News: Global related to Chalmers University of TechnologyThu, 27 Feb 2020 12:59:12 +0100 000 school students will become Star Hunters<p><b>​Help a Scientist is an annual project under the auspices of the Nobel Prize Museum that brings together scientists, students and teachers. The Star Hunt is the tenth project, and it is about space and to identify stars together with three scientists based at Chalmers.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Star-hunt-Giuliana_Ruben_Jonathan.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The project &quot;the Star Hunt&quot; and astronomers Giuliana Cosentino, Rubén Fedriani and Jonathan Tan at Chalmers' Department of Space, Earth and Environment have been selected for the 2020 Help a Scientist program, run by the Nobel Prize Museum. In this, the 10th edition of the Help a Scientist program, about 1 000 participating Swedish school students from about 30 schools will be the first Star Hunters as this is the first space-astronomy project offered by the program. <div><br /></div> <div><div>In the project The Star Hunt the astronomers need help finding new stars that are being born from dusty interstellar clouds in our galaxy.<br /></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– We have a lot of knowledge about space and the stars in our galaxy, but there are still a lot of mysteries surrounding the birth of new stars. In this project we need the students to help us understand where stars come from, the origin of stars in our galaxy - oncluding our own Sun. This way we will also learn about or own origins, says Jonathan Tan. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Students will analyse images taken in a variety of wavelengths of light, from radio to x-ray, by telescopes on the  ground, in the air and in space. The scientists will provide a background to the research and instructions for  analysis of the images. <span style="background-color:initial">Each team of students will explore their  own regions of the galaxy targeting particular interstellar clouds. </span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"> – This project is a great opportunity for us. When working with kids we usually focus on them learning while having fun, but in this case the main goal is that they actually will discover new things that are useful for us in our research, says Rubén Fedriani.<br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="">Read more about the Star Hunt on the Nobel Prize Museum website​</a>. </span></div> ​Wed, 26 Feb 2020 10:00:00 +0100 Engineering student aims for the European Championships<p><b>​​With an aptitude to prioritise, plan and puzzle, eventing rider Vendela Eriksdotter Rubin solves life as student at Chalmers, elite rider, entrepreneur and horse owner. Now she is competing to qualify for the Senior European Championships in France 2021.</b></p><p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Vendela Eriksdotter Rubin is 20 years old. She raises and trains horses, runs her own company and aims for a career as an elite rider – in both dressage and eventing riding (although she has just taken a break from larger competitions in dressage). In addition, she is studying for her degree at Chalmers University of Technology. As an elite athlete, she can study with support from the Swedish National Sports University, and with the ability to study at half speed and be a bit more flexible in the courses. But she still keeps busy and must carefully manage her time.</span></p> <p>“It's all about valuating my time – prioritising and setting boundaries. I can't participate in every little thing I could do. I need to choose the things I believe will get me to the top. It’s those things I have to prioritise,” she says.</p> <p>Vendela Eriksdotter Rubin has learned to manage and plan her time since high school which she studied on distance. After high school, she had a sabbatical to fully focus on starting a business and becoming an elite rider.</p> <p>“Even though my days were packed with physical work, I quickly got mentally restless. I really felt I wanted to start studying, just to stimulate my brain,” she says.</p> <p>She applied and got into Chemical Engineering with Physics at Chalmers.</p> <p>“During the first course, I thought ‘what have I done, I’ll never make it!’ In addition, my best horse became ill and died, just as I had a big exam coming up. But even though I didn't think it was possible, I passed the exam! Things like that raise your confidence and give a feeling that you can do more than you think,” says Vendela Eriksdotter Rubin.</p> <p><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Student counsellor helps </strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>draw the road map</strong></span><br /></p> <p>“As a National Sports University student, I am responsible to do all the courses in my programme, but I get more flexibility and mobility within the courses. And each semester, I put together a plan with my study counselor, which I start from,” she says.</p> <p>Vendela Eriksdotter Rubin has chosen to attend class 2–3 days a week, as she commutes to Chalmers from the farm outside Varberg. The rest of her time is spent managing both the family's and sometimes others' horses, training for both herself and the horses and travelling to competitions.</p> <p>From February to March 2020, she is competing in the Barroca International Horse Trials in Portugal with the aim to qualify for Senior European Championships in France 2021.</p> <p>“I’m riding the younger of my horses in that competition,” she says.</p> <p>At the moment, she has five horses of her own that are mostly allowed to go loose, in a flock in a large pasture outdoors.</p> <p>“It is quite unusual among elite competition and breeding horses, because there is a slightly increased risk of acute injury. But for me it is all about ethics. I want to be able to look my horse in the eyes. After a competition I let it run free with its friends for a few weeks. Sometimes I even take its shoes off. After a while, the horse comes up to me and I can tell that it is hungry for training again. It is a heartwarming feeling,” she says.</p> <p><strong>Many opportunities as engineer</strong></p> <p>If she continues to study at half-speed, she will take her degree in 2028. Today she does not know exactly what she wants to work with, but it will surely be in the area of equestrian sports and horses. And she can see many opportunities with her degree.</p> <p>“I want to get away from the tradition in the horse world, that you have to muck your way to a career. It is so unnecessary with all the new technologies and new innovations just waiting to be used and developed. Not least when building new stables,” says Vendela Eriksdotter Rubin.</p> <p>“But it still is hard for the body to work with horses for a whole lifetime, and that is why I want a good education to fall back on. I believe I’m getting that at Chalmers.”</p> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Helena Österling af Wåhlberg</div>Wed, 26 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0100 has scaled up AI, autonomous systems and software at Chalmers<p><b>​WASP Chair Sara Mazur and KAW Chair Peter Wallenberg visited Chalmers to gain insight into the activities. The large research program has scaled up the research at several of Chalmers departments.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">During the visit, Sara Mazur and Peter Wallenberg met Chalmers’ WASP researchers and learned about how the programme has developed at the university. They first met three of the research leaders that Chalmers has recruited with funding from WASP.</span><div><br /></div> <div>Professor Ross D. King has been recruited from the University of Manchester. He aims to make science more efficient with the aid of artificial intelligence (AI). At the Department of Biology and Biotechnology, he will continue his work with a &quot;Robot Scientist&quot;. The focus is to understand how cells work - a research area that is so complex that human scientists struggle, and where robotic help is needed.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Christopher Zach, joining recently from Toshiba's research lab in Cambridge, is now a Research Professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering, and Fredrik Johansson, with a postdoc from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is now an Assistant Professor at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Christopher's research topic is computer vision and image understanding, and Fredrik's research area is machine learning with a focus on medical applications. With mathematical theory and modelling as a scientific basis, the goal is to develop tools to be used as decision support in autonomous systems and health care. Is it possible to design a system with an ability to reason its way to a correct conclusion?</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Artificial intelligence offers very promising support in radiology, to identify tumours and other abnormalities in tomography or X-ray images. But work remains to be done to make the systems robust to changes in personnel, equipment and patient groups,” says Fredrik Johansson.</div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">WASP projects at five departments</h2> <div>The WASP program has scaled up the research in AI, autonomous systems and software at Chalmers. Since the start in 2018, approximately 50 PhD students and postdocs have been recruited and further recruitments are planned. The initiative is particularly noticeable at the Department of Mathematical Sciences, according to Daniel Persson, Assistant Professor and supervisor in the WASP program.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Mathematics for AI has increased at the department, not least the collaboration between research groups and with industry. A total of 14 research projects within AI are ongoing at the department today – thanks in large part to the fact that our researchers have been successful in obtaining grants from WASP,” says Daniel Persson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Chalmers Vice President for Research and Doctoral Education Anders Palmqvist is very pleased with how WASP has spread across the university departments.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We have ongoing WASP projects at five different departments. Chalmers has a strategic ambition to work across departments through its Areas of Advance, and Chalmers' initial work to mobilise for the launch of WASP was handled in collaboration with the Information and Communication Technology Area of Advance,” says Anders Palmqvist.</div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Successful graduate school</h2> <div>In addition to research projects and strategic recruitments, WASP also runs a graduate school for PhD students with a range of joint courses and network meetings. Christian Berger, from the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, was involved in building up the graduate school.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The courses and network meetings, both nationally and internationally, offer great value to the PhD students. It was a challenge to develop an educational programme adapted to students from many disciplines, but what we have achieved broadens the students’ expertise and gives them an ability to communicate their research between the disciplines – which is not always easy,” says Christian Berger.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>During their visit to Chalmers, Sara Mazur and Peter Wallenberg also visited Chalmers Biomechatronics and Neurorehabilitation Lab. Director Max Ortiz Catalan demonstrated two types of research projects with assistance from two patients.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>About WASP</strong></div> <div>The Wallenberg Artificial Intelligence, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP) is a major national initiative for strategically motivated basic research, education and faculty recruitment in artificial intelligence, autonomous systems and software development, funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation together with the partner universities and participating industry. The starting point for WASP is the combined existing world-leading competence in Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering, and Computer Science at Sweden’s five major ICT universities: Chalmers University of Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Linköping University, Lund University and Umeå University. Research projects are also conducted at Uppsala University and Örebro University.</div> <div>The aim is to strengthen, expand, and renew the national competence through new strategic recruitments, a challenging research program, a national graduate school, and collaboration with industry.</div> <div><a href=""></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>At Chalmers, there is an established collaboration between WASP and Chalmers AI Research Centre, CHAIR, to ensure good synergy.</div> <div><a href="/en/centres/chair/Pages/default.aspx"></a></div> Tue, 25 Feb 2020 17:00:00 +0100 methods can lead to better cancer treatment<p><b>​Fredrik Westerlund, Professor of Chemical Biology at Chalmers, has been awarded two grants from the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation to develop methods for individualised cancer treatment and efficient cancer diagnosis.</b></p>One of the grants is a project grant in collaboration with physicians at Sahlgrenska University Hospital. The long-term aim of the project is to individualise chemotherapy to decrease suffering, increase treatment efficiency and decrease long-term side effects for patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment. <div><br /><div><span style="background-color:initial">“There is a great need for research in this field. The cancer survival rate increases, but many patients suffer from permanent injuries from the treatments, and children are the most vulnerable patients,” says Fredrik Westerlund, Head of Division Chemical Biology at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology. </span><div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Different reactions to the same dose of chemotherapy​</h2> <div>The most common drugs used for chemotherapy treatments of childhood cancers kill the cancer cells by damaging their DNA. But, in the process the DNA in healthy cells is also damaged. The drugs need to kill the tumour, but there must be a balance to make sure the damages in the normal cells are minimised. This is complicated since people react differently to the same dose of chemotherapy. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“All cells have mechanisms to repair damaged DNA, since DNA in the cells can break for various reasons. Some individuals have genetic variations, and the enzymes involved in the DNA-repair might not work properly. In these individuals a “normal” dose of drugs used for chemotherapy might cause extra damage to healthy cells,” says Fredrik Westerlund. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Blood sample will detect hypersensitivity</span><span>​</span></h2> <div>By using nature’s own systems for DNA-repair the researchers will use the new method to quantify DNA-damage. The long-term aim is that a blood sample from cancer patients will detect individuals that are hypersensitive to cytostatic drugs in an early stage of treatment, to be able to adjust the dosage before too much damage is done. In this way families with genetic defects could also be detected, and if needed, have individualised future cancer treatments. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Every DNA-break is counted one by one using a fluorescence microscope, but in the future the method should enable easier handling of samples in clinical practise. The physicians at Sahlgrenska University Hospital are already working with adaption of other methods for clinical use, which should be of great use for this project as well. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Our method is a development of a project we started in 2016, funded by the Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation. We believe that we have found a way to decrease suffering for patients in the future,” says Fredrik Westerlund. </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​Diagnosis of acute leukaemia</h2></div> <div>The other project, also a collaboration with a research group at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, is method development for diagnosis of acute leukaemia. Several types of leukaemia are caused by large fragments of DNA being shifted from one chromosome to another. This leads to the production of proteins that should not be present in normal cells, which then can transform into cancer cells. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The method, still in an early stage of development, will be used to find the location of the DNA break. This resembles the classic problem to look for a needle in a haystack, since the human genome consists of billions of bases and only one single DNA break is of interest. To find the exact position of the damage is crucial since the treatment differs for different breaks. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>​Important to treat leukaemia </span><span>at</span><span> an ea</span><span>rly</span><span> stage</span><span>​</span></h2> <div>Fredrik Westerlund has been working on a method for mapping DNA for a long time, but with focus on bacterial DNA. In this project human DNA will be studied. Two strategies will be used. One where huge amounts of DNA are mapped to find “the needle”, and another for isolation of only the “needle” of interest. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Leukaemia is one of the cancers where early treatment is of great importance. We believe that this method will we be relatively quick for diagnosis, enabling treatment and giving the patient the right dose in an early stage of the disease,” says Fredrik Westerlund. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Susanne Nilsson Lindh </div> <div><strong>Photo:</strong> Johan Bodell</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Facts: Fredrik Westerlund’s grants from Barncancerfonden (The Swedish Childhood Cancer Foundation)</strong></div> <div>Project grant<em> Improved cancer treatment for children sensitive to DNA damage</em>:</div> <div><ul><li>A project in collaboration with <strong>Ola Hammarsten</strong>, Professor and Chief Physician at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, the University of Gothenburg. </li> <li>Grant amount: 2,4 million SEK.</li></ul></div> <div>Project grant medical technology <em>Improved diagnosis of acute leukaemia in children</em>:  </div> <div><ul><li>A project in collaboration with <strong>Linda Fogelstrand</strong>, MD and Associate Professor at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, the University of Gothenburg. </li> <li>Grant amount: 3 million SEK.</li></ul></div> </div> ​</div></div>Tue, 25 Feb 2020 09:00:00 +0100; Honorary Doctors 2020 chosen<p><b>​Simone Fischer-Hübner is honoured for her outstanding contributions to research on privacy-enhancing technologies. Harry Gray is honoured for his important discoveries about electron transfer in proteins.</b></p><strong>​​</strong><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Simone Fischer-Hübner</strong> <br /></span><div><span style="background-color:initial">​​</span><span style="background-color:initial">Simone Fischer-Hübner </span><span style="background-color:initial">is a Professor at Karlstad University. She is a world-leading researcher in the area of privacy-enhancing technologies. She has been successful in pursuing cross-disciplinary research to bridge the gap between technical and legal aspects of privacy. Simone Fischer-Hübner is a recipient of several prestigious awards from both the scientific community and industry.</span><div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">She has founded and actively operated SWITS (Swedish IT Security network) since 2001, a successful national network of security and privacy researchers with major participation from Chalmers.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Not only Simone Fischer-Hübner is a distinguished researcher but also a leading privacy advocate in the society at large. Her outreach includes serving on the MSB IT Security Advisory Board and vice-chairing the IEEE Sweden Computer/Software Engineering Chapter, as well as serving as expert for ENISA (European Union Agency for Cybersecurity) and Scientific Advisory Committee of Science Europé.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Simone Fischer-Hübner receives her honorary doctorate for her outstanding contribution to research on privacy-enhancing technologies and her engagement in the privacy agenda in the society at large. The honorary doctorate recognizes her central role in the Swedish and international research activities and networks in security and privacy, cross-disciplinary areas that are strategically important at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Harry Barkus Gray</strong></div> <div>Harry Barkus Gray is one of the most influential scientists in bio-related inorganic chemistry. He has contributed greatly to this research field over many decades, with more than 900 scientific articles which have been cited over 50,000 times.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>One of his most significant scientific contributions is the development of fundamental models of long-range electron transfer in proteins, with important applications for the understanding of the biological function of redox enzymes and photosynthesis.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The knowledge of how electrons can be transported long distances through the protein matrix, to carry out redox reactions, has been of great importance for identification and understanding of molecular materials for capturing and converting solar energy. Gray’s research group is currently exploring how to mimic nature’s photosynthesis process in order to use inorganic materials and sunlight to generate hydrogen fuel through water splitting.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Harry Gray earned his doctorate in inorganic chemistry at Northwestern University in 1960 and then spent about a year as a postdoctoral researcher in theoretical inorganic chemistry at University of Copenhagen. He was appointed a faculty position at Columbia University in 1961 and was a few years later recruited to California Institute of Technology, Caltech, where he became full professor and acted as the director of the Beckman Institute for many years.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Harry Gray is a member of the National Academy of Sciences and a foreign member of several other academies (including the Royal Society of Great Britain and the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) and has received numerous prestigious awards such as the Priestley Medal (1991), the Wolf Prize in Chemistry (2004) and the F.A. Cotton Medal (2018).</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In addition to being a very prominent scientist, Harry Gray is also a dedicated teacher who has had many important connections with Chalmers over the years. These include acting as an external evaluator at hiring cases, speaker in initiative seminars and Molecular Frontiers symposia at Chalmers and acting mentor to several Chalmers professors.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The honorary doctors will receive their titles at Chalmers doctoral promotion, 6 June.</div></div>Mon, 24 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Swedish-Indian collaboration on traffic safety<p><b>​Every year, more than 150,000 fatal traffic accidents occur in India. Chalmers University of Technology is now entering into a new collaboration between companies and institutes in Sweden and India, as the sole Swedish academic party. The collaboration will improve traffic safety and provide the basis for new innovations and knowledge exchange.​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">On Thursday, 20 February, a collaboration agreement was signed to mark the start of Sitis, the Sweden-India Transport Innovation and Safety Partnership. This agreement brings together leading Swedish and Indian companies and institutes in a long-term and global cooperation.<br /><br /></span><div>“The aim of this collaboration is to become a prominent platform for applied research and innovation in the area of safe and sustainable transport,” says Chalmers President Stefan Bengtsson, and continues:</div> <div>“Traffic safety is an urgent and immediate concern in all parts of the world and is also critical in driving a nation’s prosperity. We are now very happy to enter into a bilateral partnership that will address key traffic safety challenges in India and Sweden.”<br /><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_bilder-utan-fast-format/rickshaw_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /></div> <div><div><div>The collaboration's outlines have been worked out over the past year, with Chalmers involved from day one. Both overall content and potential individual projects have been discussed. For Chalmers, the Sitis partnership is similar to an agreement with China, the China-Sweden Research Centre for Traffic Safety, which was signed in 2012.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Different strengths</h2></div></div> <div>Through Safer – the Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre at Chalmers – which brings together 35 parties from academia, industry and society, Chalmers has extensive experience of collaborations in the field of traffic safety. Magnus Granström, Director at Safer, points out that both Sweden and India have high capacity to develop technology, concepts and solutions. But the competence lies partly in different areas. Sweden is globally renowned for work on traffic safety, while India has a strong IT and computer science sector.<br /><br /></div> <div>“Chalmers can contribute with, for example, knowledge on intelligent transport systems, artificial intelligence and cyber security, road safety research and knowledge of how to establish test beds. These are strong areas for us,” says Magnus Granström.</div> <div><div>“We see a clear advantage to having a platform for cooperation with Swedish companies and institutes around challenges in India. Chalmers already collaborates with several of the parties involved through the Safer competence centre, and with Sitis in place we can now further develop these collaborations. The agreement also allows us to find new Indian parties to work together with.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">A new set of challenges</h2></div> <div>India is a huge and fast-growing country, with considerable gaps between the high and low educated, and major challenges in the transport sector. The Sitis partnership will build a deeper understanding of road safety in the country. This also provides insights into the core challenges of other fast-growing economies with similar problems, and potential solutions can be developed.</div> <div>“We will be able to benefit from learning the needs in a country so different from ours, in terms of both culture and infrastructure. How is a transport system developed in such a country? How do they serve the population with freight and passenger transport? These questions need to be answered in order to build a sustainable and prosperous society,” says Magnus Granström.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_bilder-utan-fast-format/SITIS_Sinisa_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS: Sitis, </strong><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Sweden</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>-</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>India Transport Innovation and Safety</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong> </strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Partnership</strong></span></div> <div>Sitis was launched in Stockholm on the third global conference on road safety within the UN. Nitin Gadkari, Minister of Transport &amp; Highways in India, and Tomas Eneroth, Swedish Minister for Infrastructure, were present, as well as CEOs and senior management representatives of various Swedish and Indian companies, academia and research institutes. Sinisa Krajnovic, Director of Chalmers Transport Area of Advance, signed for Chalmers.<br /><br /></div> <div>The members of Sitis are all leading in the traffic safety area. Members are:</div> <div>• The Volvo Group (initiator of Sitis)</div> <div>• Autoliv</div> <div>• Ericsson</div> <div>• Manipal Hospital</div> <div>• Altair</div> <div>• Saab</div> <div>• Tech Mahindra</div> <div>• India Institute of Science (IISc)</div> <div>• Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Program</div> <div>• Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (TRIPP, IITD)</div> <div>• Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div>• Rise</div> <div>• ARAI</div> <div>• Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)<br /><br /></div> <div>The partnership will also collaborate with the Vision Zero Academy at the Swedish Transport Administration and Niti Aayog, National Institution of Transforming India.<br /><br /></div> <div>Text: Mia Malmstedt</div> <div>​Ph<span style="background-color:initial">oto: Magnus Granström, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Rana Prathap, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Pixabay</span></div> Thu, 20 Feb 2020 16:00:00 +0100 Ventures enters a new phase – recruitment process for a new CEO begins<p><b>​Since its beginning in 2015, Chalmers Ventures has had a fantastic development. Now, halfway through its ten-year establishing period, it is time to expand further. The Board has now begun the recruitment of a new CEO, to replace outgoing CEO Linnéa Lindau. Gunnar Fernström will step in as acting CEO.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers Ventures came about from Chalmers' desire to consolidate its venture creation business. The wholly owned subsidiary was formed through a decision by Chalmers University of Technology and the Chalmers Foundation to raise 150 million kronor in operating funds and 300 million in investment capital for a ten-year establishing period.</span><div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The company's first fiscal year was 2015. The business is now five years old, halfway through the agreed funding period.</span><div><br /></div> <div>Linnéa Lindau has been CEO of Chalmers Ventures from the beginning. She has implemented the strategy for the first phase and, together with the staff at Chalmers Ventures, successfully established the business and developed Chalmers Ventures into an internationally leading incubator and investment organisation. In November, the company was named one of the world's ten best university incubators at the World Incubation Summit 2019 in Doha, Qatar.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The business is now primed to move up and enter a new, more expansive phase. Halfway through the agreed ten-year period, Chalmers Ventures’ Board has started strategic work looking at long-term goals. In conjunction with this work, the Board and owners together believe that it is now appropriate for a change of leadership. The owners and the Board see this as a natural step in the development of the business.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The recruitment process for a new CEO has begun. Outgoing CEO Linnéa Lindau hands over to Gunnar Fernström, who is now appointed acting CEO.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The Board of Directors and the owner would like to thank Linnéa Lindau for her invaluable efforts in establishing Chalmers Ventures as an internationally leading incubator and investment company, and we congratulate her on this achievement. We wish her all the best going forward,” says Johan Inden, Chairman of Chalmers Ventures.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Christian Borg</div> <div><br /></div> </div>Wed, 19 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0100 the internet more energy efficient<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers ​recently completed a 5-year research project looking at how to make fibre optic communications systems more energy efficient. Among their proposals are smart, error-correcting data chip circuits, which they refined to be 10 times less energy consumptive. The project has yielded multiple scientific articles, in publications including Nature Communications.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Streaming films and music, scrolling through social media, and using cloud-based storage services are everyday activities now. But to accommodate this digital lifestyle, a huge amount of data needs to be transmitted through fibre optic cables – and that amount is increasing at an almost unimaginable rate, consuming an enormous amount of electricity. This is completely unsustainable – at the current rate of increase, if no energy efficiency gains were made, within ten years the internet alone would consume more electricity than is currently generated worldwide. The electricity production cannot be increased at the same rate without massively increasing the usage of fossil fuels for electricity generation, which of course would lead to a significant increase in carbon dioxide emissions.</span><div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Smarta%20datachips%20del%20av%20lösningen%20för%20att%20göra%20internet%20energisnålare/Peter-Andrekson_250x333px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Peter Andrekson" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:263px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">“The challenge lies in meeting that inevitable demand for capacity and performance, while keeping costs at a reasonable level and minimising the environmental impacts,” says Peter Andrekson, Professor of Photonics at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience at Chalmers.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Peter Andrekson was the leader of the 5-year research project <a href="" target="_blank">‘Energy-efficient optical fibre communication’</a>, which has contributed significant advances to the field.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the early phase of the project, the Chalmers researchers identified the biggest energy drains in today's fibre optic systems. With this knowledge, they then designed and built a concept for a system for data transmission which consumes as little energy as possible. Optimising the components of the system against each other results in significant energy savings.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Currently, some of the most energy-intensive components are error-correction data chips, which are used in optical systems to compensate for noise and interference. The Chalmers researchers have now succeeded in designing these chips with optimised circuits.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Smarta%20datachips%20del%20av%20lösningen%20för%20att%20göra%20internet%20energisnålare/Per-Larsson-Edefors_250x333px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Per Larsson-Edefors" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:263px" />“Our measurements show that the energy consumption of our refined chips is around 10 times less than conventional error-correcting chips,” says Per Larsson-Edefors, Professor in Computer Engineering at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At a systemic level, the researchers also demonstrated the advantages of using ‘optical frequency combs’ instead of having separate laser transmitters for each frequency channel. An optical frequency comb emits light at all wavelengths simultaneously, making the transmitter very frequency-stable. This makes reception of the signals much easier – and thus more energy efficient.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Energy savings can also be made through controlling fibre optic communications at the network level. By mathematically modelling the energy consumption in different network resources, data traffic can be controlled and directed so that the resources are utilised optimally. This is especially valuable if traffic varies over time, as is the case in most networks. For this, the researchers developed an optimisation algorithm which can reduce network energy consumption by up to 70%.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The recipe for these successes has been the broad approach of the project, with scientists from three different research areas collaborating to find the most energy-saving overall solution possible, without sacrificing system performance.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Smarta%20datachips%20del%20av%20lösningen%20för%20att%20göra%20internet%20energisnålare/Erik-Agrell_250x333px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Erik Agrell" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:263px" />These research breakthroughs offer great potential for making the internet of the future considerably more energy-efficient. Several scientific articles have been published in the three research disciplines of optical hardware, electronics systems and communication networks.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Improving the energy efficiency of data transmission requires multidisciplinary competence. The challenges lie at the meeting points between optical hardware, communications science, electronic engineering and more. That’s why this project has been so successful”, says Erik Agrell, Professor in Communications Systems at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>More on the research</strong></div> <div>The research could have huge potential to make future internet usage significantly more energy efficient. It has resulted in several research publications within the three scientific disciplines of optical hardware, electronics systems and communications networks.The research results have been published in multiple articles, including the following three:</div> <div><ul><li><a href="">Phase-coherent lightwave communications with frequency combs</a>, in the journal Nature Communications</li> <li><a href="" target="_blank">Energy-Efficient High-Throughput VLSI Architectures for Product-Like Codes</a>, in the Journal of Lightwave Technology</li> <li><a href="" target="_blank"><span style="background-color:initial">Join</span><span style="background-color:initial">t power-efficient traffic shaping and service provisioning for metro elastic optical networks</span>​</a><span style="background-color:initial">, in the journal IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Com</span><span style="background-color:initial">munications and Networking, </span><br /></li></ul></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The 5-year research project <a href="">’Energy-efficient optical fibre communication’</a> ran from 2014–2019, and was financed by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Some more information on some of the research breakthroughs:</strong></div> <div>Smart, error correcting chips:</div> <div>The data chips have been designed by Chalmers and manufactured in Grenoble in France. The Chalmers researchers subsequently verified the chips’ performance and measured the energy usage, which was just a tenth of current error-correcting chips. </div> <div>At an energy transfer speed of 1 terabyte per second (1 terabyte = 1 trillion bits) <a href="" target="_blank">the researchers demonstrated that the chip drew less energy than 2 picojoules​</a> (1 picojoule = 1 trillionth of a joule) per bit. This equates to a power consumption of 2 Watts at this data rate. Comparatively, the current energy usage at such high transfer speeds is around 50 picojoules per bit, around 50 Watts.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Yvonne Jonsson</div> <div>Portrait photos: Johan Bodell, Chalmers, Laurence L Levin</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>For more information, contact:</strong></div> <div>Optical hardware: </div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Peter-Andrekson.aspx">Peter Andrekson</a>, leader of the research project, and Professor of Photonics at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience at Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div><a href=""></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Electronics systems: </div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/perla.aspx">Per Larsson-Edefors</a>, Professor in Computer Engineering at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Chalmers <span style="background-color:initial">University of Technology</span></div> <div><a href=""></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Communications networks: </div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/erik-agrell.aspx">Erik Agrell​</a>, Professor in Communications Systems at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers <span style="background-color:initial">University of Technology</span></div> <div><a href=""></a></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div></div></div>Thu, 13 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0100 Fatal road accidents halved by year 2030<p><b>​Over 1.3 million people die in traffic accidents every year. Consequently, traffic accidents are the most common cause of death in certain age groups. The world&#39;s experts are now gathering in Stockholm to discuss new UN goals for road safety, developed under the leadership of Chalmers professor Claes Tingvall.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Transports and traffic are fundamental parts of life for most of us. From our homes, we step into a traffic system that takes us to work, school, business, health care or to our loved ones.</span><div>But at the same time, 1.3 million people are killed in road accidents and 50 million people are injured – every year. Most accidents, as much as 93 per cent, occur in low- and middle-income countries, where the resources and technical solutions for road safety are lacking to a larger extent.<br /><br /></div> <div>“The problem of road accidents has not diminished the way we hoped. The recommendations proposed by our expert group are effective actions – it is now a matter if it gets done or not”, says Claes Tingvall, adjunct professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers and chair of the academic expert group that has developed new UN targets for world road safety.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_bilder-utan-fast-format/Claes%20Tingvall_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">he overall goal is to reduce the number of deaths and serious injuries as a result of traffic accidents by fifty per cent over the next ten years. To achieve this goal by the year 2030, Claes Tingvall is certain about the way forward:</span><br /></div> <div>“We must constantly point to science as the solution to societal problems. Then stick to it and act accordingly!”<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">A public health issue</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">On February 19–20, 2020, the world's leading road safety experts will convene together with decision-makers and ministers in Stockholm for the third global conference on road safety within the UN. There, the expert group's opinion will be indicative for the global cooperation for safer traffic.</span></div> <div>The academic expert group, chaired by Claes Tingvall, is composed of 13 experts from around the world and has been tasked with developing complementary methods, processes and tools for the new decade's global traffic safety. The fundament has been the global goals for sustainable development and Agenda 2030.<br /><br /></div> <div>“The lack of road safety is a public health issue. More than 100,000 children die each year in traffic accidents, making it the most common cause of death for in certain age groups. But it is possible to solve the problem, provided that scientifically developed methods are used”, says Claes Tingvall.<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Collaboration is the key</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">oday broad research is being conducted in vehicle and road safety at Chalmers. The focus is, among other things, on understanding why accidents occur and how they can be prevented, as well as minimizing injuries to the human body when it is exposed to the extreme stresses that often occur in traffic accidents. Historically, vehicle and traffic safety has been a strong research area at Chalmers and the development of modern seat belts, child safety seats and airbags originated at the university.<br /><br /></span></div> <div>Research within road safety will be even more significant in the future as the volume of traffic is constantly increasing. According to the UN, the world's cities will grow by over 50 per cent in the next 30 years. It is important to have knowledge of how to develop roads and infrastructures in the best possible way as it is being built, while scientific solutions are applied and developed in already existing traffic systems.<br /><br /></div> <div>Magnus Granström is the director of the Safer competence centre at Chalmers, where multidisciplinary research is conducted in road safety. At Safer, various research areas – such as systems for accident prevention, road user behaviour, human body protection and safety performance evaluations – connect. Magnus Granström believes that there are many sub-areas to focus on in road safety, and unprotected road users will be a special challenge as we see an increasing number of cyclists, electric scooters and pedestrians.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_puffbilder/Magnus_Granstrom_350_cropped.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">Universities need to continue to invest in a breadth of research, as there is no single answer to the question of how traffic should continue to become safer. Above all, understanding the complexity of future traffic systems with different types of road users will be necessary”, says Magnus Granström.<br /></span><br /></div> <div>To reach the goal of cutting the number of deaths and injuries by half, Magnus Granström believes that the research community needs to gain further insight into existing obstacles. For example, he points to an over-reliance in automated vehicles and their contribution to increased safety, as well as a lack of system thinking among researchers and financiers, who instead focus too much on individual areas and personas.</div> <div>“The main key to achieving this goal is collaboration between the various players – industry, academia and politics”, says Magnus Granström.<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Recommendations with a clear vision</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">he academic group of experts has presented a total of nine scientifically based recommendations. If the recommendations are followed, the expert group believes that the goal of reducing the number of deaths by half is likely to be achieved by 2030. The recommendations are interconnected and will guide the work on road safety as part of the Global Sustainable Development Goals. And for the first time, road safety is now included in international objectives through agenda 2030.</span></div> <div>“With the global goals, which point out who should do what, we have access to both the private and the public sector, and thus can benefit from the synergies that exist between climate, health and justice. For example, speed connects to clean air, climate and security”, says Claes Tingvall.<br /><br /></div> <div>At the same time, he emphasizes the fact that the most powerful tools will also make the greatest impact. Those tools are mainly about sustainability reporting and public procurement. If the work on road safety is integrated with these tools, large effects can be achieved. The report that the expert group recently released highlights collaborations between politics, academia, business and other organizations on a global scale.</div> <div>“To solve the problems in low-income countries, where the problems are greatest, you need to apply the simple and cheap solutions that already exist. In high-income countries, all known methods must be applied – it's as simple as that”, says Claes Tingvall.<br /><br /></div> <div>Text: Anders Ryttarson Törneholm and Mia Malmstedt<br />Photos: Rune Borgström, Emmy Jonsson and Pixabay</div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: The Sustainable Development Goals</h3> <div>The Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Road safety is directly connected to two of the 17 global goals:</div> <div> </div> <div>Goal 3: Good health and well-being</div> <div> </div> <div>Target 3.6:  Halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents.</div> <div> </div> <div>Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities</div> <div> </div> <div>Target 11.2: Provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Road safety also affects many of the other global goals indirectly.</div></div> <div><div><a href="">​Read more about the UN Sustainable Development Goals here!</a></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: Nine recommendations for safer traffic</h3> <div>The expert group's recommendations is divided into:<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>1. Modal Shift</div> <div> </div> <div>2. Sustainable Practices and Reporting</div> <div> </div> <div>3. Safe Vehicles across the Globe</div> <div> </div> <div>4. Childrens Health</div> <div> </div> <div>5. Public Procurement</div> <div> </div> <div>6. Speed limit of 30 kph</div> <div> </div> <div>7. Upgrade Infrastructure</div> <div> </div> <div>8. Zero Speeding</div> <div> </div> <div>9. Technology</div></div> <div><div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Watch film clips with Claes Tingvall explaining each recommendation!</a></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Read the full report from the expert group here.</a></div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: Safer</h3> <div> </div> <div>Safer is a centre of excellence for vehicle and traffic safety which conducts collaborative, interdisciplinary research and knowledge transfer to eliminate fatalities and serious injuries in traffic. Chalmers is the host for the center, which has in total 35 partners from academia, industry and society.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Read more about Safer.</a></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"> </h3> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: A pre-event on the night before the UN conference arranged by Safer</h3> <div> </div> <div><span></span> <span style="background-color:initial">On the evening of February 18, the day before the UN conference, Safer organizes a pre-event in Stockholm. The focus will be, among other things, on collaborations and new research. Participants include Fredrik Hörstedt, Chalmers Vice President of Utilisation, and speakers from the European Commission and Volvo. About 200 guests are expected, including EU commissioners, decision-makers and Swedish parliament politicians. Most of the guests come from countries with many fatal road accidents, including Uganda, Liberia, India and Nigeria.</span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“We hope to spread the message about our way of collaborating to the international actors participating it our event, and at the same time create even better communication between both partners and research areas”, says Magnus Granström, Director at Safer.<br /><br /><a href="">Read more about the pre-event!</a><br /><br />Previous news article about Claes Tingvall: <a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Will-develop-new-global-goals-for-road-safety-in-the-UN.aspx">Will develop new global goals for road safety​</a></div></div> Wed, 12 Feb 2020 19:00:00 +0100 new steps as the Chalmers fence celebrates five years<p><b>​The Chalmers fence at the Gothenburg Horse Show 2020 measures the horse&#39;s jump curve, where the horse has its highest point in relation to the fence. As the Chalmers fence now celebrates its five-year anniversary, two new steps are taken – the technology used will for the first time be based on machine learning, and the previous measurement technology from the fence will move into the Swedish Equestrian Federation&#39;s educational facility Strömsholm.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The way a horse jumps over a fence differs between both individuals and equipage. Some horses jump off too early or too late, giving the highest point before or after the fence. In an optimal jump, the highest point is just above the fence, meaning the horse used just the right technique and amount of energy for its leap.</span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>First time with machine learning</strong><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>For this year's fence, the group of students will, for the first time ever, use the Image Processing technique, where a computer is trained through machine learning to detect the horse's hooves in a filmed leap and thereby calculate the coordinates for the highest position in the jump over the fence.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“This involves some technical difficulties. In previous years, the Chalmers fence has measured one variable at a time. We are measuring both the highest point in a vertical path from the ground, and where that point relates to the fence in a horizontal direction,” says Anna Skötte, student and project manager for the Chalmers fence 2020.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Chalmers fence project is run by Chalmers students in collaboration with Gothenburg Horse Show, with the aim of using new smart technology to broaden the knowledge of the horses' jumping technique and thereby provide scientific evidence for sustainable training and competition of horses, as well as breeding. Like last year, the competing riders in the Gothenburg Horse Show are invited to the Chalmers exhibition stand in Scandinavium's foyer to see their own measuring results.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Swedish Equestrian Federation will use the technology​</strong></div> <div>The Chalmers fence project takes yet another new and important step as the combined experience from five years of measurements at the Gothenburg Horse Show will moves into the Swedish Equestrian Federation's riding house Strömsholm. The national team leaders in the Equestrian Association Federation have made a wish list for more developed scientific technology, and Chalmers University of Technology has been asked to engage, together with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and the National Horse Industry, and further develop the connected riding house at Strömsholm and supplement with cameras and sensors for biomechanics, among other things.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What does this collaboration mean for the equine industry and equestrian sports in Sweden?</strong></div> <div>“In the horse world we have a lot of commonly accepted truths that we have not been able to test scientifically. With this collaboration we have that opportunity, so from now on it is only our imagination that sets boundaries,” says Tomas Torgersen, competition manager for the Gothenburg Horse Show.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Daniel Svensson is the head teacher in horse jumping at the Strömsholm Riding School and one of the driving forces behind the collaboration with Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What do you hope Chalmers will contribute to the development of Strömsholm's riding house?</strong></div> <div>“Just like national teams in other sports scientifically analyse how they can change their training and achieve better results, we need to examine how the horse behaves, what the riders do and how it affects the horses. Chalmers has developed scientific technology and methods for several years, and we want to share the experience, instead of reinventing the wheel, to investigate what is most favourable to the horse and give the best results in competition,” says Daniel Svensson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>With the project &quot;<a href="/en/centres/sportstechnology/education/Pages/Tracks-course-Chalmers-Fence.aspx" title="Link to information at">The continuation of the Chalmers fence</a>&quot;, which is part of Chalmers’ new<a href="/en/news/Pages/Tracks-prepares-students-for-the-future.aspx" title="Link to article about Tracks"> educational initiative Tracks</a>, students from different disciplines will continue to develop both new and existing techniques for horse welfare and performance.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span></span><strong>What significance does the collaboration with Strömsholm have for Chalmers?</strong><span style="font-weight:700"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/MagnusKarlsteen_180130_270x170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:10px 15px" /></span><strong><br /></strong><span style="background-color:initial">“This means that the technology demo</span><span style="background-color:initial">nstrated at the Gothenburg Horse Show through the Chalmers fence is further developed and given the opportunity to reach into the horse world via Strömsholm. In addition, Chalmers students and alumni will be involved in developing technology that can change equestrian sports at the highest level, in collaboration with people and horses at one of Sweden's finest equestrian facilities, and also at a later stage make the technology available to the ordinary rider,” says Magnus Karlsteen, responsible for the Chalmers fence and Chalmers equestrian sports.</span><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><br /></div></div> <div>Text: Helena Österling af Wåhlberg</div> <div>Photo: Johan Bodell/Mia Halleröd Palmgren/Chalmers</div>Wed, 12 Feb 2020 07:00:00 +0100 opportunities for materials research at Chalmers<p><b>The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) has decided to extend the funding of the SwedNess research school by 100 million SEK until 2025.</b></p><div><div><span></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">SwedNess is a graduate school for neutron scattering operated by six Swedish Universities, including Chalmers.</span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The goal is to educate 20 doctoral students as a base for Sweden's expertise in neutron scattering with respect to the research infrastructure European Spalliation Source (ESS) being built outside Lund right now. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Jan%20Swenson.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:100px;width:100px" /><div>&quot;It is important to strengthen the competence in neutron scattering at Chalmers in order to remain successful in materials research and to benefit from ESS,&quot; says Professor Jan Swenson at the Department of Physics at Chalmers, who is SwedNess'  Director of Studies at Chalmers.  </div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/sv/institutioner/fysik/nyheter/Sidor/Nya-mojligheter-for-materialforskningen-pa-Chalmers.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read a longer article on Chalmers' Swedish homepage. </a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href=""><span><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></span>Read more about SwedNess. ​</a></div> <div></div>Fri, 07 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0100 astronomers and Alma study stellar fight&#39;s beautiful outcome<p><b>​A Chalmers-led team of ​astronomers have used the telescope Alma to study the remarkable gas cloud that resulted from a confrontation between two stars. One star grew so large it engulfed the other which, in turn, spiralled towards its partner provoking it into shedding its outer layers.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Like humans, stars change with age and ultimately die. For the Sun and stars like it, this change will take it through a phase where, having burned all the hydrogen in its core, it swells up into a large and bright red-giant star. Eventually, the dying Sun will lose its outer layers, leaving behind its core: a hot and dense star called a white dwarf.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The star system HD101584 is special in the sense that this ‘death process’ was terminated prematurely and dramatically as a nearby low-mass companion star was engulfed by the giant,” said Hans Olofsson, astronomer at Chalmers University of Technology, who led a recent study, published in Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics, of this intriguing object.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Thanks to new observations with Alma, complemented by data from the telescope Apex (Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment), Hans Olofsson and his team now know that what happened in the double-star system HD 101584 was akin to a stellar fight. As the main star puffed up into a red giant, it grew large enough to swallow its lower-mass partner. In response, the smaller star spiralled in towards the giant’s core but didn’t collide with it. Rather, this manoeuvre triggered the larger star into an outburst, leaving its gas layers dramatically scattered and its core exposed.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The team says the complex structure of the gas in the HD101584 nebula is due to the smaller star’s spiralling towards the red giant, as well as to the jets of gas that formed in this process. As a deadly blow to the already defeated gas layers, these jets blasted through the previously ejected material, forming the rings of gas and the bright bluish and reddish blobs seen in the nebula.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A silver lining of a stellar fight is that it helps astronomers to better understand the final evolution of stars like the Sun, explains co-author Sofia Ramstedt, astronomer at Uppsala University.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Currently, we can describe the death processes common to many Sun-like stars, but we cannot explain why or exactly how they happen. HD101584 gives us important clues to solve this puzzle since it is currently in a short transitional phase between better studied evolutionary stages. With detailed images of the environment of HD101584 we can make the connection between the giant star it was before, and the stellar remnant it will soon become,” she says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Co-author Elizabeth Humphreys from ESO in Chile highlighted that Alma and Apex, located in the country’s Atacama region, were crucial to enabling the team to probe “both the physics and chemistry in action” in the gas cloud. She added: “This stunning image of the circumstellar environment of HD 101584 would not have been possible without the exquisite sensitivity and angular resolution provided by Alma.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>While current telescopes allow astronomers to study the gas around the binary, the two stars at the centre of the complex nebula are too close together and too far away to be resolved. ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope, under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert, “will provide information on the ‘heart’ of the object,” says Hans Olofsson, allowing astronomers a closer look at the fighting pair. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>See also ESO's press release: <a href=""></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong><em>Image:</em></strong></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <em> </em><div><em>A. (top) </em><span style="background-color:initial"><em>​ALMA reveals the beautiful results of a struggle between two stars: a complex of gas clouds round binary star HD 101584. </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>​</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> The colours represent speed, going from blue — gas moving the fastest towards us — to red — gas moving the fastest away from us. Jets, almost along the line of sight, propel the material in blue and red. The stars in the binary are located at the single bright dot at the centre of the ring-like structure shown in green, which is moving with the same velocity as the system as a whole along the line of sight. Astronomers believe this ring has its origin in the material ejected as the lower mass star in the binary spiralled towards its red-giant partner.​</em></span></div> <em> </em><div><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Credit: </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), Olofsson et al. Acknowledgement: Robert Cumming</em></span></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <div><strong>More information</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>This research was presented in a paper published in Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics: <i style="background-color:initial">HD 101584: circumstellar characteristics and evolutionary status</i><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">(</span><a href=""></a><span style="background-color:initial">)</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The team is composed of Hans Olofsson (Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers), Theo Khouri (Chalmers), Matthias Maercker (Chalmers), Per Bergman (Chalmers), Lam Doan (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University), Daniel Tafoya (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers), Wouter Vlemmings (Chalmers), E. M. L. Humphreys (European Southern Observatory [ESO], Garching, Germany), Michael Lindqvist (<span style="background-color:initial">Onsala Space Observatory,</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">Chal</span><span style="background-color:initial">mers), Lars-Åke Nyman (ESO, Santiago, Chile) and Sofia Ramstedt (Uppsala University).</span></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of ESO, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded by ESO on behalf of its Member States, by NSF in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and by NINS in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). ALMA construction and operations are led by ESO on behalf of its Member States; by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), on behalf of North America; and by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) on behalf of East Asia. The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Chalmers and Onsala Space Observatory have been involved in Alma since its inception, building for example receivers for the telescope. Onsala Space Observatory hosts the Nordic Alma Regional Centre which provides technical expertise and supports scientists <span style="background-color:initial">in the Nordic countries who </span><span style="background-color:initial">use​​​​​ Alma</span><span style="background-color:initial">.​</span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><br /></div>Wed, 05 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0100 as design – a useful approach<p><b>​What does it mean to study entrepreneurship as design rather than with a “scientific microscope”? Chalmers researcher Henrik Berglund and his colleagues believe that the research becomes more useful in practice when you assume that products, services and companies are created in response to different needs and purposes.</b></p><div>​Some of the world's leading entrepreneurship researchers recently gathered for the second time at a conference in Gothenburg to discuss what it means to treat entrepreneurship as a design science. The event was initiated by Henrik Berglund, Associate Professor at the Division of Entrepreneurship and Strategy, Department of Technology Management and Economics at Chalmers.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Entrepreneurship research has traditionally been treated as a science concerned with natural phenomena. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“In the natural sciences, you want to find out how the world is constructed. What kind of mechanisms there are, such as laws of nature, or social mechanisms? For example, ‘people who have greater self-confidence see more business opportunities’ – and the scholars will correlate people's self-confidence with the number of opportunities they identify.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“Design science, on the other hand, is not about describing nature. Instead, it is about describing artificial systems and how to create artifacts, that is, ‘non-natural’ things that people design for a purpose. A pen does not exist in nature. Someone has made it that way so that you can write with it, carry it in your pocket, manufacture it cheaply and so on.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Henrik Berglund continues:</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“Scientific disciplines such as engineering and architecture are examples of design sciences. We believe that entrepreneurship belongs in this category as well. The purpose of these sciences is to understand how to design artifacts, such as cars or buildings. What are the characteristics of these artifacts? What are effective methods and processes to design them? In design science, researchers often start from the fundamental knowledge provided by the natural sciences and study how this, in combination with human needs, can give rise to new artifacts.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Useful in practice</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Design science research can also more easily be used in teaching as evidenced by the fact that most entrepreneurship courses are based on handbooks written by various practicing entrepreneurs, rather than on the teachers' own research.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“These practice books are often very useful and good, but they are also a bit coarse and based on a limited set of experiences. The advantage we have as researchers is that we can spend five or ten years and think deeply about how things work. In this sense research resembles practice, but involves more and deeper reflection,” says Henrik Berglund.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“In design science, validity is about producing things that are actually useful and workable, rather than ‘corresponding with nature’ as in the natural sciences. Here the question is rather: is it useful? It is a more pragmatic approach.”</div> <div style="text-align:center;font-size:20px"> </div> <div style="text-align:center;font-size:20px"><div><span><em>&quot;Many researchers feel that the gap between their research <br />and teaching is disturbing.”</em><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>How controversial is it to change to, or rather supplement with, a different scientific approach?</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“Here at Chalmers most people think this makes a lot of sense. As they do at most other technical universities. There is also a general trend in this direction. Many researchers feel that the gap between their research and teaching is disturbing.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More than just decision making</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>One person who has long advocated for the merits of design science is Professor Saras D. Sarasvathy of Darden School of Business, University of Virginia, USA. She is a former jubilee professor at Chalmers, she is also affiliated with the reputable Indian Institute of Management in Bangalore and has been named one of the world's leading entrepreneurship researchers by Fortune magazine. At the conference, she presented a work detailing design as co-creation.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“The process of co-creating is fascinating. To design relationships, how do we do that? We want to do something together, but that means that we also need to structure our relationship. What is my role, what is your role? Who is bringing what to the table and how will we share the rewards? How can we structure such relationships when there are multiple uncertainties?”</div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div><div> </div> <div style="text-align:center;font-size:20px"><span><em>&quot;In the world we live in today, it is not enough <br />to just study decision making&quot;</em><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Saras Sarasvathy believes that much of management and entrepreneurship research has been driven around the issue of decision making. “How do we make the choice?”, but never asking where the alternatives came from. Someone must have designed the choice set in the first place – and how was that done?</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“I see decision making as a subset of design. We go from something quite narrow, like decision making, to design, which is much broader – but also more difficult. In the world we live in today, it is not enough to just study decision making. We need to address these larger aspects. I think the design perspective is much more useful.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The social opportunities are exciting, says Saras Sarasvathy.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“There is an ongoing democratization of design and innovation. Our students want to discuss things like how to end poverty and deal with climate change. We are all part of solving it – we cannot leave it to a few experts. Students want to talk about it, and policy makers want to know how it works. Even larger companies today have to confront the social aspects of the business.”</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/sv/institutioner/tme/nyheter/PublishingImages/saras_sjoerd_750x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><em>Saras Sarasvathy from </em></span><span><span><em>University of Virginia</em><span style="display:inline-block"><em>  </em></span></span></span><span><em>and Sjoerd Romme from TU Eindhoven.</em></span><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Creativity as a systematic process</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Another participant at the Chalmers conference was Sjoerd Romme from TU Eindhoven in the Netherlands. Originally, he comes from a social science and economics background, but when he started working together with engineers he adopted a different mindset. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“The design methodology is more like how an engineer thinks and acts. It is more problem-oriented, more problem-solving, rather than developing theories and trying to validate them.”</div> <div> </div> <div style="text-align:center;font-size:20px"><span> </span></div> <div> </div> <div style="text-align:center;font-size:20px"><div><span><span><span><em>”</em></span></span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><span><span><em>All breakthrough research starts with some <br />type of ‘Eureka moment’&quot;</em></span></span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>He believes that all good research has a strong design component.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“All breakthrough research starts with some type of ‘Eureka moment’: in the bathtub, in the car when driving, during a conversation at a conference or when you sit with a customer. We rarely cover this creative moment in science.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“We often want to refer to some kind of rational process, something evidence-based, some kind of basic principle that can explain our insights. But creativity is also a reasonably systematic process – an exploration of different alternatives that you try out. This also means you can learn it and teach it. That is a great advantage of the design methodology,” Sjoerd Romme points out.</div> <div><br /><br /></div> <div><strong>Further reading:</strong><br /><span style="background-color:initial">Henrik Berglund, Marouane Bousfiha and Yashar Mansoori from Chalmers have been published in </span><span style="background-color:initial">The Academy of Management Review with the article </span><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="">&quot;Opportunities as Artifacts and Entrepreneurship as Design&quot;</a>.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The conference<span> &quot;Entrepreneurship as Design and Opportunities as Artifacts&quot; was sponsored by <a href="">Riksbankens Jubileumsfond</a>. <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><em>Text: Daniel Karlsson</em><br /><em>Photo: Pia Aleborg, Daniel Karlsson</em><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> ​Tue, 04 Feb 2020 14:00:00 +0100 as a service tested on Campus Johanneberg<p><b>​This spring, employees at Chalmers University of Technology and other companies established on the Johanneberg campus in Gothenburg will get to test a new mobility concept. The EC2B service, allowing booking of public transport journeys as well as shared electric bicycles and cars, will now be further developed to also cover short work-related travels.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Finding ways to use vehicles collectively with the aim of reducing climate impact and better utilize centrally located property, currently used as parking spaces, is a growing trend that urban planners throughout Europe are working to develop. In Gothenburg the concept EC2B has been successfully implemented in the newly built <a href="">Housing Association Brf Viva</a>, as part of the <a href="">EU-project IRIS Smart Cities</a>. In the project MoJo the service will be developed further. </span><div><br /></div> <div>“The experiences from Brf Viva show satisfied users, a greatly reduced number of private cars and a large use of the common vehicles. We hope that our concept will be appreciated by employees as a way to avoid using their private fossil-fueled cars during working hours. We also plan to incorporate administrative functions that handle, for example, travel bills directly in the app,” says Björn Wendle, CEO of EC2B Mobility.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>&quot;Mobility hubs&quot; at campus</strong></div> <div>The goal is to demonstrate the concept in close cooperation with service providers, property owners and employers for a year and a half. In a first phase, between 300-500 users will have access to the service, which will include physical resources such as electric bikes and cars (including the already existing electric car-pool Move About) at a number of hubs located on campus, as well as access to public transport. The project will also prepare for a possible commercial procurement of a joint mobility service in the area when the project ends.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Through the IRIS project and the implementation in Brf Viva near campus Johanneberg, we have gained valuable experiences and a well-established stakeholder network that will be useful in the MoJo project as well. This will enable us to utilize the relatively short project time in an efficient way,” says Per Sunnergren, project manager at Johanneberg Science Park.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Test pilots needed</strong></div> <div>Even though digitalisation makes it relatively easy to combine different mobility services in one app, there are many other challenges related to establishing new concepts in the sector known as Mobility as a Service (MaaS). Therefore, there is a need for pilots, tests and demonstrations in order to be able to develop sustainable business models and customer-close offers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The challenge is to establish functioning business models and close collaborations between stakeholders who are used to competing for travelers. In this project we also have clients coming from a variety of organisations, such as the University, property owners and companies operating in the area. They need to be coordinated to enable a future solution that benefits everyone,” says Hasse Alfredson, Vice President of Chalmers’ Operations Support.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Facts/Mojo</strong></div> <div>The project MoJo is a collaboration between <a href="">EC2B</a>, <a href="/en/Pages/default.aspx">Chalmers University of Technology</a>, <a href="">Chalmersfastigheter</a>, <a href="">Akademiska Hus</a>, <a href="">HSB</a>, <a href="">Johanneberg Science Park</a> and <a href="">Smart Resenär i Sverige</a>. It is coordinated by EC2B and goes on between November 2019 and June 2021. <a href="">The Swedish Energy Agency</a> is contributing with just over SEK 1.6 million. More information about planned schedule and implementation of the tests will be available in February 2020.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Karin Weijdegård<span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div>Fri, 24 Jan 2020 13:00:00 +0100 more business as usual with respect to energy<p><b>Recently, the media reported that both investments in fossil energy and carbon dioxide emissions are increasing, though at a slower rate than before. How should we interpret this message? We had an email chat with Dr Jessica Jewell, an expert in energy transitions. Her research focuses on mechanisms of energy transitions, particularly fossil fuel phase-out and low-carbon electricity growth. This is what she responded:​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20190101-20190630/jessica-jewell_portrait.jpg" alt="Portrait: Jessica Jewell" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />Fi</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>rst, can you tell us a little about your research? </strong></span><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">&quot;It's focused on political feasibility of energy transitions. I research national trends in energy use seeking to understand how individual countries respond to the global challenge of climate change given their specific national circumstances. More specifically, my research can be divided into two broad streams:<br /><br /></span></div> <div><ul><li><span style="font-size:14px">​What drives and constrains the expansion of low-carbon technologies. I have done work on nuclear power and I am now also <span></span>looking into renewable electricity investigating which countries introduce it earlier and where renewables can be expanded faster.</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:14px">What drives and constrains the decline of carbon-intensive technologies. I am measuring the global and national rates of decline in carbon-intensive sectors and comparing them to what we need to mitigate climate change; I also research social factors and mechanisms that differentiate countries that phase out fossil fuels from those that expand them.</span></li></ul></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>How to interpret these media reports about carbon dioxide emissions?</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“The use of fossil fuels is still increasing because of the increasing demand for fossil fuels. Part of this trend is easier to understand: for example, demand for oil primarily depends on the growth of transportation and there are more and more vehicles in the world, particularly in the emerging economies such as China. The vast majority of cars and trucks sold today are still driven by oil, not to mention ships and airplanes which explains rising oil demand. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">What is more paradoxical is that in many parts of the world, emissions from the power sector are increasing. This is particularly interesting for social scientists, because we have technical solutions to produce low carbon electricity: hydropower, nuclear power, wind and solar power. Some of these technologies are already cheaper than coal or gas in some markets. However, some developing countries are making paradoxical energy choices of investing in new coal power instead of renewables”.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>Is the emission curve broken?</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“Global emissions are growing, but at a slower rate than before. If we look at the business-as-usual emission forecasts from a few decades ago and compare them with what we have now, we can clearly see that we’re doing much better than ‘business as usual’ as it was imagined in the 1990s and the early 2000s. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The global emission curve reflects the combination of distinct trends: in some countries emissions are plateauing or slowly declining and in some countries they are still growing. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">In other words, there is a gradual evolution of the emission curve rather than radical breaking with the past”.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"> </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>What is politically feasible in Europe, China and the United States?</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“First of all, this depends on global technological developments and breakthroughs. Political feasibility in all three regions will be influenced by breakthroughs in different technologies such as small modular nuclear power reactors, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), batteries and hydrogen technologies. Incremental developments such as falling the cost of solar PV panels and offshore wind power will also be important in a near future; Equally important to these global factors are national socio-political circumstances which shape political feasibility what can be done in a given context. I believe three such factors are particularly critical: </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><ul><li><span style="font-size:14px">How fast energy demand is growing; this mostly depends on population and economic growth in a given country and thus is difficult to change by policies. Energy demand in China is growing much faster than in the EU and the US which means that China needs much faster expansion of low-carbon energy to reduce emissions and as long as low-carbon energy grows slower than demand, emissions will keep growing<br /></span></li> <li>How fast low-carbon energy technologies can expand. For example, in recent research I and co-authors show that Europe and the United States introduced nuclear, solar and wind power earlier than China. We now need to understand what determines how fast low-carbon technologies expand. The market in China is more favorable (because it is growing), so perhaps renewables can be expanded even faster with right policies.<br /></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">How fast we can phase-out carbon-intensive sectors. This may be even more challenging to do than expanding low-carbon energy. This is because growing a new sector brings jobs and profits and no one is in principle against it. However, phasing out an industry leads to job and economic losses, which is a political challenge. In a recent article I and co-authors explore this dilemma by looking at which countries pledge to phase out coal power. What we found out is that these countries extract and use little coal, have older power plant fleets, slow demand growth, higher incomes and exceptionally transparent governments which are able to deal with political challenges of coal phase out. There are many such countries in Europe and many of the US states have the same characteristics, so no wonder that coal use in Europe and North America is rapidly declining. In contrast, China has a very young coal power plant fleet (with an average age of only 12 years), produces most of its electricity from the domestically extracted coal, has rapidly expanding electricity demand, and less transparent government. So it is less feasible for China to phase out coal in the near term&quot;.</span></li></ul></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial">Is there anything more you want to say?</strong><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“I joined Chalmers about six months ago and I’m so happy I did. I have been struck by the wonderful combination of inspiring intellectual interactions and a supportive working environment. Chalmers offers great opportunities for young international scholars to build on and expand their networks and science”.<br /><br />By: Ann-Christine Nordin <br />Photo: Oil field <span style="font-size:14px"></span></span><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px">Haizhen Du/Shutterstock​</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><strong>RELATED:</strong><br /><span style="font-size:14px"><a href="/en/departments/see/news/Pages/current-pledges-to-phase-out-coal-power-are-critically-insufficient-to-slow-down-climate-change,-analysis-shows.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />​Current coal phase-out pledges are insufficient</a><br /></span><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Jessica Jewell, Assistant Professor, Department of Space, Earth and Environment​</a></div>  ​Tue, 21 Jan 2020 09:00:00 +0100