherp, A., Vinichenko, V., Tosun, J., Gordon, J. &amp; Jewell, J.. Nature Energy 6, 742–754 (2021). </span></div>Thu, 14 Oct 2021 13:00:00 +0200 fit important for retail and environment<p><b>​The provision of experience goods online, such as clothing and footwear, poses managerial challenges for retail supply chains. They need to cope with unnecessary product handling, excess inventory, and additional costs due to customers not knowing the fit of a product before purchase. In her doctoral thesis, Emmelie Gustafsson investigates the effects of and technologies to reduce 'fit uncertainty'.</b></p><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">​What challenges do you focus on in your research?</h3> <div>&quot;Efficiently providing fitting products to customers is a costly process requiring inventory management and customer service. Retail supply chains face trade-offs between cost efficiency and responsiveness in terms of customers' willingness to wait for a product (a delivery lead time constraint), retailers’ ability to stock variety (an inventory-holding constraint), and manufacturers’ ability to responsively supply variety (a production-capacity constraint).&quot;</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">How do you address the problem with your research? </h3> <div>&quot;To solve, or bypass, these trade-offs, the doctoral thesis applies fit uncertainty-reducing product fitting and recommendation technologies that aim to communicate product fit characteristics so as to support customers in decision-making and final product selection of goods with high fit uncertainty.&quot;</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">What are the main findings of your research? </h3> <div>&quot;The main findings of the thesis are quantification of customer order-placing and -returning behaviours as direct effects of fit uncertainty that disrupt product flow in retail supply chains, carrying negative supply chain effects and causing increases in the following costs: returns handling costs, tied-up capital, inventory holding costs, transportation costs, and order-picking costs. Fit uncertainty-reducing technologies can be used to clearly streamline fit information from retailers to supply chain management functions, including such information as how sales are lost and won on the store floor, thereby enabling better inventory management and assortment planning.&quot;</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">What do you hope your research will lead to?</h3> <div>&quot;I hope that my research results will lead to more sustainable retail supply chain operations that benefit both the end-customers and the supply chains. Especially through more sales, less obsolescence (such as a product that goes out of fashion), and fewer returns. Studying the link between fit uncertainty and retail supply chain performance is important for retailers and manufacturers’ understanding of end-customer behaviour and for improving product development and assortment planning to ensure availability of products that fit.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><em>Text compilation: Daniel Karlsson</em><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read the thesis <a href="" target="_blank">&quot;On fit uncertainty-reducing interventions in retail supply chains&quot;</a><br /><br /></div> <div>The author will defend the thesis on 18 October 2021 at 13.15, see link on <a href="" target="_blank">thesis' page</a> (pwd: 552016)<br /></div> <div><br />More about <a href="/en/staff/Pages/emmgust.aspx">Emmelie Gustafsson</a></div> <div><br /></div>Thu, 14 Oct 2021 11:00:00 +0200 mixing creates super stable glass.aspx mixing creates super stable glass<p><b>Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have succeeded in creating a new type of super-stable, durable glass with potential applications ranging from medicines, advanced digital screens, and solar cell technology. The study shows how mixing multiple molecules – up to eight at a time – can result in a material that performs as well as the best currently known glass formers. </b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">A glass, also known as an ‘amorphous solid’, is a material that does not have a long-range ordered structure – it does not form a crystal. Crystalline materials on the other hand, are those with a highly ordered and repeating pattern. The fact that a glass does not contain crystals is what makes it useful.</span><div><br /></div> <div>The materials that we commonly call ‘glass’ in everyday life are mostly silicon dioxide-based, but glass can be formed from many different materials. </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Cellulosatråd/portratt_christian_muller_320x305px.jpg" alt="Porträttbild Christian Müller " class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">Rese</span><span style="background-color:initial">archers are therefore always interested in finding new ways to encourage different materials to form this amorphous state, which can potentially lead to the development of new types of glass with improved properties and new applications. The new study,<a href="" title="Link to scientific article "> recently published in the scientific journal Science Advances</a>, represents an important step forward in that search.  </span><div><br /></div> <div>“Now, we have suddenly opened up the potential to create new and better glassy materials, by simply mixing many different molecules. Those working with organic molecules know that using mixtures of two or three different molecules can help to form a glass, but few might have expected that the addition of more molecules, and this many, would achieve such superior results,&quot; says Professor Christian Müller at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Chalmers University who led the research team behind the study.    </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Best result for any glass forming material​</h2></div> <div>A glass is formed when a liquid is cooled down without undergoing crystallisation, a process called vitrification. The use of mixtures of two or three molecules to encourage glass formation is a well-established concept. However, the impact of mixing a multitude of molecules on the ability to form a glass has received little attention. <br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Christian%20Müller%20Molekylmixning%20skapar%20superstabilt%20glas/Sandra%20Hultmark%20320x340.jpg" alt="Porträttbild Sandra Hultmark " class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /><br />The researchers experimented with a mixture of up to eight different perylene molecules which, individually, have a high fragility – a property related to how easy it is for a material to form a glass. But mixing many molecules resulted in a substantial decrease in fragility, and a very strong glass former with ultralow fragility was formed. </div> <br /></div> <div>“The fragility of the glass we created in the study is very low, representing the best glass-forming ability that has been measured not only for any organic material but also polymers and inorganic materials such as bulk metallic glasses. The results are even superior to the glass forming ability of ordinary window glass, one of the best glass formers that we know of” says Sandra Hultmark, doctoral student at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and lead author of the study​</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Extending product life and saving resources</h2> <div>Important applications for more stable organic glasses are display technologies such as OLED screens and renewable energy technologies such as organic solar cells. <br /><br /></div> <div><div>“OLEDs are constructed with glassy layers of light-emitting organic molecules. If these were more stable it may improve the durability of an OLED and ultimately the display,” Sandra Hultmark explains. </div> <div><br />Another application that may benefit from more stable glasses are pharmaceuticals. Amorphous drugs dissolve more quickly, which aids rapid uptake of the active ingredient upon ingestion. Hence, many pharmaceuticals make use of glass-forming drug formations. For pharmaceuticals it is vital that the glassy material does not crystallise over time. The more stable the glassy drug, the longer the shelf life of the medicine. <br /><br /></div> <div>“With more stable glasses or new glass forming materials, we could extend the lifespan of a large number of products, offering savings in terms of both resources and economy,” says Christian Müller.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about the research​</h3> <div><br /></div> <div><div><ul><li>The scientific article <a href="" title="Link to scientific article ">“Vitrification of octonary perylene mixtures with ultralow fragility”</a> has been published in the scientific journal Science Advances and is written by Sandra Hultmark, Alex Cravcenco, Khuschbu Khushwaha, Suman Mallick, Paul Erhardt, Karl Börjesson and Christian Müller. The researchers are active at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg<br /><br /></li> <li>The researchers chose to work with a series of small, conjugated molecules comprising a perylene core with different pendant alkyl groups at one of the bay positions. All eight perylene derivatives readily crystallise when cast from solution and show a fragility of more than 70.  <br /><br /></li> <li>Mixing of eight perylene derivatives resulted in a material that displays a fragility of only 13, which is a record low value for any glass forming material studied to date, including polymers and inorganic materials such as bulk metallic glasses and silicon dioxide.<br /><br /></li> <li>The research project was funded by the Swedish Research Council, the European Research Council, as well as the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation through project: Mastering Morphology for Solution-born Electronics. </li></ul></div></div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For more information, contact:​</h3> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Christian-Müller.aspx" title="Länk till profilsiida ">​<span style="background-color:initial">Christian Müller</span></a><span style="background-color:initial">, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Professor at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Sandra-Hultmark.aspx" title="Länk till profilsida ">Sandra Hultmark</a>, doktorand på institutionen för kemi och kemiteknik, Chalmers</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Jenny Holmstrand and Johsua Worth <br />Images: Chalmers/Joshua Worth/Yen Stranqvist </div> <div>​<br /></div> ​​​Thu, 14 Oct 2021 07:00:00 +0200 part of unique automated driving test<p><b>​How do we make sure that the human is a reliable fallback and can promptly, safely, and efficiently take back the driving task from automated driving? That’s the key question as Chalmers, together with over 30 stakeholders from academia and industry, now present their findings from Europe’s first comprehensive pilot test of automated driving on public roads. The result is believed to help speed up and harmonize the development of automated driving systems in the future. ​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The European research project <strong>L3Pilot,</strong> led by Volkswagen and co-funded by the European Commission, has run from 2017 to 2021 with stakeholders from the whole value chain: car manufacturers, suppliers, academia, research institutes, infrastructure and governmental agencies, user groups and the insurance sector. The four-year project will now come to its successful end with performing its Final Event in conjunction with the ITS World Congress in Hamburg 2021 on October 11-15. <br /><br /></span><div>Present at the ITS World Congress are Chalmers researchers from Vehicle Safety at the department of Mechanics and Maritime Studies – <strong>Marco Dozza, Linda Pipkorn, Pierluigi Olleja, along with SAFER representative Erik Svanberg </strong>- to show-case their research findings, which once started with the quest to find out how to optimize safety in automated driving: </div> <div><br /><strong>“We all want full automation, </strong>that is, a vehicle that pick us up and takes us places without us having to think<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20210701-20211231/Marco%20Dozza.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 10px" /><br />about driving. But tech is not there yet and there will be a transition phase with partial automation. That means humans and vehicles need to help each other and take turns in the driving task. The most relevant scenario is when a vehicle needs help from the human to sort out a critical situation that may lead to a crash. In such case, the research question is “how do we make sure that the human is a reliable fallback and can promptly, safely, and efficiently take back the driving task?” <span style="background-color:initial">In our research, we tackled this question by exposing drivers to critical situations, where they need to take over control, and see how they do it. In this way, we can design vehicles that help the driver to efficiently coming back to the driving task rather than setting unreasonable expectations on human beings,” says Marco Dozza, professor at Vehicle Safety at the department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers. <br /></span><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br />Europe’s first comprehensive pilot test on public roads </span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>The project is the first comprehensive pilot test of automated driving on public roads in Europe, which makes it unique in its kind. Fourteen partners focused on testing automated driving functions in normal motorway driving, traffic jams, urban driving and parking. The pilots, running from April 2019 until February 2021, involved six countries besides Sweden: Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxemburg and the United Kingdom and included two cross-border activities between Germany and Luxemburg as well as Germany, Belgium and the United Kingdom. <br /><br /></div> <div><strong>The project equipped 70 vehicles</strong> and the test fleet comprised 13 different vehicle brands, from a passenger car to a SUV. More than 400,000 kilometers were driven on motorways including 200,000 kilometers in an automated mode and 200,000 km in a manual mode as a baseline for comparison of the user experience and evaluation of the impacts. More than 24,000 km were travelled in the automated mode in urban traffic. With the aim to put the focus on the user experience of automated driving functions, over 1,000 persons participated in piloting and complementary virtual environment tests. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We’re proud about the high number of advanced studies, with a real vehicle on test track and public roads, that we managed to perform within this project, especially given the pandemic. All of these studies advanced our understanding of how drivers behave - how they act and where they look - when transitioning from automated driving to manual in response to take-over requests,” says Linda Pipkorn, PhD student at Vehicle Safety at the department of Mechanics and Maritime Studies at Chalmers. </div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Unique data collection to enhance safety in automated driving</h3></div> <div>One of the major achievements of L3Pilot is establishing a Code of Practice for the development of Automated Driving Functions (CoP-ADF). It provides comprehensive guidelines for supporting the design, development, verification and validation of automated driving technologies.<br /> </div> <div>The four-year project has also involved a considerable collection of valuable data based on the research findings on how pilot participants reacted when going from automated to manual driving in real traffic scenarios. The data will in the next step enable virtual testing to further enhance safety in automated driving. </div> <div><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20210701-20211231/lindapipkorn.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px 10px" /><strong>“We found out that, in real traffic,</strong> drivers are able to transition control from automation to manual in response to a take-over request. The transition should be considered as a process of actions - look to instrument cluster, putting hands on wheel, look forward, deactivate automation - that requires a certain amount of time: up to 10 s in real traffic. Our research also showed that, in real traffic, drivers’ visual attention towards the forward road return to similar levels as in manual driving 15 s after a take-over request. In response to take-over requests, drivers may look away from the road towards the instrument cluster rather than to the road. This means that, designing safe automated driving functions requires take-over requests to be issued in all situations that require driver input. In addition, it is important for the automated driving function to be responsible for safe driving at least up to the moment of the automation deactivation but preferably also some time after,” says Linda Pipkorn.  <br /><br /></div> <div>As a part of the L3 pilot project, PhD student Linda Pipkorn carried out a study on a public road in Gothenburg (E6) together with Volvo Cars, in Gothenburg (E6) aiming to find out how the drivers’ gaze behavior changed when going from driving with automation to driving manually again. </div> <div><br />“It turned out that, paradoxically, a take-over request, i.e., the signal from the car that the driver needs to take control can contribute to the drivers looking away from the road rather than looking at the road, which from a traffic safety point of view is not optimal,” Linda explains. </div> <div><br />Her work received <strong>the Honda Outstanding Student Paper Award</strong> <strong>at the 2021 Driving Assessment Conference</strong>, an achievement that Linda herself believes can be explained by the project’s unique design: <br /><br /></div> <div>“I believe that an important factor is that our results are based on data collected on public roads, with a real car and a realistic human-machine interface, which is relatively rare in our research area as tests in a simulated environment are more common. Data collected in a realistic environment is important to be able to draw conclusions that are in line with how the systems will be used in real scenarios in the future,” says Linda Pipkorn. </div> <div><br /><strong>L3Pilot is now believed to pave the way</strong> for scaled-up driving tests with automated series vehicles in real-life traffic. Together with 40 partners – OEM:s, automotive suppliers, research institutes, traffic engineering and deployment companies – Chalmers researchers have already started working on the project <a href="">Hi-Drive</a> with the main objective to extend the data collection across EU borders in variable traffic, weather and visibility conditions. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Lovisa Håkansson<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>L3Pilot facts:  </strong></div> <div>L3Pilot is an Innovation Action, co-funded by the European Union under the Horizon 2020 programme with the contract number 723051.<br /></div> <div>34 organizations have committed to scientifically test and assess the impact of automated driving systems on driver comfort, safety and traffic efficiency as part of the project.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Twitter:</strong> _L3Pilot_</div> <div><strong>LinkedIn:</strong> L3Pilot </div> <div><strong>Duration: </strong>50 months, 1 September 2017 – 31 October 2021 </div> <div><strong>Total cost:</strong> €68 million</div> <div><strong>EC contribution:</strong> €36 million </div> <div><strong>Coordinator:</strong> Volkswagen AG</div> <div><strong>Partners: </strong></div> <div><strong>Automotive manufacturers:</strong> Volkswagen AG, AUDI AG, BMW Group, Stellantis | Centro Ricerche Fiat SCPA, Ford, Honda R&amp;D Europe, Jaguar Land Rover, Mercedes-Benz AG, Adam Opel AG, Stellantis, Renault, Toyota Motor Europe, Volvo Car Corporation </div> <div><strong>Suppliers:</strong> Aptiv, FEV GmbH, Veoneer Sweden </div> <div><strong>Research:</strong> German Aerospace Center DLR; ika RWTH Aachen University; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland; Chalmers University of Technology; SNF – Centre for Applied Research at NHH; University of Leeds; Institute of Communication and Computer Systems ICCS; Würzburg Institute for Traffic Sciences WIVW; University of Genoa; TNO – Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research; WMG, University of Warwick; European Center for Information and Communication Technologies – EICT GmbH </div> <div><strong>Authorities:</strong> Federal Highway Research Institute BASt; The Netherlands Vehicle Authority RDW User </div> <div><strong>Groups:</strong> Federation Internationale de l’Automobile FIA Insurers: AZT Automotive GmbH, Swiss Reinsurance Company SMEs: ADAS Management Consulting</div>Thu, 14 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200' Physics' Professor Elected as 2021 APS Fellow<p><b>​Christian Forssén, Professor at the Department of Physics, has been named a Fellow of the American Physical Society.</b></p><strong>​</strong><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Christian Forssén</strong> has been elected a 2021 Fellow of the American Physical Society (APS) as recognition of his outstanding contributions to physics. Christian Forssén is Professor in theoretical physics and Head of the division of Subatomic, High Energy and Plasma Physics. </span><div><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Each year, no more than one half of one percent of the Society’s membership is recognized by their peers for election to the status of Fellow of the American Physical Society. APS’ citation for electing Christian Forssén is as follows: </span></div> <div><br /><div><div><strong>“For first-principles calculations of the structure of nuclei, especially near the drip-lines, and for the development of precision nuclear forces through innovative uses of statistical methods.”</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div style="font-size:16px">Recognizes advances in physics</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“I am very honoured that my peers have elected me to join the exclusive company of APS fellows, which indeed includes many international celebrities in physics research. Hopefully this will further strengthen our ties with scientists in the United States,” says Christian Forssén.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The APS Fellowship Program was created to recognize members who may have made advances in physics through original research and publication, or made significant innovative contributions in the application of physics to science and technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The addition of Christian Forssén to the APS Fellowship Program, brings the total count of APS Fellows from Chalmers University of Technology to five. </div> <div><br /></div> <a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /> </a><a href="" target="_blank"><div style="display:inline !important">Read more about the APS fellowship program</div></a><div><br /></div> <div><strong>For more information, please contact:</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Christian-Forssen.aspx">Christian Forssén</a>, +46317723261,  <a href="">​</a> </div></div></div>Wed, 13 Oct 2021 16:00:00 +0200