News: Space, Earth and Environment, Rymd- och geovetenskap, Energi och miljö related to Chalmers University of TechnologyWed, 21 Mar 2018 17:29:37 +0100 Swedish satellite to map unstudied winds high up in Earth&#39;s atmosphere<p><b>​Chalmers University of Technology has won the competition to provide Sweden’s next national research satellite to the Swedish National Space Board. The satellite, named SIW, will be the first to study wind currents in the upper atmosphere, increasing understanding about how they affect weather and climate.</b></p><div>​”I am really happy to see our proposal become a reality”, says Kristell Pérot, researcher in the Division of Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing, at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers.</div> <div>SIW, which stands for Stratospheric Inferred Winds, will study wind patterns in the atmosphere to answer questions about their dynamics and circulation. It will contribute important data to climate models, and increase understanding of how the different parts of the atmosphere interact.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Better weather forecasting</h4> The climate and weather in the troposphere, the layer closest to Earth’s surface, is affected by wind changes in the two layers above, the stratosphere and the mesosphere (altitudes between 11 and 85 kilometres). Observing and analysing events in the upper layers is therefore critical to achieving more reliable long-term predictions. <div> </div> <div>For example, many consider the recent cold weather across Europe this month, and concurrent warmer temperatures in the Arctic, to be linked to temperature changes in the upper atmosphere – so-called ’sudden stratospheric warming’.</div> <div> </div> <div>“This process is not very well understood in current models, and more knowledge is needed. With SIW, it will be easier to study this kind of event and to understand the forces behind them. That has never been done in this way before” says Kristell Pérot.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div>“SIW will also be a fine complement to the satellite Aeolus, to be launched by the European Space Agency later this year to study the winds lower down in the atmosphere,” she adds.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Dual purpose</h4> <div>Patrick Eriksson, professor of Global Environmental Measurements at Chalmers, believes the second part of SIW’s mission will be equally important – to measure the concentration of certain gases in the atmosphere.</div> <div> </div> <div>”As it stands, SIW looks to be alone in being able to measuring the gases that are important to assessing the status of the ozone layer. Above all, it’s chlorine- and nitrogen-bearing gases that we want to keep track of. SIW will take over that role after the <span style="background-color:initial">satellite </span><span style="background-color:initial">Odin</span><span style="background-color:initial">, </span><span style="background-color:initial">which will soon be ready for retirement after 17 years in space” says Eriksson.</span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div> </div> <div>Several Swedish companies will participate in the SIW project, including Omnisys Instruments, which will be responsible for the scientific instruments, and OHB Sweden, which will construct the satellite itself and have overall responsibility for the project. Donal Murtagh, professor of Global Environmental Measurements and Head of Division Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment, will be scientifically responsible for SIW.</div> <div> </div> <div>The Swedish National Space Board will finance the production and launch of SIW, which will be the second satellite in its innovative research satellites venture. It is scheduled for launch in 2022.</div> <div> </div> <div>You can read more about the SIW satellite on the <a href="">Swedish National Space Board’s website </a>(Swedish only).<br /> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>For more information, contact:</strong></div> <div><span><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/donal-murtagh.aspx">Donal Murtagh​</a>,</span> Professor of Global Environmental Measurements and Head of Division, Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment</div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/kristell-perot.aspx">Kristell Pér</a><span>ot</span>, researcher from the Division of Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing, at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment</div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/patrick-eriksson.aspx">Patrick Eriksson</a>, Professor of Global Environmental Measurements at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment</div> <div><br /> </div>Wed, 21 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0100 from Chalmers will image the distant universe<p><b>​From March 1, 2018, when the world&#39;s most powerful telescope will target the most distant universe it is equipped with new receivers that have been developed and produced at Chalmers University. The extremely sensitive instruments also provide new opportunities to search for water in space and in our solar system.&quot;Being the best in the world is part of our daily life. There are simply no other options if you wish to participate on this level, &quot;says Victor Belitsky, professor and leader of the Research Group for Advanced Receiver Development (GARD) at Chalmers.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The ALMA telescope consists of 66 dish antennas located 5000 meters above sea level in Chile on a high plateau in the Andes. The dishes work linked together as one telescope and can make far sharper observations than individual radio telescopes can do.</span><div>Each of the 66 antennas has several receivers for observation at different wavelengths. The Chalmers receivers now being used allow observations of light with a wavelength of between 1.4 and 1.8 millimeters – known as Alma’s Band 5. This is microwave radiation, which can be compared with visible light whose longest wavelengths are around 740 nanometres (less than a thousandth of a millimetre).</div> <div>“At these frequencies we can observe cold parts of the universe. For example, regions where stars and planets are formed are of great interest. When ALMA's dishes work together, you get significantly higher resolution than you can do with current optical telescopes, &quot;says Victor Belitsky, whose research group is part of Onsala Space Observatory at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment.</div> <div>- The frequencies that are now accessible can give scientists for example a new understanding of how stars, planets and galaxies are born, he says.</div> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">Perfect timing​</h6> <div><a href="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/GARD_names.jpg"><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/GARD-Chalmers-small.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /></a>The receivers were developed by the GARD group (click on the image for a larger version with all names) in a project funded by the EU program <a href="">EC FP6​</a> in 2006-2012. The timing proved to be perfect. When the first receivers were ready, new research areas were opening up that specifically required ALMA to be able to observe in Band 5.</div> <div>Victor and his colleagues had completed six complete receivers, but to handle the order for a further 73, a team from NOVA (Netherlands Research School for Astronomy) was invited to participate. They integrated GARD’s components in the receiver cassettes.</div> <div>&quot;Their effort was important to complete the delivery, but the major challenge was to develop the receiver and manufacture the components. We are delivering to the world's best and most advanced telescope, and thanks to our knowledge and experience, they have now got the best possible receivers”.</div> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">Cool receivers</h6> <div>The biggest challenge in the production of receivers for radio telescopes is how to reduce noise from their surroundings and get as clean a signal as possible.</div> <div>“The noise sets the limit for how weak signals can be detected. It’s like finding the right station on a regular FM-radio, but a million times more sensitive! So, the more we can reduce different types of noise, the more we increase the possibilities for new discoveries in space”, says Victor Belitsky.</div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Cryostat-01_300.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />For example, the receivers operate at -269 degrees Celsius, four degrees above absolute zero, to counteract interference from thermal radiation. The image shows the receivers housed in their cryostat, which is designed to maintain such low temperatures.</div> <div>Reducing loss of signal in Earth's atmosphere is also the reason that the ALMA telescope is located at 5000 meters above sea level, in one of the driest places in the world. There is very little water vapor in the atmosphere above the telescope, which means the Band 5 receivers can look for water in space, both nearby and far away, Victor Belitsky explains.</div> <div>&quot;There are many uses for our receivers, both in our solar system and in distant galaxies. It depends on which research applications and topics the Alma Research Committee selects, but we know there is a lot of interest to observe water in our own solar system”.</div> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">Sweden among world leaders​</h6> <div>Sweden’s success with Alma is not limited to delivering instruments. Swedish researchers were among the most frequent users of the telescopes last year, second only to Japan. </div> <div>“Second place! That shows the strength and position of Swedish astronomical research in international terms. With the support of instrumentation, we are at one of the world's leading positions - both in terms of research and technology. That’s something to be proud of&quot;, says Victor Belitsky.</div> <div>​<br /></div> <div><em>Text: Christian Löwhagen.</em></div> <div><em>Photo: </em><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Oscar Mattson - GARD-Group. Receivers in the cryostat</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>: </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>ESO/P. Yagoubov.</em></span></div> <em> </em><div><br /> </div> <div><div><em>Contact</em>:  </div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/victor-belitsky.aspx">Victor Belitsky</a>​, professor, and Head of unit, Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory, Advanced receiver development (GARD), +46 31 772 18 93. </div></div> Mon, 19 Feb 2018 06:00:00 +0100 reveal the magnetic secrets of methanol<p><b>​A team of scientists, led by Boy Lankhaar at Chalmers University of Technology, has solved an important puzzle in astrochemistry: how to measure magnetic fields in space using methanol, the simplest form of alcohol. Their results, published in the journal Nature Astronomy, give astronomers a new way of investigating how massive stars are born.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Over the last half-century, many molecules have been discovered in space. Using radio telescopes, astronomers have with the help of these molecules been able to investigate just what happens in the dark and dense clouds where new stars and planets are born.</span><div> </div> <div>Scientists can measure temperature, pressure and gas motions when they study the signature of molecules in the signals they detect. But especially where the most massive stars are born, there’s another major player that’s more difficult to measure: magnetic fields.</div> <div> </div> <div>Boy Lankhaar at Chalmers University of Technology, who led the project, takes up the story.</div> <div> </div> <div>“When the biggest and heaviest stars are born, we know that magnetic fields play an important role. But just how magnetic fields affect the process is a subject of debate among researchers. So we need ways of measuring magnetic fields, and that’s a real challenge. Now, thanks to our new calculations, we finally know how to do it with methanol”, he says.</div> <div> </div> <div>Using measurements of methanol (CH<sub>3</sub>OH) in space to investigate magnetic fields was suggested many decades ago. In the dense gas surrounding many newborn stars, methanol molecules shine brightly as natural microwave lasers, or masers. The signals we can measure from methanol masers are both strong and emitted at very specific frequencies.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The maser signals also come from the regions where magnetic fields have the most to tell us about how stars form. With our new understanding of how methanol is affected by magnetic fields, we can finally start to interpret what we see”, says team member Wouter Vlemmings, Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Earlier attempts to measure the magnetic properties of methanol in laboratory conditions have met with problems. Instead, the scientists decided to build a theoretical model, making sure it was consistent both with previous theory and with the laboratory measurements.</div> <div> </div> <div>“We developed a model of how methanol behaves in magnetic fields, starting from the principles of quantum mechanics. Soon, we found good agreement between the theoretical calculations and the experimental data that was available. That gave us the confidence to extrapolate to conditions we expect in space”, explains Boy Lankhaar.</div> <div> </div> <div>Still, the task turned out to be surprisingly challenging. Theoretical chemists Ad van der Avoird and Gerrit Groenenboom, both at Radboud University in the Netherlands, needed to make new calculations and correct previous work.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Since methanol is a relatively simple molecule, we thought at first that the project would be easy. Instead, it turned out to be very complicated because we had to compute the properties of methanol in great detail”, says Ad van der Avoird.</div> <div> </div> <div>The new results open up new possibilities for understanding magnetic fields in the universe. They also show how problems can be solved in astrochemistry – where the disciplines of astronomy and chemistry meet. Huib Jan van Langevelde, team member and astronomer at the Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC and Leiden University, explains.</div> <div> </div> <div>“It’s amazing that such detailed calculations are required to reveal the molecular complexity which we need to interpret the very accurate measurements we make with today’s best radio telescopes. It takes experts from both the chemistry and astrophysics disciplines to enable new discoveries in the future about molecules, magnetic fields and star formation”, he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em><strong>Image and video</strong></em></div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div><em>High-resolution images are available at <a href="">​</a></em></div> <div><em><strong><br /></strong></em></div> <div><div><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Image (top)</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> – Magnetic fields play an important role in the places where most massive stars are born. This illustration shows the surroundings of a forming massive star, and the bright regions where radio signals from methanol can be found. The bright spots represent methanol masers – natural lasers that are common in the dense environments where massive stars form – and the curved lines represent the magnetic field. Thanks to new calculations by astrochemists, astronomers can now start to investigate magnetic fields in space by measuring the radio signals from methanol molecules in these bright sources. </em></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><em></em></span><em style="background-color:initial">Credit: <a href="">Wolfgang Steffen​</a>/Chalmers/Boy Lankhaar (molecules: Wikimedia Commons/Ben Mills)</em></div></div> <div><em style="background-color:initial"><br /></em></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/methanol_animation1_72dpi_340.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;font-style:italic;font-weight:600" /></div> <div><em style="background-color:initial"><br /></em></div> <div><em style="background-color:initial">Video – </em><span style="background-color:initial"><i>Watch an animated video about how stars are born and how methanol can now tell scientists more about how massive stars form: <a href=""></a></i></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Credit: Chalmers/Daria Dall'Olio/Boy Lankhaar (see link for full credits)</em></span></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <div>See other versions of this release<span style="background-color:initial">:</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><a href="">from JIVE (English)</a><span style="background-color:initial">,</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><a href="">from Radboud University (in Dutch)</a><span style="background-color:initial">, <a href="">from Leiden University (in Dutch)</a>,</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><a href="">from NOVA (in Dutch)​</a><span style="background-color:initial"> and </span><a href="">from INAF (in Italian)​</a><a href=""></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>More about the research</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research is published in the February 2018 edition of the journal Nature Astronomy, available online 29 January 2018. The paper is <em>Characterization of methanol as a magnetic field tracer in star-forming regions</em> <i style="background-color:initial"> </i><span style="background-color:initial">(<a href="">link to article​</a>; </span><span style="background-color:initial">doi: <a href="">10.1038/s41550-017-0341-8</a></span><span style="background-color:initial">) </span><span style="background-color:initial">by Boy Lankhaar (Chalmers), Wouter Vlemmings (Chalmers), Gabriele Surcis (Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC, Netherlands, and INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari, Italy), Huib Jan van Langevelde (Joint Institute for VLBI ERIC, Netherlands, and Leiden University, Netherlands), Gerrit C. Groenenboom and Ad van der Avoird (Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, Netherlands). </span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Support for this research was provided by the the Swedish Research Council (Vetenskapsrådet), and by the<br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">European Research Council (</span>ERC).<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Boy Lankhaar was awarded the Royal Netherlands Chemical Society’s Golden Master prize for 2015 (<a href=""></a>) for his Master’s thesis work on this project at Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Contacts:</strong></div> <div> </div> <div>Robert Cumming, communicator, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers, tel: +46 31-772 5500 or +46 70 493 3114,</div> <div> </div> <div>Boy Lankhaar, Ph.D. student, Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers, tel: +46 31 772 55 42,</div> <div><br /></div> ​Mon, 29 Jan 2018 17:00:00 +0100 for nominations: Gothenburg Lise Meitner award 2018<p><b>​The Gothenburg Physics Centre (GPC) is seeking nominations for the 2018 Gothenburg Lise Meitner award.  Nominations are due on Monday, 5 March, 2018.</b></p>​The Lise Meitner award honors exceptional individuals for a “<em>groundbreaking discovery in physics</em>”.  <br />In addition to their scientific accomplishments, the candidates must meet the following selection criteria:<br /><ul><li>They have distinguished themselves through public activities of popularizing science and are prepared to deliver the annual Lise Meitner Lecture (middle of September).</li> <li>Their research activity is connected to or benefit activities at GPC.<br /></li></ul> Nominations should include a motivation describing the achievements of the candidate, a short biography/CV, contact details and a local contact person. <br /><br />Nominations should be sent to any member of the of the Lise Meitner Award Committee 2018: <br /><br />Dinko Chakarov <a href=""></a> <br />Hans Nordman <a href=""></a><br />Ann-Marie Pendrill <a href=""></a><br />Vitaly Shumeiko <a href=""></a><br />Andreas Heinz (Chair) <a href=""></a><br /><a href=""></a><br /><a href="/en/centres/gpc/activities/lisemeitner"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />More information about Lise Meitner and the award can be found at the GPC website</a><br />We would also like to thank those of you who did make an effort to nominate a candidate in the past! In case your nomination has not been chosen, we encourage you to submit her or his name again. <br /><br />With best regards,<br /><br />The 2018 Lise Meitner CommitteeWed, 24 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0100 praise and increased funding from the Swedish Research Council<p><b>​In an evaluation from Vetenskapsrådets (the Swedish Research Council)  the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) national infrastructure received the top grade of “Outstanding” for its science impact.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">In the evaluation VR highlighted the international and national collaborations at OSO, as well as the international standing of the researchers at OSO. They highlight also the work done at OSO concerning technical development and collaborations with industry. </span><span></span><div>Other topics examined were “socio-economic impact”, “implementation, leadership and organisation” and “e-infrastructure”. Overall OSO received a grade of  “Excellent”, which translates to 6 out of a possible 7.</div> <div>At a meeting of VR’s council for research infrastructure (RFI) on 4 December, in response to the very positive evaluation, it was decided to increase VR’s funding to  OSO by 12 %, from 29 million SEK in 2017, to 32,5 million SEK per year for 2018-2021.<span style="background-color:initial">​</span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> Thu, 14 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0100’s image of red giant star gives a surprising glimpse of the Sun’s future<p><b>​A Chalmers-led team of astronomers has for the first time observed details on the surface of an aging star with the same mass as the Sun. ALMA:s images show that the star is a giant, its diameter twice the size of Earth’s orbit around the Sun, but also that the star’s atmosphere is affected by powerful, unexpected shock waves. The research is published in Nature Astronomy on 30 October 2017.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">A team of astronomers led by Wouter Vlemmings, Chalmers University of Technology, have used the telescope Alma (Atacama Large Millimetre/Submillimetre Array) to make the sharpest observations yet of a star with the same starting mass as the Sun. The new images show for the first time details on the surface of the red giant W Hydrae, 320 light years distant in the constellation of Hydra, the Water Snake.</span><div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/WHya_colour_solarsystem_72dpi_340x340.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />W Hydrae is an example of an AGB (asymptotic giant branch) star. Such stars are cool, bright, old and lose mass via stellar winds. The name derives from their position on the famous Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, which classifies stars according to their brightness and temperature.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– For us it’s important to study not just what red giants look like, but how they change and how they seed the galaxy with the elements that are the ingredients of life. Using the antennas of Alma in their highest-resolution configuration we can now make the most detailed observations ever of these cool and exciting stars, says Wouter Vlemmings.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Stars like the Sun evolve over timescales of many billion years. When they reach old age, they puff up and become bigger, cooler and more prone to lose mass in the form of stellar winds. Stars manufacture important elements like carbon and nitrogen. When they reach the red giant stage, these elements are released into space, ready to be used in subsequent generations of new stars.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/WHya_dss_72dpi_340x340.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Alma's images provide the clearest view yet of the surface of a red giant with a similar mass to the Sun. Earlier sharp images have shown details on much more massive, red supergiant stars like Betelgeuse and Antares. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The observations have also surprised the scientists. The presence of an unexpectedly compact and bright spot provides evidence that the star has surprisingly hot gas in a layer above the star’s surface: a chromosphere. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– Our measurements of the bright spot suggest there are powerful shock waves in the star’s atmosphere that reach higher temperatures than are predicted by current theoretical models for AGB stars, says Theo Khouri, astronomer at Chalmers and member of the team.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/star_size_comparisons_72dpi_340x148.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />An alternative possibility is at least as surprising: that the star was undergoing a giant flare when the observations were made.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The scientists are now carrying out new observations, both with Alma and other instruments, to better understand W Hydrae’s surprising atmosphere. Observations like these with Alma’s highest-resolution configuration are challenging, but also rewarding, explains team member Elvire De Beck, also astronomer at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/alma_dok-1114-cc_72dpi_340x340.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />– It’s humbling to look at our image of W Hydrae and see its size compared to the orbit of the Earth. We are born from material created in stars like this, so for us it’s exciting to have the challenge of understanding something which so tells us both about our origins and our future, she says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em><strong>Images</strong></em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><i>High-resolution images (with labels in English and Swedish) are available for download from Flickr: <br /><span></span></i><span></span><span style="background-color:initial"><i><a href=""></a></i></span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>1. (top) The sharpest image yet of a red giant star: 320 light years from Earth, the star W Hydrae is a few billion years further on than the Sun in its life. For comparison, the dotted ring shows the size of the Earth’s orbit around the Sun, seen from an angle. Alma is sensitive to submillimetre wavelengths; this image is taken at around 0,9 mm. (Credit: Alma (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/W. Vlemmings)</em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>2. The sharpest image yet of a red giant star: 320 light years from Earth, the star W Hydrae is a few billion years further on than the Sun in its life. The dotted rings show the size of the orbits of the Earth (in blue) and other planets around the Sun for comparison. The system is seen at an angle. </em><em style="background-color:initial">Alma is sensitive to submillimetre wavelengths; this image is taken at around 0,9 mm. </em><em style="background-color:initial">(Credit: Alma (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/W. Vlemmings)</em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>3. The sky around W Hydrae, as seen in visible light. (Credit: Digitized Sky Survey)</em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>4. Direct imaging of even the biggest and closest stars, is a challenge for astronomers. In this graphic, the Alma image of W Hydrae is compared with the best images so far of other stars: the red giant R Doradus, the red supergiants Antares and Betelgeuse. A variety of imaging techniques and different wavelengths of light have been used to create these images; giant stars can have very different sizes seen in different wavelengths. The angular sizes of the stars in Alpha Centauri, the closest star system, and the dwarf planet Pluto (at its closest to Earth) are shown for comparison. (Images: ESO/K. Ohnaka (Antares); Alma (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/E. O’Gorman/P. Kervella (Betelgeuse); ESO (R Doradus); Alma (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO)/W. Vlemmings (W Hydrae))</em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>5. Alma is the most powerful ground-based telescope for observing the cool universe — molecular gas and dust as well as the distant Universe. Situated in the Atacama desert Alma is addressing some of the deepest questions of humanity: those of our cosmic origins, including the building blocks of stars, planets, galaxies, and life itself. </em></div> <div><em>High-resolution version:</em></div> <div><em>Credit: D. Kordan/ESO</em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>More about the research</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The results are presented in the paper<em> The shock-heated atmosphere of an asymptotic giant branch star resolved by ALMA</em>, published online in Nature Astronomy on 30 October 2017 (link to journal article: <a href="" style="outline:0px none"></a>). The paper is also available at <a href="">​</a>.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The team is composed of Wouter Vlemmings (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden), Theo Khouri (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden), Eamon O’Gorman (Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Ireland), Elvire De Beck (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden), Elizabeth Humphreys (ESO), Boy Lankhaar (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden), Matthias Maercker (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden), Hans Olofsson (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden), Sofia Ramstedt (Uppsala University, Sweden), Daniel Tafoya (Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden) and Aki Takigawa (Kyoto University, Japan).</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>More about Alma and Onsala Space Observatory</strong></div> <div> </div> <div>The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (Alma), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of ESO, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. Alma is funded by ESO on behalf of its Member States, by NSF in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and by NINS in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI).</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Chalmers University of Technology and Onsala Space Observatory have been involved in Alma since its inception; receivers for the telescope are one of many contributions. Onsala Space Observatory is host to the Nordic Alma Regional Centre, which provides technical expertise to the Alma project and supports astronomers in the Nordic countries in using Alma.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Onsala Space Observatory is Sweden's national facility for radio astronomy. The observatory provides researchers with equipment for the study of the earth and the rest of the universe. In Onsala, 45 km south of Gothenburg, it operates two radio telescopes and a station in the international telescope Lofar. It also participates in several international projects. The observatory is hosted by Department of Earth and Space Sciences at Chalmers University of Technology, and is operated on behalf of the Swedish Research Council.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Contacts:</strong></div> <div> </div> <div>Robert Cumming, astronomer and communications officer, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 31-772 5500, +46 70-493 31 14,</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Wouter Vlemmings, professor in radio astronomy, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 31 772 5509, +46 733 544 667,</div> <div><br /></div> Tue, 07 Nov 2017 08:00:00 +0100 research opportunities for Chalmers researchers as ElectriCity grows<p><b>​ElectriCity, best known for the electric bus 55 in Gothenburg, is much more than just the bus. As the project grows, new exciting opportunities for research appear. Per Lövsund, coordinator for ElectriCity at Chalmers University of Technology, invites Chalmers researchers to contact him with ideas.</b></p><p><br /></p> <p>“We can perform research projects, master and bachelor thesis projects within ElectriCity, and thereby gain better dissemination and utilisation of our results”, says Per Lövsund, who calls on Chalmers researchers to contact him with ideas for new projects.<br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p>ElectriCity is now growing to include for example smaller trucks, such as waste trucks and distribution cars. This means exciting opportunities for several research areas, Per Lövsund explains. Self-driving vehicles, safety, community planning, noise, thermal optimization, control algorithms, vehicle dynamics, development and recycling of batteries and fuel cells, and charging station requirements are some examples of questions from different research fields, all of which can be studied within the framework of ElectriCity.<br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p>Researchers involved in ElectriCity have access to research platforms such as buses and other vehicles. The project’s demo arena also includes the new urban area Frihamnen and the development of south Chalmers Johanneberg Campus, with a stop for the ElectriCity bus. Here, safety aspects and new innovative solutions at the stop and interactions between vehicles and unprotected road users can be studied.<br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p>The fact that ElectriCity enters a new phase has already generated new research at Chalmers.<br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p>“One project about bus trains and one about autonomous docking at bus stops are just about to take off”, says Per Lövsund. “Another project investigates how bus drivers experience the effects of the Volvo Dynamic Steering system.”<br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p>A workshop is planned to be held at Chalmers to formulate projects on low-frequency noise in urban environment, modeling of noise impact and safety issues regarding quiet buses at bus stops.<br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p>“In the long run, perhaps other sectors could be included as well. I personally think that the marine sector would be interesting”, says Per Lövsund. “Chalmers has great competence in this field, for example through <a href="">SSPA </a>and <a href="">Lighthouse</a>.” <br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p>ElectriCity has run in Gothenburg for two years and is a collaboration between industry, academia and society, where the participants develop and test solutions for tomorrow’s sustainable public transport. The electric and hybrid buses of route 55, where different technology solutions are tested and developed, run between the two campuses of Chalmers. The project has created a lot of international interest.<br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p>“The international attention has given us new networks and new interesting research topics”, concludes Per Lövsund.</p> <p><br /></p> <p>Are you a Chalmers researcher and have a project idea for ElectriCity? Contact Chalmers coordinator Per Lövsund, <a href=""></a><br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p><a href="">Read more about ElectriCity &gt;&gt;</a><br /><br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p><em>Text: Christian Boström, Emilia Lundgren</em><br /></p>Mon, 23 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0200 Kåberger senor advisor for GEIDCO<p><b>​Tomas Kåberger has been appointed Senior Advisor to Global Energy Interconnection Development and Cooperation Organisation, GEIDCO, an organisation dedicated to promoting the sustainable development of energy worldwide.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Profilbilder/Tomas_Kaberger170x220_1.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />– It’s a great constructive assignment, in an organization that has real possibilities to influence the world, says Tomas Kåberger, P​rofessor of Industrial Energy Policy, at Chalmers University of Technology.  <br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div><br /></div> <div><span></span><div><span style="background-color:initial">The organisation is lead by Chairman Zhenya Liu, former head of the world’s largest electricity company State Grid Corporation of China, and with the former US Secretary of Energy, and Nobel Laureate, Stephen Chu as vice chairman. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​GEIDCO </span><span style="background-color:initial">has the ambition to combine renewable energy, smart grid technologies and ultra-high voltage transmission </span><span style="background-color:initial">technologies to create global renewable energy supply. </span><span style="background-color:initial">It is to be achieved with “two replacements, one restore, and one increase”. Renewable energy shall replace fossil fuels for electricity production, renewable electricity is to replace fossil fuels in other sectors, oil is to restored as a raw-material, and electricity use is to increase.</span></div> <div><br /></div></div> <div><a href="">Read more att</a>. </div> ​Tue, 03 Oct 2017 10:00:00 +0200 extragalactic award to the star of astrophysics<p><b>​Everything that is outside our own galaxy, the Milky Way, is extragalactic. For more than forty years, the French astrophysicist Françoise Combes has explored how distant galaxies form, evolve, merge and die. On 21 September, she received the Gothenburg Lise Meitner Award 2017.</b></p>– I’m very honoured to receive this award and I’m also very impressed by Lise Meitner herself. She was a very strong and courageous woman who conducted her research when the conditions were very difficult for a woman. Only men were allowed in the laboratory’s, but she was persistent, had her vision and she understood nuclear fission,” says Françoise Combes, Professor at l’Observatoire de Paris. The Gothenburg Physics Centre awarded her &quot;for ground-breaking work in extragalactic astronomy on fundamental aspects of the physics and evolution of galaxies.&quot; <p></p> <p>– My research is about understanding how the universe has been formed. Since we still cannot explain the high velocities within a galaxy, for example when a star is moving, we need to find the answers. Either it’s the unknown particles dark matter that causes the force – or the law of gravity must be modified. In my research, we do simulations of galaxies and modified gravity, “says Françoise Combes. </p> <p>She held an exciting lecture in connection with the award ceremony in Gothenburg. The talk entitled <a href="">&quot;When Supermassive Black Holes are Too Greedy&quot;</a> opened a window to the extragalactic parts of the universe. The holes actually absorb, or eat, more than they can digest and therefore they expel their “food” outside galaxies.</p> <p>– Until 1920, we did not know that there existed other galaxies, outside our own. Now we know a lot more about extragalactic astronomy. Did you for example know that the Milky Way has a diameter of 100 000 lightyears, and the next big galaxy, Andromeda, is 3 000 000 lightyears away?</p> <p><br /></p> <p><a href="/en/centres/gpc/calendar/Pages/Lise-Meitner-Award-lecture.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read the abstract and learn more about Françoise Combes<br /></a></p> <span><a href="/en/centres/gpc/calendar/Pages/Lise-Meitner-Award-lecture.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="/en/centres/gpc/calendar/Pages/Lise-Meitner-Award-lecture.aspx"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a></span>Watch the award lecture <span><a href="">&quot;When Supermassive Black Holes are Too Greedy&quot;</a><br /><a href=""></a><a href=""><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a></span><br /><p>Text: <span>Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="">​</a><br /></span></p> <p><span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /><strong>The Gothenburg Lise Meitner Award</strong><br />Every year since 2006, the Gothenburg Physics Centre has awarded a scientist who has made a breakthrough discovery in physics.<a href="/en/centres/gpc/activities/lisemeitner/Pages/default.aspx"> Read more about the Gothenburg Lise Meitner Award</a></p> <p>The Gothenburg Physics Centre coordinates cooperation between four departments: Physics, Space, Earth and Environment, Microtechnology and Nanoscience at Chalmers University of Technology, and Physics at Gothenburg University.</p>Thu, 21 Sep 2017 17:00:00 +0200 workshop with focus on climate data<p><b>​For the third time Chalmers is hosting the “ARTS open community workshop”. On the workshop around 30 researchers from all over the world gather to discuss and plan collaboration around climate and weather forecasting applications based on microwave atmospheric observations.</b></p>​The project Atmospheric Radiative Transfer Simulator (ARTS) ( is a cooperation between Universität Hamburg and Chalmers. This is also where most of the development is done, but ARTS is an open source project and contributions to the programme come from researchers in other organisations and countries.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Patrick_Stefan_Workshop_sep2017.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:25px 5px" /><br />Since 2010 Chalmers is host for the “ARTS open community workshop” and this year it is held 6 – 8 September. Just like previously the workshop is held at The Sven Lovén Centre for Marine Sciences – Kristineberg in Fiskebäckskil. The approximately 30 participants at the workshop come from Sweden, Germany, USA, England, Switzerland, Japan, China, France and Ukraine. Organisers of the workshop are Patrick Eriksson from Chalmers and Stefan Buehler from Universität Hamburg.<br /><br />ARTS (Atmospheric Radiative Transfer System) is a radiative transfer model for the microwave and infrared spectral ranges to simulate how electomagnetic radiation is created and spread through the atmosphere. A focus area for the programme is atmospheric observations through microwaves and in this area ARTS is the dominating research programme. To support weather forecasts and to produce climate data are now the main goals for the development, but ARTS can also be used for measuring the ozone layer, magnetic fields on Mars and a lot of other things. This diversity in functionality and research areas is reflected in the workshop, where the participants have a big variety of interests and come from different universities, space organisations like National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) as well as weather forecast services.<br /><br />For more information about ARTS please contact Patrick Eriksson, <a href=""></a>, phone: +46 31 772 18 32.<br /><br />Wed, 30 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0200 global issues are crucial to our relevance<p><b>​Chalmers has a strong profile in relation to the sustainability issues that Sweden and other wealthy countries are facing, but there is huge potential for development from a global perspective. The end of May marked the starting point for Chalmers-wide work towards the UN&#39;s global development goals, with a focus on the third world.</b></p>​<span><span><span><span class=" ms-rtestate-write ms-rtestate-write"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span></span></span>Throughout the different organisations making up Chalmers, there are individuals working with sustainability research in developing countries or from a global perspective. In order to create a network and develop a common vision and plan for how Chalmers can become stronger in globally-oriented sustainability research, Chalmers Initiative for Innovation and Sustainability Transitions (CIIST) organised a collaborative workshop at the end of May. <br /><br />More than seventy people from different parts of Chalmers, University of Gothenburg, Sida, student organisations, companies and civil society gathered for the workshop. Organiser Helene Ahlborg, researcher in environmental systems analysis and active member of CIIST, is very pleased with the turnout. <br /><br />“The level of participation shows that these are issues that many are passionate about. We see the global issues as crucial to our relevance and attractiveness as a university, and we found that we have the skills needed to further develop Chalmers' work in this area,” says Helene Ahlborg.<br /><br />For her, it is obvious that Chalmers has a lot to gain from becoming stronger in global sustainability research.<br /><br />“The biggest challenges we face require us to take them on with a global perspective. We also have a lot to learn from being present in poorer parts of the world, since many new innovations, ideas and solutions of the future will emerge in these contexts.” <br /><br />But, it is also about becoming an attractive university in the eyes of students. Many committed students want to take part and solve the world's problems; in response Chalmers must be able to offer them the right education.<br /><br />Helene Ahlborg's next step will be to create working groups that build on the work from the workshop to formulate a strategic vision and action plan this autumn.<br /><br />“The ball will then keep rolling over the next year and we will follow up on suggestions and drive them forward in different ways. We want to take advantage of the energy that exists and all of the initiatives already taking place within different organisations and create a collective arena and benefit in relation to these,” she says.<br /><br />The workshop was funded by the Energy and Building Futures Areas of Advance, as well as the Department of Energy and Environment.<br /><br />Text: Ingela Roos<br />Tue, 13 Jun 2017 17:00:00 +0200 Swedish autonomous underwater vehicle for research<p><b>​On 8 June the agreement with Kongsberg AS for building an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) was signed. The AUV is an important resource in the national infrastructure MUST (Mobile Underwater System Tools) a joint project between the University of Gothenburg, Stockholm university and Chalmers and the first of its kind in Sweden.</b></p>​With the new underwater vehicle it will be possible to make detailed studies of the sea bottom on very large depths and to follow the climate thousands of years back in time.<br /><br />- The most interesting thing with the AUV for us is that it gives us the possibility to get in under the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean and around Antarctica to measure the thickness of the ice. Says Leif Eriksson from Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers’ representative in the steering committee for MUST.<br /><br />To make this kind of measurements has so far been very difficult. The results from the new underwater vehicle will be compared with the measurement results that Leif and his colleagues in the Division of Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing have from their satellite measurements of the sea ice. With this comparison they hope to be able to enhance the methods for estimation of the thickness of the sea ice and decrease the uncertainty about the total sea ice volume, how it is distributed geographically and how it varies over time.<br /><br />- It will be very exciting to see what information these measurements give. We look forward to having the new AUV built and up and running, says Leif.<br /><br />MUST is financed by grants from Knut and Allice Wallenberg Foundations and managed by a steering committee with representation from the University of Gothenburg, Stockholm University and Chalmers University of Technology.<br />n from the University of Gothenburg, Stockholm University and Chalmers University of Technology.<br /><br />For more information about the project please read <a href="" target="_blank" title="Link to Swedish press release at the University of Gothenburg">the pressrelease (in Swedish) from the University of Gothenburg</a>.<br /><br /><a href="/SiteCollectionDocuments/SEE/News/MUST_flyer_2014.pdf" target="_blank" title="Link to flyer about the MUST project">Flyer about the MUST project.</a><br /><br />Previous <a href="/sv/nyheter/Sidor/Svartillgangliga-havsomraden-kan-studeras.aspx" title="Link to precious Chalmers' news about MUST" target="_blank">Chalmers news about the MUST project (in Swedish)</a>.<br />Mon, 12 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0200 joins strong critique of bioenergy recommendations<p><b>Unsubstantiated claims and flawed arguments&quot;. IEA Bioenergy does not mince words in its critique of UK think-tank Chatham House’s report on the impact of bioenergy on global climate. According to IEA the report &quot;adds to the increasing number of misleading statements in the context of EU discussions about its energy future&quot;, and is backed up by 125 academic signatories worldwide, including Göran Berndes, Chalmers University of technology.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">With upcoming EU-level discussions on the future of European energy, publications analyzing the contribution of bioenergy have proliferated, including the recent Chatham house report “Woody Biomass for Power and Heat: Impacts on the Global Climate”. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">IEA Bioenergy (</span><span style="background-color:initial">the International Energy Agency Bioenergy Technology Collaboration Programme) </span><span style="background-color:initial">points out that this report does not present an objective overview of the current state of scientific understanding with respect to the climate effects of bioenergy. The report was analysed by members of the IEA Bioenergy Technology Collaboration Programme with globally recognised expertise in biomass production, carbon accounting and sustainability of biomass. They determined that the major conclusions and policy-specific recommendations are based on unsubstantiated claims and flawed arguments.</span></div> <div> </div> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">The IEA Bioenergy experts identified 3 major areas of concern:</h6> <div> </div> <div><ol><li>Climate effects and carbon neutrality of bioenergy. The report gives an inaccurate interpretation of the impact of harvesting on forest carbon stock, proposes a misguided focus on short-term carbon balances and overstates the climate change mitigation value of unharvested forests. It also assumes that forests would remain unharvested and continue to grow if no biomass was used for bioenergy, which is unrealistic.  <br /></li> <li>Bioenergy and forest products markets and systems. The report considers roundwood to be the main woody bioener<span style="background-color:initial">gy feedstock, but the on-ground reality is that in the EU, by-products and residues from silviculture are the most common type of feedstock. Furthermore, bioenergy can prompt forest owners to plant more trees and invest in sustainable forest management practices. The report largely overlooks the role bioenergy can play in supporting the urgently needed energy system transition.</span><br /></li> <li>Sustainability criteria. The report fails to acknowledge that forest bioenergy is not a single entity but an integral par<span style="background-color:initial">t of the forest management, forestry and energy-industry system that also produces material products. It is therefore unreasonable to expect that the maintenance of the carbon stock in forests would be guaranteed by sustainability criteria applied to the bioenergy category only. </span><br /></li></ol></div> <div> </div> <div>In the report’s general conclusion, it is proposed that &quot;Sustainability criteria should be used to restrict support to mill residues that are produced from legal and sustainable sources”. IEA Bioenergy, together with 125 scientists, strongly disagree with this recommendation, and urge Chatham House to reconsider their recommendations. “We invite Chatham House to engage in a more thoughtful and substantive discussion with technical experts like IEA Bioenergy and review the recommendations. The development of bioenergy and the bioeconomy as a whole are critical in order to realise a low carbon economy”, said Kees Kwant, Chairman of IEA Bioenergy.</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Read more at IEA Bioenergy's website</a>. </div>Fri, 24 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0100 fashion industry gains new tools to reduce its environmental load<p><b>​The environmental impact of our clothing has now been mapped in the most comprehensive life cycle analysis performed to date. For the first time, this makes it possible to compare the environmental effects of completely different types of textiles. The results will be used to create a practical tool for clothing manufacturers that want to lighten their environmental load.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Every year, 100 million tonnes of new textiles come onto the market and the textile industry has one of the highest turnovers in the world. It has long been understood that textile production has major environmental impact. But it has been difficult for textile companies to determine what choices they can make to reduce the environmental load, due to the wide variation in production processes.</span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>Now the industry is being given entirely new opportunities. Researcher Sandra Roos has taken an overall approach to the clothing life cycle with her doctoral thesis at Chalmers University of Technology and the research institute Swerea, within the research programme Mistra Future Fashion. Over the course of her five-year project, she studied 30 different sub-processes in textile production. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>‘I have also assessed the toxicity of the chemicals used in the processes,’ says Roos. ‘This is an area where, until now, there were huge knowledge gaps. The sub-processes I studied extend from techniques as different as entirely synthetic textile fibres made of plastic, to cotton production – where farmers cultivate the soil, plant and harvest the cotton, before ginning and preparing it.’ </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The life cycle perspective she used involves an overall assessment, from production to the user phase and product waste management. The effect of background processes such as electricity consumption and mining are also included. The results make it possible to compare textile products that are extremely different to each other, which was not possible before.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Mistra Future Fashion is a collaborative project between the fashion industry and researchers in Sweden. Their next step will be to transform the results of the thesis to a practical tool that clothing manufacturers can use to improve the environmental performance of their processes and products. The tool is expected to be ready sometime in 2017. This is an important step, since the majority of the environmental load in the clothing life cycle is created in the production phase.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Unsurprisingly, Sandra Roos’s research shows that conventional cotton growing, where large quantities of insecticides are spread directly on land, stands out as a particularly heavy burden on the environment. Another of her conclusions was more unexpected. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>‘At present, most environmental indices are based on the type of textile fibre used: wool, nylon, polyester or cotton. But that is not where the major environmental impact is found, which is actually in the post-fibre processing stages: spinning, weaving, knitting and, above all, in the dyeing – the wet processing. All the chemicals used in these processes actually make it as hazardous as cotton growing.’</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Shopping trips cause one of the biggest climate effects of clothing</h5> <div>Roos’s research has also yielded conclusions about which consumer actions are most effective in reducing the environmental load of clothing.</div> <div>‘If you want to be as eco-friendly as possible, there is only one thing you need to remember: use your clothes until they are worn out. That is more important than all other aspects, such as how and where the clothes were manufactured and the materials they are made of.<span style="background-color:initial">‘</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>But in industrialized countries, only a tiny percentage of garments are worn 100 to 200 times, which is usually the potential lifetime. In Sweden, for example, consumers buy an average of 50 new garments per person and year. Similar figures apply to the rest of Europe and the United States.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Such high consumption makes how the clothing is produced more important. But it is difficult for consumers to get information about the most important aspects – those related to processing of the textile materials. Instead, Sandra Roos has another recommendation to the average consumer who wants to live greener: </div> <div><br /></div> <div>‘Think about how you travel to the clothes shop. When it comes to impact on the climate, this is the factor that is the easiest to influence, other than buying fewer garments, and one that has substantial effect. Since many shopping trips are taken by car, consumer travel accounts for a large share of the climate load during the clothing life cycle. In Sweden, that share is a full 22 percent.’<br /><br /><strong>Text:</strong> Johanna Wilde and Christian Löwhagen</div> <div><br /><a href="">Read the full press release &quot;The fashion industry gains new tools to reduce its environmental load&quot;</a>.<br /></div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Facts: Climate impact from the various phases of our clothing’s life cycle</h5> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/EoM/Nyheter/Diagram-textiles_400.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The chart shows climate impact generated by Swedes during the various phases of the clothing life cycle.  A similar pattern applies to the rest of Europe and the United States.</div> <div>Production accounts for 70 percent. Distribution of the clothes until they reach consumers accounts for only 4 percent – even though the clothes are mainly made in countries far away from Sweden.  Consumer shopping trips account for a full 22 percent. Washing and drying accounts for only 3 percent, and waste management does not contribute to climate impact since the disposed garments go to energy recovery.</div> <div>Clothing purchases by Swedes produce the fourth largest share of all carbon emissions for the country - after transport, food and housing.</div></div> <div>​<br /></div>Tue, 14 Mar 2017 14:00:00 +0100 Twin Telescopes: ready for the world<p><b>​Two new radio telescopes have been built at Onsala Space Observatory on Sweden’s west coast, and on 18 May 2017 they will be inaugurated. The Onsala Twin Telescopes are part of an international network of radio telescopes that use astronomical techniques - and distant black holes - to make high-precision measurements of the Earth and how it moves.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The Onsala Twin Telescopes are two identical dish antennas, each 13.2 metres in diameter. They are part of an international initiative involving 20 countries, aimed at increasing our knowledge about the Earth and its movements.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>The telescopes detect radio waves from brilliant but distant galaxies that act like fixed stars in the sky. By continually measuring the positions on the sky of bright radio galaxies, the telescopes in the network can determine their own location in space.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>John Conway is professor in observational radio astronomy at Chalmers and director of Onsala Space Observatory.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>”The sources that the telescopes measure are distant galaxies, each of which has at its centre a supermassive black hole whose surroundings shine brightly when the black hole consumes material. This is applied astronomy at its best” he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/ott_lundqvist_2327_72dpi_340x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The Onsala Twin Telescopes are part of a growing international network of similar telescopes. As part of the global project VGOS (VLBI Global Observing System), they have company all over the world. Measurements of this kind have been carried out over the last few decades, and Onsala’s 20-metre telescope has participated in these. But with a dedicated network of telescopes, observations can now be carried out 24 hours a day, all year round, and will be able to able to make measurements ten times as precise as is possible today.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>”With the new network we will be able to measure distances between telescopes to millimetre precision, and almost in real time”, says Rüdiger Haas, professor of space geodesy at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Onsala’s history of geodetic measurements is a long one. In 1968, the observatory’s iconic 25-metre radio telescope became the first in Europe to take part in geodetic VLBI (very long baseline interferometry). The observatory’s 20-metre telescope, inaugurated in 1976, boasts geodetic measurements over a longer period than any other telescope in the world.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The new telescopes and their network meet global needs, as expressed in a resolution which was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in February 2015. The resolution, A Global Geodetic Reference Frame for Sustainable Development, recognised for the first time the importance of coordinating geodetic measurements on a global scale. The resolution strengthened exisiting work in the UN initiative Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) and with the Global Geodetic Reference Frame (GGRF).</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/ott_lundqvist_2207_72dpi_340x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />“Future research on sustainable development and on the Earth as a system will require more reliable, long-term, high-precision measurements. The Onsala Twin Telescopes are a natural continuation of our already long history of such measurements in Onsala”, says Gunnar Elgered, professor of electrical measurements and head of the Department of Earth and Space Science at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Similar telescopes are already in place in the United States, in Hawaii and Maryland, in Wettzell in Germany, in Yebes in Spain, on Santa Maria in the Azores, and on the Arctic Svalbard islands. New telescopes are planned for other locations, among them South Africa and Finland. Operations for the complete network of 16 or more stations are expected to start in 2020.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A reference system with this level of precision is also needed for many applications in Earth Sciences. It will become possible, for example, to measure sea level relative to the centre of the Earth, in order to test models for climate change. Data from the network will also be able to contribute to many other exciting areas of science, for example the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates, the Earth’s changing rotation and axial tilt.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The construction and installation of the Onsala Twin Telescopes has been funded by a generous grant from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><div><span style="font-weight:700">Contacts:</span></div> <div> </div> <div>Robert Cumming, communicator, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers, tel: +46 31-772 5500 or +46 70 493 3114,</div> <div> </div></div> <div>Rüdiger Haas, professor of space geodesy, Chalmers, tel: +46 31 772 55 30,</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Gunnar Elgered, professor of electrical measurements and head of the Department of Earth and Space Science, Chalmers, tel: + 46 31 772 1610 or +46 <span style="background-color:initial">31 772 5565,</span></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em><strong>Images:</strong></em></div> <div>High-resolution images are available at <a href="">​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>1 (top): The Onsala Twin Telescopes will measure the Earth’s movements using distant galaxies. This photo shows the two antennas at with Onsala Space Observatory’s 25-metre telescope, built in 1963, behind them. (Credit: Onsala Space Observatory/R. Hammargren).</em></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial"><br /></strong></div> <div><i>2. Onsala Twin Telescopes will become operational during 2017. &quot;First light&quot; for the northern telescope (right) was achieved in early February 2017. (Credit: Onsala Space Observatory/Anna-Lena Lundqvist)</i><em><span></span><br /></em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><i style="background-color:initial">3. Changing the Onsala skyline: the new Twin Telescopes and the 25-metre telescope. (Credit: Onsala Space Observatory/Anna-Lena Lundqvist)</i><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial">More about the Onsala Twin Telescopes</strong><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The Onsala Twin Telescopes are two dish antennas, 13.2 metres in diameter, located 75 metres apart close to the 25-metre telescope at Onsala Space Observatory, in the province of Halland, 45 km south of Gothenburg on Sweden’s west coast. The telescopes have a ring-focus design, the main reflector complemented by a 1.55-metre subreflector. They are designed to be able to observe together in many different modes. Able to move at up to 12 degrees per second in azimuth and 6 per second in elevation, they can slew extremely fast between observations and measure thousands of radio sources every day. The parabolic dishes, accurate to 0.3 mm RMS precision, allow measurements at frequencies up to 40 GHz (wavelength 0.75 cm or more).</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Each telescope has its own receiver system with feeds and receivers for radio waves of a common frequency range 3-14 GHz (wavelength 2-10 cm) and two linear polarisations. The northern telescope has a feed with a quadridge design, with four ridges, covering 3–18 GHz (1.7-10 cm) and similar in design to the feed horn Onsala Space Observatory has developed for the international Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project. The southern telescope is equipped with an Eleven feed, a design developed by Chalmers physicist Per-Simon Kildal (1951-2016), which covers 2–14 GHz (2-15 cm). Like the site’s other instruments, the Twin Telescopes have access to Onsala Space Observatory’s hydrogen maser atomic clock. The telescopes are controlled with the help of digital systems capable of speeds up to 128 gigabit per second, located in the control room next to the 20-metre telescope.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The telescopes will be inaugurated on 18 May 2017 by the County Governor of Halland, Lena Sommestad. Details of the inauguration will be provided later.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Links</strong></div> <div> </div> <div>23rd Working Meeting of the European VLBI Group for Geodesy and Astrometry (EVGA)</div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div>NASA’s article about the telescopes’ sister station in Hawaii, USA:</div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div>NASA’s animated video about the history of space geodesy and how quasars help scientists measure the Earth:</div> <div></div> <div><br /></div></div>Fri, 10 Feb 2017 13:00:00 +0100