News: Globalhttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyThu, 17 Sep 2020 16:36:03 +0200http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Chalmers-maintains-highest-reputation-in-Sweden-–-again.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Chalmers-maintains-highest-reputation-in-Sweden-%E2%80%93-again.aspxChalmers maintains highest reputation in Sweden – again<p><b>​Research firm Kantar Sifo has measured the Swedish general public’s opinion of Swedish universities every year since 2012. In every survey so far, Chalmers has had the highest reputation – and this year is no different. KTH Royal University of Technology, meanwhile, has reclaimed second place from Lund University.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers has the most positive media image among Swedish universities, according to Kantar Sifo, and together with KTH, is the most well-known university in the country. This is an important reason as to why Chalmers sits at the top. However, essentially the most important element is always to have a well-functioning organisation, according to Kantar Sifo.   </span><div><br /></div> <div>According to the survey, the foundation of the general public’s high opinion is that Chalmers is seen to:</div> <div><br /></div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Maintain high international quality</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Be successful</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Perform well in competition with other universities</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Deliver high student satisfaction</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Have strong connections between education and research</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Invest in renewal and development for the benefit of the students </div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Play an important role in societal developments</div> <div>•<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Be credible in the media </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Generally, those universities with the highest reputation in Sweden are the research-heavy technical ones, as well as the older institutions. After Chalmers, (87), KTH (82), and Lund University (82), this year’s next highest are Uppsala University (80) and the Faculty of Engineering, Lund University (LTH) (78).</div> <div><br /></div> <div>This year’s reputation index was carried out through a web survey answered by over 4000 people. 22 Swedish universities were included. 456 people were aware of and expressed detailed opinion about Chalmers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Christian Borg</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Further reading: <a href="https://www.kantarsifo.se/rapporter-undersokningar/kantar-sifos-anseendeindex-larosaten-2020">Read more about the survey on Kantar Sifo’s website​ (in Swedish)</a></div> <div><br /></div>Thu, 17 Sep 2020 15:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ace/news/Pages/New-method-helps-us-understand-natures-sanitation-workers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ace/news/Pages/New-method-helps-us-understand-natures-sanitation-workers.aspxNew method helps us understand nature&#39;s own sanitation workers<p><b>​Bacteria, a prerequisite for life on earth and nature&#39;s own sanitation workers. But in order for us to be able to use them in a controlled way and maximise utility, we need to understand how they work and what differentiates bacterial communities – something that has previously been difficult to calculate. With the help of a new methodology, researchers from Chalmers have found the solution.</b></p><div>​Bacteria are found almost everywhere, both in nature and in the built environment. Many of them help us stay healthy and some make us sick. Some of them perform important work in our infrastructure, such as in a sewage treatment plant where the function is completely dependent on microorganisms breaking down pollutants, and in drinking water production where microbial growth plays an important role for water quality. But bacteria can also create problems; when it comes to concrete and metal structures, corrosion caused by microorganisms leads to enormous costs for society.<br /><br /></div> <div>  – To make the bacteria work for us, we must design systems that enable them to do what we want. To do that we need to understand the relationships between the systems we design, the bacterial communities that develop and the functions they perform, says Oskar Modin, Professor at the Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering.    </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Hill numbers create order in the jumble of indices    </h3> <div> </div> <div>Oskar Modin and his colleagues are now presenting a method for assessing the difference in composition between different communities of microorganisms. The method is described in a recently published article in the scientific journal Microbiome.</div> <div> </div> <div>  – When we develop measures and techniques, we need to understand how they affect the microbial composition. This is usually done using mathematical indices that describe the differences between two microbial communities. There are a number of indices and different researchers have their favorites.    </div> <div> </div> <div>With the study &quot;Hill-based dissimilarity indices and null models for analysis of microbial community assembly&quot;, the research group has tried to bring order to the index chaos. The researchers show that for some data, completely different conclusions are reached depending on which indices they choose to use, but what they now also have been able to show is that there is a solution to the problem.</div> <div> </div> <div>  – By analyzing their data with a family of indices that are based on something called Hill numbers, researchers can draw robust conclusions. We have also developed a freely available software that we and other researchers can use to calculate this type of index, Oskar continues.    </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Well-needed methodology  </h3> <div> </div> <div>The results from the group's research are an important piece of the puzzle in order to be able to develop methods for controlling the composition and function of the complex microbial communities that occur in the built environment.</div> <div> </div> <div>  – Right now we are running projects that aim to improve the function of sewage treatment processes and understand corrosion of concrete in tunnels. The new methodology we have developed will give us significantly better opportunities to interpret data from experiments and samples, Oskar Modin concludes.</div> <div> </div> <div>The paper &quot;Hill-based dissimilarity indices and null models for analysis of microbial community assembly&quot; is available in the journal Microbiome: <a href="https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-020-00909-7">https://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40168-020-00909-7<br /></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>The study was performed at the division of Water Environment Technolgy, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering at Chalmers and University of Gothenburg.<br /></em></div> <div><br /><em></em></div> <div>Text: Oskar Modin / Catharina Björk<br /><br />Contact: <br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/oskar-modin.aspx">Professor Oskar Modin</a><br />oskar.modin@chalmers.se  Ph. +46 31 7722138 </div>Thu, 17 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Chalmers-steps-up-climate-work.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Chalmers-steps-up-climate-work.aspxChalmers steps up climate work<p><b>​Chalmers is now taking another big step to strengthen its work for the climate. With the help of a new climate strategy, the University&#39;s emissions of greenhouse gases from its own operations will be halved by the year 2030, with the goal that by 2045, net emissions will be reduced to zero.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers has offered education and conducted research in the field of environmental science for over 40 years, and since 2008 the University's vision has been “For a sustainable future”. As part of consolidating that vision, the University is now launching <a href="/en/about-chalmers/chalmers-climate-action/chalmers-climate-strategy/Pages/default.aspx">Chalmers' climate strategy</a>. It contains seven vital areas and includes actions to reduce emissions from the University's own operations, with the goal that by 2045, net emissions of greenhouse gasses will be zero. </span><div><br /></div> <div>Chalmers previously, together with KTH, initiated the <a href="/en/about-chalmers/chalmers-climate-action/climate-framework/Pages/default.aspx">Clim​ate Framework for higher education institutions​</a>, through which 37 universities and colleges pledged to implement actions in line with the so-called 1.5-degree target by 2030. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>A thorough overview</strong></div> <div>The new strategy is based on the Climate Framework. By first doing a thorough overview, Chalmers identified the areas within the University with the greatest potential to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Our main contribution to the necessary societal transformation within climate action work is of course through our research – ensuring that our results are spread in society and that students take the new knowledge to their future workplaces, but we must also practise what we preach,” says Chalmers president Stefan Bengtsson. “So by also examining our own operations, we want to be a pioneer in how a university can reduce its own climate impact.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Researchers, management groups, students and employees have been given the opportunity to come up with their own proposals and ideas, and thereafter our focus and action plans have been based on the initiatives that have the greatest opportunity to contribute to a real effect. Each area is also measured against the UN's global sustainability goals, in order to identify both synergies and conflicts with Agenda 2030. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Inspiring others to chang​e</strong><br /></div> <strong> </strong><div>“Our climate strategy shows how we will reduce our own climate impact and help prevent global warming,” says Fredrik Hörstedt, Vice President for Utilisation, with responsibility for sustainable development.  </div> <div>“We strive to be transparent in how we plan and fulfil our strategic approaches and goals, with the hope of inspiring others to change as well. Therefore, we will continuously provide access to the IT tools that we develop, as well as describe the working methods that we choose to reduce our climate impact.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>As part of further making Chalmers' commitment to the climate issue more visible, the new portal <a href="/en/about-chalmers/chalmers-climate-action/Pages/default.aspx">Chalmers for the climate</a> is now available on the homepage <a href="/en/Pages/default.aspx">chalmers.se</a>. It leads to, for example, research, experts, utilisation and education from Chalmers which in various ways contribute to the transformation of society as a whole, as well as to the work of reducing the University’s own emissions. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Helena Österling af Wåhlberg / Johanna Wilde / Joshua Worth</div>Wed, 16 Sep 2020 10:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-new-way-to-search-for-dark-matter-reveals-hidden-materials-properties.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-new-way-to-search-for-dark-matter-reveals-hidden-materials-properties.aspxA new way to search for dark matter reveals hidden materials properties<p><b>New research from Chalmers, together with ETH Zürich, Switzerland, suggests a promising way to detect elusive dark matter particles through previously unexplored atomic responses occurring in the detector material.  ​​</b></p><div><div><span style="display:none"></span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/170x170px/RiccardoCatena_190219_profilbildNY170x170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><div></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​The new calculations enable theorists to make detailed predictions about the nature and strength of interactions between dark matter and electrons, which were not previously possible.</span></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Our new research into these atomic responses reveals material properties that have until now remained hidden. They could not be investigated using any of the particles available to us today – only dark matter could reveal them,&quot; says Riccardo Catena, Associate Professor at the Department at Physics at Chalmers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>For every star, galaxy or dust cloud visible in space, there exists five times more material which is invisible – dark matter. Discovering ways to detect these unknown particles which form such a significant part of the Milky Way is therefore a top priority in astroparticle physics. In the global search for dark matter, large detectors have been built deep underground to try to catch the particles as they bounce off atomic nuclei. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>So far, these mysterious particles have escaped detection. According to the Chalmers researchers, a possible explanation could be that dark matter particles are lighter than protons, and thereby do not cause the nuclei to recoil – imagine a ping pong ball colliding into a bowling ball. A promising way to overcome this problem could therefore be to shift focus from nuclei to electrons, which are much lighter. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In their recent paper, the researchers describe how dark matter particles can interact with the electrons in atoms. They suggest that the rate at which dark matter can kick electrons out of atoms depends on four independent atomic responses – three of which were previously unidentified. They have calculated the ways that electrons in argon and xenon atoms, used in today's largest detectors, should respond to dark matter. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The results were recently published in the journal Physical Review Research and performed within a new collaboration with condensed-matter physicist Nicola Spaldin and her group at ETH.  Their predictions can </div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/170x170px/170x170_Timon_Emken.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:170px;width:170px" /><span></span><div>now be tested in dark matter observatories around the globe.</div> <br /></div> <div><div>“We tried to remove as many access barriers as possible. The paper is published in a fully open access journal and the scientific code to compute the new atomic response functions is open source, for anyone who wants to take a look ‘under the hood’ of our paper,” says Timon Emken, a postdoctoral researcher in the dark matter group at the Department of Physics at Chalmers. </div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Mia Halleröd Palmgren</div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on dark matter</h2> <div>What is the Universe made of? This question has fascinated humankind for </div> <div>millennia. Still, it remains largely unanswered, with more than three quarters of the matter in our Universe believed to be made of particles so elusive that we don't know what they are. These particles are called dark matter and do not emit or absorb radiation at any observable wavelengths. Detecting the unknown particles is a top priority for scientists worldwide. To detect dark matter, the researchers search for rare dark matter-electron interactions in low-background deep underground detectors.</div> <div>There is incontrovertible evidence for the presence of dark matter in our Universe. Evidence is based on the observation of unexpected gravitational effects in extremely different physical systems, including galaxies, galaxy clusters, the Cosmic Microwave Background and the large-scale structure of the Universe. While the European space satellite Planck has conclusively shown that dark matter constitutes about 85 per cent of all matter in the Universe, its nature remains a mystery.</div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/darkmatter_riccardo_timon_paper.JPG" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:202px;background-color:initial;width:300px" /><a href="https://journals.aps.org/prresearch/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevResearch.2.033195"></a><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on the scientific paper</h2> <div>Read the article <a href="https://journals.aps.org/prresearch/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevResearch.2.033195">Atomic responses to general dark matter-electron interactions</a> in Physical Review Research. It is written by Riccardo Catena and Timon Emken at the Department of Physics at Chalmers and Nicola Spaldin, and Walter Tarantino at the Department of Materials at ETH Zürich, Switzerland.</div> <div><br /></div>Wed, 16 Sep 2020 06:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/New-research-lab-for-cancer-treatment-and-new-diagnostics.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/New-research-lab-for-cancer-treatment-and-new-diagnostics.aspxNew research lab for cancer treatment and new diagnostics<p><b>​A new medical technology research lab will be built at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, starting this fall. The lab is a major investment in clinical research, and a collaboration between the hospital, Chalmers, Sahlgrenska Academy and Region Västra Götaland.</b></p><div>​<span></span><span style="background-color:initial">New methods for diagnosis and treatment – and in the long run better healthcare – will be results of the new lab, which is expected to be completed in May 2021. The lab will house research equipment with microwaves and biomagnetic sensor technologies. Microwave research will initially focus on new treatment methods for head, throat and neck cancer, as well as non-invasive diagnosis of bleeding in brain and muscles, and breast cancer. For the biomagnetic sensors, functional studies of the brain are planned, with magnetoencephalography for patients suffering from diseases like epilepsy and dementia, and studies of heart rhythm disturbances with magnetocardiography.</span></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span></span>&quot;Define needs and develop solutions&quot;</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div>The new lab will provide improved opportunities for researchers from clinics, academia and industry in the west of Sweden to collaborate and conduct research projects with the patient in focus.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Chalmers gives high priority to strengthening the collaboration between the areas of medicine and technology, and the new lab is one more piece in this puzzle. When engineers and clinicians spend time in the same environment, and are really given the opportunity to interact, they are able to together define needs and develop solutions”, says Stefan Bengtsson, President at Chalmers University of Technology.<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Health/Udda%20format/Stefan-Bengtsson_200.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><div>The research lab will be run by MedTech West, a biomedical technology research platform that has also been in charge of planning. MedTech West is owned by Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Chalmers, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Region Västra Götaland and the University of Borås. Chalmers has also deepened collaboration with the other parties through newly launched Health Engineering Area of Advance, where close dialogue is conducted to develop new forms of collaboration in both research and education.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Unique environment</h2></div> <div> </div> <div>Investments in the lab are made together with the Swedish Agency for Economic and Regional Growth, and it is strategically very important for western Sweden. The lab will contain an electrically and magnetically shielded examination and treatment room, where research will be conducted. This room is the first of its kind outside Swedish capital Stockholm, and the unique setting creates long-term conditions for the development of research areas that require an environment close to patients. Collaboration between different cutting-edge competencies is also a cornerstone of the lab.<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Health/Udda%20format/Ann-Marie-Wennberg_200.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">“This is an important step in the right direction. Together, we drive healthcare forward through research in collaboration with other strong players”, Ann-Marie Wennberg, CEO and Professor at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, comments.</span><br /></div> <div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Broad applications</h2></div> <div> </div> <div>The innovative medical technology tools planned to already be in place in the coming six months may be of great use in many areas. Examples include neuroscience, oncology, trauma, cardiology and psychiatry.</div> <div> </div> <div>“The lab’s technologies, and state-of-the-art expertise from Chalmers and collaborating companies, will give our researchers from the Sahlgrenska Academy excellent opportunities to lead their research in new directions. The lab will be a completely new arena where we can develop our important collaboration with prominent researchers at Chalmers, says Agneta Holmäng, Dean at Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Facts about the new research lab</strong><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The new research collaboration lab will be a total of 36 square meters in size, and consists of a magnetically shielded examination and treatment room, a so-called MSR (Magnetically Shielded Room). Magnetic shielding from the outside world is required for the superconducting biomagnetic sensors used in MEG (magnetoencephalography) and MCG (magnetocardiography) to successfully capture the very weak magnetic fields emitted by the brain and heart. Previously, there is only one MSR used for medical research in Sweden, located at Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. The room will also be electrically shielded, which is required for microwave research.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The inauguration is expected to take place in May 2021. The research lab will be located in the Radiology Department’s premises on entrance level, in the new Image and Intervention Centre (BoIC), Blå Stråket 5, at Sahlgrenska University Hospital.</div> <div> </div> <div>MedTech West is a collaborative research platform, with the task of strengthening medical technology research in western Sweden. The research platform was founded in 2009 by Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Region Västra Götaland, Chalmers University of Technology, the University of Gothenburg and the University of Borås.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Mia Malmstedt, Helene Lindström</div> <div> </div> <div>Photo of Stefan Bengtsson: Johan Bodell. Photo of Ann-Marie Wennberg: Sahlgrenska University Hospital. Photo of Andreas Fhager, and of Paul Meaney and Samar Hosseinzadegan: Henrik Sandsjö.</div> <div> </div> <div>​<br /></div> <div> </div>Tue, 15 Sep 2020 13:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/New-Swedish-record-by-Chalmers-student.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/New-Swedish-record-by-Chalmers-student.aspxNew Swedish record by Chalmers student<p><b>​For the first time, a Swede has run 800 meters in less than 1.45 minutes. Andreas Kramer set the record at 1.44.47 and is studying at Chalmers at the same time as he aims for the 2021 Olympics.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">It was at a gala in the Czech Republic that Andreas Kramer broke the previous record of 1.45.03, which he had set himself.</span><div>“I'm actually not surprised that I managed to do it, says Andreas Kramer. I have been in good shape and kept a good minimum level throughout this season. I've been one to two hundredths away lately, so the time was in. Now I got good resistance, and that is when I usually perform well.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>You study Mechanical Engineering at Chalmers within the framework of the Swedish Sports University – how are your studies?</strong></div> <div>“I have chosen a broad and stimulating programme that can lead to many things in the future. But right now, my focus is on training and competing against the best elite athletes in the world, and then I need to be able to spend a little less time on my studies. As a national sports student, I can do my programme a little more spread out over several years, says Andreas Kramer. That is perfect for me and I have received great help from Chalmers with adapting my courses and writing an exam at a distance. So, and it has all worked out very well!”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>After competing in most of the championships and now having set a new Swedish record. What is your next goal?</strong></div> <div>“Well, the Olympics is definitely a dream of mine, and I feel that it is coming really close now, says Andreas Kramer. Given the pandemic, if there is an Olympics next year – then I'll be there to compete!”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Helena Österling af Wåhlberg</div> <div>Photo: Private</div> Mon, 14 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Chalmers-tech-start-ups-on-the-33-list-of-rising-stars.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Chalmers-tech-start-ups-on-the-33-list-of-rising-stars.aspxChalmers tech start-ups on the 33-list of rising stars<p><b>​​Seven of the companies on the list of Sweden&#39;s top technology startups are connected to Chalmers University of Technology. Five of them have been started by Chalmers alumni.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The magazine Ny Teknik annually nominates Sweden's best, most innovative tech start-ups that can change the industries in which they operate and have a strong international potential. Out of about 300 nominees, 33 companies are chosen to the list – and seven of them are connected to Chalmers. </span><div><br /></div> <div>The companies with connections to Chalmers alumni are:</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Everdrone, which develops self-propelled drones that can help emergency services to save lives. The company is on the list for the second year in a row.</div> <div><a href="https://www.everdrone.com/">Read more about Everdrone</a> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Einride develops world-leading electrified and autonomous trucks. This year, the company has reached gold level because they are on the list for the third year in a row.</div> <div><a href="https://www.einride.tech/">Read more about Einride</a> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Annotell develops systems containing training data for machine learning. The company is on the list for the second year in a row.</div> <div><a href="https://www.annotell.com/">Read more about Annotell</a> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Freemelt has developed a 3D printer for metal with electron beam.</div> <div><a href="https://freemelt.com/">Read more about Freemelt </a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Aqua Robur Technologies develops IoT technology that measures leakage in water pipes. The company is also part of Chalmers Ventures.</div> <div><a href="https://www.aquarobur.se/">Read about Aqua Robur Technologies </a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Furthermore, three companies originate from the university incubator Chalmers Ventures, <a href="https://elypta.com/">Elypta</a> that develops technology for early cancer diagnoses and <a href="https://wp.zptcorp.com/">Zeropoint Technologies</a>, which makes hardware to reduce the need for, or increase the capacity of the computer's main memory.</div> <div><a href="https://www.chalmersventures.com/">Read more about Chalmers Ventures</a></div> <div><br /></div>Fri, 11 Sep 2020 14:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Mathematicians-awarded-for-their-impact-in-society.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Mathematicians-awarded-for-their-impact-in-society.aspx​Mathematicians awarded for their impact in society<p><b>​The transition to more sustainable and bio-based materials has been pushed forward with the help of a computer program developed by Chalmers researchers. The research group behind the software, called Gesualdo, are this year’s winners of the Chalmers Impact Award. The computer program is currently used by several companies.</b></p><div>“This award shows that the work we have done with Gesualdo has been important, both in society, at the companies involved and for Chalmers as a university”, says Tobias Gebäck, senior researcher at Chalmers University of Technology. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Gesualdo has been developed at the Department of Mathematical Sciences within the Sumo Biomaterials research center and in the Vinnova project Cosima.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“This year’s award clearly shows that mathematical sciences can make strong contributions to utilisation and innovation and that they have had a valuable collaboration with other Chalmers departments, Chalmers Innovation Office and Chalmers Industriteknik”, says Fredrik Hörstedt, Vice President of Utilisation at Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Simulations provide</span><span> increased understanding </span></h2> <div>One way to facilitate the transition to more bio-based materials is to use computer simulations. The problem Chalmers researchers tackled back in 2010 was that complicated material structures set high demands on the calculation software. That complexity could not be handled properly by the most popular commercial software in use at the time.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>With the help of Gesualdo, it is now possible to create simulations of transport processes in different materials, which provides the opportunity to study the properties of different materials at a very detailed level.</div> <div>“Now there are conditions to really understand different materials in depth and of course we hope that this means that the transition to more sustainable materials will be accelerated!” says Tobias Gebäck.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Developing materials with well-controlled properties is of great importance to for how the transport of molecules and liquids takes place, especially in the hygiene and pharmaceutical industry, the food sector and in the packaging industry.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A concrete example of when Gesualdo can be used is if you want to get a substance in a drug to spread more slowly from a tablet to the body. Other examples of products whose materials have been studied using Gesualdo are nappies, sanitary pads and food packaging.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Collaboration with industry partners - important and challenging </h2> <div>The development of Gesualdo has taken place in close collaboration with several industrial partners from different industry sectors.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“It’s a huge difference if you compare with research you do entirely on your own, with an academic problem in focus. The issues we’re handling in collaboration with the companies are of a more practical nature. These are current and real problems that need to be solved, they are not only interesting from a mathematical point of view”, says Tobias Gebäck. He thinks it is an extra exciting challenge to work in collaboration with the industry. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>​​“The calculations must not only pass a small test in a research environment, they have to work on a large scale, in a real material in a certain product. Therefore, I’m very proud to say that the computer program is used by all of our participating industry partners”.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Long-term perspective and cooperation are key factors </h2> <div>Industrial partners and Chalmers' innovation ecosystem have been deeply involved in Gesualdo for a long time. <span>Researchers from the departments of chemistry and physics have also played a major role in the project. Tobias Gebäck especially highlights the good collaborative culture at the research center Sumo Biomaterials. Like so many others, he also emphasises the importance of long-term perspective regarding both financing and collaborations. </span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Long-term perspective and successful collaborations have really been key factors in this process. This type of research may not always lead to scientific publications in mathematical journals, so it’s fun that the benefits we have created together are made visible through Chalmers impact award”. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The award highlights the importance of utilisation and was established in 2018 to draw attention to research that has made a great impact in society.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The award is important for Chalmers because it highlights a part of our business, to contribute to utilisation and innovation, which is increasingly sought after by research funders, partners, students and also within the Government Offices,” says Fredrik Hörstedt, Vice President of Utilisation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Julia Jansson</div> <div><strong>Collage:</strong> Yen Strandqvist</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div>Thu, 10 Sep 2020 14:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Areas-of-Advance-Award-for-wireless-centre-collaboration.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Areas-of-Advance-Award-for-wireless-centre-collaboration.aspxAreas of Advance Award for wireless centre collaboration<p><b>​Collaboration is the key to success. Jan Grahn and Erik Ström, who have merged two Chalmers competence centres, GigaHertz and ChaseOn, to form a consortium with 26 parties, know this for sure. Now they receive the Areas of Advance Award 2020 for their efforts.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">A competence centre is a platform for knowledge exchange and joint projects. Here, academia and external parties gather to create new knowledge and innovation. The projects are driven by need, and can be initiated from industry – who have a problem to solve – or from the research community, as new research results have generated solutions that may be applied in industry.</span><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Stronger as one unit</h2> <div>The competence centre GigaHertz focuses on electronics for high frequencies, while ChaseOn focuses on antenna systems and signal processing. They overlap in microwave technology research, which is relevant for communication and health care, as well as defense and space industry. And even if some areas differ between the two centres, numerous points of contact have been developed over the years. The two directors – Jan Grahn, Professor at Microtechnology and Nanoscience, and Erik Ström, Professor at Electrical Engineering – saw that close collaboration would result in obvious advantages. In 2017, the two centres therefore formed a joint consortium, bringing together a large number of national and international companies.</div> <div>“Formally, we are still two centres, but we have a joint agreement that makes it easy to work together”, says Erik Ström.</div> <div>“For Chalmers, it is a great strength that we are now able to see the whole picture, beyond departmental boundaries and research groups, and create a broad collaboration with the companies. This is an excellent example of how Chalmers can gather strength as one unit”, says Jan Grahn.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Multiplicity of applications</h2> <div>Technology for heat treatment of cancer, detection of foreign objects in baby food, antenna systems for increased traffic safety, components to improve Google’s quantum computer, 5G technology and amplifiers for the world’s largest radio telescope… The list of things that have sprung from the two competence centres is long. The technical development has, of course, been extreme; in 2007, as GigaHertz and ChaseOn were launched in their current forms, the Iphone hit the market for the very first time. Technology that today is seen as a natural part of everyday life – such as mobile broadband, now almost a necessity alongside electricity and water for most of us – was difficult to access or, at least, not to be taken for granted.</div> <div>The companies have also changed, which is noticeable in the flora of partners, not least for GigaHertz.</div> <div>“In the early 2000s, when our predecessor CHACH centre existed, the collaboration with Ericsson was dominant. Today, we collaborate with a much greater diversity of companies. We have seen an entrepreneurial revolution with many small companies, and even though the technology is basically the same, we are now dealing with a multiplicity of applications”, says Jan Grahn.</div> <div>As technology and applications developed and changed, the points of contact between the two centres grew, and this is also what initiated the merger:</div> <div>“When we started, in 2007, we were competing centres. The centres developed completely independently of each other, but have now grown into one. The technical convergence could not be ignored, we simply needed to start talking to each other across competence boundaries – which in the beginning was not so easy, even though today we view this as the obvious way forward”, says Erik Ström.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Research to benefit society</h2> <div>The knowledge centres are open organisations, where new partners join and collaborations may also come to an end. Several companies are sometimes involved together in one project. Trust and confidence are important components and take time to build. One ground-rule for activities is the focus on making research useful in society in the not too distant future.</div> <div>Chalmers Information and Communication Technology Area of Advance can take some of the credit for the successful collaboration between GigaHertz and ChaseOn, according to the awardees.</div> <div>“Contacts between centres were initiated when I was Director of the Area of Advance”, says Jan Grahn.</div> <div>“The Areas of Advance show that we can collaborate across departmental boundaries, they point to opportunities that exist when you work together.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">They believe in a bright future</h2> <div>The competence centres are partly financed by Vinnova, who has been nothing but positive about the merger of the two. Coordination means more research for the money; partly through synergy effects and partly by saving on costs in management and administration.</div> <div>The financed period for both GigaHertz and ChaseOn expires next year. But the two professors are positive, and above all point to the strong support from industry.</div> <div>“Then, of course, we need a governmental financier, or else we must revise the way we work. I hope that Vinnova gives us the opportunity to continue”, says Erik Ström.</div> <div>“The industry definitely wants a continuation. But they cannot, and should not, pay for everything. If they were to do so, we would get a completely different type of collaboration. The strength lies in sharing risks in the research activities by everyone contributing funds and, first and foremost, competence”, says Jan Grahn.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">“Incredibly fun”</h2> <div>Through their way of working, Erik Ström and Jan Grahn have succeeded in renewing and developing collaborations both within and outside Chalmers, attracting new companies and strengthening the position of Gothenburg as an international node for microwave technology. And it is in recognition of their dynamic and holistic leadership, that they now receive the Areas of Advance Award.</div> <div>“This is incredibly fun, and a credit for the entire centre operation, not just for us”, says Erik Ström.</div> <div>“Being a centre director is not always a bed of roses. Getting this award is a fantastic recognition, and we feel great hope for the future”, concludes Jan Grahn.<br /><br /><div><em>Text: Mia Malmstedt</em></div> <div><em>Photo: Yen Strandqvist</em></div> <br /></div> <div><strong>The Areas of Advance Award</strong></div> <div>With the Areas of Advance Award, Chalmers looks to reward employees who have made outstanding contributions in cross-border collaborations, and who, in the spirit of the Areas of Advance, integrate research, education and utilisation. The collaborations aim to strengthen Chalmers’ ability to meet the major global challenges for a sustainable development.<br /><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/centres/ghz/Pages/default.aspx">Read more about GigaHertz centre</a></div> <div><a href="/en/centres/chaseon/Pages/default.aspx">Read more about ChaseOn centre​</a></div> <div>​<br />Areas of Advance Award 2019: <a href="/en/news/Pages/Areas-of-Advance-Award-given-to-research-exploring-the-structure-of-proteins.aspx">Areas of Advance Award for exploring the structure of proteins​</a></div> Thu, 10 Sep 2020 08:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Mapping-the-future-for-feasible-climate-action.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Mapping-the-future-for-feasible-climate-action.aspxMapping the future for feasible climate action<p><b>Jessica Jewell, assistant professor in Energy Transitions at Chalmers University of Technology, has been awarded a 1.5€ million grant by the European Research Council for a project entitled MechANisms and actors of Feasible Energy Transitions (MANIFEST) which will run from 2021-2026. The project will advance our understanding of whether and under what conditions it is feasible to avoid dangerous climate change. – We know how to solve the climate change problem in mathematical models, but we need to understand how to solve it in the real world, says Jessica Jewell, at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment.​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Technologies needed to decarbonize the electricity system are already commercially available. And there are mathematical models of how these technologies can be deployed sufficiently fast and at a large enough scale to displace fossil fuels and meet climate targets. Yet there is no scientific method to evaluate whether these scenarios are feasible in the real world, given the socio-political and technological constraints in different countries and regions. </span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>The project MANIFEST will develop a new scientific understanding of the feasibility to decarbonize the electricity sector focusing on both launching low-carbon electricity in developing countries and sustaining the growth of renewable electricity already in place in front-runner countries.  </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Profilbilder/Jessica_Jewell_170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />We asked Jessica Jewell a few questions about the grant, the project MANIFEST and the greatest challenges to overcome for the electricity sector. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>How did it feel when you heard that you were to receive this grant? </strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– I was surprised and super excited. My research is really interdisciplinary which is typically pretty hard to get endorsed by scientific review panels. I also feel very grateful for everyone who helped me develop as a scientist: first at Central European University where I was a doctoral student, then at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis and the University of Bergen and now at Chalmers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>You describe the project MANIFEST as a &quot;shift in the thinking about the feasibility of climate change mitigation&quot;. Can you describe that change, and why a change is needed? </strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– We know how to solve the climate change problem in mathematical models, but we need to understand how to solve it in the real world. The main scholarly approach to assess whether something is feasible in the real world is to look at whether anything similar happened in the past. But for climate change this runs into a problem because both the challenge and what we need to do are unprecedented so there are no direct historical analogues. Thus, analysing the feasibility of successful climate change mitigation may scientifically seem to be at a dead end. I overcome this stalemate by looking at the past and ongoing climate actions through a particular social science lens called ‘causal mechanisms’. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– My hypothesis is that while a lot of things are changing (e.g. clean technologies are becoming cheaper, population and energy demand grow), the political, economic and social mechanisms that shape our capacity to act on climate are the same. By understanding these mechanisms through empirically observing the past I hope to be able to predict what is and is not possible to do in the future.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>One of the methods described in this project is called &quot;dynamic feasibility space&quot;. What does that entail, and how can you use that method in this project?</strong> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– A dynamic feasibility space is a tool I have developed to map empirical observations of past climate actions or energy transitions in order to tease out the underlying mechanisms shaping them. I’ve used this tool to map and understand the feasibility of rapid coal phase-out and in MANIFEST I want to similarly map and compare historical expansion of renewables to the expansion that countries plan in the future and that we need to see to reach the climate targets. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What do you see as the greatest obstacles to overcome, in the shift to a fossil free electricity system? </strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– I see two main obstacles. First is how to sustain high growth rates in technology front-runners, countries which already have viable renewable electricity sectors providing up to 40% of their electricity supply, such as Denmark and Germany. For these nations it is important to sustain high growth rates to reach even higher levels of use of renewables. For example, recently, the growth of onshore wind power in Germany has significantly slowed down, primarily because of the lack of available sites. We need to understand whether this obstacle is simply a bureaucratic complication of handling planning permits, or whether it reflects the deeper mechanism of increasing social resistance and conflicts over land use which would be more difficult to overcome.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– The second and bigger challenge is to figure out how to launch low-carbon electricity in developing countries, on what is called ‘the technology periphery’. Today the US and Europe with only 10% of the world’s population have 50% of global wind and solar power, but if we are to achieve climate targets, we need to deploy massive amounts of low-carbon technologies where the bulk of energy use in the 21st century will occur, i.e. in the Global South. This is a very different challenge because most of these countries do not yet have viable low-carbon electricity sectors (manufacturers of equipment, project developers and operators, functioning regulation and electricity markets) as in front-runners. How fast can all this knowledge, institutions, policies and business models diffuse from the front-runners (or emerge domestically) is a critical question, because only then can we expect the beginning of sustained growth of renewables.</div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More info on the ERC: ​</h3> <div>The European Research Council (ERC), supports excellence in research in EU member countries. The Council primarily does this by three major systems for research that fits within the EU's Seventh Framework Programme. ERC Starting Grants for outstanding scientists who are at the beginning of his career, ERC Consolidator Grant to support researchers at the stage at which they are consolidating their own independent research team or programme and ERC Advanced Grants that can be awarded to researchers who has established their own research groups.</div> <div><a href="/en/research/our-scientists/Pages/ERC-funded-scientists.aspx"><span style="background-color:initial">Read more about the ERC funded scientists</span><span style="background-color:initial"> at Chalmers</span>​</a><span style="background-color:initial">. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Text:</strong> Christian Löwhagen</span></div> </div>Thu, 03 Sep 2020 18:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/She-dives-into-complex-materials-in-a-new-way.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/She-dives-into-complex-materials-in-a-new-way.aspxShe dives into complex materials – in a new way<p><b>​​Is it possible to study the structure of a complex material without looking at it directly? The coming five years, Marianne Liebi will tackle that challenge together with colleagues at Chalmers and Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology. ​​​​​​</b></p><div>The basic idea is to study the material’s interactions with electromagnetic waves. The researchers will use both visible light and X-rays in their work.</div> <div>Marianne Liebi is an Adjunct Associate Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers and her new research programme “MUMOTT” recently received a prestigious starting grant of EUR 1,5 million from the European Research Council (ERC). </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“This will enable us to study and apprehend the structure of complex hierarchical materials, for example human bones and tissues, but also composite materials. With the new methodology we could, for example, solve critical problems in materials and bioscience and shed light on the disruptive collagen network in liver fibrosis, ”says Marianne Liebi.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In her research so far, she has studied how, for example, the smallest building blocks in bone tissue, collagen fibrils organize. <span style="background-color:initial">At Chalmers the doctoral student Leonard Nielsen will perform work within the MUMOTT project, in particular related to tensor tomography code development. At Empa the activities will be conducted at the Department of “Materials meet Life”, where Marianne Liebi is the Scientific Group leader of &quot;Hierarchical Systems&quot;, which is part of the Center for X-ray Analytics.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren,<a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se"> mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se​</a></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://erc.europa.eu/news/StG-recipients-2020"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release on the ERC Starting Grants 2020</a>  - for talented early-career scientists</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read an earlier news article about Marianne Liebi and her research:</div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Awarded-for-her-physics-research.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />“Awarded for her physics research”​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Abstract of Marianne Liebi’s project “MUMOTT”</h2> <div>&quot;Capture structures without looking at them directly, but rather by probing their interaction with electromagnetic waves - this is the basic principle for the new multi-modal tensor tomography developed in this research programme. It will enable to study the arrangement of nanostructures in macroscopic samples, six orders of magnitude larger than its building blocks, allowing to apprehend the structure of complex hierarchical materials. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">I will use visible light observing change in their polarization state as well as the scattering of hard X-rays to probe nanostructure. Both modes capture alignment of nanostructure, while complementary in other aspects e.g. high penetration depth of synchrotron radiation and easy accessibility of laboratory polarimetric setups.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><br /></div> <div>At the core of MUMOTT lays the development of the methodological framework implemented in an open-source software package allowing for the reconstruction of tensors in each sub-volume or voxel of the three-dimensional tomogram. Whereas in a first step I will work out a general approach, we will incorporate flexible modules to capture details of the different types of interaction. This approach includes method development pushing the boundaries of traditional synchrotron methods to make full use of the high brilliance and coherence of the new generation of synchrotrons coming online as well as the enabling of studies with lab-based equipment. It opens up for addressing new scientific problems by widening the range of materials as well as the user community. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Apart from the methodology framework we will implement the different modes to prove their capability to solve critical problems in materials and bio-science; to investigate the structure of light-weight composites based on cellulose nanofibrils, reveal how the arrangement of nanoparticles in a plasmonic composite is connected to its sensing capabilities, as well as shed light on the disruptive collagen network in liver fibrosis.&quot;</div>Thu, 03 Sep 2020 12:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-Chalmers-method-sheds-light-on-DNA-repair-.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-Chalmers-method-sheds-light-on-DNA-repair-.aspxNew Chalmers method sheds light on DNA-repair<p><b>​DNA-breaks can cause great damage to cells, which in turn can lead to cell death or diseases such as cancer. Using a novel method, researchers from Chalmers have now identified a new potential role for the protein CtIP, which is an important component in the process of repairing DNA-breaks in human cells.</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span>“CtIP has several functions in the repair of DNA-breaks. The new potential role that we have identified is important for understanding how our cells repair damages to the DNA. Better understanding of the DNA repair process can increase the understanding of how and why we suffer from certain diseases,” says <strong>Fredrik Westerlund</strong>, Professor of Chemical Biology.<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/ChemBio/FredrikWesterlund_340x400.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="width:300px;height:353px" /></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">​Damage to DNA occurs in all kinds of organisms, from bacteria to humans. If so-called double-strand breaks, where the two DNA strands have been torn apart, are not repaired correctly, there is a great risk of mutations in the genome. This can lead to cell death or the initiation of various diseases, such as cancer.</p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Therefore, all cells have developed different systems for repairing double stand breaks. Knowledge on how these systems work, and why the repair sometimes is incorrect, can provide increased knowledge on different diseases, and can further be used to develop new drugs.</p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p></p> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">CtIP important in the DNA-repair</h2> <div> </div> <p></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Previous research studies have shown that the protein complex MRN is an important component in the repair of double-strand breaks. It is also known that the protein CtIP, which is a cofactor of MRN, is important for several of the later stages in the repair process.</p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“Our recent study shows that CtIP is also involved in the first steps of the DNA-repair, where the free ends of the DNA-molecule are connected,” says Robin Öz, PhD-student at the Division of Chemical Biology and first author of the study, which was <a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/08/18/2008645117">recently published in PNAS</a>.</p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p></p> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​Free DNA-ends can be studied with new method </h2> <div> </div> <p></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The study was made possible by a new method developed in Fredrik Westerlund's research group at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering at Chalmers. The method, which is based on nanofluidics, enables the researchers to study individual DNA molecules using fluorescence microscopy. Freely suspended in solution, the DNA-molecules coils and form structures similar to balls of yarn. However, in the nanochannels, which are thin glass tubes, the long molecules are forced to stretch. </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“In most methods for studying single DNA-molecules the DNA is usually tethered at the ends. This means that proteins cannot bind there. Since we can study the free DNA-ends with our method, we can also study different processes that take place at the ends, for example when different proteins are added. This is unique and has allowed us to characterise this specific function of CtIP,” says Robin Öz.</p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p></p> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Repair mechanisms important to understanding diseases</h2> <div> </div> <p></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The project is a collaboration with Professor Petr Cejka at IRB in Bellinzona, Switzerland, a biochemist with expertise in DNA-damage repair. He has access to several cleverly designed variants of CtIP that have enabled the Chalmers’ researchers to determine which parts of the protein that are important for connecting the DNA ends. The protein looks very much like a dumbbell, where the two ends of the &quot;dumbbell&quot; allow two different strands of DNA to be held close together.</p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“Understanding the role of CtIP is a small step towards completely understanding DNA-repair. Knowledge on the repair mechanisms is important to, in the long run, be able to determine why certain diseases occur, such as several different types of cancer. Studies have shown, for example, that CtIP is almost non-existent in tumour cells in certain aggressive forms of breast cancer,” says Fredrik Westerlund.</p> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Next step​: Study MRN-involvement</h2> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The next step is to study whether, and how, CtIP interacts with MRN to hold DNA-ends together. It is known that CtIP helps MRN in several other stages of the DNA-repair, but no one has yet studied how they interact in this initial stage.</p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The study is part of Robin Öz's doctoral thesis, which will be defended on 20 November 2020 and is also the first study related to the ERC Consolidator Grant that Fredrik Westerlund received in 2019 for the project &quot;Next generation nanofluidics for single molecule analysis of DNA-repair Dynamics&quot;. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Text: </strong>Susanne Nilsson Lindh<br /><strong style="background-color:initial">Photo:</strong><span style="background-color:initial"> Marti</span><span style="background-color:initial">na Butorac and</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">Johan Bodell </span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="font-weight:700"><br /></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="font-weight:700">Read the study in PNAS:</span></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/04/1914670117"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/117/35/21403">Phosphorylated CtIP bridges DNA to promote annealing of broken ends​</a> </p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="font-weight:700">Read more about Fredrik Westerlund's research: </span></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/04/1914670117"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/ERC-grant-for-next-generation-DNA-repair-analysis.aspx">ERC-grant for next generation DNA-repair analysis</a> </p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial"></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/04/1914670117"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/His-methods-can-lead-to-better-cancer-treatment.aspx">His methods can lead to better cancer treatment​</a></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> ​Thu, 03 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Giant-atoms-merge-quantum-processing-and-communication.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Giant-atoms-merge-quantum-processing-and-communication.aspxGiant atoms merge quantum processing and communication<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden and MIT in the US, among others, have demonstrated a new quantum-computing architecture that makes it possible to both perform quantum computations and communicate quantum information between distant parts of the quantum processor, all with low losses. The results were recently published in the renowned scientific journal Nature.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/anton_IMG_8889_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Anton Frisk Kockum." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />&quot;We showed that quantum bits can communicate through a waveguide without the quantum information being lost&quot;, says Anton Frisk Kockum (to the right), researcher at the Applied Quantum Physics Laboratory at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, at Chalmers, and one of the authors of the article.<br /><br />A challenge for scaling up quantum computers is to enable communication between quantum bits (qubits) that are far apart. Coupling qubits to a long waveguide is usually detrimental, since it provides a channel through which quantum information can leak out. The solution the researchers found was to use “giant atoms”, a new regime of light-matter interactions.<br /><br />“Natural atoms are usually much smaller than the wavelength of the light they interact with. However, an experiment in the group of Professor Per Delsing at Chalmers in 2014 showed that an artificial atom made from superconducting circuits can connect to a waveguide at multiple points spaced wavelengths apart. When calculating how two such giant atoms would behave, we found that interference effects due to emission from the multiple coupling points could prevent the atoms from decaying into the waveguide, but still allow them to talk to each other via the waveguide. This was now demonstrated in the experiment carried out at MIT”, explains Anton Frisk Kockum.<br /><br />The researchers used the interference effects of the giant atoms to demonstrate both that the individual atoms could be protected from losing quantum information into the waveguide and that the two atoms could be entangled, with 94% fidelity, through their protected interaction via the waveguide. <br /><br />This is the first time that anyone has even reported a number for the fidelity of a two-qubit operation with qubits strongly coupled to a waveguide, since the fidelity for such an operation would be low if the qubits were not giant. The ability to perform high-fidelity quantum-computing operations on qubits coupled to a waveguide creates exciting new opportunities. <br />“It is now possible to prepare a complex quantum state in the qubits, and then quickly adjust the interference effect in the giant atoms to turn on the coupling to the waveguide and emit this quantum state as photons that can travel a long distance”, says Anton Frisk Kockum.<br /><br />The study is a collaboration between scientists from Chalmers (the theoretical part), MIT, and the research institution RIKEN in Japan. From Chalmers, Anton Frisk Kockum contributed.<br /><br />The work was partly supported by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and The Swedish Research Council. The experiments were performed at the Research Laboratory for Electronics at MIT.<br /><br />Photo of Anton Frisk Kockum: Michael Nystås<br />Illustration: Philip Krantz, Krantz NanoArt<br /><br /><strong>Contact:</strong><br />Anton Frisk Kockum, Researcher, Applied Quantum Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, anton.frisk.kockum@chalmers.se<br /><br /><strong>Read the article in Nature &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /><a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2529-9">Waveguide quantum electrodynamics with superconducting giant artificial atoms</a><br /><br /><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=9216">Read more about the research project</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<br /><br /><strong>Further reading &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /><a href="https://science.sciencemag.org/content/346/6206/207">Propagating phonons coupled to an artificial atom</a>. Gustafsson et al., Science 346, 207 (2014)<br /><a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.140404">Decoherence-Free Interaction between Giant Atoms in Waveguide Quantum Electrodynamics</a>. Kockum et al., Physical Review Letters 120, 140404 (2018)<br /><br /><a href="https://news.mit.edu/2020/giant-atoms-quantum-processing-communication-0729">Press release from MIT</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;Wed, 02 Sep 2020 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/ict/news/Pages/AI-researchers-address-the-question-how-does-it-work.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/ict/news/Pages/AI-researchers-address-the-question-how-does-it-work.aspxAI researchers address the question – how does it work?<p><b>​Researchers around the world are focusing on the task of finding a theoretical framework that can explain how deep learning works in practice. Professor Giuseppe Durisi at Chalmers has accepted the challenge.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">We have become used to computers that can be trained to accomplish intelligent tasks such as image and speech recognition and natural language processing. To explain how this training is performed, we can compare it to how a child learns. For example, a child needs to see a certain number of cats in order to build the general knowledge 'cat'.</span><div><br /></div> <div>Deep neural networks are trained in a similar manner. We feed them with example, which are used to adjust the parameters of the network, until the network delivers correct answers. When the network provides correct answers even when faced with new examples, that is, examples that were not used in the training phase, we know that it has acquired some general knowledge.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Deep neural networks have achieved sensational results, but there is one fundamental problem that concerns researchers and experts. We see that they work, but we do not fully understand why. A common criticism is that deep learning algorithms are used as &quot;a black box&quot; – which is unacceptable for all applications that require guaranteed performance, such as traffic safety applications.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>”Right now, we lack the tools to describe why deep neural networks perform so well”, says Giuseppe Durisi, professor of Information Theory.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Here is one of the mysteries about deep neural networks. According to established results in learning theory, we would expect deep neural networks to perform poorly when trained with the amount of data that is typically used.  But practice shows that this is perfectly fine.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>”It is even the case that if you make the network more complex – which according to established knowledge would impair its ability to generalize, the performance will sometimes improve.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>There is no theoretically based explanation for why this occurs, but Giuseppe Durisi speculates with another analogy with human learning.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>”In order to reach a deeper understanding and thus the ability to generalize based on a large number of examples, we are required to overlook, or forget, a certain amount of details that are not important. Somehow, deep neural networks learn which part of the data is worth memorizing and which part can be ignored.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Many research groups around the world are now working hard to come up with a theory explaining how and why deep neural networks work. In connection with a major international conference in July this year, a competition was announced to see which research team can come up with theoretical bounds able to predict the performance of deep neural networks.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> Tools from many different research fields can be used to establish such a theory. Giuseppe Durisi hopes that information theory can be the right one.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Yes, information theory is my area of expertise, but it remains to be seen if we will succeed. That is how research works – and it is really exciting to apply the theory I am familiar with to address the completely novel challenge of understanding deep neural networks. It will keep us busy for a while.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Giuseppe Durisi has several research projects under way and collaborates with colleagues in other fields. Within the Chalmers AI Research Centre, he collaborates with Fredrik Hellström, Fredrik Kahl and Christopher Zach, and in a WASP project, Giuseppe Durisi and Rebecka Jörnsten from Mathematical Sciences have recently recruited a doctoral student, Selma Tabakovic, who will work on this problem.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>When Giuseppe Durisi reflects on the future, he sees that a greater understanding of deep learning can contribute with additional benefits – besides providing guaranteed performance in safety critical systems.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>”With a theoretical understanding of how deep learning works, we could build smaller, more compact, and energy-efficient networks that may be suitable for applications such as Internet-of-Things. It would contribute to increase the sustainability of such a technology.” </div> <div><br /> </div> <div><br /> </div> <div> </div> <div><div>Research projects</div> <div><strong>INNER: information theory of deep neural networks</strong></div> <div>Fredrik Hellström, Giuseppe Durisi and Fredrik Kahl</div> <div>Chalmers AI Research Centre (CHAIR)</div> <div><br /> </div> <div><strong>Generalization bounds of Deep Neural Networks: Insight and Design</strong></div> <div>Selma Tabakovic, Rebecka Jörnsten and Giuseppe Durisi</div> <div>Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP)​</div></div> <div><br /> </div> <div><br /> </div> <div><br /> </div> <div>A deep neural network is a computer program that learns on its own. It is called &quot;neural network&quot; because its structure is inspired by the neural network that forms the human brain. Deep learning is a machine learning method, and part of what we call artificial intelligence. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div><strong>Illustration above:</strong> A deep neural network is fed with training data (in this case images) and the learning algorithms interpret the images through a number of layers – for each layer the degree of abstraction increases. Once the network has learned to identify combinations of patterns in the image – the system is able to distinguish a dog from a cat even on completely new images that were not included in the training material. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div><br /> </div> <div><br /> </div> <div></div>Tue, 01 Sep 2020 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/New-understanding-of-how-magnetic-fields-evolved-in-the-early-universe-.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/New-understanding-of-how-magnetic-fields-evolved-in-the-early-universe-.aspxThey shed light on how magnetic fields evolved in the early universe<p><b>​​The evolution of the magnetic fields in the universe is a major open question, as they have a profound effect on the formation of stars and galaxies, and on cosmic particle acceleration. Recently published results shed new ligth on the time before the universe became significantly magnetized.</b></p><div><div><span style="background-color:initial">István Pusztai at the Department of Physics at </span><span style="background-color:initial">Ch</span><span style="background-color:initial">almers </span><span style="background-color:initial">is the first author of the  paper, recently published in Physical Review Letters. </span><span style="background-color:initial">Together with PhD student Andréas Sundström and colleagues in Stockholm and in the US, he </span><span style="background-color:initial">has shed new light on the evolution of magnetic fields in the early universe. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers have studied the top candidate mechanism to generate magnetic fields permeating the universe – the dynamo <span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> applying a more accurate description of ionized matter than ever in this context. </span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Divisions/Subatomic%20and%20Plasma%20Physics/Personnel/istvan_cropped-1.png" alt="Researcher István Pusztai" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px;height:129px;width:100px" /></div> <div>​<br />&quot;Our new results suggest that the dynamo might have been less effective before the universe became significantly magnetized. This, in turn, can impact how galaxies are formed and galaxy clusters evolved.” says Senior Research Scientist István Pusztai.<br /></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on the scientific paper.</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The paper </span><a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.255102">Dynamo in Weakly Collisional Nonmagnetized Plasmas Impeded by Landau Damping of Magnetic Fields</a><span style="background-color:initial"> has been published in Physical Review Letters. </span><br /></div> <div> <div>The article is written by István Pusztai, James Juno, Axel Brandenburg, Jason M. TenBarge, Ammar Hakim, Manaure Francisquez, and Andréas Sundström. </div></div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">For more information, contact: </h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Istvan-Pusztai.aspx">István Pusztai, </a></span><span style="background-color:initial">Senior Research Scientist</span><span style="background-color:initial">​, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Department of Physics, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Ch</span><span style="background-color:initial">almers University of Technology,</span><a href="mailto:%20pusztai@chalmers.se"><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">pusztai@chalmers.se</span>​</a><span style="background-color:initial">, +46 31 772 32 36 </span></div>Tue, 01 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0200