News: Globalhttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologySun, 22 May 2022 10:40:47 +0200http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ace/news/Pages/Fewer-mistakes-and-improved-planning-with-awarded-VR-technique.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ace/news/Pages/Fewer-mistakes-and-improved-planning-with-awarded-VR-technique.aspxFewer mistakes and improved production planning with award-winning VR technique<p><b>​​Small mistakes and miscalculations made in the design stage of a construction project can develop into large and costly problems for the project. But with VR technology connected to building information modeling (BIM), you can find and fix any design errors already at the drawing stage – before they reach the construction site.</b></p>​<span>Mikael Johansson and Mattias Roupé of the Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering have developed a user-friendly VR interface that can be connected to digital building information models, so-called BIM models. With a VR headset on, it allows the user to virtually step inside and walk around inside of the model of a construction project, alone or with fellow users. In this way, the various professions within the production staff, who hold the accumulated knowledge from the design stage, can review and refine their work themselves before moving on to the next step. The method has been tested by professionals, planners, and staff from the site management of six different organisations and projects where design and production have taken place in parallel.    <br /><br />   – The evaluation have shown that the method is very effective when it comes to identifying opportunities for improvement and increase quality and construction safety. The participants found pure design mistakes, and were also able to identify opportunities to streamline the rules of procedure between disciplines and find alternative solutions to benefit progress, says <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/jomi.aspx">Mikael Johansson</a>, Research Engineer at the Division of Construction Management.    <br /><br />The participants especially highlight the fact that the model is experienced in scale 1:1 as a great advantage, as it gives a completely different understanding and sense of real proportions, spaces and details compared to looking at the model on their regular computer screen. The ability to collaborate and discuss solutions in so-called multi-user mode was another factor that the users felt increased understanding and improved communications.    <br /><br />   – The experience gained during the pandemic has made us accustomed to working from different geographical locations, and the multi-user mode enables participants from design and production to connect and collaborate inside of the model, both in their different professional roles and areas of responsibility – and from different locations, says <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/roupe.aspx" target="_blank" title="chalmers.se">Mattias Roupé</a>, Associate Professor at the Division of Construction Management.    <br /><br /></span><div><span>Aside from downloading the software, the user need a gaming computer and a set of VR goggles, which makes the technique fairly easily accessible. The study has shown that VR technique combined with BIM not only provide great value for the industry but that the method is mature enough to come to use in sharp projects – a fact that recently rewarded the researchers and the project with the innovation of the year award from SBUF, The Development Fund of the Swedish Construction Industry.  <span></span><span style="display:inline-block"></span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div> <div><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/ACE/nyheter/2022/SBUF_VR_bild.gif" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><em><br />The final report of the project is available in Swedish: &quot;</em><a href="https://sbuf.se/Projektsida/?project=596fe167-bcc5-40d1-a402-3c3d5522a9dc"><em>Kan VR förbättra kunskapsåterföring från produktionen under projektering?</em></a><em>”</em><br /><br /><em>The project was funded by SBUF and and carried out in collaboration with: GK Ventilation, NCC Building Sweden, Peab Sweden (Göteborg), Skanska and WSP Sweden.</em><br /></div> <div><br /><br /><br /><em>About SBUF</em><br /><em>SBUF </em><span><em>(The Development Fund of the Swedish Construction Industry) </em><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><em>is the Swedish construction industry's organisation for research and development with approximately 3,000 affiliated companies in Sweden. SBUF's aim is to promote development in the building process in order to create more favourable conditions for constructions contractors by enabling them to benefit from research and conduct development work. “Innovation of the year” is an annual award given by SBUF to a SBUF-funded project reported as per previous year. Read more (in Swedish): </em><a href="https://www.sbuf.se/Nyheter-och-publikationer/vinnare-arets-innovation-2022/" target="_blank" title="SBUF"><em>https://www.sbuf.se/Nyheter-och-publikationer/vinnare-arets-innovation-2022/<br /></em></a></div> <div><a href="https://www.sbuf.se/Nyheter-och-publikationer/vinnare-arets-innovation-2022/" target="_blank" title="SBUF"><em><br /></em></a><em>Text: Catharina Björk<br /></em><a href="https://www.sbuf.se/Nyheter-och-publikationer/vinnare-arets-innovation-2022/" target="_blank" title="SBUF"><em></em></a></div>Thu, 19 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/3D-models-reveal-the-efficiency-of-star-factories.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/3D-models-reveal-the-efficiency-of-star-factories.aspx3D-models reveal the efficiency of star factories<p><b>​Astronomers solve the mystery of the different star formation activities of two similar-looking dust clouds by reconstructing their 3D shapes​.</b></p>​Using tens of thousands of stars observed by the <a href="https://www.esa.int/Science_Exploration/Space_Science/Gaia_overview">Gaia space telescope</a>, astronomers from Max Planck Institute of Astronomy and Chalmers University of Technology have revealed the 3D shapes of two large star-forming molecular clouds, the California Cloud and the Orion A Cloud. In conventional 2D images, they appear similarly structured, containing filaments – streaks of denser dust and gas – with seemingly comparable densities. In 3D, however, they look quite distinct. In fact, their densities are much more different than their images projected on the plane of the sky would suggest. This result solves the long-standing mystery of why these two clouds form stars at different rates.​<div><br /></div> <div>Cosmic clouds of gas and dust are the birthplaces of stars. More specifically, stars form in the densest pockets of such material. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Density, the amount of matter compressed into a given volume, is one of the crucial properties that determine star formation efficiency,” says Sara Rezaei Khoshbakht. She is an astronomer at Max Planck Insitute for Astronomy (MPIA) in Heidelberg, Germany and Chalmers University of Technology. She is the main author of a new article published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters today:<span style="background-color:initial"> </span><a href="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/2041-8213/ac67db">Three-dimensional Shape Explains Star Formation Mystery of California and Orion A​</a><span style="background-color:initial">.</span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><div>In a pilot study portrayed in the article, Sara Rezaei Khoshbakht and co-author Jouni Kainulainen of Chalmers have applied a method which allows them to reconstruct 3D morphologies of molecular clouds to two giant star-forming clouds – their targets were the Orion A Cloud and the California Cloud.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Usually, measuring the density within clouds is hard. </div> <div>“Everything we see when we observe objects in space is their two-dimensional projection on an imaginary celestial sphere. Conventional observations lack the necessary depth for us to see the whole cloud” explains Jouni Kainulainen, an expert on interpreting the influence of cosmic matter on stellar light and calculating densities from such data. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;If the two clouds look the same from our point of view, our 3D models show that they have completely different shapes. It is a almost like they are a pencil and a pancake, seen from the side in our viewpoint in space. On average, the Orion A - the pencil - is much denser than California, which explains its more pronounced star formation activity&quot;, says Jouni Kainulainen.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">This study proves its potential to improve star formation research in the Milky Way by adding a third dimension, and the work now published is only </span><span style="background-color:initial">the first step of what the astronomers want to achieve. Sara Rezaei Khoshbakht pursues a project now that ultimately will produce the spatial distribution of dust in the entire Milky Way, and uncover its connection to star formation.​</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>Read m​ore:</span></h3> <div>The text above is based on a press release from MPIA. <a href="https://www.mpia.de/news/science/2022-08-3d-clouds">Read the full press release, with more info about the images and animations at the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy​</a><span style="background-color:initial">. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>Image​s: </span></h3> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Image 1: This image from the VISTA infrared survey telescope at ESO’s Paranal Observatory in northern Chile covers the Orion A molecular cloud, the nearest known massive star factory. Lying about 1350 light-years from Earth, it reveals many young stars and other objects normally buried deep inside the dusty clouds.</span><span style="background-color:initial">. </span><span style="background-color:initial">ESO/VISION survey</span><span style="background-color:initial">.</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><a href="https://www.eso.org/public/sweden/images/eso1701-compa/">Full scale photo with more information is available at the ESO website</a><span style="background-color:initial">. </span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>The other image details the shapes of the California and Orion A Clouds from two different perspectives. The colours indicate density, with red colours representing higher values. The images are based on the 3D reconstruction by Sara Rezaei Khoshbakht and Jouni Kainulainen.<span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div></span></div>Wed, 18 May 2022 12:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Algorithm-reveals-faults-in-self-driving-test-vehicles.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Algorithm-reveals-faults-in-self-driving-test-vehicles.aspxAlgorithm reveals faults in self-driving test vehicles<p><b>​A mathematical model which signals that a car is about to break down. This is Chalmers' contribution to a future method that will make it possible to safely test drive vehicles, even without a driver on board.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Those who have chosen a test driver profession not only need to have a high tolerance threshold for long and uncomfortable work shifts behind the wheel. It is as important to have the ability to detect early signs that a significant part of the vehicle is becoming malfunctioning.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>But how can this safety-critical professionalism be passed on to a future when more and more vehicles become self-driving? Is it possible to mix self-driving and driver-controlled vehicles on one and the same test track? How is safety affected when there is no longer anyone on board who can break or steer to the side to prevent an accident? These are some of the issues behind ETAVEP (Enablers for testing autonomous vehicles at existing testing grounds), a research project co-financed by Vinnova program Vehicle Strategic Research and Innovation, which takes a closer look at the challenges in vehicle testing that arise as cars become increasingly autonomous.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Researchers from Chalmers, together with the truck manufacturer AB Volvo and the car manufacturer Volvo Cars, have focused on the part of the project that deals with the fact that vehicles must be able to be monitored even when a person's ears, sensory organs and experience are not in place. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The task has thus been to create an automated system that in real time can give an indication that some mechanical component that is important for safety is about to fail.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/ETAVEP/Tomas_McKelvey-1.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Tomas McKelvey, Professor in Signal processing at the Department of Electrical Engineering and, who has led the research within the subproject, explains:</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;The problem lies in how to best monitor a vehicle when you do not know in advance what it is that will break.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>He emphasises that one cannot rely on the systems that need to be on board once the self-driving vehicles come out in normal traffic - this is because test drives can take place even in earlier phases of vehicle development before the autonomous functions are reliable.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>You could say that the approach chosen is somewhat reminiscent of how the human perception works - we are usually quite good at paying attention to sensory impressions that deviate from what is expected. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/ETAVEP/Picture-11_340x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="background-color:initial;margin:5px" />A few dozen accelerometers, placed in strategically important places in the vehicle, have been allowed to act as the system's tactile rod. They register how the vibrations that occur in the engine and in contact with the road surface propagate further out into the body and components.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Our hypothesis has been that the nature of the vibrations will change when an error occurs on board and that the changes can be registered with the help of these instruments.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>To prevent a changed road surface from triggering a &quot;false alarm&quot;, some of the sensors, located near the vehicle's wheels, are used to register the input signal. The rest of the instruments should then be able to pick up such changes that are due to faults on board.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>But to know how a broken car vibrates, an automatic system must first learn how a faultless car behaves. So, the collection of this data became the researchers' first task once the instrumentation of the two test vehicles - a heavy truck and a passenger car - was completed. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;We achieve this by creating a so-called transfer function, a mathematical description of how different parts of the car move together.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>He adds that this type of analysis creates &quot;an awful lot of data&quot; - it is about 1,500 so-called complex numbers (numbers that have a real part and an imaginary part) per second. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;From these data, we build a stochastic model that describes the normal case, where each value is allowed to have a certain variation.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the next stage, the researchers let the two test cars roll on the same surface as before, but now with various intentional errors introduced in the vehicles. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Data from the accelerometers were analysed again - this time with the hope that the monitoring system could perceive changes in vibrations as an indication of the faults. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Did it work? </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/ETAVEP/Picture-4_750x340px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:685px;height:314px" /><br /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;Yes,</span><span style="background-color:initial"> the system could quite easily detect errors - even such errors that according to the test drivers are very difficult to detect.”</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Only one of the intentional faults did the system bite on - a nut on a shock absorber attachment that had been loosened a few turns on the heavy truck. But on the other hand, it was a fault that the test drivers could not feel either.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The automatic monitoring system that the Chalmers researchers have developed reacts to something being wrong - but the system cannot tell exactly where the fault is. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;You could probably work on this fur<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>ther, but we have not had time for that in this study. From a safety point of view, the most important thing is to find out that an error has occurred, so that the vehicle can be taken off the test track.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The practical experiments with the monitoring system took place last autumn at Volvo's test track in Hällered outside Borås, where the test facility AstaZero, run by Chalmers and RISE, is also located.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In addition to monitoring vehicle status, which the Chalmers researchers worked on in this sub-project, ETAVEP also includes methods and systems for traffic monitoring and vehicle control, including using radar, light radar (lidar) and camera surveillance. The systems are linked to communication based on 5G technology. </div> <div>According to Tomas McKelvey, the methodology developed within the overall ETAVEP project is the first among test facilities around the world, when it comes to allowing autonomous and driver-controlled vehicles to coexist. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;The hope is that the methods developed will become a kind of international standard for test tracks.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>He adds that representatives of other test facilities have shown great interest in the project. The reason is that there are both economic and environmental benefits from being able to use existing facilities, rather than having to sacrifice land and resources to build new test tracks only for autonomous vehicles. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;In addition, the test driver's working life as it looks today is very physically stressful. So even from that aspect there is a sustainability perspective,” Tomas McKelvey concludes.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Written by: Sandra Tavakoli</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Facts about the research: </strong></div> <div><ul><li>The two-year research project ETAVEP (Enablers for testing autonomous vehicles at existing testing grounds) is part of the Vinnova program Vehicle Strategic Research and Innovation. </li> <li>In addition to AB Volvo and Volvo Cars and Chalmers, the project participants consist of the research institute RISE, the test facility AstaZero and the research company SafeRadar. </li> <li>Final report from the project will be written in the spring. </li> <li>In addition to Tomas McKelvey, those who worked on the sub-project on automatic monitoring have been Project Manager Patrik Nordberg from Volvo Cars and Daniel McKelvey, a student in Engineering mathematics and computational science at Chalmers, who had the project as his master thesis. </li></ul></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Facts / Accelerometer</strong></div> <div>An instrument that measures acceleration in relation to free fall, often in three dimensions, and which is found in every modern mobile phone, among other things. An accelerometer at rest registers the earth's gravity. <span style="background-color:initial">The instrument can also, as in this case, be used to accurately detect very small movements and vibrations.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>For more information, contact:</strong></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Tomas Mckelvey</strong>, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Full Professor in the Signal processing research group at the Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">tomas.mckelvey@chalmers.se</span></div></div>Fri, 13 May 2022 08:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/EHT-2022-ENG.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/EHT-2022-ENG.aspxFirst image of the black hole in our galaxy's centre<p><b>Astronomers have unveiled the first image of the supermassive black hole at the centre of our own Milky Way galaxy. This result provides overwhelming evidence that the object is indeed a black hole and yields valuable clues about the workings of such giants, which are thought to reside at the centre of most galaxies. The image was produced by a global research team called the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration, using observations from a worldwide network of radio telescopes.</b></p><div>The science team includes three astronomers from Chalmers’ Department of Space, Earth and Environment: John Conway and Michael Lindqvist, both at Onsala Space Observatory, and Chiara Ceccobello, working in Astronomy and Plasma Physics at the time of the research.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Now for the first time we can see the black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. That’s much closer to us than its counterpart in M 87, which we were able to see in the first image from the Event Horizon Telescope in 2019. We also know more about it than any other black hole. This image is putting theories about the nature of space and time to the test. It’s an exciting time to be working in science, says Michael Lindqvist.<br /></div> <div><div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The image is a long-anticipated look at the massive object that sits at the very centre of our galaxy. Scientists had previously seen stars orbiting around something invisible, compact, and very massive at the centre of the Milky Way. This strongly suggested that this object — known as Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*, pronounced &quot;sadge-ay-star&quot;) — is a black hole, and today’s image provides the first direct visual evidence of it.  </span></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Four million times more massive than the sun</h3> <div>Although we cannot see the black hole itself, because it is completely dark, glowing gas around it reveals a telltale signature: a dark central region (called a shadow) surrounded by a bright ring-like structure. The new view captures light bent by the powerful gravity of the black hole, which is four million times more massive than our Sun.  </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We were stunned by how well the size of the ring agreed with predictions from Einstein’s Theory of General Relativity,&quot; said EHT Project Scientist Geoffrey Bower from the Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei. &quot;These unprecedented observations have greatly improved our understanding of what happens at the very centre of our galaxy, and offer new insights on how these giant black holes interact with their surroundings.&quot; The EHT team's results are being published today in a special issue of The Astrophysical Journal Letters.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Because the black hole is about 27 000 light-years away from Earth, it appears to us to have about the same size in the sky as a doughnut on the Moon. To image it, the team created the powerful EHT, which linked together eight existing radio observatories across the planet to form a single “Earth-sized” virtual telescope. The EHT observed Sgr A* on multiple nights in 2017, collecting data for many hours in a row, similar to using a long exposure time on a camera. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">In addition to other facilities, the EHT network of radio observatories includes the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (APEX) in the Atacama Desert in Chile, two telescopes that Chalmers and Onsala Space Observatory have been a part of for a long time.  </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>&quot;We can study this wonderful image thanks to long-term investments in science infrastructure in Sweden and around the world. At Chalmers and Onsala Space Observatory, we are proud to have delivered instruments and expertise to the APEX and ALMA telescopes, without which this image would not have been possible&quot;, says John Conway.​<span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>APEX is a collaborative project between Onsala Space Observatory, ESO (European Southern Observatory) and the Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy. Onsala Space Observatory and Chalmers have been involved in the ALMA project since its inception, and Chalmers has delivered receivers for both telescopes.<br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Similar to the ​image, despite very different black holes</span><br /></div> <div>The EHT achievement follows the collaboration’s 2019 release of the first image of a black hole, called M87*, at the centre of the more distant Messier 87 galaxy. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The two black holes look remarkably similar, even though our galaxy’s black hole is more than a thousand times smaller and less massive than M87* [3]. &quot;We have two completely different types of galaxies and two very different black hole masses, but close to the edge of these black holes they look amazingly similar,” says Sera Markoff, Co-Chair of the EHT Science Council and a professor of theoretical astrophysics at the University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. &quot;This tells us that General Relativity governs these objects up close, and any differences we see further away must be due to differences in the material that surrounds the black holes.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>This achievement was considerably more difficult than for M87*, even though Sgr A* is much closer to us. EHT scientist Chi-kwan (‘CK’) Chan, from Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy and the Data Science Institute of the University of Arizona, USA, explains: “The gas in the vicinity of the black holes moves at the same speed — nearly as fast as light — around both Sgr A* and M87*. But where gas takes days to weeks to orbit the larger M87*, in the much smaller Sgr A* it completes an orbit in mere minutes. This means the brightness and pattern of the gas around Sgr A* were changing rapidly as the EHT Collaboration was observing it — a bit like trying to take a clear picture of a puppy quickly chasing its tail.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers had to develop sophisticated new tools that accounted for the gas movement around Sgr A*. While M87* was an easier, steadier target, with nearly all images looking the same, that was not the case for Sgr A*. The image of the Sgr A* black hole is an average of the different images the team extracted, finally revealing the giant lurking at the centre of our galaxy for the first time.  </div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">300 researchers involved​</h3> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/EHT_PR_Secondary_Image_72dpi_340x425.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The effort was made possible through the ingenuity of more than 300 researchers from 80 institutes around the world that together make up the EHT Collaboration. In addition to developing complex tools to overcome the challenges of imaging Sgr A*, the team worked rigorously for five years, using supercomputers to combine and analyse their data, all while compiling an unprecedented library of simulated black holes to compare with the observations.  </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Scientists are particularly excited to finally have images of two black holes of very different sizes, which offers the opportunity to understand how they compare and contrast. They have also begun to use the new data to test theories and models of how gas behaves around supermassive black holes. This process is not yet fully understood but is thought to play a key role in shaping the formation and evolution of galaxies. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Now we can study the differences between these two supermassive black holes to gain valuable new clues about how this important process works,” said EHT scientist Keiichi Asada from the Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei. “We have images for two black holes — one at the large end and one at the small end of supermassive black holes in the Universe — so we can go a lot further in testing how gravity behaves in these extreme environments than ever before.”  </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Progress on the EHT continues: a major observation campaign in March 2022 included more telescopes than ever before. The ongoing expansion of the EHT network and significant technological upgrades will allow scientists to share even more impressive images as well as movies of black holes in the near future. </div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Read more: </h3> <div><i style="background-color:initial">The results were presented on May 12, 2022 in six articles in Astrophysical Journal Letters.<a href="https://iopscience.iop.org/journal/2041-8205/page/Focus_on_First_Sgr_A_Results"> Link to the research articles​</a>. </i></div> <div><i style="background-color:initial">For high resolution images, please visit <a href="https://www.eso.org/public/sweden/news/eso2208-eht-mw/">https://www.eso.org/public/sweden/news/eso2208-eht-mw/</a></i></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><a href="https://www.eso.org/public/sweden/news/eso2208-eht-mw/"></a><span>For more information, contact: ​</span></h3> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​</span><span style="background-color:initial">Robert Cumming, communications officer, Onsala rymdobservatorium, 070 4933114, robert.cumming@chalmers.se</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Michael Lindqvist, astronomer, Onsala Space Observatory, michael.lindqvist@chalmers.se</div></div>Thu, 12 May 2022 15:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/presidents-perspective/Pages/IVAs-100-list-Chalmers-technology-in-the-service-of-humanity.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/presidents-perspective/Pages/IVAs-100-list-Chalmers-technology-in-the-service-of-humanity.aspxIVA's 100 list: 'Chalmers technology in the service of humanity'<p><b>​The Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA) has presented this year’s 100 list, which this time highlights the potential of research to solve the challenges of humanity. The list consists of 70 research projects that IVA considers to have a high potential to provide benefits through commercialisation, business and method development or societal impact. Chalmers contributes 13 of the 70 projects, which puts us at the top of the list. The universities ranked second and third contribute eight and six projects respectively.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">What is it that has enabled Chalmers to contribute so many projects to the 100 list year after year? Naturally, it is because IVA wants to highlight research and development in technology and economics. Chalmers University of Technology’s areas of strength. The focus of this year's list is ‘Technology in the service of humanity’, and that is a good description of all of our activities.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>But there are other explanations. Chalmers provides a world-class education and has highly motivated students and doctoral students who go on to successful careers in academia or industry.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Chalmers’ Areas of Advance bring together excellence across the departments, enabling us to tackle complex and global societal challenges. The Areas of Advance lead to multidisciplinary, innovative research driven by sustainable development and utilisation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>I am pleased and proud to be able to affirm that Chalmers is a pioneer in utilisation where research and education make an impact on society in many different ways – through entrepreneurship, new products, participation in the public debate and more. Success breeds success, which inspires and stimulates research colleagues in their work.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Overall, we have an environment at Chalmers where education, research and utilisation interact and provide high academic quality and a high degree of relevance to society. This pays dividends, and not just in terms of the 100 list.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Stefan Bengtsson, President and CEO of Chalmers University of Technology</strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><a href="/en/news/Pages/IVA-100-list-2022.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Chalmers projects on the 100 list</a> <br /></div> <strong> </strong><div><a href="https://www.iva.se/en/published/new-list-research-projects-with-high-potential-for-business-and-societal-benefit/" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Information about IVA's 100 list 2022​</a></div> <strong> </strong><div><br /></div> <strong> </strong><div><div><b><br /></b></div> <div><em>Under the headline &quot;President’s perspective&quot; Stefan Bengtsson, President and CEO for Chalmers University of Technology, shares his reflections on current topics that concern education, research and utilisation.​​ </em></div></div> <div><span></span><a href="/en/news/presidents-perspective/Pages/default.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read previous posts from President Stefan Bengtsson​</a><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div>Wed, 11 May 2022 08:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/IVA-100-list-2022.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/IVA-100-list-2022.aspxMost projects from Chalmers on IVA’s 100 list 2022 <p><b>The 100-list highlights up-to-date research with business potential from Swedish universities. The theme for this year is technology in the service of humanity. Thirteen projects from Chalmers have been selected. </b></p>​The researchers have contributed with research projects that offer great value and potential for utilisation for society, through avenues such as industrial commercialisation, business development, or other types of impact. ​<div>“It is gratifying that we are so well represented on the 100 list. Chalmers has a strong focus on innovation and entrepreneurship” says Mats Lundqvist, Vice President of Utilisation at Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div><br /><div><div><strong style="background-color:initial">The selected projects from Chalmers 2022:</strong><br /></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:20px;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial"></strong><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:20px;background-color:initial">Architecture and Civil Engineering Project: </span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:20px;background-color:initial"></span><strong style="font-family:inherit;background-color:initial">Real time optimization of drinking water treatment</strong></div></div> <div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The innovation of Kathleen Murphy and fellow colleagues measure the quality and reactivity of freshwater resources in real time, and predict the success of drinking water treatment. Their solution will be used to optimize operational conditions at drinking water treatment plants, reducing the need for chemicals and infrastructure and reducing emissions and waste. The patent pending solution, including the teams unique algorithms, will make drinking water treatment cheaper and more sustainable.</span></div> <div>Researcher: <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/murphyk.aspx">Kathleen Murphy</a></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/ace/news/Pages/Real-time-optimized-drinking-water-treatment-on-IVA100-list.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Real time optimized drinking water treatment</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div> ​<span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:20px">Biology and Biological Engineering</span></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Project: <strong>Fungi for the production of protein of the future</strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">Alternative protein sources such as fungi (mycoprotein) can lead to 95 percent less carbon dioxide emissions than beef. The vision is that the protein of the future is produced by fungi, which convert bio-based residual streams from industry. The fungi are grown in closed bioreactors with little impact on the external environment. </span> ​</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">Researchers: </span><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/nygardy.aspx">Yvonne Nygård </a><span style="background-color:initial">and </span><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/eric-oste.aspx">Eric Öste </a></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Project: <strong>Stabilizing seafood side-streams allowing full use for food production </strong><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The demand for fish is steadily increasing in response to dietary recommendations, population growth and wishes to consume more climate-friendly protein sources. We therefore need to convert more of each landed fish into food, as today mainly the fillet is used, i.e., only 40-50 per cent of the weight. <br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">Researchers: </span><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Ingrid-Undeland.aspx">Ingrid Undeland</a><span style="background-color:initial">, </span><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/haizhou.aspx">Haizhou Wu,​</a><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><a href="/en/staff/Pages/khozaghi.aspx"> Mehdi Abdollahi</a><span style="background-color:initial"> and </span><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/bita-forghani.aspx">Bita Forghani</a></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Projects-on-sustainable-food-on-IVA’s-100-list.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Projects on sustainable food on IVA’s 100 list</a></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:20px;background-color:initial">Chemistry and Chemical Engineering  </span><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Project: <strong>Recycling and remanufacturing of indium based semiconductor materials. </strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>You are probably reading this text looking through a transparent conductive material called indium tin oxide (ITO). It is the backbone of all electronic screen​s (LCD, LED, and touch screens), and some solar cell technologies. During the manufacturing of these devices, 30 - 70% of the material becomes production waste. Almost 75% of indium is used for ITO manufacturing and it is accepted as a critical raw material due to its importance in the electronic industry. It is a minor element of the earth’s crust and is unevenly distributed. It's recycling from industrial waste is challenging and requires several stages. In our technology, indium recovery is simplified instead of complicated processing stages and integrated into the ITO powder production to reproduce ITO material.​</span><strong><br /></strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">Researcher: </span><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Burcak-Ebin.aspx">Burcak Ebin</a></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Burcak-Ebin.aspx"></a>Project: <strong>High-Quality Graphene and Highly Thermal Conductive Graphene Films Produced in Eco-friendly ways</strong><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong></strong><span style="background-color:initial">The heat generated from ubiquitous miniaturized electronic devices needs to be dissipated by materials that are highly thermally conductive, lightweight, flexible, mechanically robust and, most importantly, manufactured in a sustainable way. Our idea includes two interconnected steps: 1) Eco-friendly production of high-quality graphene in a large-scale; and 2) Production of highly thermal-conductive graphene films with low environmental impact and low cost. The graphene films are expected to replace the current metal films and other thermally conductive films produced in the high cost of environment, and therefore contribute to the transition to a green industry.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">Researcher: </span><a href="/en/staff/Pages/ergang.aspx">Ergang Wang</a></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <span></span><p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">Project: <span style="font-weight:700">Adsorbi - cellulose-based foams for air pollutants capture  </span></span><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">After finishing her doctoral studies at the department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering Kinga Grenda founded the start-up company Adsorbi together with Romain Bordes, researcher at the department. She was recently named one of ten entrepreneurs to keep an eye on by Swedish Incubators and Science Parks.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Researcher: <span style="background-color:initial">Kinga Grenda  </span><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://adsorbi.com/" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />More about the research and start-up company Adsorbi </a></span><span style="background-color:initial"><font color="#1166aa"><span style="font-weight:700">(external link)</span></font></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/staff/Pages/ergang.aspx"></a><a href="/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Chemistry-research-on-IVA-100-list-.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Chemistry research on IVA 100 list | Chalmers​ </a></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="font-family:inherit;font-size:20px;background-color:initial">Computer Science and Engineering ​</span><br /></p> <div>Project: <strong>EmbeDL </strong><br /></div> <div>AI has achieved remarkable successes but at a price – neural network models are very large and need a lot of resources to train and deploy, thus leaving a very large energy footprint. Our research is about how to reduce the size of the neural networks, without sacrificing much in accuracy, and making the best use of diverse hardware so that AI can be deployed in an efficient and less energy consuming way to solve a specific problem. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Project:<strong>Repli5 </strong><br /></div> <div>The research is about creating digital twins and synthetic data. A digital twin is a replica of the real world in silico, which can be used to test and verify systems very efficiently and cheaply instead of tests in the real world which are costly, slow and error prone. Digital twins can be used to generate synthetic data to train AI systems efficiently without the need to collect real world data and annotating them manually which is costly, slow, noisy and error prone. <br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Researcher: </span><a href="/en/staff/Pages/dubhashi.aspx">Devdatt Dubhashi </a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Project: </span><strong style="background-color:initial">Dpella</strong><br /></div> <div>The world is collecting a massive amount of individuals data with the intention of building a human-centered future based on data insights. The huge challenge is how to achieve these insights that will shape the future, respecting privacy of individuals and complying with GDPR. We solve this by developing a technology for creating privacy-preserving analytics based on the mathematical framework of Differential Privacy – a new gold standard for data privacy. With our patented IP research, we provide a Privacy-as-a-service solution will enable data flows, creating the inter-organization value required to achieve a digital human-centred future.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Researcher: </span><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/staff/Pages/russo.aspx">Alejandro Russo</a></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/staff/Pages/russo.aspx"></a></span><span style="background-color:initial">Project: <strong>ZeroPoint Technologies </strong></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">The dramatic increase of computers' processing power places high demands on efficient memory storage. A few players today have control over processor development by owning and controlling processor architectures. Chalmers with the spin-off company ZeroPoint Technologies develops technologies for computers' internal memory that are faster and less energy-intensive and are developed to fit into an open processor architecture. This provides basic conditions for smart industry. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span></span><span style="background-color:initial">Researcher: </span><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/staff/Pages/per-stenstrom.aspx">Per Stenström​</a></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:20px;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:20px;background-color:initial">Industrial and Materials Science</span><br /></div> <div> <div>Project: <strong>Design for energy resilience in the everyday</strong><br /></div> <div>Our increasing dependence on electrical and connected products is unsustainable from a resource point of view. It also makes us vulnerable in a future energy system where more renewable sources and climate change increase the probability of power shortages and power outages. To be able to handle disruptions in electricity deliveries, and at the same time live a good and meaningful everyday life, knowledge, new design guidelines for product development and energy-independent alternatives are required.<br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Researcher: </span><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/helena-stromberg.aspx">Helena Strömberg</a><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Design-for-energyresilience-in-the-everyday.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Design for energy resilience in the everyday</a> </div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><p class="chalmersElement-P" style="font-size:20px">Physics</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Project: <strong>Nanofluidic Scattering Microscopy </strong></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">We have developed the next generation of nanotechnology to study and analyse individual biomolecules and at the same time generate important information about them. We do this with an optical instrument combined with nanofluidic chips and software with machine learning/AI. By offering researchers this new tool, they can answer their questions in a completely new way, thereby accelerating their research in order to make ground-breaking discoveries.<br /></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">Researcher: </span><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Christoph-Langhammer.aspx">Christoph Langhammer </a><br /></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">P</span><span style="background-color:initial">roject:</span><strong style="background-color:initial">2D semiconductor with perfect edges </strong><br /></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">We at Smena have developed a new game-changing material, which is useful for numerous applications. The starting point of our material is an abundant mineral called molybdenite, whose price is only 5 dollar per kilogram. Using a scalable, patented, and environmentally friendly process, we managed to produce a large number of edges in flakes of natural molybdenite. <br /></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">Researcher: </span><span style="background-color:initial"><span></span><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Timur-Shegai.aspx">Timur Shegai ​</a><br /></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Two-research-projects-from-Physics-on-IVA-100-List.aspx">Two research projects from Physics on IVA 100 List 2022</a></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Two-research-projects-from-Physics-on-IVA-100-List.aspx">​</a><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:20px;background-color:initial">Mathematical Sciences </span></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">​Project: <strong>PressCise</strong></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong></strong>​We work with clinical partners to identify problems with today's products, and to test and verify our own inventions. We use mathematical theories to solve real problems and we realize our solutions in genuine smart textile products. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Researchers: <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/torbjorn-lundh.aspx">Torbjörn Lundh</a><span style="background-color:initial">, in collaboration with Josefin Damm and Andreas Nilsson. </span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="https://www.presscise.com/" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />PressCise AB</a></p> <div> </div> <p></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial"><em>I</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>VA's 100 List presents selected research projects believde to have </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>the potientalto be developed into ninnovations, to promote buisness  </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>development or to provide other benefits. The list reflects a diverse range of research </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>projects and researcher experise from Sweden's universities in a given field. </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>​</em></span><br /></p> <em> </em><p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial"><font color="#1166aa"><em> </em></font></span><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(0, 0, 0)"><em>The complete list can be found on </em><a href="https://www.iva.se/en/"><em>www.iva.se</em></a></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P" style="display:inline !important"><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(0, 0, 0)"></span> </p> <div><p class="chalmersElement-P" style="display:inline !important"><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(0, 0, 0)"><br /></span></p></div> <div><p class="chalmersElement-P" style="display:inline !important"><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(0, 0, 0)"><br /></span></p></div> <a href="/en/news/presidents-perspective/Pages/IVAs-100-list-Chalmers-technology-in-the-service-of-humanity.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />The Presidents perspective on Chalmers' contribution to technology in the service of humanity</a><p></p></div> <div><br /></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Chemistry-research-on-IVA-100-list-.aspx"></a></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Projects-on-sustainable-food-on-IVA’s-100-list.aspx"></a></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/eric-oste.aspx"></a></p></div></div> ​</div>Tue, 10 May 2022 16:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/cse/news/Pages/how_can_artificial_intelligence_make_running_safer.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/cse/news/Pages/how_can_artificial_intelligence_make_running_safer.aspxHow can artificial intelligence make running safer?<p><b>​A machine learning model to optimize your performance and get you across the finish line with health intact. That’s what Moa Johansson, Associate Professor at the Computing Science division, is aiming for. Together with two master's students, she is involved in a project at the Department of Computing Science and Engineering.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">This May, many people are looking forward to the return of Göteborgsvarvet, after two years of break due to the corona pandemic. Every year, approximately 40,000 runners struggle along with what the coordinators mean is the world’s biggest half marathon, and many have collapsed in exhaustion on both sides of the finish line.</span><div><br /></div> <div>Most often, they are on their feet after some rest and refill of fluid, but every year, a few people need medical assistance.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Moa Johansson, Associate Professor at the Department of Computing Science and Engineering, is together with the master students with amanuenses’ employments, Johan Lamm and Johan Attefors, collecting insights with the purpose to give athletes prerequisites to challenge themselves in the best possible way during a physical performance and at the same time minimize the risk of overworking to a point where they jeopardize their health. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;I am very interested in sport, so for me, it’s really fun to see how the techniques my own research is addressing, can contribute within sport&quot;, says Moa.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The study is performed in cooperation with Göteborgsvarvet, by analyzing data that has been collected for ten years and is accessible in Göteborgsvarvet’s database. In the database, values for end results and the participant's age and gender are registered. In addition, Moa, Johan and Johan have taken data about the weather conditions into account, to be able to see if there is something to learn from the connection between for example high temperatures and the number of people who &quot;hit the wall&quot;.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">A virtual AI-coach</h3> <div>As part of the project, they are working on a machine learning model. The purpose is, with its help, to be able to estimate the finishing time of a runner, and anticipate which runners risk overworking themselves, by drawing conclusions from the collected data.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the future, Moa is visualizing the model being used in a more advanced product in line with the runner’s watches available on the market today, where more parameters like personal conditions, previous performance, and outdoor temperature can be combined with monitoring of the body’s functions, to help the runner to adjust the pace to what is individually suitable. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Kind of like a virtual AI-coach that tells you when it’s time to slow down or increase speed or take a break to drink water one extra time&quot;, says Moa. </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">So, what are we doing wrong when the race ends with us &quot;running into the wall&quot;?</h3> <div>Often we seem to strain ourselves too much early on. Moa thinks that it partly comes down to a matter of prestige.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;People want to beat their own personal record, she says. And some people are keeping themselves on the border to what they can handle, even though they are not quite in the shape they were earlier in life.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>There is a tendency in the middle-aged group to miscalculate their capacity. That is something not equally prominent in the older group and among the elite runners, who tend to run according to a different pattern.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">About the project</h2> <div>The project is organized within the Health Engineering Area of Advance and is performed at the Department of Computing Science and Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The project is a result of discussions between the GoCoActive cooperation, where Chalmers, University of Gothenburg, RF-SISU, GoCo Health Innovation City, and Göteborgs Friidrottsförbund have been participating actively. <span style="background-color:initial">In</span><span style="background-color:initial"> spring 2022, a scientific paper is being written about the project.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>By: Agnes Ekstrand</div> <div><br /></div>Mon, 09 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Exoplanet-system-TOI-500.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Exoplanet-system-TOI-500.aspxEarth-like exoplanet in unique planetary system<p><b>Astronomers have discovered a unique planetary system around the star TOI 500, 155 light years from Earth. The innermost of the four planets is similar to Earth in several ways, but has an orbiting period of just 13 hours and a temperature of over 1300 degrees Celsius. It is believed to have formed further out, and then migrated close to the star in a slow and &quot;quiet&quot; process, lasting billions of years. Until now, it has never been shown that such a scenario could expain the existence and architecture of such a peculiar planetary system​</b></p><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Judith Korth, one of four Chalmers astronomers involved in the study, recently published in Nature Astronomy, explains why this planetary system is of particular interest:</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Profilbilder/Judith_Korth_170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">“Its architecture is unique. TOI-500 hosts four low-mass planets where the innermost planet has an orbital period of around 13 hours (TOI-500b). Such ultra-short-period planets (USPs) usually show a particular architecture of high-inclined orbits with respect to the outer planets in the system and are thought to be the outcome of so called high-eccentricity migration, where very elliptical orbits gradually become more and more circular from the star’s tidal forces”, says Judith.</span></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“The planets in the TOI-500 system, however, show orbits on a similar plane, and thus, TOI-500 is the first system that could have formed via a different formation scenario, namely the low-eccentricity migration described in the article”.</span></p> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Slow and steady migration towards the star​</h3> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="background-color:initial">The scientific community unanimously agre</span><span style="background-color:initial">es that a planet like TOI-500b could not have formed in its current position, but that it must have originated in a more external area of ​​the protoplanetary disk, and then migrated much closer to its star. However, there is still a lot of debate on the migration process, but it is common opinion that it usually takes place in a violent way, a process that can involves collisions between planets which set the planets on non-circular and inclined orbits, migrating towards smaller orbits that become increasingly circular.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">In the recent article, however, the authors present simulations with which they demonstrate that the planets around TOI-500 may have formed on almost circular orbits further out in the system, and then performed a slow and steady migration during 2 billions years, in which the planets, without colliding with each other, move along orbits that remain almost circular but gradually smaller and smaller.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">The research, published in the prestigious journal Nature Astronomy was led by Luisa Maria Serrano and Davide Gandolfi of the Physics Department of the University and featured Chalmers astronomers Judith Korth, Carina Persson, Iskra Georgieva and Malcolm Fridlund. </span></p> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span lang="EN-US">TOI similar to Earth - and also very different</span></h3> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">The planet closest to the star, named TOI-500b, is a so called Ultra-Short Period (USP) planet , as its orbital period is just 13 hours . It is also considered an Earth analogue, that is, a rocky planet similar to the Earth in radius, mass and density. However, its proximity to the star makes it so hot (around 1350 degrees Celsius) that its surface is most likely an immense expanse of lava.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“TOI-500b has a size and mass similar to Earth but in reality, it is very different from Earth due to its short orbital period. It is called an Earth-analog, meaning that it has a similar bulk density as our Earth. This does not mean that the planet is also as habitable as our Earth. It is quite the opposite, due to its vicinity to the star the planet is very hot and its surface consists most likely of a lava ocean”, says Judith Korth and continues.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“However, another similarity to our own Earth could exist for TOI-500b. It could have a secondary atmosphere. I think this will trigger further atmospheric studies in the future which may also give us information about our own atmosphere”.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">TOI-500b was initially identified by NASA 's TESS (Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite) space telescope which searches for exoplanets using the so called transit method. This method identifies planets that periodically obscure their home star, causing a decrease in the light received on Earth. The planet was subsequently confirmed thanks to an intense observation campaign conducted by European Southern Observatory (ESO). The data cover an entire year and their analysis, combined with that of the TESS data, made it possible to measure the mass, radius, and orbital parameters of the inner planet.</span></p> <p></p> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">An extraordinary planetary system ​​</h3> <p></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“The same measurements also made it possible to discover 3 additional planets, with orbital periods of 6.6, 26.2 and 61.3 days. TOI-500 is an extraordinary planetary system for understanding the dynamic evolution of planets”, says project leader Davide Gandolfi, University of Turin.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Judith Korth, of the Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers, was involved in the dynamical studies: </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“I studied if the system shows transit timing variations that could help us to constrain the planetary and orbital parameters. Unfortunately, this was not the case since the dynamics of the system are dominated by the secular dynamics rather than the resonant dynamics. Furthermore, I studied the long-term stability of the system and tested if we could refine the upper mass limits of the outer planets since we have only the Msini (minimum mass) from the radial velocities. Since the system could have formed via low-eccentricity migration, I also studied the dynamics within a smaller range of mutual inclinations but for a longer time span.”</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">The article demonstrates the importance of combining the discovery of systems hosting close USP-type planets with numerical simulations to test the possible migratory processes that may have brought them to the current configuration.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“Acquiring data over long periods of time allows us to study the internal architecture of systems similar to TOI-500 and to understand how the planets settled on their orbits”, concludes Davide Gandolfi, University of Turin.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Read the article <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41550-022-01641-y">A low-eccentricity migration pathway for a 13-h-period Earth analoguein a four-planet system in Nature Astronomy</a>.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Images from <a href="https://exoplanets.nasa.gov/exoplanet-catalog/8393/toi-500-b/">Nasas exoplanet catalog</a>. </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">The text is written by Christian Löwhagen, Chalmers, based on the press release from the University of Turin: <a href="https://www.unito.it/comunicati_stampa/dalla-missione-della-nasa-alle-osservazioni-unito-toi-500-un-sistema-planetario-di">Dalla missione della NASA alle osservazioni UniTo: TOI-500, un sistema planetario di quattro pianeti con un processo di migrazione peculiare - Il pianeta più vicino alla stella è molto simile alla Terra...</a> </span></p>Fri, 06 May 2022 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Reproducibility-investigated-by-Robot-Scientist-Eve.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Reproducibility-investigated-by-Robot-Scientist-Eve.aspxReproducibility investigated by Robot Scientist Eve<p><b>​Only one third of the results from 74 selected scientific papers in breast cancer cell biology of high scientific interest could be reproduced. This was shown by a study where the researchers combined automated text analysis and the Robot Scientist Eve at Chalmers. ​</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span>Eve is an automated system using AI invented by Ross King, Professor of Machine Intelligence at Chalmers and Cambridge University, and Wallenberg Chair in AI at <a href="https://wasp-sweden.org/">WASP</a>. In this study Ross King’s research group used Eve to reproduce the results from 74 selected papers.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“The cancer literature is enormous, but no one ever does the same thing twice, making reproducibility a huge issue,” Ross King says in a <a href="https://www.cam.ac.uk/research/news/robot-scientist-eve-finds-that-less-than-one-third-of-scientific-results-are-reproducible">press release​</a> from Cambridge University.  </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">“Given the vast sums of money</span><span style="background-color:initial"> spent o</span><span style="background-color:initial">n cancer research, and the sheer number of people affected by cancer worldwide, it’s an area where we urgently need to improve reproducibility.”</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Read the full scientific paper in Journal of the Royal Society Interface:</strong> <a href="https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2021.0821">Testing the reproducibility and robustness of the cancer biology literature by robot. </a></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Read more: </strong></span><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <ul><li><a href="https://wasp-sweden.org/robot-scientist-eve-illuminates-reproducibility-in-breast-cancer-research/">WASP: Robot Scientist ’Eve’ Illuminates Reproducibility in Breast Cancer Research​</a></li> <li><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Chalmers-Robot-Scientist-ready-for-drug-discovery.aspx">Chalmers' Robot Scientist ready for drug discovery</a></li></ul> <p></p> <div> </div> <div>​<br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div>Wed, 27 Apr 2022 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/cse/news/Pages/Professor-at-Computer-Science-and-Engineering-gets-prestigious-grant-for-the-second-time.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/cse/news/Pages/Professor-at-Computer-Science-and-Engineering-gets-prestigious-grant-for-the-second-time.aspxHe gets prestigious grant for the second time<p><b>​Professor Thierry Coquand has been given this year’s European Research Counsil (ERC) Advanced Grant. Getting research funded through the grant is prestigious alone. What is remarkable in Thierry Coquand's case, is that it is not the first time he receives one.​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Getting more than one ERC Advanced Grant in a lifetime is something that extremely few have accomplished. </span><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">hierry Coquand, Professor at the Computing Science Division, Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Chalmers and University of Gothenburg, got his first ERC Advanced Grant for his work in 2009.</span><div><br /></div> <div>He describes his view on his research and receiving the grant as following:</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The topic of my research is about representation of mathematical proofs on a computer. This is used to design so called &quot;proof assistants” that help a mathematician and/or a computer scientist to build a mathematical proof, in particular, ensuring that the proof is correct.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>There has been a growing use of such system for checking and documenting complex software systems, but also mathematical proofs. One aspect of this research that I find particularly interesting is that trying to represent mathematics on a computer forces us to think about the nature of mathematical objects.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>While I was working on my previous ERC project, it was realised by a great mathematician, the late Vladimir Voevodsky, that the language we were using for the represention of proofs on a computer was actually well adapted to express recent abstract  concepts in mathematics, connected to the notion of homotopy, which is a general study of the notion of “shapes”. This was both surprising and exciting, and the present project should explore further these connections.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>I believe that this field of research is important both for society, given that the issues of software correctness and security are crucial,  and because of its intrinsic logical interest. If successful, this project will create proof assistants that can help in the development of sophisticated mathematics and highly modular pieces of software. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>This work is really a team work (both local and internationally). It is really nice, and not so common,  to be part of a team which have strong competence both in theory and in the actual implementation of proof assistants. I also want to thank people at the Grants Office, in particular Maria Enge, for all their help.”</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More on Thierry Coquand's research​​</h3> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/departments/cse/news/Pages/type-theory-for-mathematics-and-computer-science.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Research on interactive proof systems receives funding from KAW</a> <br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/nyheter/Sidor/Watch-the-webinar-Hydrogen-A-Silver-Bullet-in-the-Energy-System.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Watch the webinar: Hydrogen – A silver bullet in the energy system?​</a></span></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">ERC grants</h3> <div>The research grants from the European Research Council, ERC, are aimed at tackling major questions across all scientific disciplines.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Advanced Grant is given to active researchers who have shown significant research achievements in the last ten years and stand out in terms of originality and significance of their research contribution.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read more about the latest ERC Advanced Grants in <a href="https://erc.europa.eu/news/erc-2021-advanced-grants-results">ERC’s press release​</a>.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Article written by Agnes Ekstrand</div> ​Wed, 27 Apr 2022 08:40:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/7971-paths-towards-better-cell-factories.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/7971-paths-towards-better-cell-factories.aspx7971 paths towards better cell factories<p><b>​Microorganisms that efficiently convert plant biomass into renewable biofuels and biochemicals play a major role in the sustainable society of the future. However, the efficiency of these microbial cell factories is inhibited by several compounds that are released as biomass is degraded into sugars, which the cell factories then convert.How can these bioprocesses be improved? Researchers in industrial biotechnology at Chalmers are now one step closer to a solution. </b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span>Baker’s yeast, <em>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em>, is used to ferment lignocellulose from plant biomass to produce sustainable biofuels and biochemicals. But the cells' performance is inhibited by various compounds, such as furans, acids, and phenols, which are released during the pre-treatment of the biomass. This challenges the use of bioprocesses a cost-effective alternative to conventional production.</span></p> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Studies aim to increase cell productivity</span></h2> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Efficient fermentation of lignocellulose could have great societal impact and a great amount of research has already been conducted within the field. There are many studies in which researchers genetically modified different yeast strains to increase the cell factories' tolerance to different inhibitors – with the aim to increase cell productivity. </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/IndBio/Yvonne_340.jpg" alt="Yvonne Nygård" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px;width:240px;height:240px" />Yvonne Nygård</strong>, Associate Professor of industrial biotechnology, and her colleagues at Chalmers, have made a compiled analysis of the information from previous research for further development of efficient yeast.</p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“When developing new cell factories, we want to make use of all the accumulated knowledge. More specifically, our goal was to use the new CRISPR/Cas9-technology to combine and fine-tune genetic engineering previously shown to be favourable for the fermentation of lignocellulose,” says Yvonne Nygård.</p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">There is an enormous amount of previous research data and the researchers' database grew as they dug deeper.</p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“At the same time, it was harder for us to choose from all the data. In addition, we noticed that the various experiments were very different, which made it difficult to compare the data and draw conclusions. We did the systematic analysis to help our own research. It didn’t take long before we came up with the idea of sharing the database and analysis with others, and we decided to summarise our results in a review,” she says.</p> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Data from 7971 was collected and analysed</h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The researchers collected data from 7971 previous experiments, from 103 studies in which researchers had modified the tolerance of different strains of baker's yeast to the most common inhibitors in the pre-treated lignocellulose (so-called lignocellulose hydrolysate): acetic acid, formic acid, furans, and phenolic compounds. The mutants included in the assay had shown increased or decreased tolerance to individual inhibitors or combinations of inhibitors.</p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The effects of the inhibitors on the cells varies from, for example, reduced growth rate, cell survival, vitality, to product yield. The inhibitory effect is due to the presence of individual inhibitors and is affected by environmental factors, including pH, temperature, and the availability of nutrients.</p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“Our analysis showed that the results very often were characterised by the strain and cultivation conditions. Although so much work has been done already, relatively few genetic modifications have been used in different strain backgrounds or for the conversion of different types of biomasses,” says Yvonne Nygård.</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Development of new cell factories can be accelerated</h2> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The work towards a new cell factory can, for example, be accelerated by applying the genetic modifications that show advantage in several different strains or modifications for tolerance to different inhibitors. In addition, the study describes the biology behind the various genetic modifications – which in several studies have been shown to lead to better strains. Thus, it contributes to increasing knowledge about the requirements for the development of more robust cell factories.</p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Text: </strong>Susanne Nilsson Lindh</span><br /></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong style="background-color:initial">Read the study</strong><span style="background-color:initial"> by Elana Cámara, Lisbeth Olsson, Jan Zrimec, Aleksej Zelezniak, Cecilia Geijer and Yvonne Nygård, The Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers: </span><a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biotechadv.2022.107947">Data mining of<em> Saccharomyces cerevisiae</em> mutants engineered for increased tolerance towards inhibitors in lignocellulosic hydrolysates </a><br /></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Read more about cell factory research: </strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <ul><li><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-discovery-can-improve-industrial-yeast-strains.aspx">New discovery can improve industrial strains​</a></span></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Robust-microorganisms-for-sustainable-bioproduction.aspx">Robust microorganisms for sustainable bioproduction</a></span></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-network-improves-European-yeast-research.aspx">New network improves European yeast research </a></span><br /></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Cutting-edge-Nobel-technique-in-practice-at-Chalmers.aspx">Cutting edge Nobel tool in practice at Chalmers</a></span></li></ul> ​<br /><p></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> Tue, 26 Apr 2022 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Extremely-quiet-fans-can-improve-our-health.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Extremely-quiet-fans-can-improve-our-health.aspxExtremely quiet fans can improve our health<p><b>​We spend more of our time indoors than ever. But the noise levels we are exposed to at home, in workplaces and schools have been shown to increase the risk of high blood pressure, mental illness and hearing damage – and may even have a detrimental effect on children's cognitive development. Now, a unique new study from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, has identified and eliminated the harmful noise that occurs in ventilation system fans – something that could significantly improve our physical and mental health.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Today, we spend as much as 87% of our lives indoors, according to <a href="https://www.buildinggreen.com/blog/we-spend-90-our-time-indoors-says-who">an American study​</a>. The quality of indoor environments has therefore become an increasingly important factor for health and well-being. Temperature, carbon dioxide levels and humidity are just some of the factors known to influence our indoor environments, but lately, studies have also shown how indoor noise can have a significant negative impact. <br /><br /></span><div>One contributing factor to the constant noise in indoor environments is the fans used in ventilation systems in homes, workplaces, and schools. The core of the problem – and what irritates the human ear – occurs when the fan blades rotate, generating a sound with a consistent and predictable frequency, known as a ‘tonal’ noise. Identifying exactly how this sound occurs, and how to remove it, has been a long-standing quest that researchers and fan manufacturers have not been able to find an answer to. <br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/Martin%20Ottersten_02.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 15px;width:200px;height:300px" /><br /></div> <div>“The source of the tonal sound has never before been identified on this type of fan. When you can reduce this tone, the fans become extremely quiet and, in that respect, unique. This is the first time someone has succeeded in both identifying and eliminating the source of the noise,” says Martin Ottersten, industrial PhD student in Fluid Dynamics at Chalmers University of Technology and Research and Innovation Engineer at Swegon, and lead author of the study.<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Increased risks of physical and mental illness</h2> <div>According to a report from the WHO, tonal noise of the kind that occurs in ventilation systems can negatively affect human health. The study shows that long-term exposure to this kind of sound increases the risk of high blood pressure, cardiac arrest, tinnitus, hearing damage, sleeping problems and stress. Children's cognitive development can also be negatively affected by the noise levels stemming from ventilation systems.</div> <div>Finding the source of what causes the tonal sound has therefore been of great interest to researchers and fan manufacturers for many years. <br /><br /></div> <div>“I am sensitive to sound and sometimes have difficulty concentrating and sleeping with disturbing sounds. And I know that tonal sound can disturb our brain. When I read the WHO's reports on how tonal sound can also lead to diseases such as high blood pressure and even cardiac arrest, the work took on a whole new dimension,” says Martin Ottersten, who has worked with the project for four years.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Lower energy usage another benefit</h2> <div>With the help of advanced computer calculations, sometimes lasting weeks at a time, Martin Ottersten was able to study how air flows through the fan during rotation and where turbulence occurs. The calculations also provided audio data for the fan, which was used to locate the source of the tones.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>After several variations, he managed to design a fan in such a way that the tonal sound decreased drastically, an improvement which could allow for much quieter and healthier indoor environments.<br /><br /></div> <div>“By trying out different modifications to the fans and measuring the sound levels using very complex calculations on hundreds of computers, over several weeks, we could determine exactly where in the fan's construction the tonal sound originated and how to eliminate it. And what is more, we also observed that the efficiency of the fan increases as the tonal sound decreases,” says Martin Ottersten.<br /><br /></div> <div>He believes that this research now has great potential to be put into practice, and that extremely quiet fans which do not produce tonal noise could soon be commercially available. <br /><br /></div> <div>“We are currently seeking a patent for this technology and implementing it into our fans. After that we want to get them out to market, so that we can contribute to creating healthier indoor environments – as well as helping reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.<br /><br /></div> <div>The results of the study <a href="https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0055242">&quot;A numerical method to predict and minimize fan tonal noise&quot; </a>have been published in the scientific journal Physics of Fluids.</div> <div>The study was carried out at the Division of Fluid Dynamics at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and was financed by Swegon AB.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>More about the different types of sound generated by fans</strong></div> <div>Sound from fans consists of two types of sound: broadband and tonal sound. The broadband sound is heavier, but it’s the tonal sound – which is regular and reoccurring – that irritates and affects us humans the most. To reduce noise levels in workplaces, homes and schools, silencers are therefore installed so that people can stay in the premises for a longer period of time. These mufflers remove much of the broadband sound but are not as good at absorbing the more harmful tonal sound. In addition, the mufflers contribute to increased energy consumption and higher carbon dioxide emissions.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>For more information, contact:</strong></div> <div>Martin Ottersten</div> <div>Industrial PhD Student</div> <div>martin.ottersten@chalmers.se</div> <div>+46-73-1502818</div> <div><br />Text: Lovisa Håkansson and Joshua Worth </div>Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/-”School-collaboration-important-part-of-research”-.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/-%E2%80%9DSchool-collaboration-important-part-of-research%E2%80%9D-.aspx ”School collaboration important part of research” <p><b>​“Research should be a part of society and not stay within the walls of the university. School collaboration is important to achieve this”, says Marie Palmnäs, postdoc at the Division of Food and Nutrition Science at Chalmers.She and five colleagues have therefor initiated an interactive event focused on nutrition research and diet intervention studies in the school program at the International Science Festival in Gothenburg. </b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/Food/Marie-Palmnas-340x400px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Marie Palmnäs" style="margin:10px;width:240px;height:282px" /><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;With </span><a href="https://www.vetenskapsfestivalen.se/for-skolklasser/halsosam-mat-och-koststudier/5736/">this event </a><span style="background-color:initial">we hope to increase the students' interest in biology or other fields in natural science and at the same time show how complex, varied and rewarding research process actually is”, says </span><strong style="background-color:initial">Marie Palmnäs</strong><span style="background-color:initial">.</span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Informing and interacting with society is part of the researchers', doctoral students’ as well as professors’, mission. It can be difficult, though, to find the right arenas for outreach - especially during the pandemic when the physical meetings have been scarce.</p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">“There is always a risk that we, especially as young researchers focus too much on our own projects and miss the bigger picture. For successful outreach, our research must be put in context. It can be very helpful and rewarding to meet different target groups, in this case high school students, to adapt the communication to them and listen to their questions and opinions”, says Marie Palmnäs.</span></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Simulation of research project </span></h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">During the event at the Science Festival, she and five doctoral students, Elise Nordin, Sebastian Åberg, Thérése Hjorth, Olle Hartvigsson and Viktor Skantze, will let 15-year-old high school students experience a simulation of a research project. They will start with the set-up of a clinical study, do laboratory work, and finally analyse and discuss the data that has been collected. The event is based on an internationally recognised <a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/For-IBS,-specific-diets-are-less-important-than-expected.aspx">IBS project​</a>, but in a concentrated format. </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“We also want to show the wide range within the area of nutrition; that there are many different tasks and people needed within a project, spanning from nutritionists to data analysts, and how we bring these fundamentally different parts of the project together. This event might also broaden the students’ image of Chalmers. It may not be generally known that we conduct research in food and nutrition science at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering”, says Marie Palmnäs.</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Contribute to society <span></span><span>​</span><span>− strong driving force for researchers​</span></h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">In times of fake news and research being questioned in public discussions, the researchers behind the event hope that students will gain a little more knowledge about the solid and rigorous process behind a research result.</p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“We are involved in countless discussions about the set-up of each project and how to interpret and communicate the results. Our projects go through ethical assessments, are evaluated alongside other projects to (hopefully) get funding and the papers are extensively reviewed prior to submission. We want the students to understand how much goes into each research study <span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> and that we base our knowledge on results and experiences from years of prior research. Our research may, in turn, be something other researchers can base their studies on and that we can base new innovations, dietary guidelines etc. from.  In this way, we contribute to society, which I believe is a strong driving force for most researchers,” says Marie Palmnäs.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">The event can inspire other researchers</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, where the researchers behind the event work, actively supports school collaboration and outreach to the society.  </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“We have received a lot of support from the department, and we see this event as a pilot project that can both inspire and guide other researchers in all the divisions at the department.”</p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Text:</strong> Susanne Nilsson Lindh</p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Meet researchers from the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering at the Science Festival</h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><strong>P</strong></span><span><strong>UBLIC PROGRAM</strong></span></p> <p><strong>Wednesday 4 May</strong></p> <a href="https://www.vetenskapsfestivalen.se/for-alla/researchers-driving-force-the-unknown/5537/"><p>Researchers' Driving Force <span style="font-weight:300">–</span> the Unknown</p> </a><p><span style="background-color:initial">Inter</span><span style="background-color:initial">view: Acclaimed researchers about possible future discoveries.</span><br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p><strong>Thursday 5 May </strong><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>–</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Sunday 8 May</strong></span></p> <span></span><p></p> <strong> </strong><a href="https://www.vetenskapsfestivalen.se/for-alla/bla-mat-framtidens-sjomat/5769/"><p>Blå mat <span style="background-color:initial">​</span><span style="background-color:initial">−</span><span style="background-color:initial"> framtidens sjömat</span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(0, 0, 0);font-weight:300">Exhibition</span><br /></p></a><p><br /></p> <p><strong>Friday 6 May</strong></p> <strong> </strong><a href="https://www.vetenskapsfestivalen.se/for-alla/scientific-research-pipeline-in-cancer-studies/5633/"><p>Scientific Research Pipeline in Cancer Studies</p> </a><p>Lecture: The new approaches of performing research in different steps of dealing with cancer.</p> <a href="https://www.vetenskapsfestivalen.se/for-alla/evolution-in-yeast-using-crispr-technology/5643/"><p><span style="background-color:initial">Evolution in Yeast using CRISPR Technology</span><br /></p> </a><p>Lecture: Evolution is the main way to get genes with novel properties and CRISPR can act as an evolution tool.</p> <a href="https://www.vetenskapsfestivalen.se/for-alla/havets-hallbara-protein/5763/"><p>Havets hållbara protein</p> </a><p>Lecture </p> <p><br /></p> <p><strong>Lördag 7 maj</strong></p> <strong> </strong><a href="https://www.vetenskapsfestivalen.se/for-alla/how-can-we-eat-seaweed/5616/"><p><span style="background-color:initial">How Can We Eat Seaweed?</span><br /></p> </a><p>Lecture: Join us to know more about seaweed or try delicious seaweed treats!</p> <p><br /></p> <p><strong>Sön 8 maj</strong></p> <strong> </strong><a href="https://www.vetenskapsfestivalen.se/for-alla/a-peek-into-the-microworld-with-foldscope/5641/"><p>A Peek into the Microworld with Foldscope</p> </a><span style="background-color:initial">Workshop: Make your o</span><span style="background-color:initial">wn paper origami microscopes 'foldscopes' and explore the microworld with us.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Read more about: </strong><a href="/en/departments/bio/society-industry/utilisation/Pages/default.aspx">collaboration at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering​</a></span></div> <br /><div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p></div></div>Tue, 19 Apr 2022 13:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Robots-in-homes-industry-and-healthcare.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Robots-in-homes-industry-and-healthcare.aspxRobots in the home, industry and healthcare<p><b>​​Can robots adapt their own working methods to solve complex tasks? Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have developed a new form of AI, which, by observing human behavior, can adapt to perform its tasks in a changeable environment. The hope is that robots which can be flexible in this way will be able to work alongside humans to a much greater degree.​</b></p><div>“Robots that work in human environments need to be adaptable to the fact that humans are unique, and that we might all solve the same task in a different way. An important area in robot development, therefore, is to teach robots how to work alongside humans in dynamic environments,” says Maximilian Diehl, Doctoral Student at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology and main researcher behind the project.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>When humans carry out a simple task, such as setting a table, we might approach the challenge in several different ways, depending on the conditions. If a chair unexpectedly stands in the way, we could choose to move it or walk around it. We alternate between using our right and left hands, we take pauses, and perform any number of unplanned actions.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>But robots do not work in the same way. They need precise programming and instructions all the way to the goal. This approach makes them very efficient in environments where they constantly follow the same pattern, such as factory processing lines. But to successfully interact with people in areas such as healthcare or customer facing roles, robots need to develop much more flexible ways of working.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“In the future we foresee robots accomplish some basic household activities, such as setting and cleaning a table, placing kitchen utensils in the sink, or help organizing groceries,” says Karinne Ramirez-Amaro, Assistant Professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Chalmers University researchers wanted to investigate whether it was possible to teach a robot more humanlike ways to approach solving tasks – to develop an ‘explainable AI’ that extracts general instead of specific information during a demonstration, so that it can then plan a flexible and adaptable path towards a long-term goal. Explainable AI (XAI) is a term that refers to a type of artificial intelligence where humans can understand how it arrived at a specific decision or result.</div> <div><br /></div> <div style="font-size:16px"><strong>Teaching a robot to stack objects under changing conditions</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers asked several people to perform the same task – stacking piles of small cubes – twelve times, in a VR environment. Each time the task was performed in a different way, and the movements the humans made were tracked through a set of laser sensors.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“When we humans have a task, we divide it into a chain of smaller sub-goals along the way, and every action we perform is aimed at fulfilling an intermediate goal. Instead of teaching the robot an exact imitation of human behavior, we focused on identifying what the goals were, looking at all the actions that the people in the study performed,” says Karinne Ramirez-Amaro.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers' unique method meant the AI focused on extracting the intent of the sub-goals and built libraries consisting of different actions for each one. Then, the AI created a planning tool which could be used by a TIAGo robot – a mobile service robot designed to work in indoor environments. With the help of the tool, the robot was able to automatically generate a plan for a given task of stacking cubes on top of one another, even when the surrounding conditions were changed. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In short: The robot was given the task of stacking the cubes and then, depending on the circumstances, which changed slightly for each attempt, chose for itself a combination of several possible actions to form a sequence that would lead to completion of the task. The results were extremely successful.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;With our AI, the robot made plans with a 92% success rate after just a single human demonstration. When the information from all twelve demonstrations was used, the success rate reached up to 100%,&quot; says Maximilian Diehl.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The work was presented at the robot conference IROS 2021, one of the world’s most prestigious conferences in robotics. In the next phase of the project, the researchers will investigate how robots can communicate to humans and explain what went wrong, and why, if they fail a task.</div> <div><br /></div> <div style="font-size:16px"><strong>Industry and healthcare</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The long-term goal is to use robots in the industry to help technicians with task that could cause long-term health problems, for example tightening bolts/nuts on truck wheels. In healthcare, it could be tasks like bringing and collecting medicine or food. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We want to make the job of healthcare professionals easier so that they can focus on tasks which need more attention,” says Karinne-Ramirez Amaro.  </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;It might still take several years until we see genuinely autonomous and multi-purpose robots, mainly because many individual challenges still need to be addressed, like computer vision, control, and safe interaction with humans. However, we believe that our approach will contribute to speeding up the learning process of robots, allowing the robot to connect all of these aspects and apply them in new situations”, says Maximilian Diehl.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>By: Sandra Tavakoli and Karin Wik</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>The research was carried out in collaboration with with Chris Paxton, a research scientist at NVIDIA. This project was supported by Chalmers AI Research Centre (CHAIR).</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read more about the research <a href="https://research.chalmers.se/project/9253">https://research.chalmers.se/project/9253</a></div> <div>Watch the film explaining the research <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hEUEpQcrDtw">Automated Generation of Robotic Planning Domains from Observations - YouTube</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>For more information, contact: </strong></div> <div>Maximilian Diehl. <span style="background-color:initial">PhD Student at the Department of Electrical Engineering</span></div> <div>diehlm@chalmers.se</div> <div>+46 31 772 171</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Karinne Ramirez-Amaro, <span style="background-color:initial">Assistant professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering</span></div> <div>karinne@chalmers.se</div> <div>+46 31 772 10 74 </div></div>Thu, 14 Apr 2022 10:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ace/news/Pages/Springtime-in-Parkourius-Park.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ace/news/Pages/Springtime-in-Parkourius-Park.aspxSpringtime in Bergsjön's parkour park<p><b>​Between pine trees and blocks of flats at Merkuriusgatan in Bergsjön, a new type of landscape has evolved. On a bed of wood chips, with distinct shapes and clear colors on robust wooden structures, Parkourius Park stands out. Since the summer of 2021 this is a popular play and training area for both residents and visitors – built by Chalmers students.</b></p><div>​When spring temperature rises and the rays of sun lingers, the Gothenburgers come outside again, a fact obvious to those who visit Bergsjön's parkour park, built by Chalmers students with the help of young summer working residents in the summer of 2021. A project with many aspects to keep track of: The structures in the park needs to be sturdy and the parts support each other, the surface needs to be soft to prevent fall injuries, and the materials used must be robust and durable to withstand stress from play and from the weather.    <br /></div> <div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/ACE/nyheter/2022/Ester_Schreiber2.jpg" alt="Portrait image of Ester Schreiber" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /><br /></div> – We learned a lot on site from experts in different areas and at the same time we also taught and encouraged the summer workers – who initially had zero insight into the project. I believe that all of us who participated left the project feeling proud of what we built, and with some new confidence that will be very useful in future jobs and projects, says Ester Schreiber, master's student in the architecture program.    <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Building value in different aspects    </h2> <div>Dare to Build is a summer course for architecture and civil engineering students that aims to offer a common and experimental learning platform, and at the same time contribute to a positive local development in poor suburban areas. <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/brandao.aspx" target="_blank" title="chalmers.se">Emilio Da Cruz Brandao</a>, teacher in the course, is an Artistic lecturer at the department of Architecture and Civil Engineering and behind much of Chalmers' work in the city’s northeastern districts.    </div> <div> </div> <div>   – For the students who participate, i think the biggest benefit is that they are challenged to think outside of their usual ways and working methods. The architects and engineers are pushed to think and work together. They also get a direct connection to something that is built and becomes permanent, and the lessons are connected to a complicated and reality grounded decision-making process, says Emilio.    </div> <div> </div> <div>He believes that it is important for the long-term nature of the project to have a party that takes responsibility for managing what is built so that the value for users remains over time. Other values are created by the mere presence of Chalmers, giving the local community a perhaps somewhat difference image of what Chalmers is about, and not least by challenging the participating students.    </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Co-creation from idea to completed structure    </h2> <div>The work with the parkour park began in the autumn of 2020, when the master's students in the studio &quot;Design and planning for social inclusion&quot; started with surveys and design workshops to develop concepts for play and movement. Their plan was realized during the summer course Dare to Build. The final design of the parts of the park has been created with the support of a parkour expert, a landscape architect, designer and teachers at Chalmers. Collaboration to a very high extent as it is not just about collaboration between architecture and engineering students, but with professional experts, local residents, the public sector at the same time as learning outcomes are met and benefits for society are created.    </div> <div> </div>    – It was fun, interesting and challenging to be part of a project with so many people of different backgrounds and skills, and an exercise in both collaboration and communication. In addition, we had to develop our ability to make quick but well-founded decisions, as the short time slot of the project accelerated many of the processes, says Ester.      <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More than a park    </h2> <div>However, the need to build a park for a sport that generally is based on using existing areas in the urban environment was not entirely obvious at the beginning.    </div> <div> </div> <div>   – We asked ourselves the question of the benefits of the park initially, but what we developed and built is a training area with specific tools to be able to train actions and movements in a safer and more controlled environment, to then be able to use the skills in the urban environment, explains Emilio.    </div> <div> </div> <div>From a socio-economic perspective, parkour has certain advantages over other sports as it can be practiced outdoors, all year round, alone as well as in groups and without loose gear or special equipment. Parkour practitioners can also be seen as a resource for the local area, as they populate places that might otherwise be deserted. Aspects that rhyme well with Design and Planning for Social Inclusion and its purpose: to provide knowledge about challenges, and opportunities for development in the 60’s and 70’s suburban areas, with social aspects of sustainable development and civic participation as specific focus areas.   </div> <div><span><em>Text: Catharina Björk</em><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/education/programmes/masters-info/Pages/Architecture-and-Planning-Beyond-Sustainability.aspx">Read more about the education<br /></a></div>Tue, 12 Apr 2022 16:00:00 +0200