News: Teknikens ekonomi och organisation related to Chalmers University of TechnologyWed, 12 Dec 2018 11:28:59 +0100 fashion can be worn for 50 years<p><b>​A shirt that can gain a new lease of life and be used for 50 years. Clothes made of paper that can be worn for a few days. Fashion designers and researchers from Chalmers have joined forces in an innovative project to test the limits of sustainable garments of the future. The results were recently showcased at an exhibition in London.</b></p><div>​How can we reduce the environmental impact of clothes and create more sustainable fashion? This question is the focus of a recently concluded research project “Circular Design Speeds”, which is a collaboration between researchers, fashion designers and the clothing brand Filippa K. The research findings and the garment prototypes have now been on show at an exhibition in London.</div> <div> </div> <div>“People who work with fashion have sometimes asked me what they can do to make clothes more environmentally friendly. Dialogue and working together with the research world is a good start,” says Greg Peters, Associate Professor in the Division of Environmental Systems Analysis at Chalmers.<br /><br /></div> <div>Together with researchers from RISE (Research Institutes of Sweden) he has conducted a life-cycle analysis for two garment prototypes, which were developed at University of the Arts London, and has assessed the environmental impact of the garments throughout their life cycle.<br /><br /></div> <div>Both of the items of clothing are extreme in terms of potential lifespan. One – a polyester shirt – is an example of slow fashion that is designed to be used in various phases for 50 years. </div> <div> </div> <div>“The idea is that the shirt can be altered during its lifetime to keep it interesting for its owner, and so that it can be taken over by additional owners. We have calculated that the garment will have had seven users in eight different life cycles before finally being consigned to disposal through incineration,” Peters says.</div> <div> </div> <div>The transformation of the shirt will initially take place via sublimation dye overprinting, technology that does exist, but is not yet used on a large scale as a recycling technique. Peters explains it as a form of electronic printing on paper that can be transferred onto an item of clothing using heat. The owner can thereby revamp the shirt and change its appearance several times before it reaches the next stage in its life cycle.</div> <div> </div> <div>“When you can no longer create new prints on the shirt, we use the fabric to make lining, in a jacket for example. This is done by mixing the fabric with another material using a laser machine. We thereby extend the intended life cycle of the garment by a further 15 years beyond the lifespan of the shirt,” he says.  </div> <div> </div> <div>After this, the project’s fashion designers suggest that the jacket be redesigned to make jewellery and fashion accessories, which lengthens the lifespan by 20 more years. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><img src="/sv/institutioner/tme/PublishingImages/Nyheter/Andra%20storlekar/GregPeters1_750x320.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4" style="text-align:center"><span>&quot;If we can make our clothes last longer, we can minimise the major environmental impact produced when the clothes are created<span>&quot;</span></span></h4> <div style="text-align:center"> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">Greg Peters, Chalmers</h6></div></div> <div> </div> <div>Using all these means to extend the garment lifespan is the main reason we see great environmental gains, because most of the adverse environmental impact caused by clothes is created during their manufacture when fibres and fabrics are made. That’s why it is very beneficial to be able to use our clothes for longer, so that we reduce our need to buy new ones.</div> <div> </div> <div>“This is an important message: we buy too many clothes! If we can make our clothes last longer, we can minimise the major environmental impact produced when the clothes are created,” he says.</div> <div> </div> <div>Another way of creating more sustainable clothes is to develop materials that have a very short life cycle teamed with lower environmental impact during their production. Fast fashion clothing can be recycled or turned into compost, but the substantial environmental benefit is reaped right at the point of purchase, because the buyer thereby avoids conventional garments with all the adverse environmental impact that they involve.</div> <div> </div> <div>In the project, a number of garments made of paper pulp were produced that have an intended lifespan of a few days. Greg Peters states that sustainable production has major advantages, and that the garments are light in weight, but they must be used a sufficient number of times.  </div> <div> </div> <div>“It’s not enough to use a paper garment twice. According to our calculations, you need to use it at least five times for the environmental gains to surpass conventional clothes used normally. However, there may be places where paper garments that are disposed of after use are a smart idea, such as hospitals,” he says.</div> <div> </div> <div>Peters describes the report as an attempt to facilitate fashion designers’ and environmental scientists’ understanding of how environmental performance in clothes can be improved. He primarily has two recommendations for achieving a more sustainable and circular fashion industry:<br /><br /></div> <div><ul><li>Try to reduce the weight of materials in a garment without reducing its quality, for example by using stronger fibres.</li></ul></div> <div><ul><li>Investigate how to increase and create new value in a garment at the point in time when the user would normally throw it away.</li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div>As part of the project, clothing brand Filippa K has chosen to create two pieces based on the research: one commercial, recyclable jacket made of recycled materials, and a concept dress made of paper. Peters hopes that the fashion industry will find ways of creating more sustainable fashion – and ideally with the help of research.</div> <div> </div> <div>“This is the first time that one of my reports has been linked to a fashion exhibition. It’s really exciting that designers are starting to think along these lines,” he says.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Text: Ulrika Ernström</strong></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">About Circular Design Speeds</h4> <div>Circular Design Speeds is a collaborative project involving:</div> <div> </div> <ul><li>Mistra Future Fashion, an interdisciplinary research programme run by RISE</li></ul> <div> </div> <ul><li>Greg Peters, Associate Professor in the Division of Environmental Systems Analysis at Chalmers, who together with researchers from RISE has conducted a life-cycle analysis for the garment prototypes.</li></ul> <div> </div> <ul><li>Centre for Circular Design at University of the Arts London, which produced these garment prototypes.</li></ul> <div> </div> <ul><li>Clothing brand Filippa K, which has created two pieces based on the research: one commercial, recyclable jacket made of recycled materials, and a concept dress made of paper.</li></ul> <div> </div> <div>Read the research report <a href="">“LCA on fast and slow garment prototypes”</a>, by Greg Peters, (principal author), Gustav Sandin, Sandra Roos and <span style="font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-style:normal;font-weight:300;letter-spacing:normal;text-align:start;text-indent:0px;text-transform:none;white-space:normal;word-spacing:0px;text-decoration:none;display:inline !important;float:none">Björn Spak</span>.</div> <div> </div> <div>At the end of November 2018, the research findings and garment prototypes were showcased at an exhibition at University of the Arts London.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Tips on sustainable clothing</h4> <div>Greg Peters’ three tips to consumers who want to take a more sustainable approach.</div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li>Buy fewer items of clothing. </li></ul></div> <div><ul><li>When you buy clothes, invest in strong items that will last for more than just a few washes.</li></ul></div> <div><ul><li>Think about how you wash your clothes. Especially in the drying phase – hang your clothes up to dry and avoid tumble dryers, which destroy the garments’ fibres.</li></ul></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">The creators of the clothes </h4> <div>All the garments, shown in the image at the top of the page, were created at University of the Arts London</div> <div> </div> <div>From left:</div> <div>1.    Fast Concept – Paper leather jacket, by Prof. Kay Politowicz and Dr Kate Goldsworthy </div> <div>2.    Fast Concept – Laser Line Mono, by Prof. Kay Politowicz and Dr Kate Goldsworthy </div> <div>3.    Fast Concept – Pulp-It Indigo, by Prof. Kay Politowicz and Dr Kate Goldsworthy </div> <div>4.    Slow Concept – First Step Plain Shirt, by Prof. Rebecca Earley </div> <div>5.    Slow Concept – Jacket by Laetitia Forst</div> <div>6.    Slow Concept – Overprinted Shirt and accessories, by Prof. Rebecca Earley</div>Tue, 11 Dec 2018 16:00:00 +0100 transition towards the future electricity system is already here<p><b>​How will the global electricity system transform in the future, as we strive for completely renewable energy sources? Kristina Hojcková at Chalmers explores three different scenarios and delivers thought-provoking findings about opportunities and challenges for the future electricity sector.</b></p><div>​In her licentiate thesis, WATT's NEXT? On socio-technical transitions towards future electricity system architectures, Kristina Hojcková explores what is waiting around the corner of the global electricity sector.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Tell us about your research!</strong></div> <div>I have studied socio-technical developments in the electricity sector to explore different pathways the electricity system transition towards a system based on renewable energy technologies can take. </div> <div> </div> <div>The aim was to better understand what determines the direction of the electricity system transition. I have worked on defining a number of scenarios and arrived at three future systems, often mentioned in the literature and media: </div> <div> </div> <div>• The Super-grid, a highly centralized and dependent electricity system</div> <div>• Smart-grid, a completely distributed and interdependent system</div> <div>• Off-grid, an independent system.</div> <div> </div> <div>I monitored related actors, regulations, values, expectations and technologies typical for these systems. I also studied factors and processes that support or block the developments towards one of these scenarios: the Smart-grid. </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Why is this important?</strong></div> <div>Existing research into the future of the electricity system based on renewables predominantly focuses on the technical and economic aspects of the transition. While these perspectives are important, they often downplay the role of the closely interlinked socio-cultural, organizational, and institutional factors that often pose barriers to the transformation of the electricity grid and market structure. It is therefore important to bring a more social perspective to the studies of the ongoing transformation in the electricity sector, through the lens of socio-technical system-oriented concepts and frameworks, to create a more holistic understanding of the complex nature of technological innovation and change.   </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What are your most important research findings?</strong></div> <div>By defining three alternative electricity system futures, we were able to observe the key actors, institutions and technologies that are currently emerging and accumulating. We also show that all of these alternative systems have gained notable momentum over the last 15 years, which provides evidence that the transition is underway. The developments are not exclusive to the electricity sector but also create links with other sectors, discourses and societal trends. Our findings also confirm the presumption that the Smart-grid scenario requires a close cooperation between incumbents and new entrants, especially from different sectors. </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Were you surprised by the results?</strong></div> <div>Surprising or rather unexpected results were found in relation to the Smart-grid developments, which at first glance could be envisioned as the most realistic path, supported by both the incumbents and the new actors. However, in reality, it seems that this interaction comes with a considerable friction as it requires complex restructuring processes, often imagined differently by the dominant actors and new entrants involved in Smart-grid related development. While Smart-grid requires complex negotiations, the Supergrid scenario is mostly about incremental changes in electricity generation and transmission supported by incumbents, and the Off-grid scenario is about new actors leaving the existing system behind and building a new one instead. </div>   <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center"> </h3> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center">&quot;My research is predominantly explorative and thought-provoking. Its findings are relevant for anyone interested in the transformation of the electricity sector&quot; </h3> <div style="text-align:center"><div><strong>Kristina Hojcková, Chalmers</strong></div></div> <div> </div> <div> </div></div> <div> <strong>What new knowledge do you bring forward in your research?</strong></div> <div>The novelty of my research lies in exploring extreme and mutually exclusive scenarios for future electricity systems at the global level. Such explorative scenarios take a point in neither what is desirable, nor what is likely, but what is theoretically possible. Given our approach, we are able to see structures and dynamics that are not visible in traditional scenario making. Furthermore, my research studies a new and recently widely discussed blockchain technology and cryptocurrencies and their potential in transforming the electricity sector. </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What do you hope for your research to lead to?</strong></div> <div>My research is predominantly explorative and thought-provoking. Its findings are relevant for anyone interested in the transformation of the electricity sector, such as researchers, entrepreneurs, policy-makers, prosumers, and many other who hope to find more clarity amidst the messy changes that affect us all as the electricity systems around the globe transform. While the proponents of each scenario tend to articulate their vision as the most beneficial future, my research emphasizes the need to look at the bigger picture. We need to realize that there are several significantly different ways to satisfy the criterion of hundred percent renewables, while each way comes with specific innovation dynamics and consequences.   </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What will be the next step in your research?</strong></div> <div>My main focus will be on studying another scenario – the Supergrid. I am interested in exploring developments in Asia, especially in China, where the vision of building a global Supergrid originated. </div> <div> </div> <div><strong><em>Text summary: Ulrika Ernström</em></strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS, RESEARCH AND MORE INFORMATION</h3> <div>Kristina Hojcková is a PhD student at the Division of Environmental Systems Analysis at the Department of Technology Management and Economics at Chalmers University. <a href="">Read more about her research here &gt;&gt;</a></div> <div> </div> <div>Read Kristina's licentiate thesis: <a href="">Watt's next? On socio-technical transitions towards future electricity system architectures.</a></div> <div> </div></div>Wed, 31 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0100 conclusion still stands: studded winter tyres cost more lives than they save<p><b>On 1 October Chalmers presented a study of the impact of studded winter tyres on human health. Following media reports of tyre manufacturer Nokian Tyres questioning the study’s findings, the researchers at Chalmers are now issuing a statement in reply. They reject all claims of errors.</b></p><div>Anna Furberg, Sverker Molander and Rickard Arvidsson write:<br /><br />“We have studied positive and negative impact on human health <a href="/en/departments/tme/news/Pages/Studded-winter-tyres-cost-more-lives-than-they-save.aspx">linked to the use of studded tyres from a life cycle perspective</a>. The results clearly show that the negative impact outweighs the positive.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Use in Scandinavia</h5> <div>The negative impact is dominated by worn particles emitted to air during the use of studded tyres here in Scandinavia (67–77 percent).</div> <div> </div> <div>Nokian Tyres criticises our study and claims the following, according to, among others, the magazine Teknikens värld, which we quote below in italics:</div> <div> </div> <div>“Due to wear, studded winter tyres emit large particles that have a diameter of at least 10 micrometres (PM10). It is problematic that the study is based on the assumption that people are constantly exposed to PM10 particles.”</div> <div> </div> <div>In its reply, the company does not acknowledge that through wear studded tyres also emit smaller particles that adversely affect health. According to Ferm and Sjöberg (2015), the use of studded tyres gives rise to 20–50 mg of airborne particles that are 2.5–10 micrometres in size (PM2.5–PM10) per vehicle-kilometre. It is these particles, ranging in size from PM2.5 to PM10, that we have included in our calculations – they are linked to various health problems such as heart and lung diseases. Additionally, we have only included particles from wear during the winter half of the year when studded tyres are actually used. Everyone is not always exposed to this wear, which is why an average absorption of particles (up to 10 micrometres) for the European population (Goedkoop et al., 2013) was used in the study.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Even those who drive vehicles with non-studded winter tyres benefit from studded tyres which make the road surface rougher, giving non-studded tyres better grip.”</div> <div> </div> <div>This effect has been taken into account in the statistics that we use regarding the reduced number of accidents through the use of studded tyres instead of non-studded tyres (Elvik, 1999).</div> <div> </div> <div>“A ban on using studded tyres would not improve the environment or public health, conversely the situation would worsen because decreased use of studded tyres would increase the need for sanding, which is a major source of particles.”</div> <div> </div> <div>Our study shows that public health is adversely affected through the use of studded tyres. According to our knowledge, there is also no direct link between reduced use of studded tyres and increased sanding. We see several additional potential alternatives to studded tyres, such as electronic anti-skid systems and durable asphalt. But all these need to be studied further from a life cycle perspective in order to investigate both advantages and disadvantages and to enable a statement to be made about their potential as alternatives to studded tyres. At present, we cannot assess the health effect of the alternatives. The statement above has therefore not been proved.</div> <div> </div> <div>“In the debate on winter tyres it is important to highlight both road safety and environmental aspects without being biased towards either studded or non-studded tyres.”</div> <div> </div> <div>We agree. In this study we have concentrated on the impact of studded tyres on human health. Both negative and positive. Here, we have approached the issue neutrally and evaluated all differences between studded and non-studded tyres that we have been able to identify as relevant in the context.</div> <div> </div> <div>The result from our calculations shows that particle wear on roads from the use of studded tyres contributes substantially to negative impact on people’s health, and exceeds the positive effect in Scandinavia in the form of saved lives. We are working within a relatively large range, where cautious figures must be compared to each other, and high estimates in a corresponding way.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>For Sweden this means – if we make a high estimate – 770 life years saved, thanks to the studs, and about twice as many life years lost due to particle wear alone. If we make a low estimate – 60 life years saved in Sweden – the negative health effects of particle wear may be about seven times higher than the positive effects.</strong></div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Production of studs </h5> <div>According to our study, the production phase causes 23–33 percent of the negative impact on health, nearly all of which is outside Scandinavia.</div> <div> </div> <div>“The studs contain extremely small quantities of cobalt, and only on the cemented carbide stud pins to strengthen them. The cemented carbide pins on a studded tyre contain in total about 5 grams of cobalt.”</div> <div> </div> <div>In our calculations we have assumed that a studded tyre contains a maximum of 5 grams of cobalt.</div> <div> </div> <div>“The tyre industry uses nearly exclusively, up to 95 percent, recycled cemented carbide.”</div> <div> </div> <div>Recycled cemented carbide has also had an impact on people’s health in the mining sector. In our calculations we have used a degree of recycling comprising 10–14 percent of cemented carbide, based on the average global recycling for tungsten, which is the main component of cemented carbide (Graedel et al., 2011; Leal-Ayala et al., 2015). If the tyre industry has a higher degree of recycling, this is good news. We welcome information from Nokian Tyres which could in that case support this statement.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Cobalt does not only exist in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (the DRC), mining also takes place in Finland, for example.”</div> <div> </div> <div>Global production of cobalt is dominated by the DRC, accounting for 50 percent (USGS, 2017), which is why in our calculations we presuppose that all mined cobalt comes from there. If we instead assume that 50 percent of mined cobalt comes from the DRC – and in an extremely simplified way assume that the rest is produced in countries where safety and health data from the mining industry can be represented by such data in the USA – the total negative health impact linked to the use of studded tyres decreases by 4–10 percent. We know that this is a certain underestimate of the health impact.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>We are therefore sure of our conclusion that studded tyres, generally, also take lives in areas that do not have wintry weather, and that this accounts for roughly a third of the negative impact on health. A manufacturer claiming otherwise should trace their own resource flows and show that they deviate from those prevalent in the market.</strong></div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Cobalt in general</h5> <div>To conclude, several actors have reacted to the fact that the use of cobalt in studded tyres is small in relation to other uses, such as in electronics and vehicle batteries.</div> <div> </div> <div>Yes, this is of course true. But in this particular study we are focusing on the health effects of studded tyres. The problems of cobalt – and the human suffering connected to the mining – are also significant in this comparison. This is what we are saying.</div> <div> </div> <div>It does not mean that we are making light of the serious problems caused by cobalt overall. On the contrary. </div> <div> </div> <div>Chalmers recently organised the world’s first conference on the subject of battery recycling. In conjunction with this, battery researcher Martina Petranikova highlighted in the media the need to recycle cobalt and other materials. In March a colleague demonstrated the possibility of recycling cobalt and other materials from motor vehicles to achieve a less wasteful material turnover in society. In an earlier study our group also looked at alternatives to replace cobalt with materials based on the more common element carbon (Arvidsson and Sandén, 2017).</div> <div> </div> <div>We must also understand that many major areas of application contain great potential for utilising cobalt material again and again. However, not in studded tyres (Furberg et al., 2019). In the wear of the studs, most of the cemented carbide is emitted into the environment and is lost from the cycle that we humans can use – in principle, dispersed forever.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong><em>Anna Furberg, Sverker Molander and Rickard Arvidsson</em></strong></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">References</h4> <div> </div> <ul><li>Arvidsson, R., Sandén, B.A., 2017. Carbon nanomaterials as potential substitutes for scarce metals. J. Clean. Prod. 156, 253–261.</li> <li>Elvik, R., 1999. The effects on accidents of studded tires and laws banning their use: a meta-analysis of evaluation studies. Accid. Anal. Prev. 31(1), 125–134.</li> <li>Ferm, M., Sjöberg, K., 2015. Concentrations and emission factors for PM2.5 and PM10 from road traffic in Sweden. Atmospheric Environ. 119, 211–219.</li> <li>Furberg, A., Arvidsson, R., Molander, S., 2019. Dissipation of tungsten and environmental release of nanoparticles from tire studs: A Swedish case study. J Clean. Prod. 207, 920–928.</li> <li>Goedkoop, M., Heijungs, R., Huijbregts, M., De Schryver, A., Struijs, J., van Zelm, R., 2013. ReCiPe 2008. A life cycle impact assessment method which comprises harmonised category indicators at the midpoint and endpoint level. Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and Environment (VROM), The Hague.</li> <li>Graedel, T.E., Allwood, J., Birat, J.P., Buchert, M., Hagelüken, C., Reck, B.K., Sibley, S.F., Sonnemann, G., 2011. What do we know about metal recycling rates? J. Ind. Ecol. 15(3), 355–366.</li> <li>Leal-Ayala, D.R., Allwood, J.M., Petavratzi, E., Brown, T.J., Gunn, G., 2015. Mapping the global flow of tungsten to identify key material efficiency and supply security opportunities. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 103, 19–28.</li> <li>USGS, 2017. (U.S. Geological Survey) 2015 Minerals Yearbook Cobalt [Advanced release]. September, 2017.</li></ul> <div>  </div></div>Fri, 19 Oct 2018 00:10:00 +0200 behind using standards in eHealth evaluation<p><b>With her research, Monika Jurkeviciute at Chalmers aims to help scholars and practitioners who develop and use standards in eHealth evaluation studies. “Standards and reality are like yin and yang: A balance needs to be established”, she says.</b></p><div>Monika Jurkeviciute is a Ph.D. candidate at Chalmers Department of Technology Management and Economics, and also connected to Chalmers research center <em>Centre</em><em> for Healthcare Improvement</em>. She now presents her licentiate thesis: Planning a holistic eHealth evaluation: The interplay between standards and reality</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Tell us about your research!</strong></div> <div>My research focuses on standardization in the evaluation of eHealth implementations. Standardization is considered among possible ways to increase quality in eHealth evaluation studies. Therefore, various standards (such as evaluation frameworks, guidelines, and scales) have been created to increase credibility and methodological uniformity among different eHealth studies. However, for more than a decade it has been a stated problem that standards are used insufficiently in the eHealth evaluation, and practitioners need more and better standards. Therefore, the purpose of my research was to study the use of standards in eHealth evaluation practice.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Why is this important?</strong></div> <div>The use of standards is traditionally associated with the quality of evaluation studies, which is important for developing knowledge and generating evidence for decision-making on eHealth implementations. Therefore, it is important to understand why the standards are not used in the evaluation of eHealth implementations.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What are your most important research findings?</strong></div> <div>My research has empirically confirmed that standards are used insufficiently in eHealth evaluation studies. Also, while standards such as evaluation frameworks and guidelines for eHealth evaluation planning have been found beneficial, they need to be improved for better alignment with practice. Another study of mine has demonstrated that sometimes, even if practitioners aim to use a standard, the use is not straightforward and is hindered by several factors.</div> <div> </div> <div>The identified factors hindering the use of standards are related to insufficient evaluator’s experience and resources for using a standard, evaluator’s unawareness of a standard, inadequacy of a standard to address a target population or a disease, non-existence of a validated version of a standard in a particular location, and a lack of fit between a standard and a scope of the evaluation.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What new knowledge do you bring forward in your research?</strong></div> <div>The use of standards is not black and white, as previously has been portrayed in the field of eHealth evaluation. The use of standards and adherence to them need to be seen as a range. That is, due to the different aspects of “reality”, evaluators might use a standard just partially too, by adding or removing some elements or significantly transforming its content. Sometimes, this can lead to a better quality of evaluation. For example, practitioners can “get inspired” by a particular standard and create of a non-standard tailor-made method that suits the studied patients better. For some standards, this “partiality” is acceptable, while for others it is not. However, in reality, it happens.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What do you hope for your research to lead to?</strong></div> <div>My research should help scholars and practitioners improve standards related to eHealth evaluation, and to consider taking actions to prevent the factors hindering the use of standards in eHealth evaluation studies.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What will be the next step in your research?</strong></div> <div>Next, we shall create and validate a model trying to explain under which conditions the eHealth solution that we had been testing previously provide the best outcomes to elderly people with mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">FACTS, RESEARCH, AND MORE INFORMATION</h4> <div>Read more about <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/monika-jurkeviciute.aspx">Monika Jurkeviciute</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read the licentiate thesis of Monika Jurkeviciute: <a href="">Planning a holistic e-health evaluation: The interplay between standards and reality</a></div> <div> </div> <div>Read the article on the research of Monika Jurkeviciute:<a href="/en/centres/CHI/news/Pages/Smart-IT-solutions-can-improve-the-lives-of-dementia-patients.aspx"> ”Smart IT solutions for cognitive impairment”</a></div> <div> </div>Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200 the car met the city – what can we learn from the clash?<p><b>​The move to a car-friendly society meant violent encounters between the car and the city in the 1950s. What can city planners today learn from the experience?</b></p><div>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_bilder-utan-fast-format/PerLundin_250px.jpg" alt="Audio description: Portratit of Per Lundin" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />The 1950s saw an almost fivefold increase number of cars in Sweden. Congestion and road accidents reached previously unimagined heights through the growth of mass motoring in this and the following decade.</div> <div> </div> <div>“This was largely due to the emergence of a group of planning experts that saw the ‘car society’ as the solution to these problems”, explains Per Lundin, Professor of History of Technology at Chalmers. </div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">The experts’ dream set the tone</h4> <div>By fully adapting society to the car it would be possible to eliminate congestion and road accidents. This ideal, which originated in the United States, became the goal and the dream of the planning experts.</div> <div> </div> <div>“By choosing to see the traffic problems as based only on planning, the new rules, guidelines and standards could quickly be integrated with the planning instruments of administrative bodies locally, regionally and nationally”, says Per Lundin. “Thus, they set the tone for the extensive urban renewal of the following decades.”</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">See the present transition in the light of the past</h4> <div>Transportation is now going through a change similar to that of the 1950s, with the demand for renewable fuels and the possibilities of autonomous vehicles pushing the limits. Once more, we have to re-define why and how we move people and goods and ask whether transportation is a solution, or a goal in itself.</div> <div> </div> <div>So, what can today’s city planners learn from the historical move to the car-friendly city? Is it possible to illuminate the present and open new perspectives for the future by drawing lessons from the past? Per Lundin will provide some possible answers and invite to further discussion at an upcoming seminar.</div> <div> </div> <div>“During the last major transition, many were shocked at the demolitions that took place in many cities, for example in Annedal in Gothenburg”, says Per Lundin. “Now we have the opportunity to stop and think before we act”, he concludes.</div> <div> </div> <div><em>Text: Emilia Lundgren</em></div> <div> </div> <div>Per Lundin speaks on “The Historical Move to the Car-friendly City: How Did It Happen and What Lessons Can Be Learned” at a lunch seminar arranged by Chalmers Transport Area of Advance, 25 October at 12 AM.</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/calendar/Pages/The-historical-move-to-the-car-friendly-city.aspx">READ MORE AND REGISTER FOR THE SEMINAR &gt;&gt;</a><br /></div> <div> </div>Wed, 10 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200 approach required in the transitioning of transportation<p><b>​The theme of the Transport Efficiency Day (TREFF) 2018 conference at the Lindholmen Science Park in Gothenburg on August 30 was “How we can transition to a more transportation-efficient society.”</b></p>​ - <span style="background-color:initial">The transition will happen. But there is a risk that it will not happen fast enough and that we will continue to increase demand for transportation, warned the opening speaker, Professor Björn Sandén at Chalmers.</span><div><div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">According to Sandén, if we are to transition to a climate-neutral transport system we need to:</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li>Change the basic energy source – to solar and wind combined with electricity and hydrogen gas.<br /></li> <li>Consider the question: how much transportation do we need?<br /></li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Solar and wind power are now so cheap that there is a great opportunity for the transport sector to embrace a completely new energy base, though the question remains whether the transition is happening fast enough.</span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Efficiency enhancements are also important, but as we become more efficient the things we produce, in this case transportation, also become cheaper. This creates a society where we can afford to continue increasing our demand, Sandén stresses. </span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">We get a rebound effect. Since the industrial revolution 200 years ago, our energy consumption has increased a hundredfold, and this cannot continue, Sandén believes. </span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">- We can continue to live sustainably at our level. But if everyone continues to relentlessly increase consumption, we will inevitably encounter various limitations. </span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">- We need more knowledge and an integrated view of the transition process, simply to understand how technology, politics and the economy are interlinked.</span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Change will take place even without systems thinking, according to Sandén. </span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">- But there is a risk that developments could move in the wrong direction if we do not understand that one thing leads to another, he says. This is when things can drift off in a direction we do not want. We must therefore understand how things are connected even if we naturally cannot predict everything.</span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div style="text-align:center"> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center"><span></span><span></span><span>”We need more knowledge and an integrated view of the transition process, simply to understand how technology, politics and the economy are interlinked” </span></h3> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center"> </h3> <div style="text-align:center"><span style="background-color:initial"><strong><em>Björn Sandén, Chalmers</em></strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Last summer, the government presented a strategy for freight transportation, the first ever, and Anna Ullström, Deputy Director at the Ministry of Enterprise and Innovation, gave a presentation about this. The freight transportation strategy –which was moreover welcomed by several speakers during the day – has three main parts:</span><div><br /></div> <div><ul><li>To strengthen Swedish competitiveness.<br /></li> <li>To transition to become fossil-free.<br /></li> <li>To continue to work with innovation, expertise and knowledge. <br /></li></ul></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Quite simply, the business community in Sweden is to increase its competitiveness – by working with research and development, traditional Swedish strengths, while freight transportation addresses the climate challenge.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Anna Ullström spoke about the permanent international expo where Sweden is continuously endeavoring to achieve a wide dissemination of the research and innovation conducted in the country in the field of transportation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Following her speech, Anna Ullström commented on the conference’s basic question: How can we transition to a more transportation-efficient society?</div> <div><br /></div> <div>- Through more cooperation. By looking into how we can become better at filling our transportation to capacity, driving more efficient routes and making full use of the opportunities offered by rail and maritime transportation, replied Ullström. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Anna Ullström hopes, in short, that the entire Swedish transportation system will now work together and the recent freight strategy will become both a platform and a launching pad.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>- People are positive and this augurs well for the future, leading to a fruitful cooperation, she said.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Helena Sjöberg, Head of Logistics Solutions at PostNord, spoke about how to meet new customer requirements. She also emphasized that it is important to collaborate and to make smart use of your resources.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the future, PostNord wants to offer its customers home deliveries even when the recipient is not at home, a result of the rapidly expanding e-commerce.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>PostNord is embracing the idea of delivery to a locked space using digital capabilities, basically a digital lock. This could be achieved in various ways, for example:</div> <div><br /></div> <div><ul><li>Through your front door onto the hall carpet, but could also be.<br /></li> <li>To a parcel drop box standing in your garden that replaces your post box.<br /></li> <li>To the trunk of your car.<br /></li> <li>Through the use of parcel pick-up stations in public places or perhaps in a tenant-owner association.<br /></li></ul></div> <div><br /></div> <div>- If we are to confront growth we need far more channels than at present, and digital locks provide an opportunity in combination with other solutions, says Helena Sjöberg. We do not think we can dictate how everything should develop, it concerns consumer power and solutions that fit your available budget, what design you want and the intended uses.</div> <div>  </div> <div>The digital lock solution will also be used in business-to-business operations.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>- In all instances, it is about convenience – making life easier for private individuals and one example could be for tradesmen who will no longer need to wait for material deliveries but can ask for the order to be delivered during the night, says Helena Sjöberg. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Almost 20 speakers gave presentations during the conference, which was organized for the seventh time by CLOSER, the Swedish collaboration platform for transportation efficiency, and Northern Lead, a logistics center formed 30 years ago by the University of Gothenburg, Chalmers and Logistik och Transport Stiftelsen LTS, supporting research that works toward sustainable logistics development. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Sofie Vennersten, Program Director for CLOSER, comments that it is gratifying to see how interest for the Transport Efficiency Day, and for freight transport issues in general, is increasing every year:</div> <div><br /></div> <div>- This year was a good combination of forward-looking outlooks and activities that are happening here and now, says Sofie. Many participants emphasized the need for greater collaboration in order to solve the challenges we are facing, so we are now looking forward to working in various ways to facilitate this.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text and photo: CLOSER / Lindholmen Science Park</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="">All presentationsfrom the day are available here (in Swedish) &gt;&gt; ​​</a></div> </div></div>Fri, 05 Oct 2018 09:00:00 +0200 winter tyres cost more lives than they save<p><b>​Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have now shown that studded winter tyres cost more lives than they save. The new study takes a holistic view of the tyres’ impact on wider public health. At the same time, they show that their use contributes to the bloody conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo, and fatal accidents in their production phase.</b></p><div>​This is the time of year in Sweden when many people start to change their normal car tyres to winter ones. According to Trafikverket, the Swedish Transport Administration, around 60 percent of Swedish drivers choose studded winter tyres, and there has long been a debate about the emissions caused by the studs damaging the ground and throwing up particles into the atmosphere. </div> <div> </div> <div>Three Chalmers researchers have now investigated this question. Anna Furberg, Sverker Molander and Rickard Arvisson at the Division of Environmental Systems Analysis used a systemic perspective to analyse studded winter tyres’ public health impact for their whole life cycle. </div> <div> </div> <div>To weigh up the advantages and disadvantages, the researchers looked at how many lives are saved through their use, compared to the level of emissions they generate through wear of the roads and in their production. Additionally, they investigated accident statistics from the small-scale mining industry in the DRC, where cobalt – an important element for the studs – is most abundant. Cobalt is a highly sought-after conflict metal which contributes to the warfare in the region, something the researchers also accounted for. </div> <div> </div> <div>The researchers estimate that from a broader life cycle perspective, Swedish use of studded tyres saves between 60 and 770 life-years, compared with 570 to 2200 life-years which are lost. </div> <div> </div> <div>“Taking everything together, the picture is very clear – studded winter tyres actually cost more lives than they save,” says Sverker Molander, a professor at the Department of Technology Management and Economics at Chalmers.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><div><img src="/sv/institutioner/tme/PublishingImages/Nyheter/Huvudbild%20710x340/AnnaSverker3_750x320.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4" style="text-align:center"><span>&quot;Our study shows that there is more research needed concerning alternatives to studded winter tyres that don’t cause these health issues<span></span></span>&quot;</h4></div> <div> </div> <div><h6 class="chalmersElement-H6" style="text-align:center">Anna Furberg and Sverker Molander, Chalmers</h6><div> </div></div> <div> The biggest negative impact is generated during usage, from the emissions caused by road damage. Even taking only this into account, the negative health impacts already clearly outweigh the advantages. Once you measure the other factors in as well, the result only becomes clearer, the researchers explain.</div> <div> </div> <div>“The small-scale mining, where many accidents and fatalities occur, is the next biggest part of the tyres’ overall negative health impact. Deaths linked to the conflict in the DRC are the smallest part, but that being said, there are many aspects of that that have not been included in the study – the conflict of course influences the whole of society. I doubt many people realise that using these tyres is contributing to the situation in the DRC,” says Anna Furberg. </div> <div> </div> <div>The advantages of the studded winter tyres are mainly enjoyed in Scandinavia, whilst nearly a third of the negative health impacts are felt elsewhere.</div> <div> </div> <div>“This is a clear illustration of what globalised production can result in. People profiting at others’ expense. It is not those who benefit from the product who are having to pay for the negative effects,” says Sverker Molander.</div> <div> </div> <div>So how should consumers react to this research? Anna Furberg and Sverker Molander suggest that good winter tyres without studs can be an alternative, in combination with careful driving and consideration of alternative means of travel.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Of course, how you drive is important, and snow-ploughing and sweeping needs to be done properly. Many cars today also have electronic anti-skid systems fitted, which make them safer to drive at higher speeds. But our study shows that there is more research needed concerning alternatives to studded winter tyres that don’t cause these health issues,” says Anna Furberg.   </div> <div> </div> <div>The article <a href="">“Live and let die? Life cycle human health impacts from the use of tire studs”</a> was published in August 2018 in the scientific journal International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. </div> <div><span>The research was carried out through the framework of the <a href="">Mistra Environmental Nanosafety programme</a>.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Text: Ulrika Ernström</strong><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">More on: the study</h4> <div>The study made use of life-cycle analysis (LCA) and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) – a health metric developed by the World Health Organisation (WHO) – to measure and quantify studded winter tyres’ public health impact throughout their whole life cycle. The researchers investigated:</div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li>Lives saved: accident statistics and studies on differences in accidents between cars with and without studded tyres.</li> <li>Emissions from use of studded tyres, as they damage the road and throw up particles from the asphalt. Looking at articles that had studied roads where such tyres were in use. </li> <li>Emissions during production, from extraction to manufacturing. Looking at previous studies of different types of emissions.</li> <li>Accidents and deaths during production, such as during cobalt mining. Looking at studies of accidents and fatalities in various industrial activities and in small-scale mining. </li> <li>Number of deaths related to the conflict in the DRC.</li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div>The biggest contribution to studded tyres’ negative health impact comes from emissions from road wear (67-77 per cent), followed by accidents and fatalities in cobalt mining (8-18 per cent). Between 23 and 33 per cent of the negative effects are felt outside of Scandinavia.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">More on: Studded and non-studded winter tyres</h4> <div>VTI, the Swedish Road and Transport Research Institute, has examined, in two major reports, the difference in grip between studded and non-studded tyres. They report that studded tyres have a <a href="">clearly better grip when driving on ice </a>compared to non-studded tires of both Nordic and European type. But when driving on snow, the difference is much smaller. When <a href="">the road is wet, the asphalt is salted and the temperature is around zero</a>, the brake and steering performance of the studded tyre and non-studded Nordic tyre is virtually equivalent.</div> <div> </div> <div>According to a <a href="">Norwegian study</a>, studded tyres reduce the number of passenger car accidents by 2 per cent on dry roads, and 5 per cent on roads covered with ice or snow, compared to non-studded winter tires.</div> <div> </div> <div>According to the <a href="">Swedish Transport Administration</a>, the foundation for a safe winter trip is good winter tyres, the right speed and a driving mode adapted to the ground. The Administration emphasizes that a car equipped with anti-skid system (ESC) and non-studded winter tires has a good safety throughout the country.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Contact: </h4> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/anna-furberg.aspx">Anna Furberg</a>, PhD student at the Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, 031-772 63 28, <a href="mailto:"></a></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/rickard-arvidsson.aspx">Rickard Arvidsson</a>, Assistant Professor at the Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology 031 - 72 21 61, 0768 - 078733 <a href=""></a></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/sverker-molander.aspx">Sverker Molander</a>, Professor at the Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology 031-772 21 69, 0703 - 088522 <a href=""></a></div> <div> </div> Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:20:00 +0200 can reduce environmental impacts of trucks<p><b>3D-printed truck engines have the potential to reduce the total environmental impact of trucks. That is the conclusion of Daniel Böckin at Chalmers, who shows how companies can make their products and services more resource efficient.</b></p><div><div>Daniel Böckin is a Ph.D. student at Chalmers Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Technology Management and Economics. He has studied how the environmental and resource impacts of solutions attempting to improve resource efficiency depend on the characteristics of the product or system under scrutiny, as well as when and why different trade-offs can occur.</div> <div> </div> <div>Recently, he presented his licentiate thesis ”Learning from assessments of resource efficiency measures and their impact on resource use and the environment - Based on a case of additive manufacturing and a review of assessment studies”.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Tell us about your research!</strong></div> <div>Circular solutions are often assumed to be better for the environment, but this is not always the case. We wanted to understand what makes a measure more or less resource efficient. We did this by compiling and analyzing environmental assessments from the literature, focusing on different product types and measures. This taught us a lot about how the environmental and resource outcomes depend on the product type, such as complex or consumable products.</div> <div>Additionally, I had a specific focus on active products (for example products that require energy or material during operation), and on 3D-printing, therefore I carried out a life cycle assessment of a 3D-printed truck engine.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Why is this important?</strong></div> <div>If we want to achieve the UN Sustainable Development goals we must reduce the emissions and resource use associated with the linear take-make-waste economy. Circular Economy is an attempt to change things, but it is important to understand when environmental improvements can be achieved and not since this is not a guarantee and depends on every unique context.</div> <div><div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center">“I was actually surprised that 3D-printing turned out to have the potential to reduce environmental impacts. The technology has only recently been spreading, and because of its energy intensity, I expected the results to be worse”.</h3> <p></p> <div style="text-align:center"><strong>Daniel Böckin, Chalmers</strong></div> <p></p> <p><br /></p></div> <div><strong>What are your most important research findings? </strong></div> <div>One of the most important conclusions from our research was a comprehensive description of how different resource efficiency measures depend on different product characteristics, and when there can occur trade-offs that need to be considered. Regarding my LCA study of 3D-printed truck engines, the results show that in the future, 3D-printing has the potential to reduce the total environmental impact of trucks and other products. However, it is important to make sure to use clean electricity and environmentally friendly materials in production.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Were you surprised by the results?</strong></div> <div>I was actually surprised that 3D-printing turned out to have the potential to reduce environmental impacts. The technology has only recently been spreading, and because of its energy intensity, I expected the results to be worse.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What new perspectives do you bring forward in your research? </strong></div> <div>A study like ours has not been done before; analyzing a large number of environmental assessments together, covering many types of products and measures. My LCA study on 3D-printing is unique since it quantifies the environmental effects of metal 3D-printing for the full life cycle of engines while considering technological development.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What do you h</strong><strong>ope for your research to lead to? </strong></div> <div>I hope the results can lead to concrete recommendations, for example for how companies can make their products and services more resource efficient. Since we worked closely with several large and small companies during our research, there is a chance for our conclusions to actually be usable, both within and outside the companies we have collaborated with.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What will be the next step in your research? </strong></div> <div>To look into business models for resource efficiency. I want to investigate how changes in business models can affect environmental and resource impacts, which hopefully will help companies to make sustainable decisions regarding how they run their business.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4"><span><span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span>FACTS, RESEARCH, AND MORE INFORMATION</span></h4> <p><a href="/en/staff/Pages/daniel-bockin.aspx" target="_blank">Read more about Daniel Böckin &gt;&gt;</a><br /><br />Read the licentiate thesis of Daniel Böckin: <a href="" target="_blank">”Learning from assessments of resource efficiency measures and their impact on resource use and the environment - Based on a case of additive manufacturing and a review of assessment studies”.<br /></a><br /></p></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span>Wed, 26 Sep 2018 09:00:00 +0200 change denial strongly linked to right-wing nationalism<p><b>With Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, as a hub, the world’s first global research network into climate change denial has now been established. Building on a brand-new research publication showing the links between conservatism, xenophobia and climate change denial, the network will study how the growth of right-wing nationalism in Europe has contributed to an increase in climate change denial.</b></p><div>Scientific awareness of the greenhouse effect, and human influence on the climate has existed for over three decades. During the 1980s, there was a strong environmental movement and a political consensus on the issue, but in recent years, climate change denial – denying that changes to the climate are due to human influence on the environment – has increased.<br /><br />”Two strong groups have joined forces on this issue – the extractive industry, and right-wing nationalists. The combination has taken the current debate to a much more dramatic level than previously, at the same time as our window of opportunity is disappearing.”<br /><br />This is the analysis of Chalmers researcher Martin Hultman, Associate Professor in Science, Technology and Environmental studies, and research leader for the comprehensive project: “Why don’t we take climate change seriously? A study of climate change denial”, which is now collecting the world’s foremost researchers in this area.<br /><br />In the project, the network will examine the ideas and interests behind climate change denial, with a particular focus on right-wing nationalism, extractive industries, and conservative think tanks. The goal is to increase understanding of climate change denial, and its influence on political decision-making, but also to raise awareness among the general public, those in power, research institutes, and industry.<br /><br />Right-wing nationalism’s links to climate change denial are a relatively unresearched topic, but<a href="" target="_blank"> Environmental Sociology recently published an article</a> where Hultman and his research colleagues show the connections between conservatism, xenophobia, and climate change denial, through a study in Norway.<br /><br />Hultman explains that many of the right-wing nationalist parties in Europe now have climate change denial as one of their most important issues.<br /><br />“These parties are increasing in significance. We see it in Denmark and Norway, in Britain with UKIP, and Front National in France. But also, in Sweden, with the Sweden Democrats’ suspicion towards SMHI (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute), their dismissal of the Paris Agreement and of climate laws, and in their appraisal of climate change denier Václav Klaus as a freedom-fighting hero,” he says. Hultman also mentions the Trump administration in the USA as a prime example.<br /><br />Through the new research project, a unique international collaborative platform for research into climate change denial,<a href=""><span>Centre for Studies of Climate Change Denialism (CEFORCED)</span></a>, will be established, which will connect around 40 of the world’s foremost scientific experts in the area and pave the way for international comparisons. The platform builds upon the <a href="" target="_blank">world’s first conference in the subject,</a> which Hultman and Professor Riley Dunlap of Oklahoma State University organized in 2016.<br /><br />“Thanks to this international platform, we can investigate how climate change denial arguments arise and are spread – and see differences and similarities in different cultural contexts,” says Hultman.<br /><br />An important foundation of the project will be a broad, interdisciplinary view of climate change denial, linking together different disciplines such as geopolitics, environmental psychology, technological history, environmental sociology, gender research, environmental history, energy policy, environmental humanism and technology and science studies.</div> <div> </div> <div> <span><img src="/sv/institutioner/tme/nyheter/PublishingImages/martin-bodyimage.jpg" alt="martin-bodyimage.jpg" style="margin:5px" /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><span><em>Martin Hultman, Associate Professor at Chalmers, Department of Technology Management and Economics.<br /></em></span><br /><span><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center">&quot;We need to understand the type of reactions and everyday denials that explain why we don’t take the greenhouse effect seriously – even when we see the consequences in front of our eyes&quot;</h3></span><br />“We do not dismiss climate change denial as something limited to, for example, powerful, older men with strong connections to the fossil-fuels industry – even if such organized groups do play important roles. Knowledge of climate change and its causes has been around for a long time, so firstly, we also need to understand the type of reactions and everyday denials that explain why we don’t take the greenhouse effect seriously – even when we see the consequences in front of our eyes.”<br /><br />According to Martin Hultman, there are strong reasons for the prevalence of climate change denial, and why it can be so difficult to take in the implications of climate science.<br /><br />“Around 80 percent of all energy bought and sold in the world is oil, coal, or gas. The world’s economy runs on this type of energy, which is destroying our habitat at the same time. This makes climate science’s findings problematic because it means that many in Sweden – and in other countries which use these resources to maintain their lifestyle – need to change their way of life, and many of the most powerful companies in the world will have to change their business models. At the same time, a more climate-friendly lifestyle involves a lot of what many of us hold dear. For example, more time socializing, more contact with nature, better health and less stress. “<br /><br /><span><strong><em>Illustration: <span></span>Yen Strandqvist<span style="display:inline-block"></span></em></strong></span><br /><em><strong>Text and photo: Ulrika Ernström</strong></em></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">FACTS: Global research network on climate change denial established</h5> <div> </div> <div>The project “Why don’t we take climate change seriously? A study of climate change <em>denial</em>” is a multi-year, interdisciplinary and international project, which is financed by the Swedish Energy Agency.<br /><br />The project establishes the world’s first research network on climate change denial – the <a href=""><em>Centre for Studies of Climate Change Denialism (</em><em>CEFORCE</em><em>D</em><em>)</em></a>, which includes around 40 scientific experts, including among others, <a href="" target="_blank">professor Riley Dunlap, Oklahoma State University.</a></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The project shall investigate right-wing nationalism, Conservative thinktanks, and extractive industries as key focus.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <ul><li><strong>Right-wing nationalism</strong>: The project will map right-wing nationalist parties in Europe and their arguments around climate change denialism. Among other things, Twitter and other internet discussion groups will be analysed.<br /><br /></li> <li><strong>Extractive industries</strong>: The project will undertake a historical investigation into Sweden’s extractive industries –what they have learned about climate change, and how they have acted, as well as connecting knowledge to international studies into the debate.<br /><br /></li> <li><strong>Conservative think tanks:</strong> The project maps out how conservative thinktanks in Sweden analyze and communicate around climate, as well as their connections to lobby groups of similar character.<br /></li></ul> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">FACTS: Different forms of climate change denial</h5> <div>According to earlier research, several forms of climate change denial exist:</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <ul><li><strong>Organised</strong>: Groups such as Klimatsans (Climate Sense) or Stockholmsinitiativet (The Stockholm Initiative) in Sweden, as well as lobby groups like the Heartland Institute in the USA, which support and spread climate change denial.<br /><br /></li> <li><strong>Party Political</strong>: Political parties such as UKIP in Britain, and AfD in Germany, among others, who work against different forms of climate policy.<br /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></li> <li><strong>Response denial</strong>: For example, when people in positions of power make decisions such as the construction of Sälen airport in the Swedish mountains, running totally counter to the climate policies they claim to support.<br /><br /></li> <li><strong> Everyday denial</strong>: When people act as though as they unaware of climate change, and, for example, fly several times a year to foreign countries.<br /></li></ul> <p><br /></p> <div> </div> <p><strong>For more information, contact:</strong><br /><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Martin-Hultman.aspx">Martin Hultman</a>, Associate Professor in Science, Technology and Environmental Studies, Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology. +46 709-450112, +46 31-772 63 78, <a href=""></a></p> <p><br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p></p> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Martin Hultman on...<strong></strong> </h3> <p><strong>The future of the climate, politics and climate change</strong><br />
&quot;I have two insights. I know how long knowledge about climate change has existed, and how many there are that have been resisting it for a long time. That can make me think: We don't stand a chance, we will ruin the planet. At the same time, the people are the ones who build and maintain our world, and in the past, there’s been a great shift in power and in values - the civil rights movement, women's right to vote, the abolition of slavery. In connection with those forms of power changes, comes legislation, technical solutions, and political changes. It gives me hope!&quot;<br /><br /><strong>

His commitment to the climate issue and the deterioration of power
</strong><br />&quot;That power-makers have known about climate change for so long without acting on it, hurts my stomach. I feel a strong sense of betrayal from former generation leaders, who have continued to build in infrastructures and legislation that worsens the situation - and left future generations in a place where time to act on it is short. It’s a generation and justice issue that concerns me strongly. &quot;<br />
<br /><br /></p> <p></p> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Some scientific publications on climate denial:</h4> <p></p> <p></p> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Right-wing nationalism</h5> <div>Krange, O. Kaltenborn, B.&amp; Hultman, M. (2018). <a href="" target="_blank">“Cool Dudes in Norway: Climate Change denial among conservative Norwegian Men”</a>, Environmental Sociology.</div> <div> </div> <div>McCright, A., Dunlap, R (2011). <a href="" target="_blank">&quot;Cool dudes: The denial of climate change among conservative white males in the United States&quot;</a>, Global Environmental Change.</div> <div> </div> <div>Forchtner, B., Kroneder, A., &amp; Wetzel, D. (2018). <a href="">“Being Skeptical? Exploring Far-Right Climate-Change Communication in Germany”</a>, Environmental Communication.</div> <div> </div> <div>Hultman, M., Björk A. &amp; Viinikka, T. (kommande publicering). <span style="text-decoration:underline">“Far-right and climate change denial. Denouncing environmental challenges via anti-establishment rhetoric, marketing of doubts, industrial/breadwinner masculinities enactments and </span>ethno-nationalism<span style="text-decoration:underline">.”</span>. In Contemporary Environmental Communication by the Far Right in Europe ed. Forchtner, Kølvraa &amp; Wodak London: Routledge.</div> <div> </div> <div>Anshelm, J., &amp; Hultman, M. (2014). <a href="" target="_blank">A green fatwā? Climate change as a threat to the masculinity of industrial modernity</a>, NORMA: International Journal for Masculinity Studies, 9(2), 84-96.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Extractive industries</h5> <div>Supran,G; Oreskes, N (2017). <a href="" target="_blank">&quot;Assessing ExxonMobil's climate change communications (1977–2014)&quot;</a>, Environmental Research Letters.</div> <div> </div> <div>Oreskes, N., &amp; Conway, E. M. (2011). <a href="" target="_blank">Merchants of Doubt: How a handful of scientists obscured the truth on issues from tobacco smoke to global warming</a>, Bloomsbury Publishing, USA.</div> <div> </div> <div>Young, N., Coutinho, A. (2013). <a href="" target="_blank">&quot;Government, Anti-Reflexivity, and the Construction of Public Ignorance about Climate Change: Australia and Canada Compared&quot;</a>, Global Environmental Politics.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Conservative think tanks</h5> <div>Brulle, R (2014). <a href="" target="_blank">&quot;Institutionalizing delay: foundation funding and the creation of U.S. climate change counter-movement organizations&quot;</a>, Climatic Change.</div> <div> </div> <div>Bohr, J. (2016). <a href="" target="_blank">&quot;The ‘climatism’ cartel: why climate change deniers oppose market-based mitigation policy&quot;,</a> Environmental Politics.</div> <div> </div> <div>Dunlap, R, &amp; Jacques (2013). <a href="" target="_blank">“Climate Change Denial Books and Conservative Think Tanks. Exploring the Connection”</a>, The American Behavioral Scientist.</div> <div> </div> <div>Anshelm, J., &amp; Hultman, M. (2014). <a href="" target="_blank">Discourses of global climate change: apocalyptic framing and political antagonisms</a>, Routledge, London.</div> <div> </div> <p></p> <br /> <p></p>Sun, 19 Aug 2018 08:00:00 +0200 LEAD researchers awarded at EurOMA and NOFOMA<p><b>​Several Northern LEAD researchers received awards for their research within logistics, at the EurOMA and NOFOMA conferences this summer.</b></p>​At the EurOMA conference in Budapest, <strong>Patrik Fager</strong>, Chalmers, was awarded &quot;Highly commended paper&quot; in the Harry Boer award competition. The paper, at which Patrik is the first author, deals with technology and methods for quality assurance in order picking systems.<br />Patrik has performed a comprehensive experiment, showing that efficiency differs significantly between them. This is highly relevant at a time when new technology is massively introduced in warehousing, partly driven by growth and competition among companies in e-commerce.<br />The title of the paper is: Order picking in dense areas – productivity impact of confirmation methods<br /><a href="">Read the paper here &gt;&gt;</a><br /><br /><strong>Arni Halldórsson, Ceren Altuntas Vural</strong> and <strong>Jessica Wehner</strong>, Chalmers, has received DB Schenker´s award for Best Conference Paper, at the NOFOMA conference.Title: Logistics service triads for household waste: The case of consumers as co-producers of sustainability<a href=""><br />Read the paper here &gt;&gt;</a><br /><br />Mon, 02 Jul 2018 00:00:00 +0200 right support helps new tech companies take root<p><b>With the right support, innovative technology companies can take root and flourish in the region, even when there are strong grounds for relocating abroad. This is shown by new research from Chalmers University of Technology, which describes how Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship has helped the marine energy company Minesto put down deep roots in western Sweden – despite finding markets and capital elsewhere.</b></p><div>What makes technology-based solutions take root? Mats Lundqvist, Director of Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship, gives an emphatic response.<br /><br />“Where entrepreneurship takes hold is also where companies can take root. This is much more important than where the market is or where the investment comes from,” he says. <br /><br />The example he refers to is the acclaimed marine energy company Minesto. The company, which was founded and began its development journey via students at Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship, has a unique technology for producing electricity from ocean tides and currents by using an underwater kite. The market and test environments are mainly in Northern Ireland and Wales, and a large proportion of the investment in the company comes from abroad. Nevertheless, its head office is still based in Gothenburg as is most of its research and development.<br /></div> <div> </div> <div><div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center"><span>&quot;Where entrepreneurship takes hold is also where companies can take root&quot;</span></h3> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6" style="text-align:center">Mats Lundqvist, Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship</h6> <div> </div></div> <div> </div> <div>The explanation can be found in a recently published research article from Chalmers, “Shaping factors in the emergence of technological innovations: The case of tidal kite technology”, which reviews how new technology companies emerge and are formed in a local context, using Minesto as a case study.<br /><br />The first author Johnn Andersson, a doctoral student in the Department of Technology Management and Economics, explains that the supporting structures around Minesto gave the company the opportunity to develop the technology, kick-start the company and establish itself in Gothenburg. The key was the platform offered by Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship. <br /><br />“This is a company that has constantly had to search abroad to secure potential markets, capital, and test environments. But through Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship, the company had access to a local network, where the right expertise and key people could be found. This was the reason that the company could continue developing here, and put down roots in the local business and innovation cluster,” says Andersson.<br /><br /><div> </div> <div><img src="/en/departments/tme/PublishingImages/News/800x600%20(bildkarusell)/MatsJohnn_750x300.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><em> </em></div></div> <em> </em><div><em> </em></div> <em> </em><div><span style="font-size:12px"><span></span><em>Mats Lundqvist, Director of Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship, and Johnn Andersson, a Doctoral Student at Chalmers, regard Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship as a hub, which connects new technologies with local industry.</em></span><span></span><br /><br /><br />Lundqvist points out that Gothenburg has many large companies engaged in research and development, and calls Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship a hub, which connects new technologies with local industry. <br /><br />Minesto is a case that he regards as having been particularly successful, since the company’s roots in western Sweden have not only resulted in jobs at the company and at its subcontractors but have also generated knowledge which will benefit the region from a broader perspective.<br /><br />“It’s not just the company that has taken root here, but all the knowledge it generates in sustainable development – many of those who previously worked for the company are still in the region. It feels good that Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship can contribute to new jobs and new innovations in Sweden,” Lundqvist says.<br /><br /><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center">&quot;We need a transition to sustainability, but also a sustainable transition – and that means not all our companies disappearing abroad&quot;</h3> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6" style="text-align:center">Johnn Andersson, Chalmers</h6> <div> </div></div> <div> </div> <div>Andersson also highlights the importance of environmental technology companies being able to establish and develop their technology in Sweden. <br /><br />“We need a transition to sustainability, but also a sustainable transition – and that means not all our companies disappearing abroad. If we in Sweden are to continue to take an important part in the development of renewable energy, we need a return in the form of income and new export industries,” he says.<br /><br />Andersson considers that an important conclusion of the research study is that political instruments need not only to stimulate growth but also to shape it.<br /><br />“We need to consider how we can best support technology development in the business community, and how we can create support mechanisms and instruments which ensure to a greater extent that companies and technologies are rooted locally,” he says.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Text: Ulrika Ernström</strong></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4"><br /></h4> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">FACTS, RESEARCH AND MORE INFORMATION</h4> <div> </div> <div><br />The article: “Shaping factors in the emergence of technological innovations: The case of tidal kite technology” was published in summer 2018 in the scientific journal <em>Technological Forecasting and Social Change.</em><br /><span><a href="" target="_blank"></a><a href=""><span></span></a></span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Author: </strong></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/sv/personal/redigera/Sidor/johnn-andersson.aspx" target="_blank">Johnn Andersson</a>,  (first author), a doctoral student in the Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/sv/personal/redigera/Sidor/hans-hellsmark.aspx" target="_blank">Dr. Hans Hellsmark</a>, a researcher in the Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/bjorn-sandén.aspx" target="_blank">Professor Björn Sandén</a>, Head of the Division of Environmental Systems Analysis, Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology<br /><br /><span><span><a href="" target="_blank">Read the article here &gt;&gt;</a><a href="" target="_blank"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a></span></span><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship</h5> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5"> </h5> <div>Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship is one of the world’s top entrepreneurial schools, with a strong focus on collaboration. Since 1997 students at Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship have had the opportunity to start and run companies. The master’s programme is now Sweden’s most successful start-up environment: of tech-based start-up companies that have developed from Swedish incubators, Chalmers companies currently represent 40% of revenues.<br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/departments/tme/school-of-entrepreneurship/Pages/SchoolofEntreprenurship.aspx" target="_blank">Read more about Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship &gt;&gt;</a></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5"><a href=""></a>Minesto</h5> <div>Minesto produces the Deep Green power plant, a &quot;dragon&quot; that is stuck in a cable on the seabed and produces green electricity from tidal currents. The company was appointed by Time Magazine as one of the smartest inventions in the year 2010. The headquarters are located in Gothenburg with subsidiaries in the UK.</div></div> <div> </div> <div><span><a href="" target="_blank">Read more about Minesto &gt;&gt;</a><a href=""><span></span></a></span><br /></div>Thu, 21 Jun 2018 00:20:00 +0200 investigates how hard materials affect the environment<p><b>Hard materials are important for the manufacturing industry and for economic growth, but they also cause problems. Anna Furberg has examined the environmental, resource and health impact of hard materials - and sees the need to investigate whether some of the materials can be replaced.</b></p><div><div>Anna Furberg, PhD student at Chalmers, the Department of Technology management and Economics, applies a wider systems perspective to assess the environmental impact of hard materials. Now, she presents her licentiate thesis <em>&quot;Environmental, resource and health impacts of hard materials&quot;.<br /></em></div> <div><em></em></div> <div><strong><br />Tell us about your research!</strong></div> <div>Hard materials, especially cemented tungsten carbide with cobalt (WC-Co), have had a critical role in enabling the economic growth during the latest century. This material is important for the manufacturing and mining industry, for example for cutting and drilling. At the same time, WC-Co consists of scarce metals. Both tungsten and cobalt have been included on the European Union’s list of critical raw materials. Environmental impacts have been studied for Chinese production but not outside China, where a large share of WC-Co is produced globally.</div> <div> </div> <div>Furthermore, both tungsten and cobalt have been associated with the conflict in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) where minerals are extracted and finance the ongoing conflict. The global production is dominated by the DRC, where artisanal mining prevails under harsh conditions for the miners. The aim of my research is to assess environmental, resource and health impacts of hard materials by applying a wider systems perspective. WC-Co is applied as a case study as this material has such a great importance for the manufacturing industry of today.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Why is this important?</strong></div> <div>My research is important as it contributes to knowledge about a material that is important for the manufacturing industry and has an economic importance that is difficult to question but which environmental, resource and human health impacts have so far not been assessed from a systems perspective.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What are your most important research findings?</strong></div> <div>An important conclusion from my research is that the dominating hard material of today being WC-Co is associated with both environmental and resource impacts as well as impacts on human health. This lead to the question whether there are alternatives to WC-Co that perform better from these perspectives.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What new perspectives do you bring forward in your research?</strong></div> <div>My research presents inventory data for assessing environmental impacts of WC-Co production outside China and assess resource impacts as well as human health impacts from WC-Co in a case study on tire studs, which constitutes WC-Co. This has not been done before.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What do you hope for your research to lead to?</strong></div> <div>I hope that the research results will be used to compare hard materials from a wider systems perspective to identify what materials that perform the best from an environmental, resource and health impacts perspective while maintaining the same function of the material.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What will be the next step in your research?</strong></div> <div>The next step will be to investigate possible alternatives to the hard materials used today and whether they can replace WC-Co in order to reduce environmental, resource and health impacts. The use of a wider systems perspective will continue to be important in this work in order to avoid alternatives where problems are shifted from e.g. resource impacts to environmental impacts.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Text</strong>: Ulrika Ernström</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">FACTS, RESEARCH, AND MORE INFORMATION<span><span></span></span></h4> <div>Read the licentiate thesis of Anna Furberg: <a href="">”Environmental, resource and health impacts of hard materials”</a><br /><br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/anna-furberg.aspx">Read more about Anna Furberg &gt;&gt;</a></div></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4"> <span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span></h4> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"> <span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span></h3> <span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span><span></span>Tue, 12 Jun 2018 09:00:00 +0200 research world needs more empathy and curiosity<p><b>She is driven by curiosity, empathy and the will to create change, and believes the action research paradigm is transforming academia. Meet Hilary Bradbury, jubilee professor at Chalmers 2018. – Our work as researchers is not just about understanding. It’s about making things better, she says.</b></p><div>“A shot of adrenalin”. That is how Hilary Bradbury, PhD and professor of organization studies, describes the feeling of being appointed one of four jubilee professors at Chalmers 2018. The Department of Technology Management and Economics (TME) is her host during the year, which she is determined to make the most of. </div> <div> </div> <div>– I am honoured and grateful for this opportunity. I feel very at home at Chalmers and the department. I would like to bring together the action researchers within Chalmers, across disciplines, and help connect them with other action research communities around the world in issues of ICT, healthcare and generally the transformation of education and research. I already find it very useful for me too, to be able to talk to my global colleagues about the focus on research utilization at Chalmers, she says.</div> <div> </div> <div>We meet at her temporary home at Chalmersska huset in Göteborg, a sparsely furnished apartment with creaking wooden floors and a beautiful view of the canal. Hilary is making tea, asking questions about the city and trying to find the cups, while explaining her enthusiasm for the utilization-oriented research at Chalmers.</div> <div> </div> <div>Hilary has been successful in conventional academic terms. Her PhD won an Academy of Management award, her first publication was in the highly esteemed journal, Organization Science, her edited books have been best sellers, she became Full Professor in 2012 at OHSU.  But today she asks how to liberate the rewards and conventions of academia. How to open the doors and windows of the Ivory Tower, so our academic work is more useful to our communities.  She has a vision of academic supporting a more beautiful world, as measured by the sustainable development goals. She is therefore interested in what kinds of knowledge creation processes can make that possible. And how to engage fellow faculty and university administrator in this new way of creating knowledge.</div> <div> </div> <div>Hilary talks vividly and warmly of her latest visit at Chalmers TME: friendliness of colleagues, meeting with the doctoral students and the inspiring research and projects at the department – especially at Centre for Healthcare Improvement.</div> <div> </div> <div>– Centre for Healthcare Improvement has conducted some of the best action research in the world, she says, and mentions the mobile healthcare teams and the new patient models within “Skaraborgsmodellen” and “Kraftens Hus” – a support center for people affected by cancer – as examples.</div> <div> </div> <div>Research which affects people and creates positive change – that is the core of Hilary Bradbury’s passion for her work, and the reason she has chosen action research as her field. In action research, the researcher is directly involved in the problems or processes to be studied - and creates the knowledge in cooperation with the people concerned.</div> <div> </div> <div>– Being an action researcher is wanting to make a difference. All faculty want to make a positive difference. That requires more than understanding. We can use our work to help produce a change in collaboration. But we need to combine conventional research with the desire to help, she says.</div> <div><div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center">“Our knowledge needs to be actionable – and liberating. Otherwise, we are either just stuck in the Ivory Tower or we become project managers.”</h3> <div style="text-align:center"><em><strong>Hilary Bradbury</strong></em></div> <div> </div></div> <div>The key, Hilary points out, is creating good relationships for learning together. This is necessary for building trust, sharing ideas and making experiments. She emphasizes the importance of both action and reflection when conducting research, and describes much of the conventional research as “too much inquiry and too little action”.</div> <div> </div> <div>– Our knowledge needs to be actionable – and liberating. Otherwise, we are either just stuck in the Ivory Tower or we become project managers, she says. We need a middle path that brings inquiry and action together with stakeholders.  They may be patients in healthcare or employees in business. Executives who are transforming sustainability standards in their industry.</div> <div> </div> <div>In her reasoning, Hilary Bradbury often returns to two words: empathy and curiosity. When there is a lack of these components a lot of things can go wrong, she argues. She points to many examples of this in the healthcare system, and even in the university system itself.</div> <div> </div> <div>– Healthcare is designed for clinics, not for patients. Universities are not designed for their students or the communities who support them.  What if we put the experience of the end user in the center of learning how to redesign it. Isn’t it a bit crazy and undemocratic that we don´t organize our systems around the users!<br /><br /><img src="/en/departments/tme/news/Documents/Hilary%20Bradbury.jpg" alt="Hilary Bradbury.jpg" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center"> “Objectivity is not possible, at best it’s partial. So if we pretend we are objective our research is not so strong.”</h3> <div style="text-align:center"><em><strong>Hilary Bradbury</strong></em></div> <div> </div></div> <div>As researchers, we are trained to think and act objectively. This may sound obvious, but if it’s the only thing we care about, it poses a danger today, according to Hilary.</div> <div> </div> <div>– Objectivity is not possible, at best it’s partial. So if we pretend we are objective our research is not so strong. I bring subjectivity into action research, in the sense that I believe we need to be aware of our biases and how they can reflect on our research - otherwise, we are not meeting our co-subjects! To be a good researcher, you need to understand yourself - that’s reflexivity - as well as the other, she says. We do this in dialogue. With curiosity, we understand more. We can test our perceptions. We can have more interesting and more robust insights.</div> <div> </div> <div>For decades, Hilary Bradbury has brought voice to action research, writing books, editing research work and organizing the global community of action research. Over the years, she has encountered a fair amount of scepticism towards the inclusion of subjectivity in the research area but believes that this is beginning to change.</div> <div> </div> <div>– The action research paradigm can appear scary. People want control and certainty, but as an action researcher, I say: uncertainty, curiosity and change are good things! We need to respond to a world of change.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Do you believe action research should be used more?</strong></div> <div>–    Yes. Way more! Action research is an evolution in knowledge creation, and I believe it is transforming academia and those who do it. With action research we see results. We also get to bring attention to important things in the world today, and communities like that and in turn see academia as more relevant. But I don´t think everybody can be an action researcher. Still, we certainly need more of it in the research ecosystem. In an ideal world, all students should be trained in more empathy and deep curiosity - about ourselves and others. Let’s have action research be part of all students repertoires.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Text &amp; Photo: Ulrika Ernström<br /><br /></strong></div> <div><strong></strong></div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Hilary Bradbury on…</h4> <div> </div> <div><strong>The </strong><strong>Metoo</strong><strong>-movement</strong></div> <div>“We are seeing all this raw experience and anger. Now we need to do something in response. We can move from rage to curiosity and learn during the process. In this process - which is really learning together - we can have new ways of relating between women and men.  That's new in history!”</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>The Swedish “</strong><strong>fika</strong><strong> -tradition”</strong></div> <div>“I love the Swedish fika! You meet and you talk – It’s simple, effective and creates a special platform that we don’t have in the US. The other day I started talking about a new research project with some colleagues at Chalmers, just because we had a fika together. I often think that Action Research takes normal Swedish culture of dialogue and makes it central to inquiry processes.”</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Her Irish background and how it has affected her choices</strong></div> <div>“I grew up in Ireland in a Catholic home and learned that you are not supposed to ask about a lot of things. Important things, like women and men and how they relate. It drove me crazy. So, I liberated myself. Maybe that is why I have a drive to help others ask what they need to be full selves too. I have always been action-oriented, I initiate a lot of experiments that I then learn from.  I like to do that with others and together we make things better”.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div>Mon, 28 May 2018 09:00:00 +0200 biofuels can be produced extremely efficiently, confirms industrial demonstration<p><b>​A chance to switch to renewable sources for heating, electricity and fuel, while also providing new opportunities for several industries to produce large numbers of renewable products. This is the verdict of researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, who now, after ten years of energy research into gasification of biomass, see an array of new technological achievements.&quot;The potential is huge! Using only the already existing Swedish energy plants, we could produce renewable fuels equivalent to 10 percent of the world&#39;s aviation fuel, if such a conversion were fully implemented,” says Henrik Thunman, Professor of Energy Technology at Chalmers.​</b></p><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Popreport_cover.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Report detailing 200 man-years of research  </h5> <div>​We have summarized the work of the last ten years at Chalmers Power Central and GoBiGas in the report: &quot;GoBiGas demonstration – a vital step for a large-scale transition from fossil fuels to advanced biofuels and electrofuels&quot;. Researchers at the division of Energy Technology at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers have worked together with colleagues at the departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Technology Management and Economics, Biology and Biological Engineering, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences​ as well as a wide range of Swedish and international collaborative partners in industry and academia. <a href="" style="outline:none 0px"><span style="background-color:initial">Download the report: </span><span style="background-color:initial">GoBiGas demonstration – a vital step for a large-scale transition from fossil fuels  to advanced biofuels and electrofuels. </span></a>(21 Mb). <div><h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">​Pathway to a radical transition</h6></div> <div><div>How to implement a switch from fossil-fuels to renewables is a tricky issue for many industries. For heavy industries, such as oil refineries, or the paper and pulp industry, it is especially urgent to start moving, because investment cycles are so long. At the same time, it is important to get the investment right because you may be forced to replace boilers or facilities in advance, which means major financial costs. Thanks to long-term strategic efforts, researchers at Sweden´s Chalmers University of Technology have now paved the way for radical changes, which could be applied to new installations, as well as be implemented at thousands of existing plants around the globe.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The solution presented involves widespread gasification of biomass. This technology itself is not new. Roughly explained, what is happening is that at high temperatures, biomass is converted into a gas. This gas can then be refined into end-products which are currently manufactured from oil and natural gas. The Chalmers researchers have shown that one possible end-product is biogas that can replace natural gas in existing gas networks.</div> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">The problems with tar are solved​</h6> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/tar-problem-before-and-after.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Previously, the development of gasification technology has been hampered by major problems with tar being released from the biomass, which interferes with the process in several ways. Now, the researchers from Chalmers’ division of Energy Technology have shown that they can improve the quality of the biogas through chemical processes, and the tar can also be managed in completely new ways, see images to the right. This, in combination with a parallel development of heat-exchange materials, provides completely new possibilities for converting district heating boilers to biomass gasifiers. <a href="">Watch an animation with more details about how the problems with tar has been solved​</a>. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;What makes this technology so attractive to several industries is that it will be possible to modify existing boilers, which can then supplement heat and power production with the production of fossil-free fuels and chemicals.&quot;, says Martin Seemann, Associate Professor in Energy Technology at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We rebuilt our own research boiler in this way in 2007, and now we have more than 200 man-years of research to back us up,” says Professor Henrik Thunman. “Combined with industrial-scale lessons learned at the GoBiGas (Gothenburg Biomass Gasification) demonstration project, launched in 2014, it is now possible for us to say that the technology is ready for the world.” </div> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">Many applications</h6> <div>The plants which could be converted to gasification are power and district heating plants, paper and pulp mills, sawmills, oil refineries and petrochemical plants.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The technical solutions developed by the Chalmers researchers are therefore relevant across several industrial fields”, says Klara Helstad, Head of the Sustainable Industry Unit at the Swedish Energy Agency. “Chalmers´ competence and research infrastructure have played and crucial role for the demonstration of advanced biofuels within the GoBiGas-project.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Swedish Energy Agency has funded energy research and infrastructure at Chalmers for many years. </div> <div>How much of this technological potential can be realised depends on the economic conditions of the coming years, and how that will affect the willingness of the industrial and energy sectors to convert. The availability of biomass is also a crucial factor. Biomass is a renewable resource, but only provided we do not deplete the conditions for its biological production. There is therefore a limit for total biomass output.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Christian Löwhagen, Johanna Wilde. </div> <div>Translation: Joshua Worth.</div> <div>Tar illustration: BOID. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href=""><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Process-video.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Watch a film detailing the process in the GoBiGas Plant</a>. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="">Read more in the international press release. ​</a></div> <div>​<br /></div></div>Mon, 21 May 2018 07:00:00 +0200 of Advance Award for research into future energy services<p><b>​Sustainability, digitalisation and service innovation in the energy sector are the ingredients of the collaborative project which is receiving the 2018 Areas of Advance Award. Chalmers researchers Árni Halldórsson, Holger Wallbaum, Ida Gremyr and Sofia Börjesson are receiving the award for their multidisciplinary collaboration.</b></p>​ <br />Digitalisation is contributing to far-reaching changes in almost all sectors of society, which means that we can do things in different ways and do completely new things. At the same time, we must address the question – how?<br /><br />Researchers from the departments of Technology Management and Economics, and Architecture and Civil Engineering are collaborating on the project “Energy Services: Processes for Innovation, Provision, and Use of Customer Feedback”. <br /><br />“The energy sector faces a challenge as on the one hand it needs to obtain a good return on its sales of renewable energy and from its capabilities and technology, while on the other also contributing to the customer’s energy efficiency. We are therefore looking at new ways of designing services which provide added value for customers, promoting the transition to sustainable energy consumption and guaranteeing steadyrevenue streams”, says project manager Halldórsson.<br /><br /><strong>Customers become key players</strong><br />Customers and end-users can become key players in the energy company’s ecosystem and contribute to continued energy efficiency. <br /><br />“New digital technology allows us to measure performance, using sensors for example, gather data and analyse phenomena more extensively than in the past. This gives us the opportunity to design new innovative services,” says Gremyr.<br /><br />Researchers working on the project have started assessing processes and needs throughout the chain from energy supplier, property owner/manager to customer, to learn key lessons which will form the basis of future energy services.<br /><br />“The idea is that the design of the services can contribute to a more sustainable society by influencing customer behaviour, for example. It is also interesting to analyse the conditions required for new types of services to become established,” Wallbaum says.<br /><br /><strong>A collaborative research approach</strong><br />The project is a pilot study which was made possible through seed funding provided by the Energy Area of Advance and the work is being undertaken in close collaboration with Göteborg Energi. <br /><br />“Here we have a great opportunity to get involved with Göteborg Energi and understand their perspective, the same goes for the customer and end-user side, and from there we try to conceptualise the service development. We don’t yet know where this will take us, there is no final template so we are navigating from our different perspectives,” Börjesson says.<br /><br />“What is clear is that this is a key issue. Everyone knows this work has to be done but just what is needed is complex. It affects different areas of expertise, systems, people, business models and technologies,” Gremyr says.<br /><br /><strong>Research spotlighted in professional education</strong><br />Future services will of course also create complexity for purchasing and procurement, something which Halldórsson has lectured on through Chalmers Professional Education. In other respects it can be seen that the service development area has not yet made much of an impact in the education provided at Chalmers.<br /><br />“There are many new subject areas which have emerged and which do not yet form part of Chalmers’ courses. But there are already educational components where these can be included, such as in degree projects, or quite simply by shining the spotlight on our research in our teaching,” says Börjesson.<br /><br /><strong>Applications in all industries</strong><br />The researchers are already aware of opportunities for continued collaboration after they have completed their pilot study. <br />“The project we are conducting on sustainability and digitalisation can be applied to other contexts. This then opens many doors – in a number of different industries,” Halldórsson says.<br /><br />They all agree that the Areas of Advance have an important role to play in promoting multidisciplinary collaboration at Chalmers. This in turn lays the foundations for an exchange of expertise and renewal.<br />“New contacts can also reduce the thresholds for collaboration in our infrastructures, where you might not always realise that you are in demand,” says Wallbaum.<br /><br />“And seed funding from the Area of Advance gives the slight nudge which makes collaboration happen,” Börjesson says.<br /><br /><br /><strong>Award winners </strong><br /><a href="/en/staff/Pages/sofia-borjesson.aspx" target="_blank">Sofia Börjesson</a>, Professor, Technology Management and Economics. She conducts research into the organisation and management of innovation in established organisations and into the prerequisites for innovation. <br /><br /><a href="/en/staff/Pages/ida-gremyr.aspx" target="_blank">Ida Gremyr</a>, Professor, Technology Management and Economics. She conducts research into quality management and service development, service innovation and processes for increased customer interaction.<br /><br /><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/arni-halldorsson.aspx" target="_blank">Árni Halldórsson</a>, Professor, Technology Management and Economics. He conducts research into service supply chains, customer-supplier relationships and energy efficiency.<br /><br /><a href="/en/staff/Pages/holger-wallbaum.aspx">Holger Wallbaum</a>, Professor, Architecture and Civil Engineering. He conducts research on sustainability strategies for building stocks, energy-efficient renovation and smart infrastructures.<br /><br /><br /><br /><strong>The Areas of Advance Award</strong><br />Through the Areas of Advance Award, the leadership at Chalmers wants to reward people who have made significant contributions to interdisciplinary collaborations and who, in the spirit of the Areas of Advance, integrate research, education and utilisation. The award will be bestowed during the doctoral degree ceremony on 2 June 2018.<br /> <br /><em>Text: Malin Ulfvarson</em><br /><em>Photo: Johan Bodell</em>Wed, 09 May 2018 16:00:00 +0200