The transport sector is facing a major shift towards more energy-efficient vehicles. Already today there are several electric hybrid vehicles on the market, powered by both an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. Several of the major vehicle manufacturers will within the next few years launch a new type of hybrid vehicle, known as plug-in hybrid, which can be charged from the electrical grid. The purpose of this research project is to investigate how the energy system in Gothenburg is affected by an increasing number of plug-in hybrid vehicles as the use of energy in buildings is changed.
In a first stage, the market is examined to estimate the rate at which plug-in hybrid vehicles will increase, a demographic map is to be produced to show the expected geographical distribution of the vehicles around Gothenburg. Here comes the importance of different policy instruments and changes in infrastructure to be included. This information will be used to examine whether and where, Göteborg Energi might need to strengthen and expand its electrical grid.
Moreover, the impact on the electric grid, caused by the plug-in hybrids, is to be studied. By control the charging of the vehicles to times when the load of the grid is small, an increased peak power is minimized. Another possibility is to use the stored energy in the vehicle to increase grid stability and security of supply. This could also lead to a reduced need of peak power and a balanced energy consumption over the day so that a greater proportion of base load power can be used. For such a system, demands are high on the communication with the rest of the grid. How the system can be designed and what benefits it offers will be studied and also how a future business model for the exchange of stored energy in the vehicles may look like.
The concept of control energy consumption at certain times can also be used for heating of buildings and other loads. To control the load (both electrical and heat) after need is a way to save energy, a simple example is to switch off the light when leaving a room, but it can be more comprehensive, as to lower the temperature in the house during the day when no one is home. The project aims to analyze how the energy consumption is change as the loads are controlled in a more efficient manner and how different incentives and rules, such as energy certification and higher standards for energy consumption, affecting the implementation. Another aspect that will be addressed is the impact of a building integrated supply system for energy in Gothenburg.