1. Background and Organization Framework
The graduate school of Applied Acoustics originate in NINA (Nordic Institute of Acoustics), a collaborative project of three leading acoustics research groups in the North. NINA started 2004, and the partners were:
- Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory for Sound and Vibration Research, KTH and
- Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers.
The goal of NINA is mutual support of the education on the Master's and PhD student levels (see Ref. nr. C2005/144).
The Directors of Graduate Studies in the respective organisation, for example the Director of Graduate Studies at Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, handle the overarching administration of the PhD programmes.
2 Subject description and goals at the programme
Acoustics has developed to a separate discipline over the years with a strong interdisciplinary research community that involves, amongst others, physics, mechanical engineering, fluid dynamics and thermodynamics, signal processing, psychology, and medicine. The Acoustical Society of America (ASA) defines the subdomains in acoustics through the “Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme (PACS)” as:
Standards; General linear acoustics; Nonlinear acoustics; Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound; Underwater sound; Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound; Transduction, acoustical devices for the gene-ration and reproduction of sound; Structural acoustics and vibration; Noise: its effects and control; Architectural acoustics; Acoustical measurements and instrumentation; Acoustic signal processing; Physiological acoustics; Psychological acoustics; Speech production; Speech perception; Speech processing and communication systems; Music and musical instruments; Bioacoustics.
(Bold face font indicates subdomains in which the partners in NINA are not active and that are not covered by any current courses at Master's or PhD level.)
Above subdomains represent the scientific scope of the Applied Acoustics graduate school.
The interdisciplinary character of acoustics attracts PhD students from diverse degree programmes (at Chalmers, for example, from V, M, E, F).
The Applied Acoustics graduate school should be in a position to provide, on an internationally competitive level, both general and broad-based knowledge in and surrounding the scientific field selected and which offers a high level of expertise within the subject specialisation dealt with in the thesis.
2.2 Programme objectives
The graduate programme is aimed mainly at a PhD degree. There is, however, the possibility within the framework of the graduate programme to take a licentiate degree, either as part of a PhD or as a final examination.
- The main objectives of the graduate programme are to provide:
- good knowledge in a broad area around the chosen subject specialisation.
- familiarity with the scientific literature within the chosen subject specialisation.
- an independent, critical, problem-oriented approach.
- training in scientific methodology and reporting.
- a good capacity to identify, formulate, process and solve technical and scientific problems.
Other key objectives are to develop the capacity to
- plan and lead technical research and development.
- plan and lead engineering work, where scientific education and research experience are required or can be used beneficially.
In order to achieve the established objectives, training needs to be given in order to develop the capacity for scientific communication, i.e.
- to discuss scientific problems with research colleagues in and outside the country.
- to disseminate pedagogically written and verbal knowledge about one's own research area, as well as its results and potential, to both colleagues and the general public.
- to also find scientific results in the literature outside one's own subject specialisation which are relevant to the stated problem.
This overall description of the purpose of the graduate programme also applies generally to the licentiate programme. However, the licentiate degree does not have the same breadth nor the same depth as the PhD programme. Nor are the demands for independence in this scientific work as strong.
3 Requirements for admission
Generally, for admission onto the PhD programme the applicant should have a basic university education comprising at least 180 higher education credits (according to the Swedish education system). The orientation of the applicant's degree should also be linked sufficiently to the PhD subject. In addition to this minimum requirement, there are also special prior knowledge requirements for the subject.
To be admitted to the Civil and Environmental Engineering graduate school the following is required:
- Completion of a general, local or individual undergraduate programme. The university programme should comprise at least 180 higher education credits, which is supplemented by a further 60 higher education credits within the graduate school's subject specialisations. The university studies should have been completed satisfactorily.
- Civilingenjörs-degree or Master's degree with proficiency in the subject of the graduate school. Civilingenjörs-degree or Master's degree from a different programme or different relevant Swedish or foreign education can comply with the requirements for adminssion.
The applicants should be qualified in generally terms to successfully complete graduate education.
Applicants with a foreign first degree the same knowledge requirements apply as for those with a Swedish first degree although applicants from abroad who do not have English or a Scandinavian language as a first language should also normally take an English language test (e.g. TOEFL 550 (paper-based or TOEFL 213 (computer-based) to be admitted.
Those who do not satisfy the admission requirements in the syllabus can be admitted through a special admission procedure, in consultation with the subject specialisation examiner, involving course supplements. The head of department shall then approve the supplementary course package. When these courses have been approved the prospective graduate student is admitted.
4 The plan of the graduate programme
At the Applied Acoustics graduate school both a licentiate degree or a PhD degree can be obtained. Completion of a course programme and an independent scientific project is required for both these degrees.
The graduate student is assigned an examiner, a main supervisor and at least one assistant supervisor. An examiner could also have the role of supervisor.
Together, the main supervisor and the graduate student prepare an individual syllabus, which shall be approved by the examiner. The individual syllabus comprises a list of courses and a plan for the research work. The syllabus shall then be updated at least twice a year.
For the licentiate degree the course element in the programme comprises at least 45 higher education credits. For the PhD degree at least a 60-point course element is required. Subject-specific courses are run by the graduate school and other departments/graduate schools at Chalmers although there are also national and international courses. The graduate student and an examiner will together agree on which courses will be included in the degree.
5.1 Compulsory courses
Generic and Transferable skills (GTS) aims to give doctoral students at Chalmers professional and individual development, and is a program of activities/courses not directly linked to the respective areas of research. The graduate student is required to take at least 15 credit points out of the GTS program before receiving a PhD degree. Chalmers offers a range of activities/courses as part of the program. 9 credit points in the area of GTS are expected to be obtained before the licentiate degree examination. Another 6 credit points are expected to be obtained before PhD degree examination. Mandatory courses for the licentiate degree are: "Teaching, Learning & Evaluation”, ”Research Ethics & Sustainable Development” and ”Career planning – Your Personal Leadership”. 1,5 credit points are optional (from GTS activities/courses). The 6 credit points after licentiate degree are also optional and selected according to the student´s need.
The optional activities within GTS do not necessarily have to be taken from Chalmers’ central activities or courses. The activities can be obtained from other providers, after suggestion from the examiner or supervisor, and approval by the deputy head of department in consultation with the director of studies of the research school. As an example, GTS could include related activities or courses given at the department.
In addition to the courses within Generic and Transferable Skills, the student is also required to participate in the introduction day for doctoral students (before the licentiate examination, at latest). Further requirements are an oral popular science presentation to be performed prior to the PhD thesis defence and a written popular science presentation to be published on the back of the PhD thesis.
The 15 credit points in GTS are mandatory for doctoral students admitted after 2012-09-01.
Joint of the graduate school:
One block (15 credits) of basic courses in the subject
If a graduate student also belongs to another graduate school other courses could be compulsory.
5.2 Elective courses
The elective courses are usually chosen in view of the content of the research task. These include courses from the Master's education at Chalmers.
Every second year, the department offers a study trip (equivalent to 1,5 higher education credits).
The partners in NINA offer at this point the following courses in the PhD education and the Master's education (a selection of courses that are considered appropriate):
- Theoretical Acoustics, 7,5-15 credits
- Statistical energy analysis, 7,5 credits
- Non-linear Vibrations, 7,5 credits
- Aero-acoustics, 7,5 credits
- Ultrasonics, 7,5 credits
- Roomacoustics, 7,5 credits
- Numerical methods in acoustics, 7,5 credits
- Signal processing in acoustics, 7,5 credits
- Marin acoustics, 7,5-15 credits
- Active noise control, 7,5 credits
- Structure-borne sound, 7,5 credits
Graduate courses run at other graduate schools or departments could be included in the coursework.
5.3 Crediting of courses
Relevant courses from Master's programmes can be credited in the graduate programme. A maximum of 30 higher education credits in the graduate programme can be collected before the graduate studies have commenced within the framework of a completed degree programme. This applies to graduate students who are admitted with at least 300 higher education credits from their Master's degree or equivalent. Graduate students who are admitted with a 240-270 point first degree may not be credited with any higher education credits from the first degree.
6 Degree thesis
6.1 Licentiate thesis
The licentiate thesis shall be of such quality that (following possible editing) it can be accepted for publication in an international scientific journal of good repute. The thesis shall be written in English. A special expert discussion initiator shall be summoned to the publicly announced licentiate seminar.
6.2 Doctoral thesis
The PhD thesis can be a composite thesis comprising a summary and a number of articles (normally 3-5) of such quality that they have been accepted, or can be expected to be accepted, for publication in an international scientific journal of good repute. Examined conference articles can also be included in the thesis. Alternatively, the thesis could be a monograph with the equivalent quality requirements. The thesis shall be written in English.
7 Requirements for degrees
7.1 Licentiate degree
The licentiate degree comprises two years of full-time study, equivalent to a total of 120 higher education credits. Of this, the course element shall comprise at least 45 higher education credits, including all compulsory courses, and the scientific work at least 60 higher education credits. The relationship in extent between the course element and the scientific element can thus vary between 45/75 and 60/60.
7.2 PhD degree
The PhD degree comprises four years of full-time study, equivalent to a total of 240 higher education credits. Of this, the course element shall comprise at least 60 higher education credits, including all compulsory courses, and the scientific element at least 150 higher education credits. The relationship in extent between the course element and the scientific element can thus vary between 60/180 and 90/150.
The relationship in extent between the course element and the scientific element is decided from case to case in consultation with the examiner.
Supervision comprises general advice and constructive critical examination of the research and its results. The supervision also includes general advice regarding the organisation and arrangement of the studies and instructions for specific courses.
The head of department appoints one or several examiners for each subject specialization. Examiners are appointed for a period of five years. Professors and other persons on the associate professor level who are permanently linked to Chalmers can be appointed as examiners.
An examiner has overall responsibility for the graduate programme in a subject specialization and shall ensure that the graduate programme satisfies the quality demands with regard to research tasks and other elements. An examiner decides when 50% of the graduate programme has been completed and the graduate student has thus reached the so-called licentiate level.
An examiner shall approve the individual syllabus and be involved in study follow-up. An examiner shall also examine the licentiate essay or PhD thesis in advance. The examiner approves, following consultation with the main supervisor, a licentiate thesis and its presentation.
The head of department states which main supervisors shall be available for each subject specialisation. The main supervisor shall be on the associate professor level and be linked to Chalmers.
The main supervisor and the graduate student shall together draw up the individual syllabus. The main supervisor is responsible for ensuring that the graduate student receives sufficient qualified supervision to follow the syllabus.
In conjunction with admission of the graduate student, an assistant supervisor is appointed by the head of department to assist with agreed advice and follow-up of the PhD work.
If the thesis is carried out in industry or at another organisation outside Chalmers University of Technology, an assistant supervisor shall be appointed at the research location where the work is done.
According to the above, an examiner can also have the role of supervisor.