A transformation of the energy system is critical for dealing with the challenges of climate change as well as limited fossil fuels resources. Today, the energy system is totally dominated by fossil fuels, while new technologies like solar and wind power see a rapid growth. In this research area we analyze how a transition to a future energy system with small or zero greenhouse gas emissions could be established. The group mainly works with in three areas:
Global energy scenarios and pathways to meet global climate targets:
The GET model is a global energy system model linked to a reduced complexity climate models in which greenhouse gases from other sectors of the economy is also taken into account. The model has a long history stretching back twenty years. The GET model has been used in several studies to analyze how climate targets can be achieved at lowest possible cost and which energy resources and technologies are important for a transition to a system with zero or even negative emissions of CO2 (where negative emissions can be achieved by bioenergy with carbon dioxide capture).
Modeling of power systems with a large share of variable electricity production:
The costs of solar and wind power have fallen rapidly over the past decade, and more and more actors envisage an electricity system dominated by solar and wind power. A critical question for such a system is how it can work during days when neither the sun is shining nor the wind is blowing. We are analyzing the importance of transmission, energy storage and other measures for dealing with the variability in electricity production using a range of different modeling tools.
Policies and policy instruments for the energy transitions:
In order to realize a transition of the energy system it is crucial to understand the conditions under which alternative energy technologies can be developed and diffused in order to substitute fossil based technologies. Within this research area, we analyze for example which types of policy instruments are the most effective, or which structural factors affect how quickly new technologies can grow.
Fredrik Hedenus, Daniel Johansson, Christian Azar, Kristian Lindgren
Azar, C., Johansson, D. J., & Mattsson, N. (2013). Meeting global temperature targets—the role of bioenergy with carbon capture and storage. Environmental Research Letters, 8(3), 034004.
Reichenberg, L., Hedenus, F., Odenberger, M., & Johnsson, F. (2018). The marginal system LCOE of variable renewables–Evaluating high penetration levels of wind and solar in Europe. Energy, 152, 914-924.
Azar, C., & Sandén, B. A. (2011). The elusive quest for technology-neutral policies. Environmental Innovation and Societal Transitions, 1(1), 135-139.