The research in this area focuses on biomass production systems. Studies investigate the resource use as well as environmental and socioeconomic consequences of producing biomass– primarily to provide bioenergy feedstocks but this often involves also production of food and materials and influences prospects for managing forests and other land to maintain/enhance carbon sequestration in soils and standing biomass. The research is multidisciplinary, involving for example agronomy, soil science, plant physiology, ecology, geography, economy, policy, and engineering sciences. Many times this area of research integrates with other areas at the division to investigate issues such as the effectiveness of various land and biomass uses for climate change mitigation. Methods used include various approaches to complex systems modeling, resource assessments, materials/energy flows analyses, and the development and use of criteria and indicators for evaluating biomass production systems.