News: Globalhttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyWed, 24 Feb 2021 09:28:54 +0100http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Students-nominated-for-tech-award-.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Students-nominated-for-tech-award-.aspxStudents nominated for tech award<p><b>Two master’s students from Chalmers are nominated for Microsoft&#39;s Tech Girl of the Year 2021 award.</b></p><span style="background-color:initial">Just like Chalmers' ongoing Camp Vera initiative, which is meant to inspire young women to apply for a tech-based education, Microsoft wants to do the same by awarding female role models. This year, two of the ten nominated candidates are students from Chalmers University of Technology.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>Julia Stevrell is studying her first year of the master's programme Industrial Ecology. She is involved in Chalmers Chemistry and Biotechnology Section's equality committee and has been a driving force in the recruitment of new students.</div> <div>”Girls have such incredible skills, it is reflected in their school results. The big question mark is why so few are studying at technical education. I think it's the lack of female role models”, she says.</div> <div>For her, it is important to get involved so that the industry she will later work in can become more creative and dynamic in the long run.</div> <div>”If only a small group of people develop technology, it will be impossible to reflect different perspectives and the so many different types of people in our society.”</div> <div>She had a female role model that became crucial for choosing Chalmers after high school.</div> <div>”I had a great teacher who had worked in the chemical industry before. She told me about her experiences of being one of few women in the industry and how important it was that we were more girls in this field”.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Became a mentor</h3> <div>Ellen Andreasson is studying her final year of the master's programme in Biotechnology and has been a mentor in an initiative called Pepp, where she encouraged young girls to go into the tech field. In addition, she has also volunteered for Engineers Without Borders.</div> <div>”For me, it is important to help others and feel that you can make a difference. It gives me so much energy in return”, she says.</div> <div>From the beginning, she was considering becoming a doctor but then realized that Biotechnology felt more right for her.</div> <div>”No one expected that I would study at Chalmers, which is why I wanted to step out of my comfort zone and try to become an engineer.” </div> <div>She had no female role models when she gained an interest in technology and wanted to pursue an education in the field. </div> <div>”That's why I thought it was so important to get involved in Pepp. I did not know any girls who had studied at Chalmers or had a similar background. I wish this had existed when I was feeling a bit lost in high school.”</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Technology is everywhere</h3> <div>There is a misconception among young girls today that you should be a person who sits inside and codes all day if you want to work with technology, says Ellen.</div> <div>”But that is certainly not the case. Technology is everywhere now. No one escapes it in our modern society. That is why it is important for us women to partake in the development and drive it.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Microsoft will announce three finalists who will go on to compete for the award in March. The winner will get her own mentor at Microsoft, become a role model and ambassador for young people interested in technology throughout the country, as well as a member of a network of former finalists who are now active in the industry.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Vedrana Sivac</div> <div>Photo: Private</div></div>Wed, 24 Feb 2021 10:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Chalmers increases support to fee-paying students.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Chalmers%20increases%20support%20to%20fee-paying%20students.aspxChalmers increases support to fee-paying students<p><b>​Chalmers is launching a temporary scholarship for fee-paying students that will continue their studies at Chalmers during autumn 2021. The aim is to support students whose financial situation has become strained due to the ongoing pandemic.​</b></p>The COVID-19 pandemic has had a major impact on the financial situation for fee-paying students. In several countries it has, for example, become more difficult to get bank loans for tuition fees, and in Sweden, the possibility for international students to earn an income through part time-work has decreased. Chalmers has therefore decided to launch a temporary scholarship programme (Chalmers COVID-19 Economic Relief Scholarship). The scholarship will cover half of the tuition fee in the autumn semester of 2021 for fee-paying<br />students starting their second year on a Master programme.  <br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20210101-20210631/StefanBengtsson_190425_11.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:288px;width:250px" /><div>​<br />“We can see that our fee-paying students are facing major challenges due to the pandemic. That is why we hope that this scholarship will make it easier for them to complete their education at Chalmers,” says Stefan Bengtsson, Chalmers' president.<br /><br /><span></span><div>Fee-paying students who are enrolled at Chalmers during the spring semester of 2021 and who plan to continue their studies in the autumn can apply for the scholarship. <span style="background-color:initial">Eligible applicants will be awarded the scholarship provided that they have received at least half of their credits during their studies at Chalmers and are not already holders of another scholarship administered by Chalmers.</span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <br /><strong>Text:</strong> Helén Rosenfeldt<br /><strong>Photo:</strong> Johan Bodell</div> ​Thu, 18 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Starstudded-final-for-Help-A-Scientist.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Starstudded-final-for-Help-A-Scientist.aspxStarstudded final event for Help A Scientist<p><b>​​In the Star Hunt project, 1,400 school students have helped researchers at Chalmers University of Technology to gather new knowledge about how stars are born. On 12 February, the project ended with a digital event where the students&#39; great scientific results were presented - and where they got to meet Nobel Laureate Reinhard Genzel and Swedish astronaut Christer Fuglesang.</b></p><div><div>The Star Hunt is the tenth edition of Help A Scientist, an annual project where the Nobel Prize Museum connects school classes around the country with researchers at Swedish universities. The students who participated in the Star Hunt have analyzed details in infrared images from space and marked where there may be dust and particles that are about to form new stars. This has been a great help to the Chalmers astronomers , who can spend more time investigating what the dust clouds contain to increase knowledge about how stars are formed.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The three participating astronomers from Chalmers' department of Space, Earth and Environment - Jonathan Tan, Giuliana Cosentino and Rubén Fedriani are all happy with the results and their participation in the project:</div> <div><div>​<br />– I was very impressed by the amount of results we got back from the students. They performed a very meticulous work and was committed during the whole project, says Giuliana Cosentino, Chalmers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– I had great expectations for the project, but the level of commitment shown by the students really exceeded them. The interest shown during the school virtual visits, the questions that the students felt comfortable to ask us directly via email, all this gave me a sense of appreciation for my and my colleagues’ work that is by far the greatest results and reward, says Giuliana Cosentino.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Dark streaks and bright bubbles</h3> <div>The students was given access to a tool called World Wide Telescope, and asked to perform two different tasks. In the first part they were mapping dark streaks, or filaments, and bright structures, &quot;bubbles&quot;, in molecular clouds in different star forming regions. The dark filaments are the birth place of many stars and the idea was to answer how and where these filaments arise, and how the bright bubbles are affecting them. </div> <div>The students mapped 6 000 filaments and 200 bubbles, and contributed greatly to the understanding of these phenomenon. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the second task the students were asked to map the stars surrounding massive stars, to test theories about how the massive stars are formed - on their own or if they are influenced by surrounding stars. All in all, 140 000 stars were mapped by the students in the excercise! And the accuracy of their star maps proved to be greater than the previous computerized attempts. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The astronomers will now follow up, analyze and work on the results, and the plan is to showcase the results in at least one coming research paper. </div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Important to work with school students​</h3> <div><div>– Our research group has a long-standing interest in involving relatively early stage students in research. For example, for the last several years we have been running summer undergraduate research projects at Chalmers. As a result of this work, we were informed about the possibility to work with school students via the Nobel Prize Museum Help a Scientist program - it seemed like an unique and fun opportunity - so we applied, says Jonathan Tan, Chalmers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– These students are important to work with, since this is an age when they can be making choices about their future careers. We want to give them some experience of scientific research and hope that some will follow such a career path, says Jonathan Tan.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The students also sent in 160 poster, describing their results. Among them Jonathan, Giuliana and Rubén chose a winning team from class 8B in Carlssons skola, Stockholm, who will get to come to Chalmers and Onsala Space Observatory, meet the researchers and learn more about their work. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– I will definitely remember most the interaction with the students. With their passion, curiosity, and fresh ideas, I was motivated to perform my best for them. I will also remember the stimulating teachers that did a great job and the Nobel Prize Museum Staff that worked behind the scenes to run everything smoothly, says Rubén Fedriani, Chalmers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– I have learnt many things from this project. Not only from the scientific point of view but also from the pedagogical one. The students have taught me that every single detail is of great importance and that a single sentence can inspire one to pursue a career in astronomy, says Rubén Fedriani, Chalmers.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Christian Löwhagen. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://youtu.be/r8d_-1Sz9No?t=2234">Watch the final event of the Star Hunt</a>. (The link will make the Youtube video start at the 37 minute mark, when the students' results are presented by Jonathan, Giuliana och Rubén). <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://nobelprizemuseum.se/en/education/stjarnjakten/">Read more about the Help a Scientist programme​</a>. </div>Mon, 15 Feb 2021 14:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/Doctoral-students-will-solve-healthcare-challenges-in-pairs.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/Doctoral-students-will-solve-healthcare-challenges-in-pairs.aspxTeaming up to solve healthcare challenges<p><b>​Research on the border between technology and health is becoming increasingly important. Chalmers and Sahlgrenska Academy have now started a new collaboration, where researchers will work in pairs to solve healthcare challenges.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">As our population grows and we live longer, and previously fatal diseases can be cured or become chronic, the healthcare sector faces major challenges. New technology can support and provide solutions, and technology focusing on health is also rapidly developing. At the same time, collaboration between healthcare and engineering is prioritised. Chalmers University of Technology currently has a number of collaborations, in both research and education, with Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.</span><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Working in pairs</h2> <div>The recently started Gothenburg Research School of Health Engineering is a new way of tackling healthcare challenges. Doctoral students from Sahlgrenska Academy and Chalmers will work in pairs, one participant from each university. Together, they will solve problems identified by healthcare professionals. The initiative is partly funded by Region Västra Götaland.</div> <div>“We are very happy to now expand our collaboration through student pairs, which enables doctoral students in the fields of medicine and technology to work together with important research topics. At Chalmers, we would like to develop technology that will help the healthcare sector to meet future challenges, and we also see that close collaborations with both Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Sahlgrenska Academy strengthen our competences and make us an even more attractive choice for researchers and students”, says Stefan Bengtsson, Chalmers’ President.</div> <div>The universities are now, together, educating a new type of researcher and expert with knowledge in the areas of health, medicine and technology, says Agneta Holmäng, Dean of Sahlgrenska Academy.</div> <div>”This makes it possible to increase interdisciplinary collaborations in many different research areas, which in turn increases the chances of addressing healthcare challenges and specific topics where technical competence is becoming increasingly important.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">First: improved image analysis<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Health/Udda%20format/Malin-Barman_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:220px;height:293px" /><br /></h2> <div>Malin Barman, researcher at the department of Biology and Biological Engineering, is Chalmers’ coordinator<br />for the so-called research school. She is also part of a pair constellation; her counterpart Justin Schneiderman, who is also a researcher and coordinator, works at Sahlgrenska Academy.</div> <div>“Many of the doctoral students at Sahlgrenska work as physicians part-time, and researchers part-time. At Chalmers, our doctoral students do full-time research”, says Malin Barman.</div> <div>“The first projects are in the medtech field, focusing on improved image analysis. With the help of AI, new programmes for image analysis is developed, and this makes it possible to identify signs of, for example, incipient cardiovascular disease. Then, the idea is to expand and develop the research school to include, for example, biotechnology and data analysis, and also to apply AI in more areas. There are clearly many research topics that would benefit from close collaboration.”<br /><br /></div> <div>The overall goal of the research school is to increase collaboration and points of contact. But the initiative is also about shaping a broader research competence; individuals at the intersection of health and technology,<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Health/Udda%20format/Justin-Schneiderman_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:220px;height:293px" /><br /> who can understand and “talk to” both disciplines. To achieve this, each doctoral student has supervisors at both universities, and they will give lectures to each other, thereby sharing their skills. They also take a course together; a seminar series covering cross-border topics such as ethics, innovation, utilisation and AI.</div> <div>“The seminar series is also open to other doctoral students in the field of health”, says Malin Barman.</div> <div>A clear purpose of the seminar series is to provide time and opportunity for networking between researchers from different disciplines. The students will work in groups, but also get the chance to share experiences and skills in more unofficial contexts, such as over a lunch or around the coffee table.</div> <div>“We now hope for a big interest, from both Chalmers and Sahlgrenska Academy!”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Research made useful</h2> <div>There are many benefits of participating in the research school, according to Malin Barman. Chalmers’ doctoral students will gain increased knowledge about research and innovation – and challenges – within the hospital. They will also learn more about the organisation and structure of healthcare, and gain new medical knowledge. For Chalmers as a university, the initiative will be a way to get additional input from the healthcare sector, making it easier for researchers to focus on the right issues and use their expertise in a way that will benefit healthcare and society.</div> <div>“We will, without a doubt, strengthen our competence in the area of health. In addition, we get a clear link to utilisation of our research; we will make technical solutions that can be implemented more quickly in healthcare”, Malin Barman concludes.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>About the seminar series within Gothenburg Research School of Health Engineering</strong></div> <div>The seminar series in the field of health and technology will start in February 2021. The aim is to give doctoral students an in-depth study in areas that connect health and technology, such as innovation, utilisation, ethics and AI. The participants get three higher education points, and the plan is to give the series continuously each year.</div> <div>The seminar series include 10+ seminars, approximately one each month, held by various both external and internal lecturers with expert knowledge in each area.<br /><br /></div> <div>The goal is that the students after completing the course should: </div> <div>• Have gained a broader perspective and understanding of how one’s own research can be utilised and disseminated.  </div> <div>• Gain a greater understanding of how AI and medtech solutions can be helpful in healthcare.  </div> <div>• Be able to identify and discuss ethical aspects of their research.  </div> <div>• Know how to go about translating results from the research project into utilisation.  </div> <div>• Demonstrate and discuss their research project with key players and stakeholders from a utilisation and innovation perspective.<br /></div> <div><div>The seminar series is obligatory for doctoral students at the Gothenburg Research School of Health Engineering, but also open to other doctoral students working in the field of technology and health, at Chalmers and Sahlgrenska Academy. For questions, please get in touch with <a href="mailto:malin.barman@chalmers.se">Malin Barman</a>.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Three questions for Roman Naeem, Chalmers' doctoral students at <span>Gothenburg Research School of Health Engineering:</span></h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>What is your work about?<br /><br /></strong></span></div></div> <div>&quot;These days, most Artificial Intelligence systems utilise Deep Learning methods because of their recent advancements showing significant performance gains over traditional methods. Deep learning models are usually trained in a way called Supervised Learning, in which a large amount of data with sufficient variation is required to learn useful data features, and give appropriate outputs that could be used by medical<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Health/Udda%20format/Roman_Naeem_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:220px;height:288px" /><br />professionals. However, in medical imaging, such as MRI, CT scans and ultrasounds, labeling a large amount of data can be very time consuming and quite expensive, as we need highly-qualified individuals like doctors to label the data. A potential way of tackling this hurdle is utilising Semi-supervised Learning (SSL), which is the main subject of my work.<br /><br /></div> <div>As the name suggests, in SSL we only partly use supervised learning using the limited data that we have, and focus more on using the much more unlabeled data available to train the models. Specifically, I am working on developing algorithms that utilise SSL for analysing a dataset of CT examinations of around 30,000 individuals, collected in a population study by a few Swedish hospitals. Through this analysis, we hope to find and locate atherosclerosis in coronary arteries, which will help us in improving risk predictions for future myocardial infarction, or heart attack in layman’s terms.&quot;<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>What part/-s of your work is the most challenging?</strong></div> <div><br />&quot;Computer vision, like SSL, has seen a major rise in popularity in the recent years, so a lot of research is being done in the field. I think the most challenging aspect of my work is keeping track of and staying updated with all the new research that is being published, and taking inspiration and incorporating ideas in the new research with my own work to improve it.&quot;<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>What are the benefits (for you) in being a part of the Gothenburg Research School of Health Engineering?</strong><br /><br /></div> <div>&quot;There are quite a few benefits! But the main benefit would be being a part of a multidisciplinary group, which makes it easier to learn more about the characteristics and peculiarities of the downstream tasks – like automatic detection of features in a medical exam, that could lead to benefits like early diagnosis and preventive measures – for which my work will be used. My colleagues, coordinators and supervisors at Gothenburg Research School of Health Engineering are also a great asset in helping me further in my research.&quot;</div> <div>​<br />Text: Mia Malmstedt, Elin Lindström​<br /></div> <div>Photo, Malin Barman: Chalmers</div> <div>Photo, Justin Schneiderman: Malin Arnesson</div> <div>Photo, Roman Naeem: Siri Norelius<br /><span style="background-color:initial">Photo, x-ray: Pixabay</span></div>Mon, 15 Feb 2021 13:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Heinz-Wilhelm-Hubers-is-2021s-honorary-doctor-at-Chalmers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Heinz-Wilhelm-Hubers-is-2021s-honorary-doctor-at-Chalmers.aspxHeinz-Wilhelm Hübers is 2021&#39;s honorary doctor at Chalmers<p><b>​Researcher Heinz-Wilhelm Hübers is honoured for his outstanding contribution to the fundamental and applied research in the field of terahertz components and instrumentation for space science applications.</b></p>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20210101-20210631/Heinz-Wilhelm-Huebers%20artikelbild.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Photo of Heinz-Wilhelm Hübers" style="margin:5px" />Dr. Heinz-Wilhelm Hübers is a professor at Humboldt-University Berlin and the director of the Institute of Optical Sensor Systems at Deutsches Zentrum für Luft und Raumfart, DLR (German Aerospace Center), which focuses on research and development of active and passive optical sensor systems operating in the ultraviolet, visible, infrared and terahertz spectral range.<br /><br />Heinz-Wilhelm Hübers is awarded an honorary doctorate to recognize his outstanding contribution to the fundamental and applied research in the field of terahertz components and instrumentation for space science applications, and his persisting leading work towards strengthening and expanding international collaborations across countries and continents. His role has been crucial in forming and enabling high spectral resolution terahertz astronomy through such renowned projects like the Herschel Space Observatory and SOFIA (Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy), as well as in forming concepts for future terahertz remote sensing space missions. <br /><br />Professor Hübers has a long history of collaboration with researchers at Chalmers, starting more than two decades ago, through a large number of joint research ventures, supported by various EU Framework Programs as well as the European Space Agency (ESA). This fruitful collaboration had contributed to forming Chalmers as an international node in terahertz technology and instrumentation – stretching through several departments and laboratories and finding applications from biology and communication to space and environmental sciences.<br /><br /><strong>Photo:</strong> Marcel SchwickerathMon, 15 Feb 2021 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/chalmers-inventors-launch-app-in-the-us.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/chalmers-inventors-launch-app-in-the-us.aspxChalmers inventors to launch their app in the US<p><b>Their invention boosts the mathematics education in over 130 Swedish cities. The former Chalmers students are now gearing up for a launch in the United States.</b></p><span></span><div>Chalmers alumni, Henrik Appert and Arvid Gilljam are the founders of Matteappen, an app that will soon launch in the US as Magma Math. Their invention enables teachers to identify knowledge gaps and allows them to understand their way of thinking.​</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The founders studied the bachelor’s programme in Industrial Engineering and Management at Chalmers. Even back then, the two childhood friends dreamed of developing something that would make a difference and benefit society.</div> <div>&quot;At Chalmers, we learned how to improve systems through different types of processes. We also got to know how modern companies make their decisions based on data”, says Henrik Appert. </div> <div>He then went on to the master's programme in <a href="/en/education/programmes/masters-info/Pages/Entrepreneurship-and-Business-Design.aspx" target="_blank">Entrepreneurship and business design </a>at Chalmers and Arvid Gilljam finished his master's degree at London Business School. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The results of the international PISA survey in 2015 worried the founders since it showed that mathematics was a great challenge for the students, both in Sweden and internationally.</div> <div>Currently, almost every fifth primary school student in Sweden doesn't pass the national tests in mathematics in the ninth grade. A worrying societal development where the founders immediately saw great potential for improvement.</div> <div>”We had to try to find new solutions, both for the sake of the students, but also from an economic point of view. We applied the system thinking that we had learned at Chalmers to solve the problem&quot;, says Henrik Appert.</div> <div>The founders both believed that valuable data on how to improve education got stuck in the students' notebooks and worksheets. If the teachers could easily access that information, they would make better decisions based on the data. With Magma Math, the teachers can see the difficulties students face and exactly how they solve problems, so they can lead the best math class.​</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Solving the problem in real-time</h3> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20210101-20210631/Matteappen%20-%20elev-vy%20räknar%20för%20hand%20rättar%20automatiskt.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:305px;height:238px" />That was the starting point for their invention Matteappen which was first developed for mathematics education in Swedish primary school. After an analysis of what digital solutions were available on the market, the founders realized that there were not many options to work with mathematics digitally. </div> <div>“The available digital tools were either click-based or meant that you could enter answers with your keyboard. But mathematics is best done by hand, where you have as high a degree of freedom as to when you work with paper and pen. Therefore, we developed a technical solution where you can show your calculation with a drawing tool on a tablet or the computer.”</div> <div>The app corrects the answer automatically and sends the information to the teacher in real-time. </div> <div>“Teachers can project different examples of calculations on the whiteboard and use their student's work as an example. They can also clearly see which students that may need additional support. <span style="background-color:initial">According to Henrik Appert, the response from both teachers and students has been overwhelming so far. In various surveys, teachers feel that </span><span style="background-color:initial">the service reduces their administrative work and provides more time and space for individualized teaching.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Fast-forward into the future</h3> <div>When the global pandemic flared up at the end of March in 2020, the company quintupled its growth rate within only a few weeks.</div> <div>“We have fast-forwarded into the future due to the pandemic. Corona has been a catalyst that has accelerated digital development and forced people to go beyond their usual comfort zone to find new solutions.”</div> <div>Today, their company is valued at 90 million <span style="background-color:initial">SEK </span><span style="background-color:initial">and the plan is to grow with about ten employees within the next year. Several European countries have shown interest in the service, but the company has set its sights on expanding in Sweden and a launch in the US after a successful test run at a school fair.</span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div>&quot;We received a fantastic response at the fair. About a hundred teachers signed up to test our app and told us that it was exactly the product they were looking for. Mathematics is a global language and we can see the same needs and challenges in other markets. The US has come a little further in terms of digitalisation in education and there is a larger market there than in Sweden.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Used in the Bahamas</h3> <div>The US version of the app is called Magma Math and is currently being tested as a pilot project in several different US states and will initially be used as a complement to school teaching. The service is also used by several schools in the Bahamas.</div> <div>“It feels unreal that what once started as a simple idea is now a product that is used by students and teachers on an island in the Caribbean.”</div> <div>In parallel with the launch overseas, continuous development of the original idea is underway.</div> <div>“The service we offer will never be finished. There will always be ways to simplify the learning process. We can develop the app for high school students - or even for studies at the university level. It is only the imagination that sets the limits.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Vedrana Sivac</div> <div>Photo: Matteappen​</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://www.magmamath.com/" target="_blank" title="Magma Math"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more about Magma Math​</a></div>Wed, 10 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/researchinfrastructure/oso/news/Pages/SKAO-birth-of-a-new-global-observatory.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/researchinfrastructure/oso/news/Pages/SKAO-birth-of-a-new-global-observatory.aspxSKAO: birth of a new global observatory<p><b>​A new, global intergovernmental organization in radio astronomy has been founded. The SKA Observatory (SKAO) will build and operate the world&#39;s largest and most complex radio telescopes to answer big questions about the universe. Chalmers leads Sweden&#39;s participation in the project.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The new observatory, SKAO, was launched on 4 February 2021 when the first meeting of its governing Council was held. The observatory is the world’s second intergovernmental organisation dedicated to astronomy. </span><div>Catherine Cesarsky has been appointed as the first Chair of the SKAO Council.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“This is a historic moment for radio astronomy”, she said. “Behind today’s milestone, there are countries that had the vision to get deeply involved because they saw the wider benefits their participation in SKAO could bring to build an ecosystem of science and technology involving fundamental research, computing, engineering, and skills for the next generation, which are essential in a 21st century digital economy.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The new observatory has its headquarters at on the grounds of the Jodrell Bank UNESCO World Heritage Site in the United Kingdom, with telescopes located at sites in Australia and South Africa.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>SKAO’s telescope in South Africa will be composed of 197 dish antennas, each 15 m in diameter, located in the Karoo region. Of these, 64 already exist and are operated by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO). The telescope in Australia will be composed of 131 072 two-metre-tall antennas located on the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation’s (CSIRO) Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The creation of SKAO follows a decade of detailed engineering design work, scientific prioritisation, and policy development under the supervision of its predecessor the SKA Organisation, supported by more than 500 engineers, over 1,000 scientists and dozens of policy-makers in more than 20 countries; and is the result of 30 years of thinking and research and development since discussions first took place about developing a next-generation radio telescope.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Philip Diamond, professor at the University of Manchester, has been appointed as the first Director-General of SKAO.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Today marks the birth of a new observatory,” he said. “And not just any observatory – this is one of the mega-science facilities of the 21st century. It is the culmination of many years of work and I wish to congratulate everyone in the SKA community and in our partner governments and institutions who have worked so hard to make this happen. For our community, this is about participating in one of the great scientific adventures of the coming decades. It is about skills, technology, innovation, industrial return, and spin offs but fundamentally it is about a wonderful scientific journey that we are now embarking on.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Lars Börjesson, professor of physics at Chalmers, is Sweden’s representative as an observer to the SKAO Council.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The establishment of the SKA Observatory is a major event for the field of radio astronomy, and a decisive organisational step towards the construction of the SKA telescope”, he said. “We’ve reached this milestone thanks to a huge amount of work in a truly global network, involving the world’s leading radio astronomy institutes and observatories. Together, across international borders, we have combined expertise and enthusiasm to develop the SKA’s science goals, its technical design and organisational structure, and this is something we can be really proud of. For Sweden, funding has now been secured for participation in the construction phase, and the formal process for membership in the SKA Observatory has been initiated.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The first SKAO Council meeting follows the signature of the SKA treaty, formally known as the convention establishing the SKA Observatory, on 12 March 2019 in Rome, and its subsequent ratification by Australia, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa and the United Kingdom and entry into force on 15 January 2021, marking the official birth date of the observatory.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The council is composed of representatives from the Observatory’s Member States, as well as observer countries aspiring to join SKAO. Sweden is one of several observer countries that took part in the design phase of the SKA, along with Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Spain and Switzerland. These countries’ future accession to SKAO is expected in the coming weeks and months, once their national processes have been completed. Representatives of national bodies in Japan and South Korea complement the select list of observers in the SKAO Council.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At its first meeting, the SKAO Council approved policies and procedures that have been prepared in recent months – covering governance, funding, programmatic and HR matters, among others. These approvals are required to transfer staff and assets from the SKA Organisation to the observatory.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The coming months will keep us very busy, with hopefully new countries formalising their accession to SKAO and the expected key decision of the SKAO Council giving us green light to start the construction of the telescopes,” added Prof. Diamond.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>SKAO will begin recruitment in Australia and South Africa in the next few months, working alongside local partners CSIRO and SARAO to supervise construction, which is expected to last eight years, with early science opportunities starting in the mid 2020s. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>About the SKA Observatory</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>SKAO, formally known as the SKA Observatory, is a global collaboration of member states to build and operate cutting-edge radio telescopes to answer fundamental questions about our universe. Headquartered in the UK, its first two telescopes, the two largest and most complex radio telescope networks ever built, will be constructed in Australia and South Africa. A later expansion is envisioned in both countries and other African partner countries. SKAO’s telescopes will conduct transformational science and, together with other state-of-the-art research facilities, address gaps in our understanding of the universe including the formation and evolution of galaxies, fundamental physics in extreme environments and the origins of life. Through the development of innovative technologies and its contribution to addressing global societal challenges, SKAO will play its part to address the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals and deliver significant non-science impact across its membership and beyond. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Current SKAO Members are Australia, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa and the United Kingdom with several other countries, among them Sweden, aspiring to membership or engagement with SKAO in the future.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>About Onsala Space Observatory and Sweden’s role in the SKA project</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Onsala Space Observatory is Sweden's national facility for radio astronomy. The observatory provides researchers with equipment for the study of the earth and the rest of the universe. In Onsala, 45 km south of Gothenburg, it operates four radio telescopes and a station in the international telescope Lofar. The SKA is one of several international projects that the observatory participates in. The observatory is hosted by the Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers University of Technology, and is operated on behalf of the Swedish Research Council.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Between 2012 and 2021, Onsala Space Observatory represented Sweden as a member country of the SKA Organization. Chalmers and Onsala Space Observatory have been working on the development of the SKA since its inception. Scientists in Sweden have worked both in preparing the SKA's scientific programme, and developing the technical components and systems that the telescopes need to be able to make new discoveries. Sweden has contributed with the development and prototypes of receivers for SKA's dish antennas, for example unique low-noise amplifiers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>With the support of Big Science Sweden, Chalmers and Onsala Space Observatory engaged companies in the SKA at an early stage, particularly in areas where Sweden is strong (e.g. radio and microwave engineering, ICT and signal processing), developing close collaborations with several universities and institutes. Thanks to both technical development work and cooperation with other research organizations involved in SKA's development, Sweden has been able to lead the completion and delivery of two important systems for SKA’s telescope in South Africa (about 200 receivers for the frequency band 350 - 1050 MHz, low noise amplifiers for several frequency bands and digitising systems for faint signals). In this work, Sweden works together with colleagues in Canada, France, India, Spain and South Africa.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Contacts</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Robert Cumming, communicator, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers, tel: +46 31-772 5500 or +46 70 493 3114, robert.cumming@chalmers.se.</div> <div>John Conway, professor and director, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers, +46 31-772 5500, john.conway@chalmers.se</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Images</em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>A (top) - </em><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Composite image of the SKA combining all elements in South Africa and Australia. This image blends photos of real hardware already on the ground on both sites with artist's impressions of the future SKA antennas. From left: artist's impression of the future SKA dishes blend into the existing precursor MeerKAT telescope dishes in South Africa. From right: artist's impression of the future SKA-Low stations blends into the existing AAVS2.0 prototype station in Western Australia.</em></span></div> <div><em>Credit: SKA Organisation</em></div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div><div><span style="background-color:initial"><i>Mer information och material finns på <a href="http://www.skaobservatory.org/">www.skaobservatory.org</a> och <a href="http://www.skatelescope.org/">www.skatelescope.org</a></i></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://www.skatelescope.org/news/skao-is-born/">Read this release at the SKAO​</a></span></div> <div><i style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://www.skatelescope.org/ska-prospectus/">SKAO Prospectus</a></i><br /></div> <div><i><a href="https://www.dropbox.com/sh/0kv5dmufp8o1fq0/AAA9Bhi3t5E1riZX4c9BNIXba?dl=0">SKAO Media Kit</a></i></div> <div><i><a href="https://www.skatelescope.org/news/dr-cesarsky-elected-chair-of-the-board-of-directors/">About Catherine Cesarsky</a></i></div> <div><i><a href="https://www.skatelescope.org/news/ska-organisation-appoints-new-director-general-for-worlds-largest-telescope-project/">About Philip Diamond</a></i></div> <em></em></div> <div><br /></div> ​Fri, 05 Feb 2021 17:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ace/news/Pages/Simple-innovation-saves-energy-in-the-supermarket.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ace/news/Pages/Simple-innovation-saves-energy-in-the-supermarket.aspxSimple innovation saves energy in the supermarket<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers discovered by chance that the thermometer in modern store refrigerators is systematically wrong placed, resulting in supermarkets consuming more energy than necessary. But they also figured out how to solve the problem, and the solution has great potential with possible improvements in over 3000 supermarkets – in Sweden alone.</b></p><div>​Tommie Månsson has recently completed his doctoral project on <a href="/en/departments/ace/news/Pages/Supermarkets-as-batteries-in-smart-grids.aspx">Supermarkets as virtual batteries in demand response systems</a>, and during an experiment he stumbled upon something peculiar. The thermometer that regulates the cold in a store refrigerator is generally incorrectly placed, which means that it cools unnecessarily much.    </div> <div> </div> <div>  – When stores switched from open refrigerated cabinets to closed ones with a door, they failed to reposition the thermometer that measures the outgoing air. Since the thermometer is placed too close to the door, the outgoing air seems warmer than it actually is, which makes the refrigerator lower the temperature more than necessary. As a result the fridge uses more energy than actually needed and runs more unevenly, Tommie Månsson explains.    </div> <div> </div> <div>When the researchers in experiments moved the thermometers to a more suitable position in the refrigerators – thus showing a more correct temperature, they noticed that the refrigerators on average consumed about five percent less energy.    </div> <div> </div> <div>  – We can see several climate-positive effects. The temperature of the air that enters the refrigerator is not as crucial, and you can maintain more even temperatures, which leads to energy efficiency. In addition, the heating needs of the stores are reduced when the coolers do not cool the indoor air as much as before, says Tommie.    </div> <div> </div> <div>The discovery resulted in an EU patent for a holder for the thermometer in store refrigerators, which makes the thermometer easy to move and reposition inside the refrigerator, and a corporate spin-off to launch and implement the innovation in the market.    </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Untapped potential    </h2> <div> </div> <div>Pilot tests in stores of German supermarket chain Rewe have been successful with a clear reduction in consumption; and an expansion of the small thermometer holder is planned. In Sweden and the rest of Europe, the market has not yet realised the potential, despite the fact that in Sweden alone there are potentially more than 3,000 stores that could reduce their consumption.    </div> <div> </div> <div>  – They probably don’t see it as that much of a problem. In the past, the stores had open refrigerators and when you put on doors, energy consumption was more than halved – which is a fantastic improvement. So despite the fact that it can be further improved, the market seem content.    </div> <div> </div> <div>However, Tommie believes that when you have already made the big change, it is instead the small details that become important. Swedish supermarkets account for 3% of Sweden's total electricity consumption, of which only refrigerators account for about half of of this figure. The fact that store refrigerators would be even more energy efficient could thus be of great importance for reducing energy use and thereby reducing carbon dioxide emissions.    </div> <div> </div> <div>  – We use chilled foods to a much greater extent now than historically. So despite the fact that most stores have replaced their inefficient open refrigerators with more energy-efficient closed ones, it seems the cooling systems do not actually draw less electricity in total, because today the supermarkets have many more refrigerators than before, Tommie Månsson concludes.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Catharina Björk</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The article &quot;<a href="https://doi.org/10.1007/s12053-020-09912-1">Exploratory investigation of return air temperature sensor measurement errors in refrigerated display cabinets</a>&quot; was published in Springer Journal Energy Efficiency 1/2021.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Tommie Månsson is a PhD from the division of Building Technology, Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering at Chalmers. The name of the spin-off venture is </em><a href="https://hpnew.chillservices.com/"><em>ChillServices.</em></a> <br /></div>Thu, 04 Feb 2021 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-nano-weapon-against-resistant-bacteria.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-nano-weapon-against-resistant-bacteria.aspxNew nano-weapon against resistant bacteria<p><b>​Nanoparticles coated with graphene flakes and antibiotics. This antibacterial nano-weapon is the goal of a new Nordic research project co-ordinated by Professor Ivan Mijakovic at Chalmers. The project aims to deliver the next generation of treatments against antibiotic-resistant bacteria.</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span><span>Bacterial infections that cannot be treated due to antibiotic resistance is a rising and acute global problem. More than 700,000 people worldwide die each year due to infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. </span></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><span>In a worst-case scenario presented in a UN report in 2018, we can, if no measures are taken, reach a situation by 2050 where the death toll due to these infections rises to 10 million per year. As it is a time-consuming process to develop new antibiotics, and today's antibiotics are rapidly becoming ineffective, innovations are needed quickly.</span></span></p> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Treatment of antibiotic resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>​</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><span style="background-color:initial"></span></span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/SysBio/IvanMijakovic_180327_340x400.jpg" alt="Ivan Mijakovic" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="width:240px;height:282px" />“This is the right time for scientists to mobilise and try to solve this problem, which will be a real threat to mankind in a decade or two. Traditionally we all tend to think that the solution is to find new antibiotics, but we could also try to find a disruptive new technology that is not based on antibiotic discovery,” says<strong> Ivan Mijakovic</strong>, Professor of Systems and Synthetic Biology at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering at Chalmers, w​ho is the co-ordinator of the new Nordic project.  </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The research </span><span>pro</span><span>ject will run </span><span>for three years, and in January 2021 it was awarded 15 MSEK by </span><a href="https://www.nordforsk.org/">Nordforsk</a><span>. The researchers will specifically be focusing on treatment of methicillin-resistant </span><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em><span> (MRSA), which, among other things, causes chronic skin infections and sepsis. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>MRSA can also infect tissues and organs inside the body, such as heart and lungs, and they can also grow on different kinds of implants used in health care. MRSA-infections are easily spread in hospitals and cause great suffering in affected patients. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Combine three techniques in a new way</span></h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The idea of the project is to combine three already established techniques in a completely new way to create a new system for drug delivery. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Metal nanoparticles, graphene flakes and antibiotics all have antibacterial properties. Combined they would be even more powerful, as these particles most likely can penetrate the bacterial biofilm formed at the area of infection and release the antibiotic there. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Biofilm is the thick layer of bacteria and the mucus they produce when they attach to a surface and start to multiply, and it creates a protective barrier for the bacteria. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Graphene flakes cut and kill bacteria</span></h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/SysBio/A%20Yurgens%201_340x400.jpg" alt="August Yurgens" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="width:240px;height:282px" />Ch</span><span>almers is one of the world leading universities in the research field of graphene. The idea of using graphene for medical treatments is relatively young but has great potential.  <strong>August Yurgens</strong> is Professor at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience at Chalmers. His research group is developing the process where the nanoparticles are coated axially with graphene flakes. </span></p></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“Sharp edges of graphene flakes placed vertically on a surface cut through the membrane of cells of a certain size, which <a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspx">research from Ivan and other scientists at Chalmers already has shown</a>.  Small bacterial cells are killed when they are cut by the sharp graphene edges, but human cells, which are bigger, are not harmed. The graphene flakes will be coated with the drug for transporting it deeper into the infected tissue. The antibiotics will then be released in the infected tissue gradually, &quot;says August Yurgens and continues: </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>&quot;Since some chemicals used as drugs are non-soluble in water, the main constituent of our bodies, we must find other ways of transporting the drugs within the body. The graphene coated nanoparticles could be a solution to this problem.” </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>His research group has made trials where they tried to grow graphene on silicon nanoparticles </span><span>−</span><span> </span><span> with promising results. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“Of course, we are facing some challenges since the nanoparticles are spherical and for most efficient result, they need to be covered evenly with graphene flakes. We have several ideas on how we can solve that,” he says. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Green nanoparticles and novel drugs​</span></h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The other Nordic partners are <a href="https://www.biosustain.dtu.dk/">DTU</a> in Denmark, and the research institute <a href="https://www.sintef.no/en/">SINTEF​</a> in Norway.  DTU will deliver the so-called green nanoparticles, which produced from plant or bacterial extracts, for an environmentally friendly production. </span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Researchers at SINTEF are developing new drugs with antibacterial properties, which will be loaded on the graphene coated nanoparticles. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">&quot;Mechanism that effectively can be used against MRSA&quot;</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">I<span>van Mijakovic’s research group will test the new nano-weapons for killing of bacterial biofilms. Ivan Mijakovic says that even if their study is successful, further obstacles must be overcome before this system can be used in patients. </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Graphene-based nanotechnology is not yet allowed in medical treatments within the EU. But, since this area has such potential, there are ongoing clinical trials to ensure safe treatments. </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span> “It usually takes decades to develop treatments like this. But we are at the forefront of developing a mechanism that we think can be effectively used against MRSA and other dangerous pathogens, and it is important that we test it and act now,” says Ivan Mijakovic.  </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p 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class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><strong>Text: </strong>Susanne Nilsson Lindh</span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> 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</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>Read more: </strong></span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspx">Spikes of graphene can kill bacteria on implants</a></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />​</a><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Graphite-nanoplatelets-on-medical-devices-prevent-infections-.aspx">Graphite nanoplatelets prevent infections​</a></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div></div>Tue, 02 Feb 2021 10:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Solving-complex-physics-problems-at-lightning-speed.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Solving-complex-physics-problems-at-lightning-speed.aspxSolving complex physics problems at lightning speed<p><b>A calculation so complex that it takes twenty years to complete on a powerful desktop computer can now be done in one hour on a regular laptop. Physicist Andreas Ekström at Chalmers University of Technology, together with international research colleagues, has designed a new method to calculate the properties of atomic nuclei incredibly quickly. ​​​</b></p><div>The new approach is based on a concept called emulation, where an approximate calculation replaces a complete and more complex calculation. Although the researchers are taking a shortcut, the solution ends up almost exactly the same. It is reminiscent of algorithms from machine learning, but ultimately the researchers have designed a completely new method. It opens up even more possibilities in fundamental research in areas such as nuclear physics.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/AndreasEkstrom_200924_webb_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:169px;width:200px" /> </div> <div><div><div>“Now that we can emulate atomic nuclei using this method, we have a completely new tool to construct and analyse theoretical descriptions of the forces between protons and neutrons inside the atomic nucleus,” says research leader Andreas Ekström, Associate Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</div></div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​Fundamental to understanding our existence</h2> <div>The subject may sound niche, but it is in fact fundamental to understanding our existence and the stability and origin of visible matter. Most of the atomic mass resides in the centre of the atom, in a dense region called the atomic nucleus. The constituent particles of the nucleus, the protons and neutrons, are held together by something called the strong force. Although this force is so central to our existence, no one knows exactly how it works. To increase our knowledge and unravel the fundamental properties of visible matter, researchers need to be able to model the properties of atomic nuclei with great accuracy.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>The basic research that Andreas Ekström and his colleagues are working on sheds new light on topics ranging from neutron stars and their properties, to the innermost structure and decay of nuclei. Basic research in nuclear physics also provides essential input to astrophysics, atomic physics, and particle physics.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Opening doors to completely new possibilities</h2> <div>“I am incredibly excited to be able to make calculations with such accuracy and efficiency. Compared with our previous methods, it feels like we are now computing at lightning speed. In our ongoing work here at Chalmers, we hope to improve the emulation method further, and perform advanced statistical analyses of our quantum mechanical models. With this emulation method it appears that we can achieve results that were previously considered impossible. This certainly opens doors to completely new possibilities,&quot; says Andreas Ekström.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Mia Halleröd Palmgren<br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>The project is funded by the European Research Council within the framework of an ERC Starting Grant.​</strong> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/He-will-explore-the-secrets-of-atomic-nuclei.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the work to explore the secrets of the atomic nuclei: .</a></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> More on the mathematical shortcut  </h2> <div><div>The new emulation method is based on something called eigenvector continuation (EVC). It allows for emulation of many quantum mechanical properties of atomic nuclei with incredible speed and accuracy. Instead of directly solving the time-consuming and complex many-body problem over and over again, researchers have created a mathematical shortcut, using a transformation into a special subspace. This makes it possible to utilise a few exact solutions in order to then obtain approximate solutions much faster. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>If the emulator works well, it generates solutions that are almost exactly – circa 99 per cent – similar to the solutions to the original problem. This is in many ways the same principles used in machine learning, but it is not a neural network or a Gaussian process – a completely new method underpins it. The EVC method for emulation is not limited to atomic nuclei, and the researchers are currently looking further into different types of applications.<span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/Ljusets%20hastighet_experimentella%20värden_webb_750x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">Plot of the energy and radius of the oxygen isotope 16-O for 100,000 different parametrisations of the strong nuclear interaction. Using the new method, the results were generated within a few minutes on a standard laptop. The dashed lines indicate the values of experimental data.</span><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div>Illustration: Andreas Ekström and Yen Strandqvist/Chalmers University of Technology</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><p class="MsoNormal"></p></h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">The new findings have been published in two articles</h2> <div>“<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2020.135814">Eigenvector continuation as an efficient and accurate emulator for uncertainty quantification</a>” <span style="background-color:initial">published in Physics Letters B, written by Sebastian König, Andreas Ekström, Kai Hebeler, Dean Lee and Achim Schwenk. The researchers are active at North Carolina State University, USA, Chalmers University of Technology, Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany and Michigan State University, USA.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“<a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.252501">Global Sensitivity Analysis of Bulk Properties of an Atomic Nucleus</a>” <span style="background-color:initial">published in Physical Review Letters, written by Andreas Ekström, Chalmers, and Gaute Hagen, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.</span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">For more information, please contact:: </h2> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Andreas-Ekstrom.aspx">Andreas Ekström</a>, Associate Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 772 36 85 <a href="mailto:andreas.ekstrom@chalmers.se">andreas.ekstrom@chalmers.se</a></div></div>Mon, 01 Feb 2021 06:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Biodegradable-plastics-in-the-open-environment.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Biodegradable-plastics-in-the-open-environment.aspxBiodegradable plastics in the open environment<p><b>​Plastic pollution is a worldwide problem and biodegradable plastics can play a part to reduce the waste. But there is a risk that the term biodegradable plastics can lead to confusion for policymakers and customers, since most biodegradable plastics are designed to degrade only in special industrial composting facilities. A report has now been published that gives a scientific view on the use of biodegradable plastics in the open environment.</b></p><div>​Biodegradable plastics can only help solving the growing plastic waste problem if it’s handled the way it was designed. A perspective here is to label as biodegradable if it can be fully broken down by microorganism. Such full biodegradability is not always the case with conventional biodegradable plastics. The effectiveness of biodegradable plastics is highly dependent on the environmental conditions. If the necessary microorganisms and other circumstances such as the right temperature is missing, then the plastic will not degrade in a reasonable time period. Most biodegradable plastics today cannot just be left in an open environment for degradation. So, it is very important to understand that biodegradable plastic will not automatically solve the plastic waste problem, but it can be part of the solution if managed correctly.</div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Policy recommendations on biodegradable plastics</h2> <div> </div> <div> The report <a href="https://www.sapea.info/topics/biodegradability-of-plastics/">Biodegradability of Plastics in the Open Environment</a>, written by a Group of Chief Scientific Advisors based on scientific evidence reviewed by the Science Advice for Policy by European Academies, gives several policy recommendations. First is limiting the use of biodegradable plastics in the open environment to specific applications for which reduction, reuse, and recycling are not feasible. Second, the report wants to see support for the development of coherent testing and certification standards for biodegradation of plastics in the open environment. Thirdly it is also necessary to promote the supply of accurate information on the properties, appropriate use and disposal, and limitations of biodegradable plastic to relevant user groups.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Konstruktionsmaterial/AntalBoldizar.jpg" alt="Antal Boldizar" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px 20px;width:167px;height:209px" />Professor <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/antal-boldizar.aspx">Antal Boldizar</a>, researching on environmentally adapted engineering polymers at Chalmers University of Technology, is one of the working group members in the advisory board that produced the report.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><em>Who do you think should read this report and why?</em></div> <div><span style="font-size:11pt;line-height:107%;font-family:calibri, sans-serif">– </span>As this report gives a rather broad perspective on the aspects of biodegradable plastics, I think it could be of general interest for many readers. The specific purpose was, however, to give a scientific input to the European Commission as a support for a new framework on biodegradable plastics, says Antal Boldizar.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><em>What is the most important thing to think of when it comes to biodegradable plastic, in your opinion?</em></div> <div> <span style="font-size:11pt;line-height:107%;font-family:calibri, sans-serif">– </span>The most important message, I think, is that biodegradable plastics have a role to play in reducing the accumulating of plastics in the open environment — but only in some specific applications. In other cases, including single-use packaging and plastic bags, it would likely be better to reduce the amount of plastic we use, to re-use it, recycle it, or, where we can, compost it in industrial plants, says Antal.</div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">About SAPEA</h2> <div><span><a href="https://www.sapea.info/">SAPEA</a> is part of the European Commission’s Scientific Advice Mechanism.<span> </span></span>The report is part of the Scientific Advice Mechanism that gives independent scientific advice to the European Commission. </div> <div> </div> <div>SAPEA has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement 737432</div> <div> </div> <div> </div>Fri, 29 Jan 2021 08:30:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/How-genetic-motifs-conduct-the-music-of-life.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/How-genetic-motifs-conduct-the-music-of-life.aspxHow genetic motifs conduct &quot;the music of life<p><b>​Our genetic codes control not only which proteins our cells produce, but also – to a great extent – in what quantity. This ground-breaking discovery, applicable to all biological life, was recently made by systems biologists at Chalmers University of Technology using supercomputers and artificial intelligence. Their research, which could also shed new light on the mysteries of cancer, was recently published in the scientific journal Nature Communications.​​​</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span>DNA molecules contain instructions for cells for producing various proteins. This has been known since the middle of the last century when the double helix was identified as the information carrier of life.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>But until now, the factor which determines what quantity of a certain protein will be produced has been unclear. Measurements have shown that a single cell can contain anything from a few molecules of a given protein, up to tens of thousands.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>With this new research, our understanding of the mechanisms behind this process, known as gene expression, has taken a big step forward. The group of Chalmers scientists have shown that most of the information for quantity regulation is also embedded in the DNA code itself. They have demonstrated that this information can be read with the help of supercomputers and AI.</span></p> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Comparable to an orche​stral score</span></h2> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Assistant Professor Aleksej Zelezniak, of Chalmers’ Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, leads the research group behind the discovery. </span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“You could compare this to an orchestral score. The notes describe which pitches the different instruments should play. But the notes alone do not say much about how the music will sound,” he explains. </span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Information for the tempo and dynamics of the music are also required, for example. But instead of written instructions such as <em>allegro</em> or <em>forte</em> in connection with the notation, the language of genetics spreads this information over large areas of the DNA molecule. “Previously, we could read the notes, but not how the music should be played. Now we can do both,” states Aleksej Zelezniak. </span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“Another comparison could be that now we have found the grammar rules for the genetic language, where perhaps before we only knew the vocabulary.”</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>What then is this grammar, which determines the quantity of gene expression? According to Aleksej Zelezniak, it takes the form of reoccurring patterns and combinations of the four ‘notes’ of genetics – the molecular building blocks designated A, C, G and T. These patterns and combinations are known as ‘motifs’. </span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The crucial factors are the relationships between these motifs – how often they repeat and at exactly which positions in the DNA code they appear.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“We discovered that this information is distributed over both the coding and non-coding parts of DNA – meaning, it is also present in the areas that used to be referred to as ‘junk DNA’.”</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>A discovery that applies t​o all biological life</span></h2> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Although there are other factors that also affect cells’ gene expression, according to the Chalmers researchers' study, the information embedded in the genetic code accounts for about 80 per cent of the process.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The researchers tested the method in seven different model organisms – from yeast and bacteria to fruit flies, mice, and humans – and found that the mechanism is the same. The discovery they have made is universal, valid for all biological life.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>According to Aleksej Zelezniak, the discovery would have not been possible without access to state-of-the-art supercomputers and AI. The research group conducted huge computer simulations both at Chalmers University of Technology and other facilities in Sweden.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“This tool allows us to look at thousands of positions at the same time, creating a kind of automated examination of DNA. This is essential for being able to identify patterns from such huge amounts of data.”</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Jan Zrimec, postdoctoral researcher in the Chalmers group and first author of the study, agrees, saying:</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“With previous technologies, researchers had to tell the system which motifs in the DNA code to search for. But thanks to AI, the system can now learn on its own, identifying different motifs and motif combinations relevant to gene expression.”</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>He adds that the discovery is also due to the fact they were examining a much larger part of DNA in a single sweep than had previously been done.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Fast value for the pharma​ceutical industry</span></h2> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Aleksej Zelezniak believes that the discovery will generate great interest in the research world, and that the method could become an important tool in several research fields – genetics and evolutionary research, systems biology, medicine, and biotechnology.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The new knowledge could also make it possible to better understand how mutations can affect gene expression in the cell and therefore, eventually, how cancers arise and function. The applications which could most rapidly be significant for the wider public are in the pharmaceutical industry.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“It is conceivable that this method could help improve the genetic modification of the microorganisms already used today as ‘biological factories’ – leading to faster and cheaper development and production of new drugs,” he speculates.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>Text: </strong>Björn Forsman</span><br /></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/SysBio/Fig4_drawing_simplified2_ENG.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Using the AI approaches, the researchers uncover regulatory rules that define which DNA motifs must be present together on a gen" style="margin:5px;width:750px;height:300px" /><br /><br /><br /></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="font-size:14px"><em>Using the AI approaches, the researchers uncover regulatory rules that define which DNA motifs must be present together on a gene and at which locations to regulate gene expression across a range of levels from low to high. Previous studies focus just on single motifs in single regulatory regions (marked ‘original motif’), whereas here they expand the view across multiple regulatory regions and multiple motifs (marked ‘additional motifs’).  <span style="font-size:14px"></span></em></span><span></span><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px"><i>Illustration: Jan Zrimec/Chalmers</i></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><br /></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300;outline:0px"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><span><strong>R</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>e</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>ad the article in <em>Nature Communications</em>:</strong></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19921-4">Deep learning suggests that gene expression is encoded in all parts of a co-evolving interacting gene regulatory structure</a></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300;background-color:rgb(255, 255, 255);outline:0px"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />​</a><span><strong>More about: mapping the motifs in DNA code</strong></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The researchers initially used DNA from yeast for their experiments. Self-learning algorithms, in the form of artificial neural networks, were trained to predict the relationship between DNA data and average amount of proteins in the cells.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>For yeast, it was found that 82 per cent of the variation in gene expression could be predicted using DNA data alone.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>When the same methodology was tested on six other organisms, including humans, the average association between DNA code and gene expression was measured at 60 per cent.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Further analyses of the expression of individual genes showed that what controls the level is the presence of certain motif combinations in the DNA code, which can be found in different parts of the DNA code – both in the coding and non-coding regions.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The research has been supported by NVIDIA Corporation, Swedish National Infrastructure for Computing (SNIC), SciLifeLab and the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div><p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p></div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p>Thu, 28 Jan 2021 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Dancing-exoplanets.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Dancing-exoplanets.aspxDancing exoplanets challenge theories on planet formation<p><b>Astronomers have revealed a system consisting of six exoplanets, five of which are locked in a rare rhythm around their central star. The researchers believe the system could provide important clues about how planets, including those in the Solar System, form and evolve.</b></p><p>The Swedish research contribution in this study has been significant, with the participation of, among others, Malcolm Fridlund and Carina Persson at Chalmers University of Technology.<br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span></p> <p><br /></p> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><div>The first time the team observed TOI-178, a star some 200 light-years away in the constellation of Sculptor, they thought they had spotted two planets going around it in the same orbit. However, a closer look revealed something entirely different. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– Through further observations we realised that there were not two planets orbiting the star at roughly the same distance from it, but rather multiple planets in a very special configuration, says Adrien Leleu from the Université de Genève and the University of Bern, Switzerland, who led a new study of the system published today in Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The new research has revealed that the system boasts six exoplanets and that all but the one closest to the star are locked in a rhythmic dance as they move in their orbits. In other words, they are in resonance. This means that there are patterns that repeat themselves as the planets go around the star, with some planets aligning every few orbits. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The five outer exoplanets of the TOI-178 system follow a complex chain of resonance, one of the longest yet discovered in a system of planets. The five outer planets in the TOI-178 system follow a 18:9:6:4:3 chain: while the second planet from the star (the first in the resonance chain) completes 18 orbits, the third planet from the star (second in the chain) completes 9 orbits, and so on. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The six exoplanets found are very close to the star, with orbital periods ranging from 2 to 21 days, which is closer than the the star's so called habitable zone. But the researchers suggest that, by continuing the resonance chain, they might find additional planets that could exist in or very close to this zone. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– For a planet to be in the habitable zone where liquid water can be found on the surface, the orbital period in this system must be at least 40 days. The fact that the planets around TOI-178 have orbits so extremely close to their star means that any water on their surfaces would boil away, even though the star is cooler than our Sun, says Carina Persson, at the department of Space, Earth and Environment.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><span style="background-color:initial">Read the full press release from ESO, European Southern Observatory: </span><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://www.eso.org/public/news/eso2102/?lang">Puzzling six-exoplanet system with rhythmic movement challenges theories of how planets form</a>.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The study is published in the article: </span><a href="https://www.eso.org/public/archives/releases/sciencepapers/eso2102/eso2102a.pdf"><div style="display:inline !important"><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;</span><span style="background-color:initial">Six transiting planets and a chain of Laplace resonances in</span></div></a></div> <div><a href="https://www.eso.org/public/archives/releases/sciencepapers/eso2102/eso2102a.pdf"><span style="background-color:initial">TOI-178&quot;</span><span style="background-color:initial">, in Astronomy and Astrophysics</span></a><span style="background-color:initial">. </span></div></div></span></div>Wed, 27 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/graduation-ceremony2021.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/graduation-ceremony2021.aspxThe winter graduation ceremony was celebrated digitally<p><b>Like last time, the newly graduated Chalmerists were honored online during the winter graduation ceremony. 182 former students passed the revue when the festivities took place on January 23.</b></p><p>The chat was filled with congratulations from relatives and friends when the ceremony was broadcast live, and the programme consisted of a mix of live elements from the student union building and pre-recorded material. President Stefan Bengtsson, vice president Anna Karlsson-Bengtsson, student union president David Welander, comperes Hedvig Aspenberg and Philip Wramsby, and musicians from Duo Granmo-Berg and Alliance-Orchestret were present in the student union building.<br /><br />Stefan Bengtsson commented on the world situation in his greeting speech.<br /><br />“It´s very obvious, and has become apparent recently with the corona virus, that the world is closely linked together. What happens in one corner of the world affects the entire planet. But there are also opportunities. By collaboration, we can address the challenges.”<br /><br />He concluded by welcoming the graduates back to Chalmers as alumni in various contexts.<br /><br />“I would like to express my deepest congratulations on your exam, and wish you all luck in the future. Remember that you will remain being a Chalmerist even now when your studies are over. And indeed, you are the future.”<br /><br />Anna Karlsson-Bengtsson started with some advice based on her own experiences.<br /><br />“I started my career once upon a time with a bachelor in analytical chemistry, and the three things that were the least exciting during my education were bacteria, carbohydrate chemistry and statistics. So I decided that I would never come close to any of those again. That did not really work out, since half a decade later I defended my thesis on – yes – bacteria binding to carbohydrates. And I loved it. I think it was a question of getting the right problem to solve, in the right environment, at the right time in my life.”<br /><br />“My tip for you as new graduates is: Get rid of prejudices, move around, foster your curiosity and patience. Then you will – over and over again – find the problem, in the environment, at the time, that lets you say: I love it.”<br /><br />Anna Karlsson-Bengtsson led the main part of the ceremony. She gave a short introduction to each study programme before all the graduates were introduced with names, and pictures for those who wished, accompanied by music by Duo Granmo-Berg. Each programme also received a fanfare from Alliance-Orchestret. The diploma itself and a goodie bag are sent by post to the graduates.<br /><br />Chalmers Student Choir entertained during the breaks, and the viewers received video greetings from alumni Ulrika Lindstrand, Paul Welander, Therese Eriksson and Robert Falck.<br /><br />David Welander gave the last live speech. He encouraged the graduates to bring their most valuable relationships and memories from Chalmers with them, in addition to the knowledge, tools and title they have gained.<br /><br />“When graduating, what you keep is important. I believe that all of you will return to Chalmers some day. Perhaps as a mentor to a young student, an employer at Charm, or in just passing by. No matter the reason, I hope that you bring enough of Chalmers with you today to be able to still call it home when you return.”<br /><br /><br /><strong>Text:</strong> Johanna Wilde</p> <p><strong>Pictures from the live streaming:</strong></p> <p>AllianceOrchestret </p> <p>Vice president Anna Karlsson-Bengtsson</p> <p>University president Stefan Bengtsson</p> <p>Comperes Philip Wramsby and Hedvig Aspenberg </p> <p></p> <p>Student Union president David Welander</p>Mon, 25 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-theory-about-spread-of-antibiotic-resistance.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-theory-about-spread-of-antibiotic-resistance.aspxNew theory about spread of antibiotic resistance<p><b>​Pathogenic bacteria in humans are developing resistance to antibiotics much faster than expected. Now, computational research at Chalmers shows that one reason could be significant genetic transfer between bacteria in our ecosystems and to humans. This work has also led to new tools for resistance researchers.​</b></p><div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);background-color:initial">​</span><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);background-color:initial">According to the World Health Organisation, antibiotic resistance is one of the greatest threats to global health, food safety and development. It already causes over 33,000 deaths a year in Europe alone.</span></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Completely different species of bacteria can spread resistance genes to each other through <em>plasmids</em> – small DNA molecules where bacteria store some of their genes outside the chromosome. When two bacterial cells come into contact, they can copy plasmids to each other. This is called <em>conjugation</em>, and it is the most important mechanism for spreading antibiotic resistance.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“In recent years, we’ve seen that resistance genes spread to human pathogens to a much greater degree than anyone expected,” says Jan Zrimec, researcher in systems and synthetic biology at Chalmers. “Many of the genes appear to have originated in a wide array of bacterial species and environments, such as soil, water and plant bacteria.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“This has been difficult to explain, because although conjugation is very common, we’ve thought that there was a distinct limitation for which bacterial species can transfer plasmids to each other. Plasmids belong to different mobility groups, or MOB groups, so they can’t transfer between just any bacterial species.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Specific DNA regions reveal spreading potential</h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Zrimec has developed new methods of data analysis that show that genetic transfer may be much more boundless and widespread than previously expected.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Among other things, he has developed an algorithm that can identify specific DNA regions that are necessary for conjugation – called <em>oriT regions</em> – in large amounts of data consisting of genetic sequences from the DNA of thousands of plasmids. The algorithm can also sort plasmids into MOB groups based on the identified oriT regions.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">He has used the algorithm to explore known gene sequences from over 4,600 naturally occurring plasmids from different types of bacteria, which has not been possible to do systematically before. The results show, among other things, that:</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <ul><li>The number of oriT regions may be almost eight times higher than those found with the standard method used today.</li> <li>The number of mobile plasmids may be twice as high as previously known.</li> <li>The number of bacterial species that have mobile plasmids may be almost twice as high as previously known.</li> <li>Over half of these plasmids have oriT regions that match a conjugation enzyme from another plasmid that has previously been classified in a different MOB group. This means that they could be transferred by one of these plasmids that happens to be in the same bacterial cell.</li></ul> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The last part means that there may be transfer mechanisms between large numbers of bacterial species and environments where we previously believed there were barriers.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“These results could imply that there is a robust network for transferring plasmids between bacteria in humans, animals, plants, soil, aquatic environments and industries, to name a few,” Zrimec explains. “Resistance genes occur naturally in many different bacteria in these ecosystems, and the hypothetical network could mean that genes from all of these environments can be transferred to bacteria that cause disease in humans.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“This may be a possible reason for the rapid development of resistance in human pathogens that we have observed in recent years. Our extensive use of antibiotics selects for resistance genes, which could thus flow in from a much larger naturally occurring genetic reservoir than we previously estimated.”</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">May be significant for combating antibiotic resistance</h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The results need to be verified experimentally in the future, but the data analysis methods Zrimec developed can already be employed by many of the researchers working with antibiotic resistance in various medical and biological fields. They provide a powerful new tool for systematically mapping out the potential transferability of different plasmids.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“This has been a major limitation of the research field up to now,” Zrimec says. “I hope that the methods will be able to benefit large parts of the research into antibiotic resistance, which is an extremely interdisciplinary and fragmented area. The methods can be used for studies aiming to develop more effective limitations to antibiotic use, instructions for how antibiotics are to be used and new types of substances that can prevent the spread of resistance genes at the molecular level.”</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><strong>Text:</strong> </span>Johanna Wilde<br /><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Images:</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">Jan Zrimec</span></p> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-theory-about-spread-of-antibiotic-resistance.aspx?ControlMode=Edit&amp;DisplayMode=Design" style="font-weight:300;background-color:rgb(255, 255, 255)"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />​</a><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>More about: Genetic transfer through conjugation</strong></span><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">In order for conjugation to start, an enzyme is needed – a <em>relaxase</em> – which fits onto a specific location on the plasmid. The relaxase has to recognise and bind to a region where the DNA ring can be nicked and a strand can be transferred to the next bacterium. This DNA region is called the <em>origin of transfer</em>, or <em>oriT</em>.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Previously, it was thought that an individual plasmid must contain both the gene for the relaxase and a matching oriT in order to be transferred to other bacteria. But a bacterial cell can contain several plasmids, and in recent years various researchers have shown that a relaxase from one plasmid can fit with an oriT region on another plasmid in the same cell and activate the conjugation of that plasmid.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">This means that it may be enough for a plasmid to have only an oriT to be able to conjugate, which in turn means that many plasmids that have previously been classed as nonmobile, because they lack the relaxase gene, can be conjugative. But until now it has not been known how common the phenomenon is among bacteria. This is one of the knowledge gaps that Zrimec’s results are helping to fill in.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-theory-about-spread-of-antibiotic-resistance.aspx?ControlMode=Edit&amp;DisplayMode=Design" style="font-weight:300;background-color:rgb(255, 255, 255)"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><strong>More about: The new method compared with the current standard</strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The current standard tools for assessing the transferability of plasmids are based on searching for the DNA sequences for the relaxase enzyme or for oriT regions that the enzyme can bind to. There are several key limitations to this. For one, some tools produce incomplete results, while others require extremely time-consuming and resource-demanding laboratory tests.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Zrimec’s new data analysis method is based solely on identifying oriT regions, using special physiochemical properties found specifically in oriT regions of DNA. Through previous research, he has shown that these physiochemical signatures – which determine which relaxase can bind to the oriT region – are more stable and specific than the DNA sequences themselves. This allows the classification of the plasmids to the right MOB group based on the oriT region, independently of relaxase, which also allows researchers to map out the overall transferability between different bacterial species and environments.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The method can manage large amounts of data and can be used to search effectively for oriT regions on plasmids in their entirety.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-theory-about-spread-of-antibiotic-resistance.aspx?ControlMode=Edit&amp;DisplayMode=Design" style="font-weight:300"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><strong>Read the scientific article <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mbo3.1129">Multiple plasmid origin‐of‐transfer regions might aid the spread of antimicrobial resistance to human pathogens.</a></strong><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(0, 0, 0)"> </span></p>Thu, 21 Jan 2021 07:00:00 +0100