News: Klimathttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologySat, 28 May 2022 05:22:56 +0200http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Converting-solar-energy-to-electricity-on-demand.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Converting-solar-energy-to-electricity-on-demand.aspxConverting solar energy to electricity on demand<p><b>​The researchers behind an energy system that makes it possible to capture solar energy, store it for up to eighteen years and release it when and where it is needed have now taken the system a step further. After previously demonstrating how the energy can be extracted as heat, they have now succeeded in getting the system to produce electricity, by connecting it to a thermoelectric generator. Eventually, the research – developed at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden – could lead to self-charging electronics using stored solar energy on demand.​</b></p><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Most%20steg%202%20Kasper%20Moth%20Poulsen/porträtt_Kasper_Moth_Poulsen_200x200.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="portait Kasper Moth-Poulsen " style="margin:5px 10px" />“This is a radically new way of generating electricity from solar energy. It means that we can use solar energy to produce electricity regardless of weather, time of day, season, or geographical location. It is a closed system that can operate without causing carbon dioxide emissions,” says research leader Kasper Moth-Poulsen, Professor at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Chalmers.<br /><br /></div> <div>The new technology is based on the solar energy system MOST – Molecular Solar Thermal Energy Storage Systems, developed at Chalmers University of Technology. Very simply, the technology is based on a specially designed molecule that changes shape when it comes into contact with sunlight. The research has already attracted great interest worldwide when it has been presented at earlier stages.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The new study, published in Cell Reports Physical Science and carried out in collaboration with researchers in Shanghai, takes the solar energy system a step further, detailing how it can be combined with a compact thermoelectric generator to convert solar energy into electricity.</div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Ultra-thin chip converts heat into electricity</h2> <div>The Swedish researchers sent their specially designed molecule, loaded with solar energy, to colleagues Tao Li<br />and Zhiyu Hu at Shanghai Jiao Tong University, where the energy was released and converted into electricity <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Most%20steg%202%20Kasper%20Moth%20Poulsen/porträtt_Zihang_Wang_200x200.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="portrait Zhihang Wang " style="margin:5px 10px" /><br />using the generator they developed there. Essentially, Swedish sunshine was sent to the other side of the world and converted into electricity in China. <br /><br /></div> <div><div>“The generator is an ultra-thin chip that could be integrated into electronics such as headphones, smart watches and telephones. So far, we have only generated small amounts of electricity, but the new results show that the concept really works. It looks very promising,” says researcher Zhihang Wang from Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span><br />Fossil</span><span> free</span><span>, emissions free </span></h2></div> <div>The research has great potential for renewable and emissions-free energy production. But a lot of research and development remains before we will be able to charge our technical gadgets or heat our homes with the system's stored solar energy.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Together with the various research groups included in the project, we are now working to streamline the system. The amount of electricity or heat it can extract needs to be increased. Even if the energy system is based on simple basic materials, it needs to be adapted to be sufficiently cost-effective to produce, and thus possible to launch more broadly,” says Kasper Moth-Poulsen.<br /></div></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about the Most technology</h3> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Most%20steg%202%20Kasper%20Moth%20Poulsen/mostlabbet%20350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Image from the Mostlabb" style="margin:5px 10px" />Molecular Solar Thermal Energy Storage Systems, Most, is a closed energy system based on a specially designed molecule of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, which when hit by sunlight changes shape into an energy-rich isomer – a molecule made up of the same atoms but arranged together in a different way. The isomer can then be stored in liquid form for later use when needed, such as at night or in winter. The researchers have refined the system to the point that it is now possible to store the energy for up to 18 years. A specially designed catalyst releases the saved energy as heat while returning the molecule to its original shape, so it can then be reused in the heating system. Now, in combination with an micrometer-thin thermoelectric generator, the energy system can also generate electricity to order.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Photo above to the right: Maria Quant and Zhihang Wang, postdocs in the Most reserach group, in the front a modell of the specially designed molecule <span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(17, 102, 170);font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, arial, sans-serif;font-size:12px">​</span><br /></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif">Read previous press releases about the energy system Most</h3> <div><ul><li>​<a href="https://news.cision.com/chalmers/r/window-film-could-even-out-the-indoor-temperature-using-solar-energy%2cc3205508" title="Link to press release ">Window film can even out the temperature using solar energy</a></li> <li><a href="https://news.cision.com/chalmers/r/emissions-free-energy-system-saves-heat-from-the-summer-sun-for-winter%2cc3179315" title="Link to press release ">Emission-free energy system saves heat from the summer sun to the winter​</a></li></ul></div></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about the research and the scientific article </h3> <div><ul><li>​The study <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrp.2022.100789" title="Link to scientific article ">Chip-scale solar thermal electrical power generation</a> is published in Cell Reports Physical Science. The article is written by Zhihang Wang, Zhenhua Wu, Zhiyu Hu, Jessica Orrego-Hernández, Erzhen Mu, Zhao-Yang Zhang, Martyn Jevric, Yang Liu, Xuecheng Fu, Fengdan Wang, Tao Li and Kasper Moth-Poulsen. The researchers are active at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden, Shanghai Jiao Tong University and Henan Polytechnic University in China, as well as at the Institute of Materials Science in Barcelona and the Catalan Department of Research and Advanced Studies, ICREA, in Spain.<br /><br /></li> <li>The research has been funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, the Swedish Research Council Formas, the Swedish Energy Agency, the European Research Council (ERC) under grant agreement CoG, PHOTHERM - 101002131, the Catalan Institute of Advanced Studies (ICREA), and the European Union's Horizon 2020 Framework Programme under grant agreement no. 951801.</li></ul></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For more information contact:</h3> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/zhihang.aspx" title="Link to personal profile page ">Zhihang Wang</a>, Post Doc, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/kasper-moth-poulsen.aspx" title="Link to personal profile page ">Kasper Moth-Poulsen</a>, Professor, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Jenny Holmstrand, Mia Halleröd Palmgren, Joshua Worth <br />Credit for images above and video material: <span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers University of Technology | Per Erséus, Språng kommunikation</span></div> <div>Credit for illustration: Chalmers University of Technology | Daniel Spacek, neuroncollective.com<br />Credit portrait Kasper Moth-Poulsen: Oscar Mattsson |<span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers University of Technology</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <div>Credit portrait Zhihang Wang: Sandra Nayeri <span></span><span style="background-color:initial">|</span><span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers University of Technology​</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>​<br /></div> ​​​​Mon, 11 Apr 2022 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Combination-of-changes-essential-to-save-the-climate.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Combination-of-changes-essential-to-save-the-climate.aspxCombination of changes essential to save the climate<p><b>​​Extensive technological developments, a ban on fossil fuels, less construction, fewer flights, fewer car journeys and lower levels of beef and dairy consumption. Only by taking all these measures in combination can Sweden get closer to emission levels in line with the Paris Agreement, according to a new research report commissioned by the Swedish Parliament.</b></p><div>On April 7, 2022, the Swedish Cross-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives is suggesting a new consumption-based climate target, as a complement to the existing territorial climate targets. As a basis for this, a group of Swedish researchers, from organisations including Chalmers University of Technology, have produced a comprehensive report analysing how consumption patterns need to change for Sweden to reach emission levels in line with the Paris Agreement's goal of keeping the global temperature rise well below two degrees Celsius.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers' conclusion is that while extensive technological developments are essential, consumption habits must also change – only by combining these two approaches do we stand a chance of achieving the goals of the Paris Agreement. The premise in the calculations is that the remaining future emissions are distributed globally evenly per person.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“If we are to achieve really low emission levels, we need to both invest heavily in new climate-smart technologies, as well as make significant changes to our behaviour when it comes to the goods and services with the highest carbon footprints,” says Jörgen Larsson, Associate Professor in sustainable consumption at Chalmers University of Technology, and project manager for the report.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Without behavioural changes, emissions will remain high</h3> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/publication/529052"><span style="background-color:initial">The report &quot;</span><span style="background-color:initial">Consumption based scenarios for Sweden - a basis for discussing new climate targets&quot;</span>​</a><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">is based on analyses of different scenarios and shows t</span><span style="background-color:initial">hat if we rely only on technological developments – measures such as eliminating fossil-fuel vehicles, producing fossil-free steel and fossil-free commercial fertiliser – emissions will still be too high. Only when these technological developments are combined with significant changes in behaviour does the outlook improve – particularly if the changes are substantial.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>When combined with fewer flights, less car travel, significantly reduced consumption of beef and dairy products, and radically reduced construction of roads and housing – for example by converting office blocks to residential buildings – emissions could sink by up to 90 per cent by 2050, compared with today's level. This reduction of emissions is based on the assumption that the rest of the world also enacts climate change mitigation measures to meet the goals of the Paris Agreement, thereby reducing the carbon footprints of imported goods.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The scenario with extensive behavioral changes is a theoretical thought experiment, which aims to show the lowest levels we could reach with the help of both technological and radical social changes and still live a modern life.” says Johannes Morfeldt, researcher at the Division of Physical Resource Theory at Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Analyses based on five distinct scenario​s </h3> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The report, which is based on Swedish</span><span style="background-color:initial"> conditions, outlines scenarios with varying degrees of technological development and behavioural changes.</span><br /></div> <div><ul><li>The Reference scenario foresees behaviours and technology evolving according to current trends.</li> <li>The Territorial climate target scenario – Sweden’s climate targets are achieved mainly through technological changes.</li> <li>Behaviour and technology scenario – in addition to the technological changes in the previous scenario, further measures are implemented (both technical and behavioural) to lower Swedish consumption impacts outside of Sweden's borders as well. (not shown in the figure) </li> <li>Comprehensive behaviour and technology scenario – extensive reductions in flying, driving, consumption of beef and dairy products, as well as in the construction of new roads and housing.</li> <li>Reference scenario with comprehensive behaviour change – the same reductions in consumption as in the previous scenario, but without the introduction of advanced technologies, both in Sweden and abroad.</li></ul> <div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Konsumtionsvanor-klimatmalen_diagram-750px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial"><i>The figure shows the emission levels and reduction potentials for different scenarios in 2050 compared to 2019 for emissions related to transportation, food, buildings and infrastructure. Current trends and policies shows the results for Swedish consumption-based emissions if other countries develop in line with current climate policy. Global climate transition shows results for Swedish consumption-based emissions if other countries develop in line with the goals of the Paris Agreement.</i></span><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(0, 0, 0)"> </span></p></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about the research</h3> <div><span style="background-color:initial">This study outlines a method for scenario analysis based on bottom-up simulations of pathways for consumption sectors with the largest climate impact – passenger car travel, air travel, construction and housing, and food. The study extends previous research by analysing the impact of lifestyle and technological changes at the national level on consumption-based emissions. The analysis merges methods developed in separate sectoral studies and places them in a prospective lifecycle assessment framework. Assumptions are harmonised for two background scenarios – a current trends and policies scenario and a global climate transition scenario in line with the Paris Agreement’s goals – to illustrate the strong influence of technological developments in the rest of the world when estimating consumption-based emissions (indicated by a range).</span></div> <div>The report has been prepared on behalf of the Swedish Cross-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives, whose final report will be presented on April 7. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The assignment was led by <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/jorgen-larsson.aspx">Jörgen Larsson</a> and <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/morfeldt.aspx">Johannes Morfeldt</a> (Chalmers University of Technology) who worked with all parts of the analysis. Other participating researchers: </div> <div><ul><li>Jonas Åkerman (PhD, KTH Royal Institute of Technology)</li> <li>Jonas Nässén (associate professor, Chalmers)</li> <li>Daniel Johansson (associate professor, Chalmers)</li> <li>Frances Sprei (associate professor, Chalmers)</li> <li>Cecilia Hult (doctoral student, Chalmers)</li> <li>Johan Rootzén (PhD, IVL Swedish Environmental Institute)</li> <li>Ida Karlsson (doctoral student, Chalmers)</li> <li>Stefan Wirsenius (associate professor, Chalmers)</li> <li>Fredrik Hedenus (professor, Chalmers)</li> <li>Erik André (doctoral student, Chalmers)</li> <li>Markus Millinger (PhD, Chalmers).</li></ul></div> ​Thu, 07 Apr 2022 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/We-are-in-the-middle-of-the-transition.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/We-are-in-the-middle-of-the-transition.aspxIPCC – "We are in the middle of the transition"<p><b>​“The IPCC collects and reports about the state of knowledge in science, technical and socio-economic assessments on climate change. Everything we write in the report is not new scientific discoveries. The main aim is to bring this knowledge to policymakers and the general public in a comprehensive, clear and accessible way”, says Sonia Yeh, who contributed to UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change´s (IPCC) report, which was presented on the 4th of April.​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">WG III, is the final part of the IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report, and it focuses on climate change mitigation, assessing methods for reducing greenhouse gas emissions, and removing greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. </span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>“So the main challenge for us as scientific contributors</strong> is the writing. How do you communicate in a clear and unbiased way, what information to include or to exclude, how do we coordinate across chapters so there is consistent and no overlapping messages, etc.”, says Sonia Yeh, Professor of energy and transport systems at Chalmers University of Technology. </div> <div>Her expertise is in energy economics and energy system modelling, alternative transportation fuels, sustainability standards, technological change, and consumer behavior and mobility. She has contributed to IPPC report, Working Group III Mitigation of Climate Change, Chapter 10 Transport in the subchapter “Scenarios from Integrated, Sectoral and Regional Models”.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What is it that makes you take on such a big assignment like this?</strong></div> <div>“On one hand, it is indeed a huge time commitment. So, one must decide beforehand how much time one can spare to be involved in such a big effort. On the other hand, it is a huge honor as a scientist to be selected to represent your country to co-produce such an important document. The document is the most comprehensive assessment effort roughly every 6 years providing an update on climate mitigations options. It has tremendous societal values to both policymakers and all concerned citizens around the world”, says Sonia Yeh.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Her path to be selected</strong> as an IPCC contributing author was a bit unconventional. The typical path for being an IPCC author was for one to first self-nominate, then being selected for nomination by your country. <br /><br /></div> <div>“I joined the IPCC process in the middle as I received a phone call one day by the lead author of the chapter on transport scenario asking if they can rely on my competence in the long-term projections of transport scenarios. That’s how I joined in the middle of the process. So there is a separate path to be asked to join as an contributing author if the lead authors consider your technical expertise is critical for part of the report”, says Sonia Yeh.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What sets this report apart from previous reports?</strong></div> <div>&quot;I cannot talk about any specific details before the release. But certainly, one of the most interesting things writing up this report is to observe how things have changed from this report from the last (5th Assessment Report), which directions and how fast the changes were. Lots of things have changed: technology costs and their commercial availability, demand growth, new technology, system level interactions, etc. As someone said, around the time of the last report, we were talking about the transitions. At the time of the writing of this report, we are right in the middle of the transitions. So we are certainly seeing lots of changes (both expected and unexpected) so that would be something interesting to watch out for when the report is released&quot;. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What is the biggest challenge for you as a researcher working on the report?</strong></div> <div>&quot;The IPCC collects and reports about the state of knowledge in science, technical and socio-economic assessments on climate change. Everything we write in the report is not new scientific discoveries. The main aim is to bring this knowledge to policymakers and the general public in a comprehensive, clear and accessible way. So the main challenge for us as scientific contributors is the writing. How do you communicate in a clear and unbiased way, what information to include or to exclude, how do we coordinate across chapters so there is consistent and no overlapping messages, etc.&quot; </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What are the most important conclusions you can draw from your work, on a purely personal level?</strong></div> <div>&quot;The main thing I learned is the self-reflective part that I mentioned above regarding what sets this report apart from the previous reports. In a way we are asking on behalf of the public, How has science changed in this report compared to the last, how things have changed, are the challenges we face today different from the challenges we faced 4 years ago? Unfortunately IPCC mainly addresses the question of “what do we know today” rather than the question of “what has changed compared to the last assessment.” This is understandable. To answer the latter question comprehensively, it requires greater efforts conducting rigorous studies and IPCC is not set up to do that. Nevertheless it is a question I ask myself frequently while writing for the report, and I am sure that you will see a lot of discussions in the blog posts, tweets, and news columns on this later question a lot. One should be careful and take these discussions with a grain of salt though since most of them are produced quickly to provide discussion points in the news media and for the public discussion. Therefore they are good food for thoughts but one must understand that IPCC does not formally analyze such a question&quot;, says Sonia Yeh.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>When it comes to the most important </strong>measures to reduce the climate impact of the transport sector, Sonia Yeh recommends the seminar, <a href="/en/areas-of-advance/energy/calendar/Pages/IPCC-WG3-Where-are-we-in-the-transitions.aspx">IPCC Sixth Assessment Working Group III report on Climate Mitigation: Where are we in the transitions?</a> It´s a public online seminar and several of the authors of the report will participate.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The important thing to know is that there is no silver bullet. Reducing CO2 emissions from the transport sector cannot rely on a single technology, one behavioral change or a single policy measure. Exactly how much a role different measures can contribute will depend on the region, time frame, the commitments of the governments and individual actions. The chairman of the IPCC says that IPCC is policy relevant, but not policy descriptive. IPCC does not tell policymakers or the citizens what they should do, but what they could do to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, and the impacts of different actions in terms of potential for emissions reductions”, says Sonia Yeh.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>When do you think the energy will be fossil free for all transports?</strong></div> <div>“My personal reflection is that the transport energy will not be fossil free without strong policy measures. Meaning, policymakers will need to take actions to introduce policies such as carbon tax or carbon caps, incentives, standards and regulations, investments in low-carbon technology and transport infrastructure that supports zero-carbon fuels and vehicles, charging infrastructure for electric buses, cars, trucks, ferries, etc. So there is a lot to be done. But it is like “The Little Engine That Could”, we can do it! And I believe that we have the momentum. It is just a matter of how fast we want to do this”, says Sonia and highlights an <span style="background-color:initial">exampl</span><span style="background-color:initial">e</span><span style="background-color:initial"> of how fast things have changed in the last few years:<br />&quot;A few years back, most people think the only viable ways to decarbonize long-haul trucks are biofuels and hydrogen. But as the price of batteries falling faster than expected, electrifying long-haul trucks are becoming real and attractive possibilities. The only hinder is the build-up of the charging infrastructure, which of course is an intensive research area that we at our group are also working actively with many European partners. Many excellent research groups at Chalmers are also studying this from many angles including materials, batteries to system level integration like the grid impacts in Sweden and in Europe”.</span></div> <div><br /><strong>Related:<br /></strong><a href="https://www.ipcc.ch/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />IPCC, <span style="background-color:initial">The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change </span></a></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/edit/Pages/sonia-yeh.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Sonia Yeh, Chalmers University of Technology</a><br /><a href="/en/departments/see/news/Pages/IPCC-reports-spread-knowledge-effectively.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />IPCC reports spread knowledge effectively​</a><br /></div> <div><span></span><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/energy/calendar/Pages/IPCC-WG3-Where-are-we-in-the-transitions.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />IPCC Webinar – Where are we in the transitions?</a><br /><br />Text: Ann-Christine Nordin</div> ​​Sun, 03 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/New-collaboration-will-accelerate-Sweden's-green-transition.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/New-collaboration-will-accelerate-Sweden's-green-transition.aspxCollaboration will accelerate Sweden's green transition<p><b>​Sweden will become a world leader in battery research and electrification of transport. A new collaboration between Chalmers, Lund University and Uppsala University will contribute with more research, more engineers and continuous skills development in battery technology and power electronics.</b></p><div>​The transport sector worldwide is currently switching to fossil-free operation, and electrification is the dominant strategy. This has led to an increasing demand for research and expertise in battery development.</div> <div> </div> <div>The Swedish transport sector is in the middle of this green transformation, with the goal that the vehicle fleet will be completely fossil-free by 2045, with carbon dioxide emissions reduced by 70 percent by 2030. For industry to take a leading role in the transition to an electrified society, new knowledge and skills are needed – applied research, training of engineers and further training for current professionals.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Collaboration for new knowledge and skills supply</h2> <div>Today, Chalmers and the universities of Lund and Uppsala carry out world-leading research and education focused on sustainable mobility. A joint platform is now also being established where the three universities will work more closely, together with the industry, to develop new knowledge, conduct education, run joint research projects, and coordinate participation in international electrification projects.</div> <div> </div> <div>The universities’ long-term ambition is also to educate more engineers with a focus on battery technology and power electronics, to establish more doctoral positions and to strengthen their further education offerings.</div> <div> </div> <div>“The collaboration will give us stronger conditions to influence Sweden's role in the electrification of the transport sector through increased research and skills supply. This is an important step in achieving the climate goals and contributing to Swedish competitiveness,” says Stefan Bengtsson, President and CEO of Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div> </div> <div>“ESS and MAX IV are unique research infrastructures in Sweden that can contribute to new technical and material competence. When we three universities now jointly strengthen our research and industry collaboration, we become a node that attracts world-leading competence. We want to be, and can be, at the forefront of sustainable mobility solutions and electrification,” says Erik Renström, Vice-Chancellor of Lund University.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Our three universities complement and strengthen each other. Uppsala's internationally strong profile in battery technology and the new master's education in this area come into exactly the right context in this collaboration. Together, we will be able to contribute to increasing the pace of this necessary adjustment,” says Anders Hagfeldt, Vice-Chancellor of Uppsala University.</div> <div> </div>Wed, 16 Mar 2022 13:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/Bike-commuting-may-be-hindered-by-lack-of-equipment.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/Bike-commuting-may-be-hindered-by-lack-of-equipment.aspxBike commuting may be hindered by lack of equipment<p><b>​Companies that manufacture and sell bicycle products could play a key role in increasing the number of people who use bikes for everyday transport. A study from Chalmers shows that access to the right equipment can be crucial for successful year-round cycling, and that it´s difficult to find suitable products when the bike is a vehicle rather than a sports tool.</b></p><div>​The Transport Area of Advance has funded a group of “Covid projects”, where researchers have studied how various parts of the transport system have been affected by the pandemic (see list at the bottom).</div> <div> </div> <div>One of the projects – <em>Everyday cycling in unusual times</em> – is an interview study with twelve participants in Gothenburg, who had changed their daily mode of transport to cycling to avoid public transport. Chalmers researchers Helena Strömberg and Pontus Wallgren, at the Divison of Design &amp; Human Factors, saw the opportunity to map these &quot;new&quot; year-round cyclists' overall experiences of using their bikes for both work commuting and other transports.</div> <div> </div> <div>The participants' stories entail many ideas for how different actors can contribute to climate change mitigation by making cycling more attractive in various ways – after the pandemic as well. One theme that stands out, and which so far has not received much attention, is difficulties in finding suitable products that are needed for the bicycle to function as an everyday vehicle. For example, clothes to stay dry and warm (but not too warm), trolleys or watertight bags for all the necessities that must be transported, and safety gear such as helmets and winter tires.<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_bilder-utan-fast-format/Helena%20Strömberg%20porträtt.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Photo of Helena Strömberg" style="margin:5px" /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“The study shows that equipment is very important for successful year-round cycling, and this factor has previously been rarely discussed”, says Helena Strömberg. “The participants managed to overcome several different types of barriers by finding the right equipment. But it was an unnecessarily difficult and time-consuming process for them, and we believe that there is a lot to work with in this area to reduce barriers to cycling.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Reluctantly dressed in neon colours and lycra</h2> <div>All the participants in the study had gone through a process of buying, trying and rejecting a lot of different equipment in order to end up with something that was compatible with their needs. They had struggled to find gear that was suitable for everyday cycling – most products were adapted for sport biking. And this was both a functional and an aesthetic problem.</div> <div> </div> <div>The participants didn’t want to look like “die-hard” or “sports” cyclists, and didn’t want cycling to be part of their identity. They wanted to find equipment and clothes that look normal, and that are functional for ordinary people who just get around by bike in all weathers. But in many cases they had had to accept the neon and lycra aesthetics, because that was what was available, and it was difficult enough to find products with the right functionality.<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_bilder-utan-fast-format/Pontus%20Wallgren%20porträtt.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Photo of Pontus Wallgren" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /></div> “Here we see a great opportunity for industry to develop clothing and other equipment that support cycling equally well as the speciality gear, but with a more varied and inclusive aesthetic”, says Pontus Wallgren. <div> </div> <div>But just finding out what products are available and where to find them was a hurdle for the participants. They searched with the help of informal networks, such as colleagues they met at the bike rack at work. The ferry across the river in Gothenburg proved to be a good help for those who commuted that way. There they got the opportunity to check out which equipment other cyclists had, and also to chat to them for tips and advice.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Better opportunities to try equipment out can make a difference</h2> <div>The researchers therefore believe that increasing the trialability and overview of products for everyday biking is a great opportunity for the bicycle industry, as well as for the public sector. For example, companies could offer a hire and buy scheme, and also offer better sales processes with tailored recommendations based on the particular cyclist's needs. The public sector could make contributions such as libraries for gear, and arenas where inexperienced bike commuters could learn about everything from equipment to the best route for them.<br /></div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/350x305/Vardagscykling_sidbild_350x305px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Photo of a cyclist" style="margin:5px" /><br />“Cycling all year round for all purposes in a Nordic climate is quite a skill to learn”, says Helena Strömberg. “All the participants in the study described a learning process, where they actively sought out various solutions to make cycling work in their daily life.” <div> </div> <div>The challenges for cyclists are similar in many Swedish cities. However, Gothenburg is also a very hilly city, and most of the participants had found out that a traditional bike was not compatible with the requirements of everyday cycling. They had bought a new bicycle as part of the process when they discovered their own needs – either an e-bike or a light, sporty bike with multiple gears.</div> <div> </div> <div>“In high-cycling countries such as Denmark and the Netherlands, it is often said that the only thing you need is a standard bike with an upright riding position”, says Pontus Wallgren. “But many people have a rather flat biking route there, and this is an example of the importance of finding solutions for local and individual barriers to cycling as well.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Easier and more fun than expected despite the challenges</h2> <div>After all, the participants in the study had expected that it would be even more difficult to become a year-round cyclist than it actually turned out to be. And their stories contain many positive effects of biking.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/350x305/Vardagscykling_sidbild2_350x305px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Photo of a cyclist" style="margin:5px" /><br /></div> <div>“One thing that really stands out in our results is the participants' experiences of joy, freedom and empowerment when cycling”, says Pontus Wallgren. “They had been cycling for about a year when they were interviewed, and almost all of them said they intended to continue after the pandemic as well.”</div> <div> </div> <div>But the study was specifically about people who had managed to maintain their cycling, and thus had overcome the various hurdles they had faced. They also told about colleagues who had tried to change their mode of transport to biking during the pandemic, but had given up because it was too hard.</div> <div> </div> <div>It could be small things that together made the cons outweigh the pros. Poor support for bike commuting at the workplace or home was one of them. For example, one got tired of crossing a giant car parking every day to get to a small bicycle parking where it wasn´t even possible to lock the bike to something – or of pushing wet outerwear into a locker, and then putting on the still wet clothes at the end of the working day.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Our results, as well as previous research, show that employers and house owners can also do a lot to reduce barriers to cycling”, says Helena Strömberg. “For example, by offering secure indoor bike storage and facilities for showering, drying wet clothes and recharging batteries.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Lack of priority and capacity can only be partially compensated</h2> <div>The results are also in line with previous research regarding a third important factor for how many people choose to cycle: how much priority and space that are allocated to cycling in the city. Thus it comes down to urban development and policy, but also to usage and maintenance of the already existing bike lanes.</div> <div> </div> <div>Some problematic examples from the participants' stories were dangerous road sections where aggressive motorists demonstrated their perceived right to the road, sections where there were indeed cycle lanes – but very frequent stops were required for various reasons, and cycle lanes with potholes, patchy asphalt and late snow removal.</div> <div> </div> <div>Gothenburg is one of many cities that have a long way to go to reach their cycling goals, even though the mode of transport has increased during the pandemic. And overall, the participants in the study felt that biking is not a prioritised mode of transport in Gothenburg. “I almost always feel that the cars are at advantage when you go out, so I cannot think of it as a cycling city”, was one of the statements.</div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_puffbilder/Vardagscykling_350x220px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Photo of a bicycle bell" style="margin:5px" />The consequences of this were also something they tried to compensate for with equipment. Lots of reflectors. Shock absorbers for bumpy bike lanes. And then the perfect bicycle bell, with just the right loudness, so that pedestrians on the bike lanes will hear it but not get scared or angry. It has named the scientific paper about the results of the study that was recently published: <a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0264275122000130" target="_blank"><em>Finding that elusive bell and other issues - experiences from starting to cycle during a pandemic.</em></a></div> <div> </div> <div>But of course there are limits to what biking gear can achieve.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Although our study indicates that equipment is a factor which needs more attention, that doesn´t mean that urban development and policy become less important”, says Pontus Wallgren. “If more people are to choose the bike for daily transport, everyday cycling absolutely needs to be prioritised in cities. That is necessary for the bike routes to be safe and efficient, but also for them to be nice environments where people enjoy cycling. All of this contributes to increasing the relative advantage of cycling over other modes of transport.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Johanna Wilde</div> <div><strong>Photo:</strong> Chalmers; Helena Strömberg and Pontus Wallgren. Pixabay; the rest of the photos – the people in these images did not participate in the study.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">The Covid projects funded by the Transport Area of Advance</h3> <ul><li><em>Exploratory analysis of new data sources to assess the impact of Covid-19 on urban mobility</em>. Jorge Gil, Chalmers, Anders Larsson, University of Gothenburg. </li> <li><em>The role of liner shipping for robust supply chains.</em> Contact person; Johan Woxenius, University of Gothenburg. </li> <li><em>Long-term impacts of Covid-19 on the sustainability of online clothing retailing.</em> Patricia van Loon, Chalmers, Sharon Cullinane, Magnus Jansson, Michael Browne, University of Gothenburg. </li> <li><em>The interdependence between freight and passenger transport services.</em> Contact person; Jonas Flodén, University of Gothenburg. </li> <li><em>Everyday cycling in unusual times.</em> Helena Strömberg, Pontus Wallgren, Chalmers. </li> <li><em>Urban deliveries pre and during Covid-19</em>. Ivan Sanchez-Diaz, Juan Pablo Castrellon, Chalmers. </li> <li><em>The psychology behind hoarding during Covid-19</em>. John Magnus Roos, Jonas Flodén, Johan Woxenius, University of Gothenburg. </li> <li><em>Western Swedes' travel habits before and during Covid-19.</em> John Magnus Roos, University of Gothenburg, Frances Sprei, Chalmers. </li> <li><em>Procurement, firm resilience, and effectiveness of response to disruptions: insights from Covid-19</em>. Ala Arvidsson, Patrik Jonsson, Riikka Kaipia, Chalmers.</li></ul> <div> </div> Mon, 07 Mar 2022 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Get-more-out-of-the-forest-with-better-processes.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/Get-more-out-of-the-forest-with-better-processes.aspxGet more out of the forest with better processes<p><b>​Man has always lived on and off the forest. Today Sweden is one of the world's most important producers of products from forest raw materials. The Wallenberg Wood Science Center now receives an additional SEK 380 million for wood research with the goal of creating new material and making the processes more sustainable and energy efficient.​</b></p>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Kemiteknik/Hans%20Theliander.jpg" alt="Hans Theliander" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">“The grant is a fantastic thing. We have been working with the center for almost 15 years. This means that you get an additional number of years to work with these things and expand the portfolio”, says Hans Theliander, professor of Forest Products and Chemical Engineering at Chalmers, and one of the researchers at Chalmers who has been with the Wallenberg Wood Science Center since the start in 2009.<br /><br /></span><div><strong>In his head</strong> he has a sequence for how the wood material of the forest can be used better. Think about reusing each carbon molecule 40 to 50 times before turning it into carbon dioxide. In the future, the forest industry will be far more than planks and paper.</div> <div>“In a first step, different sawn products can be manufactured and used for different purposes for several years. It can be, for example, in buildings or furniture. Then you can use the wood material in these products to produce pulp fibers, for example you can use it to make paper packaging or writing materials - when you have circulated the fiber material a number of times and the quality of the fibers is no longer as good, you could pick out nanocomponents and make different materials of nanocellulose which in many cases can replace today's plastic materials, circulate these a number of times to then extract cellulose polymers and make various textile materials, for example viscose”.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>“I'm not done with that,</strong> says Hans Theliander, after this you can pick out the sugar molecules that are in the textile cellulose-based materials, and ferment to ethanol, a raw material for several different chemicals, not least fuel. I can take several other examples. We must start thinking in that way to make the most of the forest in the future. But then it is important to adapt the processes and material types. Future researchers have something to do here”, says Hans Theliander.</div> <div>Already today, the sawmills and pulp mills, has a good start to a sequential order In the sawmills, which are the important thing, it is sawn up to become planks. The residual streams from sawmills in form of sawmill chips together with thinning wood from manage of the forest, can go to the pulp mills. Add to this the extensive paper recycling, and we already have the first steps. But it is of course important to expand this. The Wallenberg Wood Science Center was started in 2009. The focus is on basic research that aims to develop knowledge as a basis for a new generation of innovative materials from trees.<br /><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/Profilbilder/Lisbeth_Olsson_2017.jpg" alt="Lisbeth Olsson" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /><strong>“Sometime in 2008</strong>, the Wallenberg Foundation held a large workshop with researchers from several subject areas on forest renewal. After that, an announcement was made in the area addressed to the universities. The result was a center between KTH and Chalmers University of Technology. Later, Linköping University would join. It was a ten-year venture. This is how the Wallenberg Wood Science Center was started”, says Lisbeth Olsson, professor of Industrial Biotechnology, who together with Hans Theliander and Paul Gatenholm, professor of Biopolymer Technology, is the initiator of the center at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>“The philosophy </strong>at Wallenberg Wood Science Center is to develop milder process methods so that you can retain more of the structure of lignin and hemicellulose, based on building new materials where the inherent properties of the wood are utilized. The goal is to make the entire manufacturing process more energy efficient. An example of this is drainage. When to get the fiber out - it is a solid material you should have in the end. That process is enormously energy-intensive, this is what Hans Theliander works with”, says Lisbeth Ohlsson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Hans Theliander's track record as a researcher and innovator in the sulphate factory's recycling processes is long. In recent years, he has worked with filtration and extraction of lignin. The process - LignoBoost - is today commercialized and is in operation at two pulp mills in the world. It has the potential to be a central technology in the pulp mills of the future. Hans has also been active in pulp technology research with significant contributions concerning, among other things, heat, and mass transport during cooking and in biorefinery-related studies where mathematical modeling has been central.</div> <div>Knowledge from different areas is needed to ultimately be able to produce exciting new materials from the forest raw material, here several different specializations in materials and process technology are important. When it comes to the more &quot;chemical&quot; aspects, the whole spectrum is needed from basic chemistry, via applied chemistry to chemical engineering.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>“My research area</strong> is about the processes needed to produce different types of materials from wood raw material. It may not be quite as “sexy” as the material itself but is of course one of the prerequisites for being able to produce different products from wood material. 20 years ago, the balance was good between chemistry, applied chemistry and chemistry / process technology. At present, there is a great imbalance”, says Hans Theliander.</div> <div>“Today, it is primarily material technology that has increased. While Chemical engineering has decreased, which is a problem”, says Hans Theliander, not only at Chalmers, but also internationally and this is a problem since engineers with that competence are needed.</div> <div>“It has been a big loss in the field of chemical engineering or process engineering as it can also be called. 20 years ago, Chalmers really had competence and good momentum in that business. But since then, several professors have retired without new recruitment”, says Hans Theliander.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>The challenge </strong>has also been observed in the industry, which has been involved in initiating a new bio innovation program called &quot;Resource-smart industrial processes&quot;. The goal is to strengthen process / chemical engineering in Sweden. The program is the reason why Hans Theliander still works 40 percent.</div> <div>“The idea is now that Merima Hasani, researcher and associate professor in the field of Forest Industrial Chemical Engineering will take over after me. It is a national program at Chalmers with eleven doctoral students and postdocs and funded by Vinnova, the industry and academy”.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>What does the development of process technology mean for the forest industry?</strong></div> <div>“This is about a lot. Historically, the energy has been quite cheap, which has meant that when these processes was developed the smartest and most energy efficient process solutions was not used. Some improvements have been done during the years but with improved knowledge in chemical engineering and process engineering, it is possible to optimize the processes much further and make them more energy efficient and utilize the forest material better: in the end get a better material yield. If you look at a sulphate pulp factory today - you burn half - and half become pulp fibers. It is a poor material yield. You must increase it. Which has been one of my mantras for the last 15-20 years”, says Hans.</div> <div>“People are starting to open their eyes to this, after all, wood is the most expensive part when producing pulp. You want as much out of it as possible”, he says.</div> <div>Hans Theliander's research group has worked with several proposals on how, for example, you can also use branches and tops in a smarter way. Today, fine pulpwood is used as a starting material to make viscose.</div> <div>“You can do it in another way. When you make viscose you need polymers, not a lot of fine fibers, it is enough that the polymer is okay - you can take it from branches and tops. These are the thoughts you must have in the future to make the biomaterial last”.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong><img src="/en/areas-of-advance/energy/PublishingImages/Making%20science%20useful/HansT_220x180px.jpg" alt="Hans Theliander" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />How do you make the processes more sustainable and energy efficient?</strong></div> <div>“ I usually put it like this. We have a unique medium and that is water, which is also a good and environmentally friendly chemical. We should continue to use that. There are two problems with water, I usually jokingly say that one is 4.18 (kJ / kg K) - ie the heat capacity - that is, how much energy you need to use per degree and kilo of water.</div> <div>The second is 2300 (kJ / kg) - it is so much energy you need to evaporate a kilo of water. It is a high heat of vaporization value. An example is: When we digest the wood, the pulp fibers are suspended in the cooking liquid. We wash the pulp fiber with water and the more water we use, the greater the energy demand are later in the process. Here it is important to make the washing of the pulp fiber more efficient, use as little water as possible, to minimize the heat demand in subsequent evaporation steps”.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Is water in short supply here?</strong></div> <div>“Well, it is probably not the lack of water, but it is costly energy wise to remove the water from wet products. This takes huge amounts of energy. Just to give proportion - a partial step in the pulping process is one evaporates and concentrates the black liquor. Every second in Sweden, more than one cubic meter of water is boiled away. Enormous amounts. It is done in a smart way today, but here there is so much more to do”.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Will the society demand less forest if one succeeds in making all these efficiencies?</strong></div> <div>“You can put it in that way, but you can also say that you need to get more out of the same amount of forest. We are about to replace petroleum-based products and given that we use enormous amounts of petroleum-based products – then our needs of other raw materials, and wood will be one of the most important, is enormous. To make the forest last than we really have to be efficient.</div> <div>“What´s interesting is that not many people today know that 100 years ago it was realized that we needed to plant trees. Various laws were enacted on how forests where to be managed. That is why we have so much forest raw material today (about twice as much compared to hundred years ago). Had they not done so – Halland, south of Sweden, would probably have looked like certain parts of England. Green. With a lot of heathlands”, says Hans Theliander.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>How the forest should be used best is discussed extensively by the various actors in society, what opportunities do you see in the future?</strong></div> <div>“Everything is interconnected and complex. There is a lot of politics in the whole thing. I really hope you get the right side of the discussion about the forest. In general, one can probably say that there are very well-managed forests in Sweden – and somehow, we should be able to use it in a sustainable way, but not over-utilize anything. With smarter process technology, we can help you get a higher efficiency of what you pick out of the forest. You then get more per ton of set-aside forest”.</div> <div>“It is an important message about why you should refine process technology. Personally, I do not think it is effective when you burn the wood directly, but instead we will manufacture different materials and chemicals. That we then, after several re-cycles, use it as an energy source must be OK”.</div> <div>“Another important thing – is that we should be able to reuse and circulate materials in a good way. Here, the forest industry has been at the forefront when it comes to collect different paper/board products and how to use the fibers several times. It is a good start, but we have to become even better and also expand it to other fields”, Hans Theliander concludes.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Ann-Christine Nordin</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Read more:</strong><br /><br /><div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://wwsc.se/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Wallenberg Wood Science Center</a><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><font color="#1166aa"><span style="font-weight:700"><a href="https://treesearch.se/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Treesearch</a></span></font></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><font color="#1166aa"><span style="font-weight:700"><a href="https://treesearch.se/"></a></span></font><a href="/sv/Personal/Sidor/lisbeth-olsson.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Lisbeth Olsson</a><br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/paul-gatenholm.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Paul Gatenholm</a></span></div></div> <div><br /></div> ​Fri, 18 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/tme/news/Pages/Scaling-up-battery-production-drive-down-carbon-emissions-significantly.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/tme/news/Pages/Scaling-up-battery-production-drive-down-carbon-emissions-significantly.aspxScaling up battery production drive down carbon emissions significantly<p><b>​A common criticism of electric vehicle production is the high carbon emissions from battery production. But new research from Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden shows how scaling up production through enormous 'gigafactories' can cut the environmental impact significantly, compared to small-scale industrial production. And when the energy used to power the factories comes from green sources, the emissions can be reduced to roughly one quarter compared to results presented a few years back.</b></p><div>​The largest environmental impacts in electric vehicle manufacture usually result from the production of batteries. Over the last decade substantial research has been dedicated to analysing battery production processes to identify the steps with the highest impacts. But earlier data for such analysis has usually been derived from small-scale production facilities, or even pilot projects. </div> <div> </div> <div><span><span><span><span><span><img src="/sv/institutioner/tme/PublishingImages/Porträttbilder/mudit_chordia_170x220.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Mudit Chordia" style="margin:15px;width:150px;height:194px" /></span></span></span></span></span>&quot;Today, however, global battery production capacity is scaling up massively, with gigawatt facilities being commissioned and constructed – and there is little research or data that analyses how this will affect emissions. A lot of research is still published that relies on older data sources stemming mostly from small-scale battery production, thereby skewing the understanding of the environmental impacts,&quot; explains Mudit Chordia, doctoral student at the Department of Technology Management and Economics at Chalmers University of Technology, and lead author of the new study.</div> <div> </div> <div>To rectify this, the researchers used a life cycle assessment to remodel a commonly cited study relating to small scale production and combined it with updated data more representative of the most modern and state-of-the-art upcoming production facilities.</div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;Our results revealed how upscaling battery production from megawatt to the gigawatt level yields significant reductions in energy usage per kilowatt hour of battery-storage capacity produced – up to 58%. The efficiency gains of large-scale production are highly significant,&quot; continues Mudit Chordia.</div> <div> </div> <div>When adjusting for different scenarios relating to the energy supply for such factories, even in the most carbon-intensive case (based on South Korea) the researchers observe an emissions reduction of nearly 45%. In addition, if the energy is supplied from low carbon-intensity sources, the emissions reduce by <em>a further</em> 55%. If regions with low carbon electricity supplies – such as northern Sweden, where construction of Europe’s largest battery factory is currently underway – are selected for the launch of battery production at giga-scale, the potential is very good for producing batteries with lowest possible environmental footprint. </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Access to data a challenge </h3> <div>Another important observation from the study is that with large-scale production, a greater proportion of the impacts shift further up the supply chain, to the raw material extraction and processing phases. A challenge to the researchers’ work was getting access to the relevant data to model the processes and accurately analyse the impacts. </div> <div> </div> <div><span><img src="/sv/institutioner/tme/PublishingImages/Porträttbilder/AndersNordelof_170x220px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Anders Nordelöf" style="margin:15px 5px;width:150px;height:194px" /></span>&quot;In the course of our work, we found that life cycle assessment datasets often used for some of the battery raw materials, lack the coverage and precision necessary for modelling the high grade of material quality required in battery production. The supply chains for manufacturing are usually considered trade secrets, making it very challenging to collect data and to conduct a full analysis representative for all types of actors,&quot; explains Anders Nordelöf, researcher at Chalmers University of Technology and co-author of the study. </div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;For further reductions of the environmental impacts from battery production, the manufacturers and wider battery industry need to make a focused effort on procuring raw materials from low-carbon intensity mineral extraction. But in such a competitive industry, this will remain a challenge for many actors.&quot; </div> <div> <br /><div><br /></div> <div><em>Text: Daniel Karlsson, Joshua Worth</em><br /><em>Foto: Chalmers samt via Northvolt</em></div> <br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about the study: </h3> <div>The scientific study, <a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-021-01976-0" target="_blank">Environmental life cycle implications of upscaling lithium-ion battery production</a> by Chalmers University of Technology researchers Mudit Chordia and Anders Nordelöf, together with Linda Ager-Wick Ellingsen, Norsk institutt for naturforskning, was published in The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 2021.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Contact information: </h3> <div><strong>Mudit Chordia</strong></div> <div>Doctoral student, Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div><a href="mailto:mudit@chalmers.se">mudit@chalmers.se</a></div> <div>+46 31 772 6313<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>Anders Nordelöf</strong></div> <strong> </strong><div>Researcher, Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div><a href="mailto:anders.nordelof@chalmers.se">anders.nordelof@chalmers.se </a></div> <div>+46 31 772 8611<br /><br /></div>Tue, 08 Feb 2022 12:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/TechForH2---for-a-sustainable-hydrogen-economy-of-tomorrow.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/TechForH2---for-a-sustainable-hydrogen-economy-of-tomorrow.aspxFor a sustainable hydrogen economy of tomorrow<p><b>​“Getting a node for vehicle research and hydrogen with its main focus in the western part of Sweden is fantastic. And it’s of course also great that we’ll now get a center that focuses on collaboration between different modes of transport,” says Tomas Grönstedt, coordinator of the competence center TechforH2, which now receives almost SEK 54 million from the Swedish Energy Agency in order to develop new technology in hydrogen propulsion as a step towards conversion to fossil freedom.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">It was just before Christmas that the Swedish Energy Agency announced their large investments in centers that research sustainable energy systems. A total of SEK 600 million is to be distributed in grants to eleven different competence centers, of which more than half are based at Chalmers - as the main applicant in four cases and co-applicants in two. The centers’ overall purpose is to build knowledge and competence that accelerates the transition away from the fossil society and strengthens Sweden's competitiveness.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>One of the competence centers that receives grants from the Swedish Energy Agency is TechForH2 at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Studies, which receives almost SEK 54 million to develop new technology and innovations for the integration of hydrogen propulsion focused on heavier transports. The center's total budget, including funding from the industry and Chalmers, amounts to almost SEK 162 million over a five-year period in a first stage, with the possibility of extension for another five years.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Getting a node for vehicle research and hydrogen with its main focus in the western part of Sweden is fantastic. And it’s of course also great that we’ll now get a center that focuses on collaboration between different modes of transport. Personally, I’ve always enjoyed networking and seeking collaborations within the academy, it will be fun to be able to do this wholeheartedly,” says Tomas Grönstedt, professor of fluid dynamics at the Department of Mechanic and Maritime Studies and coordinator for TechForH2.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Hydrogen - for a fossil-free Sweden</h2> <div>To achieve Sweden's goal of zero net greenhouse gas emissions by 2045, a fossil-free transport system and renewable fuels are an absolute must. The focus so far has been mainly on the importance of electrification, especially in the automotive industry. But for heavier vehicles and trucks, which account for 30% of the transport system's total carbon dioxide emissions, electrification is somewhat trickier as it would entail a very large number of batteries to drive such heavy vehicles, which in turn comes with consequences in terms of weight, space and costs.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Subsequently, there has been a need for research that develops new technical solutions that reduce greenhouse gases and harmful emissions, that aren’t dependent on fossil energy sources, and that, at the same time, answers to the needs of the truck industry and other industries that depend on heavy transport, such as aviation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>With the Swedish Energy Agency's major investment in TechForH2, the hope is now to be able to contribute to knowledge building and education in the area, accelerate the introduction of new technology and thereby contribute to the transition to fossil freedom. More specifically, TechForH2's focus areas will include composites and lightweight structures for vehicle-integrated hydrogen storage and the manufacture and post treatment of metallic materials for, among other things, hydrogen use and sensors. Additionally, the center will further research on fuel cells and vehicle integration and technology/instruments and innovations in a future hydrogen society.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">New recruitments on the way</h2> <div>TechForH2 is coordinated and led by Chalmers, which owns the center together with RISE. A number of industry partners are also involved in the centre's activities; Volvo, Scania, PowerCell, JohnsonMatthey, Oxeon, GKN Aerospace, Insplorion, Siemens Energy and Stena.<span style="background-color:initial">The</span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"> Swedish Energy Agency's investment in TechForH2 means that it's now facing a staff expansion. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> “With this funding, we’ll be able to recruit nine new PhD students. In addition, the Transport Area of Advance is contributing with a number of post-docs specialized in hydrogen use to co-finance Chalmers' operations, while partners from the industry contribute with their own operations to the same extent,” says Tomas Grönstedt.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>For more info about TechForH2, please contact <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/tomas-gronstedt.aspx">Tomas Grönstedt​</a>, coordinator of TechForH2</div> ​<br />Text: Lovisa Håkansson</div>Wed, 26 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Shows-the-way-for-Swedens-climate-transition.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Shows-the-way-for-Swedens-climate-transition.aspxShows the way for Sweden's climate transition<p><b>​By 2045, Sweden will have net-zero emissions. The technology needed to get there is well known and the cost is often marginal at the consumer level. Still, the transition is far too slow. On 3 January, the research program Mistra Carbon Exit released a report with important lessons that need to be considered if we are to accelerate climate action and ensure that change reaches all parts of society.</b></p>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Profilbilder/Filip_Johnsson_170.jpg" alt="Filip Johnsson" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" />–<span style="background-color:initial"> The decisions and measures taken during this decade will be of crucial importance if Sweden is to have a chance of achieving net zero emissions by 2045. The whole society needs to be involved in the adjustment work, in all sectors and at all levels, including companies, municipalities and consumers, says Filip Johnsson, Vice Program Director for Mistra Carbon Exit and Professor at Chalmers University of Technology.<br /><br /></span><div><strong>The report</strong> <em>Accelerating the Climate Transition - Mistra Carbon Exit Key Messages, describes</em> how Sweden can achieve the goal of net zero emissions by 2045, from technical possibilities and challenges to how behaviors, regulation and policy instruments affect the transition.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– We know what technology is needed for Sweden to reach net zero emissions by 2045. We also see that the costs of taking away emissions can be high at the producer level, but in the consumer level in most cases marginal. The challenge lies above all in the fact that it is still too cheap to emit carbon dioxide, says Lars Zetterberg, Program Director for Mistra Carbon Exit and researcher at IVL Swedish Environmental Institute.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/nyheter/PublishingImages/Lars-Zetterberg_mistra_00268-(1)_.jpg" alt="Lars Zetterberg IVL" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" />Th</span><span style="background-color:initial">e report also addresses how climate change risks having a negative impact on other sustainability goals, such as biodiversity and job opportunities.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– Some jobs may disappear, and it can affect different sparsely populated areas and urban areas. But the change will also mean several opportunities, such as improved air quality and the creation of new jobs, which is already noticeable in northern Sweden with investments in battery factories and low-carbon steel, says Lars Zetterberg.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The report provides examples of several advances in climate work. The costs for wind and solar power have fallen dramatically, sales of electric vehicles are increasing faster than expected and the willingness to participate in the conversion is great, both among companies and citizens.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– There is no lack of will to innovate and initiative. But if we are to be able to reduce emissions quickly enough to achieve the climate goals, the work must accelerate further, says Filip Johnsson, Deputy Program Manager for Mistra Carbon Exit and Professor at Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>- The decisions and measures taken during this decade will be of crucial importance if Sweden is to have a chance of achieving net zero emissions by 2045. The whole society needs to be involved in the change process, in all sectors and at all levels, including companies, municipalities and consumers, says Filip Johnsson​.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Download the report:</strong> <a href="https://www.ivl.se/download/18.bd623ec17df7e3707b31e4/1641044446755/MistraCarbonExit_Messages_23nov_small.pdf">Accelerating the Climate Transition - Key Messages from Mistra Carbon Exit Pdf, 6 MB.</a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Related:<br /><a href="https://www.ivl.se/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />IVL</a><br /></strong><a href="https://www.mistracarbonexit.com/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Mistra Carbon Exit<br /><span style="color:rgb(0, 0, 0);font-weight:300">​</span><br />​</a><br /></div> Tue, 04 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Millions-from-the-Swedish-Energy-Agency-to-Chalmers-centers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Millions-from-the-Swedish-Energy-Agency-to-Chalmers-centers.aspxMillions from the Swedish Energy Agency to Chalmers centers<p><b>​When the Swedish Energy Agency distributes SEK 600 million to eleven different competence centers for sustainable energy systems, Chalmers is behind more than half of the centers that are granted funding. The centers will build knowledge and competence that accelerate the transition away from the fossil dependance and strengthen Sweden's competitiveness.</b></p><p>The grants go to a wide range of energy research: biogas, electromobility, electrical energy storage and balancing, hydrogen, sustainable hydropower, nuclear technology, sustainable turbine fuels, deciduous forest, resilient energy systems, catalytic and solar electricity. In addition, researchers in information and communication technology are also affected.</p> <p><br />By 2045, Sweden will have no net emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. As part of being able to implement the change, the Swedish Energy Agency announced research funds in 2020 and 2021 to finance the best competence center formations in Sweden in the energy area. The aim was to find competence centers that can create a long-term collaboration between business, the public sector and academia, and to conduct high-quality and needs-driven research. The interest was great and attracted 29 applications which, after examination and assessment, resulted in eleven centers that share SEK 600 million in grants.<br />Of those who were granted funding, Chalmers was the main applicant behind four, and the co-applicant for two. The direct grants to Chalmers amount to a total of SEK 239,355,500.</p> <p><br />The competence centers are long-term investments where demand-driven research will be conducted on electricity systems and bioenergy as well as transport, industrial processes and energy systems. They cover five years in a first stage, with the possibility of extension for another five years.</p> <p><br />The competence centers are a joint initiative where the Swedish Energy Agency's support of a total of almost SEK 600 million is met by corresponding thirds from higher education institutions and research institutes, and business and public organizations respectively. In total, the competence center investment means that approximately 150 doctoral students and junior researchers are trained in current issues, while at the same time almost 230 companies and other organizations increase their knowledge and competence.<br /><br />The centers led by Chalmers are:<br />Swedish Electromobility Center (E2)<br />Granted support: SEK 92,250,000<br />Coordinator: Linda Olofsson<br /><br />Swedish Center for Electricity Energy Storage and Balancing (E2)<br />Granted support: SEK 54,230,500<br />Coordinator: Massimo Bongiorno<br /><br />Technologies and innovations for future sustainable hydrogen economy (M2)<br />Amount granted: SEK 53,875,000<br />Coordinator: Tomas Grönstedt</p> <p>Read more about <a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/TechForH2---for-a-sustainable-hydrogen-economy-of-tomorrow.aspx">TechForH2 - for a sustainable hydrogen economy of tomorrow</a><br /><br />Competence Center Catalyst (K)<br />Amount granted: SEK 39,000,000<br />Coordinator: Magnus Skoglundh</p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">Read more about the <a href="/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Competence-centers-in-Catalysis-and-Nuclear-technology-receive-support.aspx" target="_blank">Competence centers in Catalyst and Nuclear technology​</a></span><br /></p> <p><br />In addition, Chalmers is a co-applicant to:<br />Swedish center for sustainable hydropower<br />Academic-Industrial nuclear initiative for future sustainable energy supply<br /><br /></p>Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Chalmers-part-of-new-3-billion-sek-research-initiative-on-materials-science-kaw.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Chalmers-part-of-new-3-billion-sek-research-initiative-on-materials-science-kaw.aspxMajor research initiative on materials science<p><b>​The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation is funding just over SEK 3 billion in materials science research for a sustainable world. The purpose is to reduce environmental and climate footprints from the materials we use in our day-to-day lives and industry, which is a necessity to be able to achieve set climate and environmental goals.</b></p>​The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation is now allocating SEK 2.7 billion during the period 2022 – 2033 to a new research program named Wallenberg Initiative Material Science for Sustainability (WISE). The aim of the research program is to create the conditions for a sustainable society by researching next generation of ecofriendly materials and manufacturing processes. This will also facilitate better technology for energy systems of the future, and to combat pollution and toxic emissions.<br /><br />In parallel with this funding, the Wallenberg Wood Science Center, which was established in 2009 with the aim of developing new innovative materials from the Swedish forest, will receive an increased grant of SEK 380 million.<br /><br />“It is incredibly exciting that KAW has chosen to invest in sustainable materials science in this forward-looking way. Chalmers has long conducted outstanding research in this area, and we will be able to contribute to the new initiative with a broad knowledge base. We will be able to take advantage of the new opportunities and strengthen our national collaborations and contribute to strengthening Sweden as an advanced materials development nation together with our strategic partners in the field,” says Anders Palmqvist, vice president for research and professor of materials chemistry, at Chalmers.<br /><div><br /></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Wallenberg Initiative Material Science for Sustainability</h2> <div>Every year a vast quantity of raw materials is extracted across the world. These are mainly metals, minerals, fossil fuels and biomass. Today most of the extracted materials are non-renewable, placing a heavy burden on the environment, societies, and climate. Global production of materials accounts for a large proportion of the total emissions of greenhouse gases, and the production of metals requires a lot of energy.</div> <div> </div> <div>To meet these challenges, the Wallenberg Initiative Material Science for Sustainability research program focuses on four areas: conversion, storage and distribution of clean energy; circular materials replacing rare, energy-demanding, and hazardous materials; mitigation, cleaning and protection of atmosphere, soil, and water and discovery of materials for novel sustainable technologies.</div> <div> </div> <div>“To meet climate and environmental targets industry needs to transition towards sustainability at a swifter rate. For this reason, the research program will be conducted in collaboration with Swedish industry in the form of industrial PhDs and postdocs, and also via research arenas allowing an exchange of knowledge and problems between academia and private enterprises. Industry acquires knowledge generated by research in materials science, and researchers gain insights into the technological and application challenges faced by companies,” says Sara Mazur, director strategic research at Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and chair of the program.</div> <div> </div> <div>“We aspire to establish Sweden as a leading nation in this research field. The overall aim is to facilitate sustainable technologies and to educate the leaders of tomorrow in society, industry and academia,” explains Peter Wallenberg Jr.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Extended grant to Wallenberg Wood Science Center</h2> <div>Wallenberg Wood Science Center was founded in 2009 with the aim of developing new innovative materials from the Swedish forest. Chalmers has participated since the start and can today include researchers from five different departments.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Being part of this multidisciplinary center with a graduate school that has a strong educational program has meant a lot to the researchers. Collaboration across disciplinary boundaries has contributed to new cutting-edge research. At Chalmers, the ability to characterize biomass and developed material have been deepened and new process concepts established. Among other things, we have worked with advanced methods at the ForMAX beam-line at MAXIV in Lund,” says Lisbeth Olsson, professor in industrial biotechnology at Chalmers and co-director at WWSC.</div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Övriga/Lisbeth%20Olsson%20foto%20WWSC_web.jpg" alt="Lisbeth Olsson" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:10px 15px;width:210px;height:263px" /><br />With the increased grant, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation has now funded a total of just over SEK 1 billion in research within WWSC. The grant will support research of renewable materials within the program &quot;New materials from trees for a sustainable future&quot;.</div> <div> </div> <div>“It’s fantastic that KAW has decided to continue and expand its funding for the Wallenberg Wood Science Center. It’s incredibly valuable for Chalmers researchers that we can continue the work. The clear focus on sustainable materials provides even greater opportunities to solving the major societal challenges,” says Lisbeth Olsson.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Övriga/PeterWallenbergjr_web.jpg" alt="Peter Wallenberg Jr" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:10px 15px;width:210px;height:263px" /><br />Replacing oil with wood in the manufacture of plastics, creating stronger and fireproof materials, as well as new functional materials are some of the goals of the Wallenberg Wood Science Center. The funding has, among other things, resulted in transparent wood and paper that has been made magnetic, electrically conductive, and fire-resistant. Other examples are bio-based plastics, adhesives, and porous materials.</div> <div> </div> <div>“This long-term research initiative is intended to make possible a more sustainable future, to make the Swedish forest sector more competitive, and to pave the way for new enterprises based on innovations in this field,” says Wallenberg Jr.</div> <div> </div> <div>Images: <div><span>Lisbeth Olsson; Thor Balkheden<br /></span></div> <div><span></span><span>Peter Wallenberg Jr;</span> Samuel Unéus</div> <br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More information</h2> <div>The universities participating in WISE are Uppsala University, Lund University, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Stockholm University and Linköping University, which is also hosting the program. Under the program, 25 international research teams will be recruited, and a postgraduate school will be established, offering 180 PhD positions, 30 of them industrial PhD students, along with 180 postdoctoral positions, of which 30 will be industrial postdoctoral positions.</div> <div> </div> <div>The expansion of Wallenberg Wood Science Center program, which is being conducted at Chalmers, KTH and Linköping University, means that six research leaders, 18 PhD students, and the same number of postdocs can be recruited, along with four visiting professors.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/" title="Knut och Alice Wallenbergs stiftelse">https://kaw.wallenberg.org/<br /></a></div> <a href="https://wwsc.se/">https://wwsc.se/</a><br /></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Contact</h3> <div><strong>Wallenberg Initiative Material Science for Sustainability</strong><br /></div></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Anders-Palmqvist.aspx">Anders Palmqvist</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div> <strong>Wallenberg Wood Science Center</strong></div></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/lisbeth-olsson.aspx">Lisbeth Olsson</a> <br /></div></div>Tue, 30 Nov 2021 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/EU-deforestation-proposals.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/EU-deforestation-proposals.aspxResearch at the centre of EU deforestation proposals<p><b>​In its new proposal aimed at reducing tropical deforestation, the European Commission has wrongly left out certain goods which make a significant contribution. This is the view of the researchers behind some of the data on which the Commission based its proposal. The proposed legislation places demands on those who import and sell beef, coffee, cocoa, wood, palm oil and soybeans to the EU. But rubber and maize should also be on the list, according to Martin Persson and Florence Pendrill at Chalmers University of Technology.​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Previous research from Chalmers has shown that the EU has a great responsibility for tropical deforestation. EU imports of products such as palm oil and soy cause around 200,000 hectares of tropical deforestation annually. Now, the European Commission is proposing ambitious legislation to halt the EU's contribution to deforestation.</span><div><br /><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Martin-Florence.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />“In order to determine which products are to be covered by the legislation, the Commission has used our data on how EU imports of agricultural products contribute to deforestation. The only problem is that they have used our data incorrectly and therefore excluded maize and rubber, despite the fact that those products also contribute significantly to deforestation,” explains Martin Persson, who together with colleague Florence Pendrill works at the Division of Physical Resource Theory at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Commission has concluded that restrictions on rubber and maize would entail high costs while achieving a relatively small effect on deforestation, compared to the other six products on the list. But this conclusion is built on a flawed comparison – the Chalmers data on deforestation only concerns EU imports of unprocessed natural rubber, but in their calculations of the costs, the Commission have also included processed, recycled, and synthetic rubber, which then yields a  misleading cost-effectiveness ratio.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In addition, import data from the period 2008–2017 has been used, while the data relating to deforestation come from a much shorter period, 2015–2019.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“When we correct the calculations and instead compare the value of the import flows that correspond to the goods included in our deforestation analysis – during the same time period – there is no longer any significant difference between the different goods, and therefore we see no reason for the legislation to exclude rubber and maize,” says Martin Persson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>To address this oversight, Martin Persson, Florence Pendrill and his colleague Thomas Kastner at Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Center wrote a <a href="http://www.focali.se/filer/Focali%20brief_2021_02_Flawed%20numbers%20underpin%20recommendations%20to%20exclude%20commodities%20from%20EU%20deforestation%20legislation.pdf">policy brief in which they addressed the miscalculations</a>.  </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/oct/26/reducing-scope-of-eu-anti-deforestation-law-misguided-say-scientists">The policy brief was picked up by the British newspaper The Guardian</a>, who also published <a href="https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2021/nov/17/eu-deforestation-beef-coffee-import-ban-commodities-endangered-forests">EU Environment Commissioner Virginijus Sinkevičius’ response to the criticism</a>. </span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Text: Christian Löwhagen</em></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Photo: Matt Zimmerman. Portraits: Anna-Lena Lundqvist/Chalmers</em></span></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>Read more:  </span></h3> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="http://www.focali.se/en/articles/artikelarkiv/new-focali-policy-brief-flawed-numbers-underpin-recommendations-to-exclude-commodities-from-eu-deforestation-legislation">​New Focali policy brief: Flawed numbers underpin recommendations to exclude commodities from EU deforestation legislation</a>  </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Previous articles about </span><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">​</span><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Martin and Florence’s research at chalmers.se</span><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/see/news/Pages/How-the-EU-can-reduce-its-impact-on-tropical-deforestation.aspx">How the EU can reduce its impact on tropical deforestation</a> <br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/see/news/Pages/EU-consumption-plays-major-role-in-tropical-deforestation.aspx">EU consumption linked to tropical deforestation</a> <br /></div> <div><br /></div></div>Wed, 24 Nov 2021 11:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/tme/news/Pages/Carbon-emissions-to-become-chemicals-in-new-EU-project.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/tme/news/Pages/Carbon-emissions-to-become-chemicals-in-new-EU-project.aspxCarbon emissions to become chemicals in new EU project<p><b>​Microorganisms that &quot;eat&quot; CO2 and turn it into useful chemicals and materials – a double gain, with carbon emission taken care of and less created in production. This is the scope of a new European project of almost half a billion SEK. Researchers from Chalmers will help to guide the developers to the most environmentally benign design. </b></p><div>​The new project PyroCO2 will demonstrate large-scale conversion of industrial carbon emissions into value-added chemicals and materials. The project, conducted by a consortium of 20 industrial and research partners from 11 countries, aims to demonstrate a new path to create value from industrial CO2 emissions – while improving the sustainability of the chemical industry in Europe.<br /><br />The scope is to establish and demonstrate an innovative platform for carbon capture and utilization, CCU, that turns industrial CO2 into chemical building-blocks using a new biotechnological approach. These are then converted further catalytically into a wide range of products, including other value-added chemicals such as components for paints and plastic, synthetic fuels, as well as recyclable or biodegradable materials normally produced from fossil hydrocarbons. <br /><br />&quot;The project develops a biotechnological process in which industrial CO2 emissions, such as from cement production, is used to produce chemicals. Not only does it contribute to decreasing the emission of CO2. In doing so, it converts the CO2 into chemicals which would otherwise most likely be produced using fossil resources,&quot; explains Senior Researcher Matty Janssen at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg.<br /><br /></div> <div>Chalmers’ role in the project is to guide the process developers to make design choices for a more environmentally benign design. It will do so by bringing expertise and experience of doing Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to the project. <br /><br /><span><span><img src="/sv/institutioner/tme/nyheter/PublishingImages/matty_henrikke_600pix.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Henrikke Baumann och Matty Janssen" style="margin:5px;width:300px;height:230px" /></span></span>&quot;Our activities will run throughout the project. We are currently recruiting a PhD student that will work on the environmental assessment, using LCA, of the process that is being developed – and for which an actual pilot plant will be built in this project. In particular, the doctoral student will work on further development of methods for prospective future-oriented LCA and on development of positive environmental impacts. Furthermore, my own background as a bioprocess engineer may be useful for our work, and for communicating with the process developers in the project,&quot; says Matty Janssen, who will lead the project at Chalmers together with Professor Henrikke Baumann.<br /><br /></div> <div>The overall aim of this 5-year project with a total budget of 44 million euros is to build and operate a facility capable of capturing 10,000 tonnes of industrial CO2 per year, an equivalent to the annual CO2 emissions from 2,200 cars, and use it to produce chemicals. The European Commission funds the PyroCO2 project with 40 million euros in support of the European Green Deal, the plan to make the EU's economy sustainable and climate-neutral by 2050.</div> <div><br />&quot;We are excited to finally start our ambitious work that aims to be a gamechanger for European carbon-intensive industries. These will be able to create valuable products from their CO2 emissions, meeting the need for a lower carbon footprint while maintaining their competitiveness and being a part of the solution for the climate,&quot; says Senior Research Scientist Alexander Wentzel at SINTEF, the Norwegian research institute that coordinates the project.<br /><br /></div> <div>The PyroCO2 factory will be located at the industrial cluster of Herøya Industrial Park in Porsgrunn, Norway, featuring several carbon-intensive industries. Here, the PyroCO2 process will benefit from close to 100% renewable electricity and complement ongoing large-scale carbon capture and storage (CCS) efforts in Norway. Once successfully demonstrated, replication and further upscaling is envisioned throughout Europe and beyond.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text: Daniel Karlsson and via PyroCO2</em><br /><em>Photo: Shutterstock and Daniel Karlsson</em><br /></div> <div><em> </em></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">The project</h3> <ul><li>PyroCO2 is a 5-years Innovation Action project in support of the European Green Deal</li> <li>Aim: Design, build, and operate a production facility capable of demonstrating chemical production from close to 10,000 tonnes of industrial CO2 per year</li> <li>Project period: 1. Oct. 2021 to 30. Sep. 2026</li> <li>Budget: close to 44 million EUROS, of which 40 million euros funding from the European Commission. Chalmers receives 583,000 euros.</li> <li>Partners: SINTEF (coordinator, NO), SecondCircle (DK), Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DK), Arkema France (FR), Le Centre National De la Recherce Scientifique (FR), Karlsruher Institut für Technologie (DE), Ciaotech SRL (IT), Axelera (FR), Firmenich SA (CH), NORCE Norwegian Research Centre AS (NO), Herøya Industripark (NO), Chalmers tekniska högskola (SE), Bioprocess Technology (ES), Norner Research (NO), SCG Chemicals (TH), Johnson-Matthey PLC (UK), Ranido S.R.O. (CZ), NextChem SPA (IT), Ecoinnovazione SRL (IT), Vestfold og Telemark Fylkeskommune (NO)</li></ul> <div> </div>Mon, 15 Nov 2021 14:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/History-fossil-dependence.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/History-fossil-dependence.aspxCan history teach us how to reduce fossil reliance?<p><b>​Limiting climate change to the 1.5°C target set by the Paris Climate Agreement will likely require coal and gas power use to decline at rates that are unprecedented for any large country, an analysis of decadal episodes of fossil fuel decline in 105 countries between 1960 and 2018 shows. The researchers also identified factors that has facitilitated rapid decline in fossil fuel use: competing technologies, strong motivation to change energy sources, and effective government institutions.</b></p><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Jessica-Jewell-200.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:120px;height:145px" />“Prior studies sometimes looked at the world as a whole but failed to find such cases, because on the global level the use of fossil fuels has always grown over time. So, w<span style="background-color:initial">e were surprised to find that the use of some fossil fuels, particularly oil, actually declined quite rapidly in the 1970s and the 1980s in Western Europe and other </span><span style="background-color:initial">industrialized countries like Japan,” says Jessica Jewell, </span><span style="background-color:initial">associate professor in energy transitions at Chalmers University in Sweden, and</span><span style="background-color:initial"> professor at the University of Bergen in Norway, and the corresponding author of the study. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>“This is not the time period that is typically associated with energy transitions, but we came to believe that some important lessons can be drawn from there,” says Jessica. <div><br /></div> <div><div>To explore whether any periods of historical fossil fuel decline are similar to scenarios needed to achieve the Paris target, Jewell and her colleagues, Vadim Vinichenko, a post-doctoral researcher at Chalmers and Aleh Cherp, a professor at Central European University in Austria and Lund University in Sweden, identified 147 episodes within a sample of 105 countries between 1960 and 2018 in which coal, oil, or natural gas use declined faster than 5 per cent over a decade. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>The authors found that nearly all scenarios for the decline of coal in Asia in line with Paris Agreement’s goals would be historically unprecedented or have rare precedents. Over half of scenarios envisioned for coal decline in OECD countries and over half of scenarios for cutting gas use in reforming economies, the Middle East, or Africa would also be unprecedented or have rare precedents as well.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Historically, when fossil fuel use has declined rapidly in larger countries, to an extent corresponding to the necessary reduction according to the climate scenarios, it has required advances in competing technologies, effective government institutions to implement the required changes, and strong motivation to change energy systems, for instance to avoid energy security threats.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“This signals both an enormous challenge of seeing through such rapid decline of fossil fuels and the need to learn from historical lessons when rapid declines were achieved on the national scale,” says Jewell.</div></div></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read the scientific paper<span style="background-color:initial">: </span><span style="background-color:initial">“<a href="https://www.cell.com/one-earth/fulltext/S2590-3322%2821%2900534-0">Historical precedents and feasibility of rapid coal and gas decline required for the 1.5°C target</a>”, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Vadim Vinichenko, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Aleh Cherp, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Jessica Jewell, </span><span style="background-color:initial">published in One Earth.  </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Read a longer version of the press release: </span><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/news-releases/931598">Historical analysis finds no precedent for the rate of coal and gas power decline needed to limit climate change to 1.5°C</a>, on which the text above is based.</span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div>Thu, 04 Nov 2021 06:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/tme/news/Pages/Chalmers-startup-for-better-batteries-wins-stage-two.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/tme/news/Pages/Chalmers-startup-for-better-batteries-wins-stage-two.aspxChalmers startup for better batteries wins Stage Two<p><b>​The company Compular with its digital lab for material development won no less than four awards, one of which was the prestigious first prize &quot;Best tech innovation&quot; at Stage Two in Berlin. Stage Two is the first pan-European competition for startups from Europe's leading universities.</b></p><div>​Out of over 60 startups from 30 top-rated European universities – including London Business School and the University of St.Gallen – Compular was the clear winner, with Johannes Henriksson pitching.</div> <div> </div> <div>Compular won in the “Best tech innovation” category and received a €200,000 prize from Harvard Business School's business angel network in Germany, as well as support from Mckinsey, Microsoft, Early bird Ventures Uni-X, Join Capital and Superangel. </div> <div> </div> <div>Johannes Henriksson talks about the competition and the importance of the win:</div> <div>&quot;It was an incredibly exciting competition with prominent startups from all corners of Europe. We see this win as a fantastic proof that we are on the right path!&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Digital lab based on research from Chalmers</h3> <div>Compular, a portfolio company at <a href="https://www.chalmersventures.com/" target="_blank">Chalmers Ventures</a>, is based on research from the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology. Compular develops a digital lab for material development. Through Compular’s unique and patent-pending analysis method, chemical compounds can be screened in advance, making it both faster and cheaper to create better performing batteries with an environmentally friendly focus and longer service life.</div> <div><br />Rasmus Andersson and Fabian Årén developed the software during their doctoral studies in Patrik Johansson's research group at the Division of Material Physics. The research was then taken forward through <a href="/en/departments/tme/school-of-entrepreneurship/Pages/SchoolofEntreprenurship.aspx">Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship</a>, and by Chalmers Ventures Encubation program the idea was matched with students entering as entrepreneurs and business developers: Emil Krutmeijer, Sirikun Loetsakwiman and Johannes Henriksson.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Towards European launch</h3> <div>The company is now part of Chalmers Ventures' portfolio and aiming for the next step in the company's development. Johannes continues to talk about what happens next:</div> <div>&quot;We look forward to continuing with our ongoing beta test-program with paying customers and developing the product with leading battery companies to launch in Europe in 2022. The win allows us to strengthen the team and get even closer to our vision of digitalizing material development on a global scale!&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text via Chalmers Ventures and Daniel Karlsson</em></div> <em> </em><div><em>Photo via Stage Two and Compular</em></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="https://stagetwo.io/" target="_blank">Stage Two</a> is a pan-European project initiated and hosted by RWTH Aachen University and HHL Leipzig Graduate School of Management for a network of several entrepreneurial universities. Aachen is part of the cooperation <a href="/en/news/Pages/Chalmers-part-of-European-University-in-new-alliance.aspx">Enhance</a> together with Chalmers. </div> <div></div> <div> </div> Tue, 02 Nov 2021 16:00:00 +0100