News: Space, Earth and Environment, Rymd- och geovetenskap, Energi och miljöhttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyThu, 05 Aug 2021 15:19:36 +0200http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Energy-transition-needs-to-accelerate-urgently.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Energy-transition-needs-to-accelerate-urgently.aspxEnergy transition needs to accelerate urgently<p><b>​There are several viable paths towards a carbon-neutral future, and it is possible to achieve it by 2050. But it requires immediate action. That is the message from various European academies, including the Royal Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA), which has been commissioned by the European Commission to provide advice on how to facilitate the energy transition  in Europe.</b></p>​<img src="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/nyheter/PublishingImages/filipj.jpg" alt="Filip Johnsson" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>&quot;Our report shows </strong>big challenges but also significant opportunities in the transformation of the energy system&quot;, says IVA fellow Filip Johnsson, professor of Energy Systems at Chalmers, one of the experts behind the advice prepared for the European Commission. </span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>On 29 June 2021</strong>, the European Commission’s Scientific Advice Mechanism publishes two major documents on a systemic approach to the energy transition in Europe: </div> <div><ul><li>​An Evidence Review Report from SAPEA presents the latest scientific evidence and a series of evidence-based policy options.</li> <li>The Group of Chief Scientific Advisors’ Scientific Opinion, informed by this evidence, presents key policy recommendations.</li></ul></div> <div><strong>The expert group emphasises</strong> that the transition to sustainable energy is not just a technical challenge. To enable the transition, a huge systemic problem must be solved by coordinating investment, consumption, and behavior across Europe. This means transforming the entire European energy system — a change which will affect every part of our society and require huge investment during the transition. And we already need to accelerate progress if we want to achieve the EU’s target of net zero emissions by 2050.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>“Thanks to the enthusiastic</strong> engagement of top experts from academies across Europe, both within Euro-CASE and across many other disciplines represented within the SAPEA consortium, we are able to present this comprehensive report to the European Commission. Our advice could not be more timely, as the EU prepares to publish its strategy for a zero-carbon future, and the world wakes up to the urgency of fighting climate change.” says Tuula Teeri, IVA’s President.</div> <div><br /><div>In the work on the Evidence Review Report, SAPEA selected experts from different disciplines. The group was led by Professor Peter Lund.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>The full report and a complete list of the working group can be found at</strong> <a href="http://www.sapea.info/energy" style="outline:currentcolor none 0px"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />www.sapea.info/energy​​</a></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Facts about Euro-CASE</strong></div> <div>Five years ago, the European Commission set up SAM (The Scientific Advice Mechanism). Through it, the Commission asks European academies to provide scientific evidence for future policy decisions. One of the networks is Euro-CASE (European Council of Academies of Applied Sciences, Technologies and Engineering) that brings together European academies that focus on engineering and technology, IVA being one of the academy members.</div>Wed, 30 Jun 2021 15:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/researchinfrastructure/oso/news/Pages/Eclipse-linked-Gothenburg-kids-to-space-and-Chalmers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/researchinfrastructure/oso/news/Pages/Eclipse-linked-Gothenburg-kids-to-space-and-Chalmers.aspxSolar eclipse linked Gothenburg kids to space - and to Chalmers<p><b>​Seeing a solar eclipse can be a memorable experience. In three new Chalmers projects, the solar eclipse on 10 June gave young people extra access to space and to science. But not without a bit of luck with the weather, technology and social distancing.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">One of the sky’s biggest events of the year began at 11:30 on the second Thursday in June, when the moon slid gently in front of the sun, a partial solar eclipse visible from Gothenburg and many other places. The event was also an important part of three different initiatives, in three different places, all with the aim of giving young people extra science capital, with the help of Chalmers. </span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>In all three locations, plans had been changing, right until the last minute. This was the moment of truth for two school classes and their teachers, a handful of Chalmers students, several radio astronomers and two unsuspecting telescopes.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/lovgardet_solf_lank_72dpi_340x340.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /></div> <div>On the stone steps to the playground at the Lövgärdesskolan, a school on the north side of Gothenburg, the entire year 4 gathered to look at the eclipse. They were well prepared. Science teacher Catrine Berglund had sneaked in micro-lessons about space throughout the spring term, and students had painted space motifs on corridor walls to add to the excitement. And the day before, Robert Cumming from Onsala Space Observatory had delivered two &quot;sun cradles&quot; for projecting the sun safely.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The school had also bought in special eclipse glasses for the whole class - useful for anyone who wants to look at the sun. But the clouds looked dishearteningly dense and grey. Would the sun come out at all?</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In Slottsskogen Park in central Gothenburg, another group gathered: a handful of students in the newly started network Upprymd. During the spring, they had met over Zoom to be trained in public engagement about space. Now getting to know each other in person for the first time, they could start their mission as communicative astronomers.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/slottsskogen2_72dpi_340x340.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <div>Equipped with binoculars and a cardboard screen, the plan was to show the eclipse to other park visitors. Here, clouds and eye protection were part of the challenge. How could they balance keeping a good corona-safe distance, but at the same time being open and friendly?</div> <div><br /></div> <div>South of the city, at Onsala Space Observatory, Robert Cumming and Eskil Varenius took the opportunity to try a new way of viewing the solar eclipse with the observatory's smallest radio telescopes, SALSA, as part of a third project, “SALSA for years 7-9”, funded by the Swedish Research Council. With an improved user interface, SALSA is currently being adapted to make radio astronomy projects possible for students in their younger teens. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Here, at least, the weather wasn’t a problem. Radio telescopes can see the sky through thick clouds, and SALSA is no exception. But they had never been used before to see a solar eclipse, and the software was also brand new and untested. On top of that, the plan was to show SALSA live on a link for the school in Gothenburg. Would it really succeed?</div> <div><br /></div> <div>And just where had the sun got to? The wait was nervous in all three places. Gaps finally appeared in the clouds, first in Onsala, then over the park, and finally also at the schoolyard, but those moments were few and easy to miss.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>There! The round disk of the sun, clearly with a chunk missing! For those who got a look, it really was a moment to remember. </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/salsa_solf_20210610_72dpi_340x277.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The kids on the school stairs didn’t all see the eclipse, but everyone had experienced something out of the ordinary. A reporter from local radio station was on hand to broadcast live, and young enthusiasts Amina and Huzaifa and their friends got to explain the phenomenon to the listeners. In the city park, the students chose eclipse glasses over projection as the best way to share the sight of the cloud-shrouded eclipse, but everyone was satisfied in the end. In Onsala, the measurements clearly showed that the moon really had blocked some of the sun’s radio waves - the experiment was successful. Network issues affected the live connection to the school (and to some extent also the observatory's high-tech reputation). But contact was made and everyone got to say hi.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>After almost two hours, the sun was back to being whole again and it was all over for this time. However, all three projects will continue during the rest of the year. At the school, a special space day is planned for 23 September 2021. For the student network Upprymd, there will be online question and answer sessions with school classes and other events. They’ll also test SALSA and its new software, and start to help school students and teachers make their own radio observations.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>For the solar eclipse over western Sweden we’ll have to wait until 25 October 2022. What are we going to come up with for that? With a bit more science capital to spare, there will be new opportunities for everyone.</div> <div>The project with Lövgärdesskolan is run in collaboration with the City of Gothenburg, the housing company Poseidon and space industry company CAES (Cobham Gaisler).</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Robert Cumming</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Images:</em></div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div><em>A (top) </em><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Johannes Reldin photographed the eclipsed sun through the mesh of one of the SALSA antennas. </em></span></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <div><em>B </em><span style="background-color:initial"><em>S</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>ALSA and Robert Cumming on a live </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>link from Onsala with year 4 students. Photo: Eva Loström/Lövgärdesskolan</em></span></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <div><em>C Students in the Upprymd network watching the eclipse in Slottsskogen park. Credit: Andri Spilker</em></div> <div><em> </em></div> <em> </em><div><em>D Radio partial eclipse:  the top graph shows measurements with SALSA throughout the day on 10 June 2021. During the solar eclipse (dashed lines mark its beginning and end) the radio waves from the sun were clearly less than usual. (Credit: Eskil Varenius)</em></div> ​</div>Fri, 18 Jun 2021 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Banning-the-sale-of-fossil-fuel-cars.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Banning-the-sale-of-fossil-fuel-cars.aspxSales ban for “fossil cars" benefits the climate<p><b>If a ban were introduced on the sale of new petrol and diesel cars, and they were replaced by electric cars, the result would be a great reduction in carbon dioxide emissions. That is the finding of new research from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, looking at emissions from the entire life cycle – from manufacture of electric cars and batteries, to electricity used for operation. However, the total effect of a phasing out of fossil-fuelled cars will not be felt until the middle of the century – and how the batteries are manufactured will affect the extent of the benefit. </b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">A rapid and mandatory phasing in of electric cars could cause emissions from Swedish passenger cars' exhausts to approach zero by 2045. The Swedish government has proposed an outright ban on the sale of new fossil fuel cars from the year 2030 – but that alone will not be enough to achieve Sweden’s climate targets on schedule. </span><div><br /><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Johannes-Morfeldt-foto-Abel-Buko.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />“The lifespan of the cars currently on the roads and those which would be sold before the introduction of such a restriction mean that it would take some time – around 20 years – before the full effect becomes visible,” says Johannes Morfeldt, researcher in Physical Resource Theory at Chalmers University of Technology and lead author of <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2021.102807">the recently published scientific study</a>.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>To have the desired effect, a ban would either need to be introduced earlier, by the year 2025, or, if the ban is not brought in until 2030, then the use of biofuels in petrol and diesel cars needs to increase significantly before then – in accordance with the revised Swedish “<a href="http://www.energimyndigheten.se/en/sustainability/sustainable-fuels/greenhouse-gas-reduction-mandate/">reduction obligation</a>”. The combination of these two measures would have the effect of achieving zero emissions from passenger vehicles and keeping to Sweden’s climate targets. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The results from our study show that rapid electrification of the Swedish car fleet would reduce life cycle emissions, from 14 million tonnes of carbon dioxide in 2020 to between 3 and 5 million tonnes by the year 2045. The end result in 2045 will depend mainly on the extent to which possible emission reductions in the  industry are realised,” says Johannes Morfeldt.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A transition from petrol and diesel cars to electric cars will mean an increased demand for batteries. Batteries for electric cars are often criticised, not least for the fact that they result in high levels of greenhouse gas emissions during manufacture. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“There are relatively good opportunities to reduce emissions from global battery manufacture. Our review of the literature on this shows that average emissions from global battery manufacture could decrease by about two thirds per kilowatt hour of battery capacity by the year 2045. However, most battery  takes place overseas, so Swedish decision-makers have more limited opportunities to influence this question,” says Johannes Morfeldt.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>From a climate perspective, it does not matter where the emissions take place, and the risk with decisions taken at a national level for lowering passenger-vehicle emissions is that they could lead to increased emissions elsewhere – a phenomenon sometimes termed ‘carbon leakage’. In this case, the increase in emissions would result from greater demand for batteries, and the risk is thus greater the higher the emissions from battery production.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In that case, the Swedish decision would not have as great an effect on reducing the climate impact as desired. The life-cycle emissions would end up in the upper range – around 5 million tonnes of carbon dioxide instead of around 3 million tonnes. Due to this, there may be reason to regulate emissions in both vehicle and battery production, from a life cycle perspective.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Within the EU, for example, there is a discussion about setting a common standard for the manufacture of batteries and vehicles – in a similar way as there is a standard that regulates what may be emitted from exhausts,” says Johannes Morfeldt.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>But, given Sweden’s low emissions from electricity production, a ban on sales of new fossil-fuel cars would indeed result in a sharp reduction of the total climate impact, regardless of how the  industry develops.</div> <div>The results of the study are based on Swedish conditions, but the method used by the researchers can be used to obtain corresponding figures for other countries, based on each country's car fleet and energy system. The year 2045 is highlighted because that is when greenhouse gas emissions within Sweden should reach net zero according to the climate policy goals of the country.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">More about the research:​</span><br /></div> <div>The scientific article &quot;Carbon footprint impacts of banning cars with internal combustion engines&quot; has been published in Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment. The research was primarily funded by Mistra Carbon Exit. The study was conducted by Johannes Morfeldt and Daniel Johansson at the Division of Physical Resource Theory at Chalmers University of Technology, together with Simon Davidsson Kurland at the Department of Earth Sciences at Uppsala University, Sweden.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For more information contact:</h3> <div>Johannes Morfeldt, Researcher, Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 31 772 14 67, johannes.morfeldt@chalmers.se</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Images: </h3> <div>Portrait: Abel Buko</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Illustration: <span style="background-color:initial">Life cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from Swedish passenger cars</span></div> <div>Exhaust emissions are emissions within Sweden's borders, which need to reach zero by 2045 to fully contribute to Sweden’s climate policy goals. Emissions from the production of cars and fuels encompass the manufacture of cars and batteries as well as fuel production, including the production of electricity for electric cars. The striped fields show the possibilities for emission reductions in the manufacture of batteries, vehicles and fuels. The diagram assumes a Swedish ban on new sales of petrol and diesel cars in 2030, as well as an increasing usage of biofuels in accordance with the revised Swedish “reduction obligation” until 2030.</div></div> <div>Yen Strandqvist/Chalmers University of Technology​<br /></div>Thu, 27 May 2021 06:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/chair/news/Pages/AI-in-Horizon-Europe-please-answer-the-call!.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/chair/news/Pages/AI-in-Horizon-Europe-please-answer-the-call!.aspxAI in Horizon Europe – please answer the call!<p><b>​Focus on AI is strong in Horizon Europe, the EU's key funding programme for research and innovation! Chalmers AI Research Centre offers you, as a Chalmers researcher, support for getting engaged in Horizon Europe. Build collaborations, attract funding and break new ground with CHAIR's support.​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">H</span><span style="background-color:initial">orizon Europe is an important platform for AI research and a brilliant opportunity for Chalmers to increase the international collaborations within the research area.</span><br /><span> <br /><p dir="ltr"><span>CHAIR now offers all Chalmers researchers support to get engaged in Horizon Europe. We have entered a collaboration with <a href="https://www.imcginternational.com/" target="_blank">IMCG, Impact Management Consulting Group,​</a> to ease your way into Horizon Europe projects. IMCG has extensive experience in supporting Chalmers researchers to become successful in various roles in EU’s research programmes. We encourage you to explore the different ways to get engaged below and to get in touch about the next step.</span></p> <p dir="ltr"><strong style="background-color:initial"><br /></strong></p> <p dir="ltr"><strong style="background-color:initial">​Here are some ways to get engaged:</strong></p> <p dir="ltr"><span style="background-color:initial">– <strong>W</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong><strong>atch</strong> our webinar and learn why Horizon Europe is relevant to your research</strong></span></p></span><p></p> <p dir="ltr"><span>On May 4th CHAIR held a webinar led by Magnus Andersson from IMCG, on opportunities for AI Research in Horizon Europe (</span><a href="/en/centres/chair/news/Pages/Horizon-Europe-calling.aspx" target="_blank"><span>Horizon Europe Calling! | Chalmers</span></a><span>). Watch the webinar here (</span><a href="https://youtu.be/Tsx-C0WCeRk" target="_blank"><span>Horizon Europe webinar</span></a><span>). Hear also Prof. Kasper Moth-Poulsen’s presentation about his own Horizon journey (listen from 52:30). Take it from him; </span><span>“You can’t outsmart your competitors, but you can outplan them!”</span></p> <p dir="ltr"><span style="background-color:initial">To start taking action, please get in touch with IMCG, Impact Management Consulting Group, Finance Expert <a href="mailto:johan.emanuel@imcginternational.com" target="_blank">Johan Emanuel</a>, johan.emanuel@imcginternational.com, and he will help you forward on any of the following matters, or any other inquiries you might have about Horizon Europe. </span></p> <p dir="ltr"><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>– </strong></span><strong style="background-color:initial">Browse relevant calls and find your match</strong><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></p> <p></p> <p dir="ltr"><span>Horizon Europe is, according to the EU, the world’s largest innovation and research program, and obviously there are multiple opportunities to find your match within the program. To get you started,  IMCG has assembled a list of AI-related Horizon Europe calls within these different clusters. These are:</span></p> <ul><li dir="ltr"><p dir="ltr"><span>Culture, Creativity and Inclusive Society</span></p></li> <li dir="ltr"><p dir="ltr"><span>Civil Security for Society</span></p></li> <li dir="ltr"><p dir="ltr"><span>Digital, Industry and Space</span></p></li> <li dir="ltr"><p dir="ltr"><span>Climate, Energy and Mobility</span></p></li> <li dir="ltr"><p dir="ltr"><span>Food, Bioeconomy, Natural resources, Agriculture and Environment</span></p></li></ul> <p dir="ltr"><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">h</span><span style="background-color:initial">e list is available to</span><span style="background-color:initial"> all Chalmers researchers on request.</span></p> <p dir="ltr"><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>– </strong></span><strong style="background-color:initial">Get onboard as partner in a consortium</strong></p> <p></p> <p dir="ltr"><span>Getting involved with the right partners is key for a successful application. IMCG’s method puts you in the right context. Start exploring the opportunities of being a partner in a consortium!</span></p> <p dir="ltr"><span>Before you contact IMCG</span></p> <ul><li dir="ltr"><p dir="ltr"><span>Write down 3 short sentences that describe and summarize the part of your research you want to participate in an application with.</span></p></li> <li dir="ltr"><p dir="ltr"><span>Write down 3 short sentences and what you want to achieve with your participation in a project.</span></p></li> <li dir="ltr"><p dir="ltr"><span style="background-color:initial">W</span><span style="background-color:initial">rite down 5-7 specific keywords that we can use when searching for calls and consortiums.</span></p></li></ul> <span style="background-color:initial"><b>– Start your journey for becoming a consortium leader</b></span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><br /> <p dir="ltr"><span>If you are running a strong research program and want to explore the possibilities for taking the lead of a consortium, IMCG has the methods to put you on the right call. Leading a consortium is not only a great experience for a research leader, it will also put you in a good position in an EU and European context.</span></p> <p dir="ltr"><span style="background-color:initial">On the European Commission’s webpage, you can find a detailed description of Horizon Europe – </span><a href="https://ec.europa.eu/info/research-and-innovation/funding/funding-opportunities/funding-programmes-and-open-calls/horizon-europe_en">Horizon Europe | European Commission (europa.eu)</a><span style="background-color:initial">. </span><span style="background-color:initial">Search for fundings and tenders on: Participant portal EU </span><a href="https://ec.europa.eu/info/funding-tenders/opportunities/portal/screen/home">Funding &amp; tenders (europa.eu)</a><span style="background-color:initial">.</span></p> <p dir="ltr"><span style="background-color:initial">Please also visit the web pages of Chalmers Grant Office: </span><a href="https://intranet.chalmers.se/en/tools-support/research-utilisation/funding-of-research-innovation/eu-financing/">EU funding support</a><span style="background-color:initial">.</span></p> ​​Mon, 24 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Opportunity-for-PostDoc-funding-for-academic-year-2022.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Opportunity-for-PostDoc-funding-for-academic-year-2022.aspxOpportunity for PostDoc funding for academic year 2022<p><b>The Chalmers Area of Advance Energy is offering to provide support for a PostDoc position within the profile Electricity for Societal Development. The grant is of 1.2 Mkr for 2022 and may be extended for 2023. We now invite you to submit ideas within the research theme energy storage and flexibility. Applications must be submitted no later than May the 30th, 2021.  The selected Postdoc project is expected to start in January 2022. </b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Tomorrow's electric power systems must drastically change in order to become sustainable and efficient,</span><br /></div> <div>meeting at the same time the changing societal challenges and demands. The aim of Electricity for Societal</div> <div>Development is to lead of this process by proposing, investigating and evaluating new solutions for</div> <div>reinforcing and transforming the power system and its associated infrastructures. The project application</div> <div>must have the electricity systems in focus and be clearly linked to the research agenda of the profile. <br /><br /><strong>The </strong><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>a</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>pplication should address energy storage and flexibility from the perspective of one of the following </strong></span><strong style="background-color:initial">thematic areas:</strong></div> <div><ul><li><span style="background-color:initial">Technology fo</span><span style="background-color:initial">cus, including materials, testing and LCA;</span></li> <li>Sector coupling focus, including process simulation for flexibility in industry;</li> <li> Electricity system focus, including power system control and flexible electricity generation;</li> <li>Information focus, including use of information technology for system optimization, r<span style="background-color:initial">eliability/resiliency improvement, reduced need for energy storage.</span></li></ul></div> <div><br /></div> <div>In order to strengthen the collaborations at Chalmers and stimulate multidisciplinary projects, we especially appreciate research initiatives with potential to link different research groups. Thus,applications addressing energy storage on one thematic area with plans for collaboration with energy storage research on another thematic area (another application or ongoing research) will be prioritized.</div> <div>Connection to other ongoing projects as well as indications for future funding possibilities are considered as figures of merit for the application.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>The selected Postdoc project is expected to start in January 2022.</strong></div> <div>The funding application (maximum 2 pages) should be written in English. <br /><br /><strong>Applications must be submitted no later than May the 30th, 2021.<br /></strong><br /><strong>Please send your application to:</strong><br /> Massimo Bongiorno <span style="background-color:initial"><a href="mailto:massimo.bongiorno@chalmers.se">massimo.bongiorno@chalmers.se</a> or Lisa Göransson <a href="mailto:lisa.goransson@chalmers.se">lisa.goransson@chalmers.se</a></span></div> <div><br />If you need any further clarification, please do not hesitate to contact either Massimo or Lisa for more information.</div>Wed, 12 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Call-AI-in-energy-and-climate-research.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Call-AI-in-energy-and-climate-research.aspxCall for projects: AI in energy and climate research<p><b>​CHAIR, Chalmers Energy and ICT Areas of Advance are jointly investing in Data Science and AI in the Energy and Climate area. Important dates: Submission deadline: June 6, 2021. Notification: June 2021. Expected project start: Aug/Sep 2021</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Dat</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>a driven research</strong> is becoming increasingly important for many research activities at Chalmers. A large </span><span style="background-color:initial">need also exists for research connected to energy transitions to meet climate targets. As new sources of data become available connected to energy and climate research there is potential for innovative research, but this does not come without related challenges. To extract valuable patterns from large data sets and handle the challenges, the Energy Area of Advance, CHAIR (Chalmers AI Research Centre), and ICT Area of Advance, issue this call to provide funding and expertise for research projects, together with the Data Science Research Engineers (DSRE) initiative funded by Chalmers e-Commons. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>All projects have to include</strong> an emphasis on methods from data science and machine learning to use and extract patterns from data in the domains of energy and climate research. The funding applied for has to be used during an expected project duration of approximately 6 months, and 1-2 data science research engineers will provide support (outside the budget applied for) to implement and evaluate methods for data handling and analysis in the projects.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>We welcome proposals </strong>in a relatively wide span: Ranging from the relevant and basic natural sciences, to the design, prototyping, and analysis of energy and climate-related technologies, on to energy and climate systems analysis. Examples related to energy technologies include electricity grids, process industries, energy end-use, energy conversion technologies, technology innovation systems, and energy in transport. One of the aims is to create new collaborations between the research areas Energy, Climate, and ICT, by supporting specific research projects in need of extracting patterns and using novel methods to analyse data.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Requirements:</strong></div> <div><ul><li>The data science research engineers will provide collaboration and support in new, or existing projects, by application of data science and AI methods to extract patterns out of one or a few specific data sources to answer the research questions at hand.</li> <li>The level of involvement of the data science research engineers should be not less than 30% of full time equivalent, and not larger than 50% full time equivalent during a period of 6 months.</li> <li>The projects should preferably start in August/September 2021. Exact date can be discussed.</li> <li>The budget applied for should not exceed 200 kSEK including indirect costs (OH). The budget can cover personnel costs, the purchase of equipment and data, or to cover time for researchers working on the related research project. The budget should not cover the involvement of the data science research engineers which is provided as part of the project.</li> <li>The proposal for the support and collaboration should have a connection to energy and/or climate research with clear potential and/or clear challenges to analyse the data. It is useful to highlight what data is already available, or what data collection from what data source (natural, technological, or social) that needs to be performed during the scope of the project.<br /><br /></li></ul></div> <div><strong>The proposal form:</strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">he application is supposed to be simple and straightforward without extensive overhead: It should be maximum 3 pages long (preferrably 1-2 pages to describe the background and the main research idea). Please use font 11pt Times–roman. A one-page CV of the main applicant and main project participants should be added. Maximum four such CVs can be added on.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>The proposal should include:</strong></div> <div>a) Project title.</div> <div>b) The main applicants: Name and e-mail and department.</div> <div>c) The preferred starting date and ending date for the project.</div> <div>d) A short overview of the project, with its research challenges and objectives and what novel possibilities you see in using data science or AI in your domain/research area.</div> <div>e) A description of the type, size and availability of the data to be used in the projects including current availability and any restrictions in of use from intellectual property restrictions or so.</div> <div>f) A concrete description of how you would start to work together with the data science research engineers to extract patterns from data.</div> <div>g) The different types of expertise in the project (what type of expertise, and the expected involvement). Note: interaction with the DSRE team about this during writing of the proposal is recommended, see below.</div> <div>h) The expected outcome (including dissemination/publication plan) and its potential for further research/activities.</div> <div>i) The project overall time-line and budget (expenses on your side); in the budget, please clarify planned spending during 2021 and 2022 as the project is expected to run into 2022.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Important dates:</strong></div> <div>Submission deadline: June 6, 2021</div> <div>Notification: June 2021</div> <div>Expected project start: Aug/Sep 2021</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Evaluation Criteria:</strong></div> <div><ul><li>​How innovative is the project in your research domain?</li> <li>How central is the use of data sources in the project?</li> <li>How high is the potential impact of the project for its research field?</li> <li>Cross-disciplinarity: Does the project mix ideas or re<span style="background-color:initial">searchers from more than one discipline?</span></li> <li>Are there methods from data science and machine learning to extract patterns from data?</li></ul></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The unit of data science research engineers is available to provide brief feedback about the proposals during the weeks leading up to the submission deadline, drawing on <a href="http://cse-31296.cse.chalmers.se:8300/static/">experience from previous projects</a>. This will ensure writing a proposal that clarifies available data and proposes relevant methods. They can be contacted through the mailing list dsre.cse@chalmers.se to seek feedback in the formulation of the proposal.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Submission:</strong></div> <div>The application should be submitted as one PDF document to</div> <div><a href="https://easychair.org/conferences/?conf=energyclimatedsai202">https://easychair.org/conferences/?conf=energyclimatedsai202</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The proposals will be evaluated by the AoA Energy management group and a selected group of senior researchers across different areas and departments at Chalmers, and will be decided by the directors of the AoA Energy management group, director of CHAIR, and the unit manager of the data science research engineers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>General questions about the call can be addressed to:</strong><br />Anders Ådahl <a href="mailto:Anders.Adahl@chalmers.se">anders.adahl@chalmers.se</a><br />Vilhelm Verendel <a href="mailto:vive@chalmers.se">vive@chalmers.se</a><br />Ivica Crnkovic <a href="mailto:ivica.crnkovic@chamers.se%E2%80%8B">ivica.crnkovic@chamers.se​​</a><br /><br />General information about the research within the Energy Area of Advance, CHAIR, and ICT Area of Advance can be found at <a href="/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />www.chalmers.se</a><br /><br /><strong>More info:</strong><br /><a href="/en/centres/chair/Pages/default.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Chalmers AI Research Centre</a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> Tue, 11 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/rock-stars-of-the-universe.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/rock-stars-of-the-universe.aspxSpotlights the rock stars of the Universe<p><b>​​​​How are massive stars in the Universe born? That question is in focus for astronomer Rubén Fedriani at Chalmers. In record-breaking competition, he has recently received a Marie Sklodowska-Curie Action Individual Fellowship. Rubén explains how the fellowship will help him answer the question and why he considers the massive stars to be the rock stars of the universe.</b></p><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Profilbilder/ruben_fedriani_170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />– I feel extremely honoured to have received this Marie Skłodowska-Curie Action Individual Fellowship. The competition for such fellowships is really high and this year there has been a record number of applications with no less than 11 573 project proposals amongst all disciplines. I am still digesting such fantastic news!</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Do you have specific plans for your fellowship?</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– The main goal with this fellowship is to boost my career development by conducting cutting edge research in the superb star formation group at the Chalmers University of Technology. With this opportunity, I also hope to disseminate my work within the scientific community, but also among the general public. I believe outreach is a fundamental component of any researcher’s work.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Which research question are you focusing on?</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– This project is framed within the processes of star formation. The big question we want to answer is, “how are massive protostars born?” For the last several decades, many brilliant people have contributed to the understanding of massive star formation. Answering this question is not easy and many astronomers are actively working on different aspects of star formation. My hope is to shed some light on the formation mechanisms of massive protostars from an observational point of view using some of the most powerful optical and infrared telescopes in the world.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– You may wonder why this is important, well, massive stars are the reason for the iron in your blood, the calcium in your bones, and of course, the reason you are reading this! Therefore, understanding how they form is in a way understanding our origins and our place in the Universe.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– To finish, I like to say that ''massive stars are the rock stars of the Universe - blazing short, intense lives, but with death resonating for generations to come!''<span style="white-space:pre"> </span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Rubén was one of the Chalmers astronomers participating <span style="background-color:initial">In the Star Hunt project,  the 2020 version of the Nobel Prize Museum's project Help a Scientist, where 1,400 school students helped researchers at Chalmers to gather new knowledge about how stars are born. <a href="/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Starstudded-final-for-Help-A-Scientist.aspx">Read more about the Star Hunt​</a>. </span><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">More info: </span></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span></span><span>The Marie Skłodowska-Curie Actions Individual Fellowships​​</span><span>​</span></h3></div> <div>The fellowships are aimed at experienced researchers looking to give their careers a boost by working abroad. <a href="https://ec.europa.eu/research/mariecurieactions/actions/individual-fellowships_e">Read more about the fellowships​</a>.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>Protostars</span></h3> <div><p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>A protostar is a very young star that is still gathering mass from its parent molecular cloud. </span><span><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protostar">Read more about protostars</a>. </span></p></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Image cr</span><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">edits: </span><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">​</span><br /></div> <div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Top image: ESA/Hubble &amp; NASA, J. C. Tan (Chalmers University &amp; University of Virginia), R. Fedriani (Chalmers University). </span><span style="background-color:initial">Acknowledgement: Judy Schmidt. The image was chosen as ESA's &quot;Hubble picture of the week&quot; in March 2021, and the full image and story can be viewed here. </span><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://esahubble.org/images/potw2110a/">https://esahubble.org/images/potw2110a/​</a></span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Portrait: Christian Löwhagen</span></div>Wed, 05 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/production/news/Pages/Space-research-from-Chalmers-out-on-the-stage.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/production/news/Pages/Space-research-from-Chalmers-out-on-the-stage.aspxTake off for space seminar<p><b>​​The space is imaginative. Is it also noticeable in the corridors of Chalmers? What's going on behind the scenes when it comes to space research?</b></p><br /><div>After being in the starting pits for over a year, it is finally time to conduct the seminar Production in Space. Speakers at the half-day seminar, are both Chalmers own and invited researchers, industry, the Swedish National Space Agency and Nasa. <span style="background-color:initial">We asked the host of the initiative seminar, </span><b style="background-color:initial">Lars Nyborg,</b><span style="background-color:initial"> director of Chalmers Production Area of Advance, about his expectations:</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><b>What do you hope for?</b></div> <div>&quot;I hope that this seminar will show how challenges connected to space applications can provide inspiration on to how realize solutions connected to demanding conditions – which in turn can provide spin-off in other fields as well.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><b>Why is production in space important?</b></div> <div>&quot;As said, any solution connected to space applications would need to be built on sustainability as well as high-tech solutions, and hence this also means that production in space can be viewed as a general game changer for future.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><b>How can Chalmers contribute to future challenges in space?</b></div> <div>&quot;Chalmers has number of strong research groups in space-related research and by bridging across the university, from basic to applied research, we can make a difference.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><b>Additive manufacturing is often mentioned in connection to space. Why? And what are the challenges?</b></div> <div>&quot;Additive manufacturing is identified as a way to manufacture on demand which most probably would be viable way to have a sustainable way of providing repair, parts, etc., in space applications. </div> <div>One challenge is of course the conditions, such as microgravity and vacuum. I look forward to listening to both Larry Toups and Robert Mueller, both involved in In-Situ Resource Utilisation at Nasa.&quot; </div> <div><span style="font-weight:700"><em><br /></em></span></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700"><em>Happy International Star Wars Day and May the fourth be with you!</em></span><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700"><em><br /></em></span></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700"><em><br /></em></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">On May 4th 2021, the seminar starts at 13:00 and is possible to follow over livestream at Chalmers Youtube channel. It will be recorded and available after the seminar.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bWAoGvK5338" target="_blank" title="link to Youtube channel"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Follow livestream</a></div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/production/events/Initiative%20seminar%202021%20Production%20in%20Space/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank" title="Link to another webpage"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read the program</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Production/750x340_Lars-Nyborg_SDG12.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:690px;height:316px" /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> ​Tue, 04 May 2021 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Takes-on-the-challenge-of-recycling-mixed-textiles.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Takes-on-the-challenge-of-recycling-mixed-textiles.aspxTaking on the challenge of recycling textiles<p><b>​Polyester is the most common synthetic fiber in the textile industry and is used in many products worldwide. A major challenge for the textile and fashion industry, however, is how to recycle polyester blends and other synthetic and soiled materials. A new project at Chalmers investigates thermochemical recycling of mixed synthetic textiles, in order to create new materials and fibers. The first tests bode well. </b></p><div>​<span style="background-color:initial">– We are investigating how textiles consisting of fiber mixtures can be recycled thermochemically in a plastics recycling refinery. These materials can’t be fiber recycled with reasonable effort today, and most of it is incinerated, says Martin Seemann, project manager and associate professor at Energy Technology, Chalmers.</span></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Thermochemical recycling means that the molecules are recycled from textiles instead of whole textile fibers. The small molecules can then be used as a recycled raw material to produce new valuable base chemicals and materials, both as a base for new textile fibers and other materials where fossil base chemicals are used today.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>In the process, the textiles are heated up to 600-800 degrees, which in short means that the material is divided into a liquid and a gaseous fraction. The liquid fraction becomes building blocks for new material and the gas fraction can be used to reconnect the building blocks.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/martin-seemann-220.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />– This means that you can use basically all of the material to create new fibers. But it is something we will evaluate and test in the project. And with a reasonable effort of, for example, energy. It is about finding the optimal point in this process and if there is a procedure that is more advantageous than the alternatives, says Martin Seemann.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The textiles that are investigated in the project &quot;Recycling of reject streams from textile sorting and cardboard recycling&quot;, are those that cannot be recycled on a large scale and cost-effectively with other technologies today. The main focus is to get as much useful material out of the process as possible. Then the material could be used as raw material in the textile industry, but also in other industries.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">First tests are positive</h3> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">In Sweden today, <span>about 7.5 kg of textile per person and year is thrown out with the household trash. There is a proposal for producer responsibility for textiles from 1 January 2024, , in which case the industry will be responsible for collecting this quantity and preparing for recycling. This means that the more than 70,000 tonnes of textiles, which today end up in Sweden's residual waste, will be handled in another way.</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><br /></span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>At the end of January, the project’s first test was performed with a positive result. During the month of March, another test was performed where 1-2 tons of textile material were converted into pellets.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>– It also went very well, which feels extremely exciting in the future, but we must not forget that we are at the beginning of the development and there is still a lot to learn, says Martin Seemann.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://www.teko.se/aktuellt/nyheter/unikt-forskningsprojekt-hos-chalmers-vill-atervinna-textilblandningar/">The text is based on a (Swedish) news article at Teko, the Swedish trade and employers’ association for companies working in the textile and fashion industry</a>. </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Background</h3> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"> </h3> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The project &quot;Recycling of reject st​reams from textile sorting and board recycling&quot; started in November 2020 at Chalmers with funding from the West Swedish Chemistry and Materials Cluster (via the Vinnväxt project Climate-Leading Process Industry) and the Swedish Textile Research Foundation (SST).</span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The goal of the project at Chalmers is to increase society's resource efficiency, circularity, reduce CO2 emissions and increase the competitiveness of Sweden and Swedish companies in the long term. The project also meets a number of environmental goals in Agenda 2030. The project includes actors from the recycling industry, the chemical industry and the textile industry. Sorting and processing in the form of Wargön Innovation are also involved, as is the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU). </div>Mon, 03 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Is-forest-harvesting-increasing-in-Europe.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Is-forest-harvesting-increasing-in-Europe.aspxIs forest harvesting increasing in Europe?<p><b>​Is forest harvesting increasing in Europe? Yes, but not as much as reported last July in a controversial study published in Nature.</b></p><div>​<span style="background-color:initial">The study <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2438-y">Abrupt increase in harvested forest area over Europe after 2015</a>, used satellite data to assess forest cover and claimed an abrupt increase of 69% in the harvested forest in Europe from 2016. The authors, from the European Commission’s Joint Research Centre (JRC), suggested that this increase resulted from expanding wood markets encouraged by EU bioeconomy and bioenergy policies. The publication triggered a heated debate, both scientific and political, as the EU Parliament and Council were discussing the Post-2020 EU Forest Strategy.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>In a response published in Nature</strong>, 30 scientists from 13 European countries have discovered evidence that throws into doubt the conclusions of the JRC study. In Concerns about reported harvests in European forests, Palahí and colleagues demonstrate that the large harvest changes reported by JRC result from methodological errors. These errors relate to satellite sensitivity improving markedly over the period of assessment, as well as to changes in forests due to natural disturbances - for example drought and storm related die-back and tree-falls - being often attributed wrongly to timber harvests.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Dr Marc Palahí, Director of the European Forest Institute (EFI), who led the response said: “In the future forest information should be more carefully assessed, taking into account a wide variety of methodological issues and factors, before drawing hasty conclusions. This requires enhanced collaboration as well as scientifically robust and common approaches between the European Commission and Member States to enable better informed forest-related policies in the context of the EU Green Deal.”</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>“Over the years, we are becoming better</strong> and better at detecting forest loss” said Dr Ruben Valbuena from Bangor University who co-led the study. One of the errors in the JRC study was to underestimate how satellite images, and the methods used to analyse them, have improved over the periods they compared. “Satellite products can only be employed under strict protocols assessing errors, and with better distinction between deforestation and other causes of forest loss”, he said.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Professor Gert-Jan Nabuurs from Wageningen University, an IPCC lead author who participated in the study, commented that “the harvest across Europe’s forests has increased in recent years, but by just 6%, not the 69% claimed by the JRC study. This is due primarily to a moderate economic recovery after the 2008–2012 recession. What is really striking is the unprecedented levels of natural disturbances affecting our forests in many parts of the continent in recent years.”</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>&quot;This scientific critique of the JRC researchers’ </strong>erroneous results is important, and it arrives at the right time as it provides a basis for ongoing policy processes within the EU, such as the taxonomy for sustainable investments and the revision of the Renewable Energy Directive aimed at ensuring that renewable energy effectively contributes to the EU's increased climate ambitions for 2030&quot;, says Göran Berndes, Professor, Biomass and Land Use at Chalmers University of Technology, who, like Nabuurs, participates as lead author in AR6.<br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>The implications of the errors found</strong> by Palahí and colleagues are of global relevance, as many studies to inform policy-makers and society at large on the state of the world forests are nowadays based on remote sensing. The analysis of products based on satellite imagery is becoming key for instance to understand the extent of global deforestation, and thus we need scientifically robust remote sensing methods for sound policy-making.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>References to mentioned articles:</strong></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Palahí, M., Valbuena, R. et al. <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03292-x">Concerns about reported harvests in European forests. Nature (2021). </a></span><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Ce</span><span style="background-color:initial">ccherini, G., Duveiller, G., Grassi, G. et al. </span><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2438-y">Abrupt increase in harvested forest area over Europe after 2015. Nature 583, 72–77 (2020)</a><span style="background-color:initial">. </span><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><div><strong>More info: </strong></div> <div style="text-align:left"><span>Göran Berndes</span>, Chalmers, <span style="background-color:initial">Professor, Biomass and Land Use, </span><a href="mailto:goran.berndes@chalmers.se">goran.berndes@chalmers.se</a></div></div> <div style="text-align:left"> <span></span></div> <div style="text-align:left">Marc Palahí, <a href="mailto:marc.palahi%20@%20efi.int">marc.palahi @ efi.int</a>, +358 10 773 4342</div>Thu, 29 Apr 2021 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/researchinfrastructure/oso/news/Pages/Water-from-interstellar-clouds-to-habitable-planets.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/researchinfrastructure/oso/news/Pages/Water-from-interstellar-clouds-to-habitable-planets.aspxFrom interstellar clouds to habitable planets<p><b>​An international team of astronomers, among them scientists from Chalmers, has published a comprehensive survey of water’s journey through space. Using data from the Herschel Space Observatory, they have shown that life's most important molecule can thrive in all new-born solar systems - not just ours.</b></p><div>Only ten years ago, it was not known how and where water is formed in space, and how it eventually ends up on a planet like Earth. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Now, an international research team has put together everything scientists know about water in interstellar clouds, and the origin of water on newborn, potentially habitable, planets. The article, published in the journal Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics, is based on observations with the Herschel Space Observatory. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial">Space telescopes</strong><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span></span><div><span style="background-color:initial">Seeing water in space </span>is a challenge for astronomers. Even the best ground-based telescopes are affected by water vapour in our own atmosphere.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><span style="background-color:initial">Following an early pioneering effort by </span><a href="/sv/institutioner/see/nyheter/Sidor/Satelliten-Odin-firar-20-ar-i-rymden.aspx" style="outline:0px">the Swedish science satellite Odin​</a><span style="background-color:initial">, the Herschel Space Observatory was launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency, ESA.</span><br /></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>During its four-year mission, Herschel had as one of its main objectives to investigate water in space. Of particular importance was the instrument HIFI, which was built under Dutch leadership with important contributions from Sweden, and in particular from Chalmers.</div></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">In the new study, Ewine van Dishoeck and her colleagues have been able to study how water molecules follow each part of the process that leads to the birth of new stars and planets.</span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><strong>Starts with Ice</strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The new study shows that </span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">most of the water is formed as ice on tiny dust particles in cold and tenuous interstellar clouds.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>When a cloud collapses into new stars and planets, this water is largely preserved and quickly anchored into pebble-sized dust particles. In the rotating disk around the young star, these pebbles then form the building blocks for new planets.<br /></div> <div><br /></div></span></div> <div> <div>&quot;Water is mostly transported as ice from large interstellar clouds to these disks. The ice seems not to melt or break up on the way in. We can't say yet exactly how much water there is in these disks, but it's enough to form oceans on Earth-like planets&quot;, says Per Bjerkeli, astronomer at Chalmers.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Earth's water has also migrated here in this way, the researchers believe. <span style="background-color:initial">Furthermore, they have calculated that most new solar systems are born with enough water to fill several thousand oceans. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;It's fascinating to realise that when you drink a glass of water, most of those molecules were made more than 4.5 billion years ago in the cloud from which our sun and the planets formed&quot;, says Ewine Van Dishoeck.</span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/Rho_Ophiuchi_star-forming_region_72dpi_340x340.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">For water molecules, the road from interstellar clouds to the drinking glass is complex, the scientists show. Previous studies with the Herschel Space Observatory showed how </span><span style="background-color:initial">hot water vapour seen and copiously produced near forming stars is lost to space in powerful outflows.</span><span style="background-color:initial"> Now, the researchers have also been able to trace both cold water vapor and ice deposits in these star systems, among other things by examining weak signals from heavy water (where the molecule H<sub>2</sub>0 contains one or two atoms of heavy hydrogen, or deuterium).</span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Many mysteries remain concerning water's path to the planets which new and future telescopes will have to address. NASA/ESA's James Webb telescope, which will be launched later this year, as well as the radio telescope ALMA in Chile and the future radio telescope SKA all have roles to play. The instrument </span><span style="background-color:initial">MIRI</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">on board the James Webb Telescope </span><span style="background-color:initial">will be able to detect warm water vapour in the innermost zones of dust disks.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">– </span><span style="background-color:initial">Herschel has already shown that planet-forming disks are rich in water ice. With MIRI we can now follow that trail into the regions where Earth-like planets are formed, says </span><span style="background-color:initial">Michiel Hogerheijde, astronomer at Leiden University and the University of Amsterdam.</span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Press release in English from NOVA: <a href="https://www.astronomie.nl/nieuws/en/long-awaited-review-reveals-journey-of-water-from-interstellar-clouds-to-habitable-worlds-2733" style="outline:0px">https://www.astronomie.nl/nieuws/en/long-awaited-review-reveals-journey-of-water-from-interstellar-clouds-to-habitable-worlds-2733</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>More about the research and the Herschel Space Observatory </strong></div> <strong> </strong><div><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial">Herschel was a space telescope of the European Space Agency (ESA) built in cooperation with NASA. Its HIFI and PACS instruments were used for the water research. HIFI was designed and built by a consortium of institutes and university departments across Europe, Canada, and the United States under the leadership of SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, the Netherlands, with major contributions from Germany, France, and the USA. The PACS instrument was developed by a consortium of institutes and universities across Europe led by the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany. Chalmers scientists played an active role in the scientific planning for Herschel, and were involved in several projects using data from the telescope.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​<br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/Water_trail-credit-ESA-ALMA-NASA-LE-Kristensen_72dpi_340x254.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The results are </span><span style="background-color:initial">published in a paper by Ewine F. van Dishoeck et al., <em>Water in star-forming regions: Physics and chemistry from clouds to disks as probed by Herschel spectroscopy, </em>in the journal Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics. Link to the paper: </span><a href="https://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202039084">https://www.aanda.org/10.1051/0004-6361/202039084​</a><span style="background-color:initial"> (see also </span><a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/2102.02225">https://arxiv.org/abs/2102.02225</a><span style="background-color:initial">).</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><div>Ewine van Dishoeck led the water research programme WISH (<a href="http://www.strw.leidenuniv.nl/WISH/">Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel</a>). ​The team consists of 50 astronomers, among them Chalmers scientists Per Bjerkeli, René Liseau och Magnus Persson, and Bengt Larsson (Stockholm University).</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Images</em></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <em> </em><div><div><em>A (top) - The path of water molecules from vast interstellar clouds to potentially habitable planets has been traced in the star-forming region Rho Ophiuchi, 440 light years distant in the constellation Ophiuchus. This wide-angle image from Herschel, taken in light with a wavelength between 70 and 250 micrometers with the telescope's camera PACS, is 4 degrees wide (equivalent to eight full moons). In the brightest part of the image (above right) lies the young star VLA 1623, subject of detailed observations of water with the instrument HIFI.</em></div> <em> </em><div><em>Image: ESA / Herschel / NASA / JPL-Caltech, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO; Acknowledgment: R. Hurt (JPL-Caltech)</em></div> <em> </em><div><a href="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/750x340/Rho_Ophiuchi_star-forming_region_H2O_300dpi_full.jpg"><em>Download high resolution image (with molecules)</em></a><em> or </em><a href="https://sci.esa.int/web/herschel/-/59533-herschel-s-view-of-rho-ophiuchi"><em>see the original image at ESA</em></a></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <em> </em><div><em>B - The </em><span style="background-color:initial"><em>star-forming region </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Rho Ophiuchi, 440 light</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>years</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>distant </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>in the constellation</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Ophiuchus</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>. This wide-angle image from</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Herschel,</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>taken in light with a wavelength between 70 and 250 micrometers with the telesco</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>pe'</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>s camera</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>PACS, is 4 degrees wide (equivalent to eight full moons). In the brightest part</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>of the image</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>(above right) lies</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> the young star VLA 1623,</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>subject of</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>detailed observations</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>of water with the instrument HIFI.</em></span></div> <em> </em><div><em>Image: ESA / Herschel / NASA / JPL-Caltech, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO; Acknowledgment: R. Hurt (JPL-Caltech)</em></div> <em> </em><div><a href="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/750x340/Rho_Ophiuchi_star-forming_region_300dpi_full.jpg"><em>Download high resolution image (without molecules)</em></a><em> or </em><a href="https://sci.esa.int/web/herschel/-/59533-herschel-s-view-of-rho-ophiuchi"><em>view in original version at ESA</em></a></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <em> </em><div><em>C - This illustration shows the </em><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Journey of water from interstellar clouds to habitable worlds. From top left to bottom right: water in a cold interstellar cloud, near a young, forming star with an outflow, in a protoplanetary disc, in a comet and in the oceans of an exoplanet. The first three stages show the spectrum of water vapour measured by the HIFI instrument on the Herschel space observatory. The signals from the cold interstellar cloud and from the protoplanetary disk have been exaggerated in this image by a factor of 100 compared to those from the young, forming star in the centre.​</em></span></div> <em> </em><div><em>Image: ESA / ALMA / NASA / L. E. Kristensen</em></div></div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div><div><strong>Contacts</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Robert Cumming, communications officer, Onsala Space Observatory, +46 70 493 31 14, robert.cumming@chalmers.se</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Per Bjerkeli, astronomer, Department of Space, Earth and Environment, +46 31 772 64 30, per.bjerkeli@chalmers.se</div></div> <div><br /></div></span></div>Wed, 14 Apr 2021 15:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/2021-tandem-seminars.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/materials/news/Pages/2021-tandem-seminars.aspx​This spring's tandem seminars<p><b>Thank all of you who participated in this springs, 2021, Tandem Webinars. You can watch all the webinars here. At the end of the summer, we will present the autumn webinars</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial;font-weight:700">Wat</span><span style="background-color:initial;font-weight:700">ch the seminars on Chalmers Play</span><span style="background-color:initial;font-weight:700">:</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700;background-color:initial">25 February: TANDEM SEMINAR  –  MATERIALS FOR HEALTH</span><br /><span style="background-color:initial">Materials for Health, 25 February, 2021.  Organizer: Chalmers Area of Advance Mater</span><span style="background-color:initial">ials Science.<br /></span>In this webinar we  have two presentations dedicated to materials for health.  One on the design of bioinks for 3D-printing of cell-laden constructs and one on the development of novel medical device surfaces to prevent infections.<br /><div><ul><li>Moderator: Maria Abrahamsson, Director of Materials Science Area of Advance </li> <li>Bi<span style="background-color:initial">oink Design for Printing of Unified, Multi-material Constructs, Sarah Heilshorn, Professor of Materials Science and Engineering and, by courtesy, of Bioengineering and of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University.</span></li> <li>Ma<span style="background-color:initial">terials preventing biomaterial associated infection. Martin Andersson, Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Applied Surface Chemistry.Chalmers University of Technology.</span></li></ul></div></div> <div><a href="https://play.chalmers.se/media/Tandem+Seminar+%e2%80%93+Materials+for+Health/0_c67wpmkf"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Chalmers Play: Tandem Webinar – Materials for Health</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><span></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>26 March: </strong></span><span style="font-weight:700">TANDEM SEMINAR  –  MATERIALS FOR SOLAR ENERGY</span></div> <div>Materials for Solar Energy, 26 March, 2021. <span style="background-color:initial">Organizer: Chalmers Area of Advance Mater</span><span style="background-color:initial">ials Science.<br /></span>In this webinar we have two presentations dedicated to materials for solar energy conversion, specifically how we can manipulate the solar spectrum to make better use of it, will be covered. <span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><div><ul><li>Moderator: Professor Paul Erhart Condensed Matter and Materials Theory, Department of Physics, Chalmers.</li> <li>S<span style="background-color:initial">cienceDeveloping solid-state photon upconverters based on sensitized triplet–triplet annihilation, Angelo Munguzzi, Associate Professor - Università Degli Studi Milano Bicocca - Materials Science Department.​</span></li> <li>T<span style="background-color:initial">oward solid state singlet fission: Insights from studies of Diphenylisobenzofuran−Semiconductors and Pentacene-decorated gels, Maria Abrahamsson, Professor of Physical Chemistry at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology​.</span></li></ul></div></div> <div><a href="https://play.chalmers.se/media/Tandem+Seminar+%e2%80%93+Materials+for+Solar+Energy/0_r16vpsvj">Chalmers Play: Tandem Webinar – Materials for Solar Energy</a></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><div><strong style="background-color:initial">27 April:</strong><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial;font-weight:700">TANDEM SEMINAR</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><strong style="background-color:initial">– MATERIALS FOR BATTERIES</strong><br /></div></div> <div>It’s time for our third Tandem Webinar held by Chalmers Area of Advance Materials Science. </div> <div><span></span><span style="background-color:initial">In t</span><span style="background-color:initial">his</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">tandem</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">seminar we have </span>wo presentations dedicated to materials for batteries. Two hot topics will be covered, one on the use of digital twins for battery manufacturing and one on development and advanced modelling of battery electrolytes – from DFT to artificial intelligence. <br /><div><ul><li>Moderator: Professor Leif Asp, Co-Director Area of Advance Materials Science</li> <li>D<span style="background-color:initial">igital Twin of Battery Manufacturing, Alejandro A.Franco, Professeur des Universités, Université de Picardie Jules Verne, Junior Member of Institut Universitaire de France.​ </span></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span>Advanced Modelling of Battery Electrolytes – From DFT to Artificial Intelligence, Patrik Johansson, Professor, Material Physic, Department of physics, Chalmers University of Technology.</li></ul></div> <strong>Chalmers Play </strong><a href="https://play.chalmers.se/media/Tandem+seminar%E2%80%93+Materials+for+batteries/0_4txfkqw8"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Tandem Webinar <span style="background-color:initial">– Materials for batteries</span></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><b>4 May:  TANDEM WEBINAR – DESIGN FOR NEW SUSTAINABLE THERMOPLASTICS AND THEIR NANOCOMPOSITES</b><br /></div> <div>It’s time for our fourth Tandem Webinar held by Chalmers Area of Advance Materials Science. </div> <div>In this tandem seminar, we have two presentations dedicated to sustainable materials engineering. Two hot topics will be covered, one on the transfer of Chemistry from flask to extruder and one on the design of reactive extrusion methods for lignocellulosic nanocomposites towards large scale applications. This collaboration has been selected in 2020 by Genie Initiative at Chalmers.<br /><div><ul><li>Moderator: Professor Leif Asp, Co-director Area of Advance Materials Science</li> <li>T<span style="background-color:initial">ransfer of Chemistry from flask to extruder. Rosica Mincheva, Research assistant at Laboratory of Polymeric and Composite Materials - University of Mons. </span></li> <li>D<span style="background-color:initial">esign of reactive extrusion methods for lignocellulosic nanocomposites towards large scale applications.  Giada Lo Re, Associate Professor, Engineering Materials, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Thecnology.</span></li></ul></div> <strong>Chalmers Play:</strong> <a href="https://play.chalmers.se/media/t/0_r6e0lqq0"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Tandem Webinar – Materials for ​new sustainabkle thermoplastic and their nanocomposite</a><br /></div></div> <div><br /></div> ​​Tue, 13 Apr 2021 19:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/chair/news/Pages/Horizon-Europe-calling.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/chair/news/Pages/Horizon-Europe-calling.aspxHorizon Europe Calling!<p><b>A webinar on opportunities for AI research in the upcoming European Framework Programme.  ​</b></p><span>Come listen to an inspirational webinar about opportunities for AI research in the new European Framework Program – Horizon Europe! This webinar is hosted by CHAIR, Chalmers AI Research Centre and led by Magnus Andersson, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Finance E</span><span style="background-color:initial">xpert at IMCG International, who will introduce and walk you thorugh the largest R&amp;I programme in Horizon Europe. For example:</span><p><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></p> <p></p> <ul><li><span style="background-color:initial">When and how to enter</span></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">When it will be relevant</span></li> <li>Relevant AI calls</li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">Details on 2021 and early 2022</span></li> <li>Horizon Europe CHAIR support<span style="background-color:initial"> <br /><br /></span></li></ul> <p><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Special guest from Chalmers</strong><br />Kasper Moth Poulsen, professor of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and head of Division Applied Chemistry at Chalmers,</span><span> will be joining the webinar to present his Horizon journey, lessons learned and highlights. Kasper is coordinating Molecular Solar Thermal Energy Storage Sytems, a 4.2 M</span><span>€ Horizon 2020 project, aimed at developing and demonstrating a zero-emission solar energy storage system based on benign, all-renewable materials.</span></p> <div><span style="font-family:lato, helvetica, arial, sans-serif;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <p><strong style="background-color:initial">Save the date:</strong><span style="background-color:initial"> Monday, 3rd of May, at 13–15 CET.</span><br /></p> <div><p><strong><a href="https://ui.ungpd.com/Surveys/0034e6be-58d1-4a52-9569-13d2fb9a681b" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Link to registration</a></strong></p> <div>Zoom link will be sent out to registered participants.<br /></div> <p></p> <div><br /></div> <p><strong style="background-color:initial"><br /></strong></p> <p><strong style="background-color:initial">About the speaker</strong><br /></p> <p><strong><img src="/en/centres/chair/news/Documents/Namnlös.jpg" alt="Namnlös.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:0px;width:124px;height:174px" /></strong></p> <p><span lang="EN-US"><strong>Magnus Andersson,</strong> is co-owner and co-founder of the innovation company </span><span lang="EN-US" style="background-color:initial">IMCG – Impact Management Consulting Group. Magnus has in the past two decades worked as manager, coordinator and business development leader for 50+ large international and national R&amp;I projects and programmes within Machine Learning, Sustainable Cities, <br />Energy and Transport and mobility as well as Cities and Buildings, including the design <br />and development of three Lighthouse projects, CELSIUS, IRIS, SharingCities. <br /><br /></span></p> <p><br /></p> <p><strong style="background-color:initial">Prof. Kasper Moth Poulsen</strong><br /></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial"><strong><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/kasper-moth-poulsen.aspx">Kasper Moth-Poulsen​</a>,</strong> is a research leader in the field of nano-chemistry, energy storage materials and synthetic chemistry. His research activities focus on the development of methods to address single molecules and innovative technologies for solar thermal energy storage. The objective is to make materials from nanoparticles, nanorods and tailor made small molecules for a broad range of applications ranging from single molecule electronics to sensors and renewable energy technologies. </span></p> <p><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p><span lang="EN-US"><a href="https://imcginternational.com/">Click here to go to IMCG's website</a></span></p></div>Tue, 13 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/How-the-EU-can-reduce-its-impact-on-tropical-deforestation.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/How-the-EU-can-reduce-its-impact-on-tropical-deforestation.aspxHow the EU can reduce tropical deforestation<p><b>​​EU imports of products including palm oil, soybeans, and beef contribute significantly to deforestation in other parts of the world. In a new study, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and the University of Louvain, Belgium, evaluated over a thousand policy proposals for how the EU could reduce this impact, to assess which would have the largest potential to reduce deforestation – while also being politically feasible.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">“Unsurprisingly, there is weaker support for tougher regulations, such as import restrictions on certain goods. But our study shows that there is broad support in general, including for certain policies that have real potential to reduce imported deforestation,” says Martin Persson, Associate Professor of Physical Resource Theory at Chalmers University of Technology.​</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><a href="/en/departments/see/news/Pages/EU-consumption-plays-major-role-in-tropical-deforestation.aspx">Previous research from Chalmers University of Technology has already shown the EU's great impact in this area​</a>. More than half of tropical deforestation is linked to production of food and animal feed, such as palm oil, soybeans, wood products, cocoa and coffee – goods which the EU imports in vast quantities. The question is, what can the EU do to reduce its contribution to deforestation?</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“This issue is particularly interesting now, as this year the EU is planning to present legislative proposals for reducing deforestation caused by European consumption. The question has been discussed by the EU since 2008, but now something political is actually happening,” says Simon Bager, a doctoral student at the Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium, and lead author of the study.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The authors of the article mapped 1141 different proposals, originating from open consultations and workshops, where the EU has collected ideas from companies, interest groups and think tanks. The researchers also compiled proposals from a large number of research reports, policy briefs and other publications, where different stakeholders have put forward various policy proposals. After grouping together similar proposals, they arrived at 86 unique suggestions.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Two sugg​estions stand out</h2> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Finding proposals for measures that would have the desired effect but are also possible to implement in practice, and enjoy the necessary political support, is no easy task. But after their extensive survey, the researchers identify two policy options in particular which show promise. The first is to make importers of produce responsible for any deforestation in their supply chains, by requiring them to carry out the requisite due diligence.</span><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div>“If the importing companies’ suppliers have products that contribute to deforestation, the company may be held responsible for this. We consider such a system to be credible and possible to implement both politically and practically – there are already examples from France and England where similar systems have been implemented or are in the process thereof,” says Simon Bager.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Due diligence is also the measure which is most common in our survey, put forward by many different types of actors, and there is broad support for this proposal. However, it is important to emphasise that for such a system to have an impact on deforestation, it must be carefully designed, including which companies are affected by the requirements, and which sanctions and liability options exist.”</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The other possibility is to support multi-stakeholder forums, where companies, civil society organisations, and politicians come together to agree on possible measures for ridding a supply-chain, commodity, or area, of deforestation. There are positive examples here too, the most notable being the Amazon Soy Moratorium from 2006, when actors including Greenpeace and the World Wide Fund for Nature gathered with soy producers and exporters and agreed to end soy exports from deforested areas in the Amazon rainforest.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/EU-Mercosur-martin-Persson.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />“Examples suc<span style="background-color:initial">h as these demonstrate the effect that multi-stakeholder forums can have. And in our opinion, it is a measure that is easier to get acceptance for, because it is an opportunity for the affected parties to be directly involved in helping design the measures themselves,” says Martin Persson.</span></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Such discussions can also be adapted to the relevant areas or regions, increasing the likelihood of local support for the initiatives.</div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">A delicate ​​balance</h2> <div> </div> <div>The researchers also investigated how to deal with the trade-off between policy impacts and feasibility. An important part of this is combining different complementary measures. Trade regulations on their own, for example, risk hitting poorer producing countries harder, and should therefore be combined with targeted aid to help introduce more sustainable production methods, increasing yields without having to resort to deforestation. This would also reduce the risk of goods that are produced on deforested land simply being sold in markets other than the EU.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“If the EU now focuses on its contribution to deforestation, the effect may be that what is produced on newly deforested land is sold to other countries, while the EU gets the ‘good’ products. Therefore, our assessment is that the EU should ensure that the measures introduced are combined with those which contribute to an overall transition to sustainable land use in producing countries,” says Simon Bager.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>In conclusion, the researchers summarise three essential principles needed for new measures, if the EU is serious about reducing its impact on tropical deforestation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“First, enact measures that actually are able to bring about change. Second, use a range of measures, combining different tools and instruments to contribute to reduced deforestation. Finally, ensure the direct involvement of supply chain actors within particularly important regions, expanding and broadening the measures over time,” concludes Simon Bager.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The authors hope that the research and identified policy options can serve as inspiration for policy makers, NGOs, industries, and other stakeholders working to address the EU's deforestation footprint. With at least 86 different unique alternatives, there is a wide range of opportunities to focus on the problem – very few of these are political 'non-starters' or proposals which would have no effect on the issue.</div> <div> </div> <div>The full study, Eighty-six EU policy options for reducing imported deforestation is available open-access in the journal One Earth:</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For more information, contact:​</h3> <div> </div> <div>Martin Persson, Associate Professor, Physical Resource Theory at Chalmers University of Technology, martin.persson@chalmers.se, +46 31 772 2148</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Simon Bager, Ph.D. candidate UCLouvain and MSCA fellow COUPLED, simon.bager@uclouvain.be, +45 2721 7414</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>More detailed information regarding how the study was conducted:</span></h3></div> <div> </div> <div>To investigate the potential impact and political feasibility of the 1141 proposals, the researchers first categorised them based on who submitted the proposal, who the policy would affect, and what type of policy is proposed. Since many of the proposals were essentially the same or similar, they were then summarised, resulting in 86 unique suggestions. The majority are based on weaker measures, such as making more information and types of support available to producers, rather than statutory restrictions and regulations on imports and exports. The researchers interpret this as meaning that there is greater support for softer proposals. However, the researchers themselves consider these proposals to be less effective.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“One example is eco-labelling, where the purpose is to influence consumers to stop buying products that contribute to deforestation. The intent is good, but previous research does not support the argument that this changes consumer behaviour to such a level that production itself is affected. But if import restrictions are instead introduced on goods that are linked to deforestation, it is already known that this has direct effects,” says Martin Persson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>After evaluating the likely effects, the next step was to see which proposals could actually receive political support, and how complex and costly the formulation and implementation was likely to be. For this evaluation, methodological innovations were required.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“After categorising the 1141 proposals, we could see how many stakeholders, and of which kind, proposed a certain type of measure. If the same option was proposed by many actors, of different kinds – environmental organisations, companies, and authorities – we interpreted that as strong, broad support for the proposal,” explains Martin Persson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The last two steps in the assessment of the measures were then about how complicated and expensive it would be to realise the proposals.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“For example, commissioning a research institute to investigate, at a detailed level, what drives deforestation – that would be quite easy. But a new tax or punitive duty at EU-wide level would be very difficult and costly to successfully implement. There are some measures, which the EU can take alone, while others require cooperation with the individual member states or third countries. And there we simply rated the institutional difficulty for implementation of each proposal,” says Simon Bager.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The last aspect for assessing the political feasibility was looking at the economic impact of the proposal.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“If you influence a large impo</span><span style="background-color:initial">rt flow, that will result in major economic consequences. Directing the EU aid </span><span style="background-color:initial">budget to support less forest-intensive production, meanwhile, would have a significantly smaller financial impact. </span><span style="background-color:initial">The consequences for the economy also depend on how much of a market is affected. It is important that a will to change taxation or regulation in the area exists,&quot;</span><span style="background-color:initial"> says Martin Persson.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text: Christian Löwhagen and Joshua Worth. </em></div> <div><em>Images: Jungle: CC 0.0. Portrait: </em><em>Anna Lena Lundqvist / Chalmers</em></div>Mon, 29 Mar 2021 10:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/researchinfrastructure/oso/news/Pages/EHT-magnetic-fields-M87-black-hole.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/researchinfrastructure/oso/news/Pages/EHT-magnetic-fields-M87-black-hole.aspxBlack hole's magnetic fields revealed by the Event Horizon Telescope<p><b>​​A new view of the supermassive black hole shows the centre of galaxy M 87 in polarised light. The observations with the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) reveal how energetic jets form close to the black hole, 55 million light years distant. Astronomers from Chalmers are part of the international EHT collaboration.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration, who produced the first ever image of a black hole, has revealed a new view of the massive object at the centre of the galaxy Messier 87 (M87): how it looks in polarised light. This is the first time astronomers have been able to measure polarisation, a signature of magnetic fields, this close to the edge of a black hole. The observations are key to explaining how the galaxy, located 55 million light-years away, is able to launch energetic jets from its core.</span><div><br /></div> <div>“We are now seeing the next crucial piece of evidence to understand how magnetic fields behave around black holes, and how activity in this very compact region of space can drive powerful jets that extend far beyond the galaxy,” says Monika Mościbrodzka, Coordinator of the EHT Polarimetry Working Group and Assistant Professor at Radboud University in the Netherlands.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>On 10 April 2019, scientists released the first ever image of a black hole, revealing a bright ring-like structure with a dark central region — the black hole’s shadow. Since then, the EHT collaboration has delved deeper into the data on the supermassive object at the heart of the M87 galaxy collected in 2017. They have discovered that a significant fraction of the light around the M87 black hole is polarised.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“This work is a major milestone: the polarisation of light carries information that allows us to better understand the physics behind the image we saw in April 2019, which was not possible before,” explains Iván Martí-Vidal, also Coordinator of the EHT Polarimetry Working Group and GenT Distinguished Researcher at the University of Valencia, Spain. He adds that “unveiling this new polarised-light image required years of work due to the complex techniques involved in obtaining and analysing the data.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Light becomes polarised when it goes through certain filters, like the lenses of polarised sunglasses, or when it is emitted in hot regions of space where magnetic fields are present. In the same way that polarised sunglasses help us see better by reducing reflections and glare from bright surfaces, astronomers can sharpen their view of the region around the black hole by looking at how the light originating from it is polarised. Specifically, polarisation allows astronomers to map the magnetic field lines present at the inner edge of the black hole. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The newly published polarised images are key to understanding how the magnetic field allows the black hole to 'eat' matter and launch powerful jets,” says EHT collaboration member Andrew Chael, a NASA Hubble Fellow at the Princeton Center for Theoretical Science and the Princeton Gravity Initiative in the US.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/eso2105b_72dpi_340x227.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /></div> <div>The bright jets of energy and matter that emerge from M87’s core and extend at least 5000 light-years from its centre are one of the galaxy’s most mysterious and energetic features. Most matter lying close to the edge of a black hole falls in. However, some of the surrounding particles escape moments before capture and are blown far out into space in the form of jets. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Astronomers have relied on different models of how matter behaves near the black hole to better understand this process. But they still don’t know exactly how jets larger than the galaxy are launched from its central region, which is comparable in size to the Solar System, nor how exactly matter falls into the black hole. With the new EHT image of the black hole and its shadow in polarised light, astronomers managed for the first time to look into the region just outside the black hole where this interplay between matter flowing in and being ejected out is happening. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The observations provide new information about the structure of the magnetic fields just outside the black hole. The team found that only theoretical models featuring strongly magnetised gas can explain what they are seeing at the event horizon. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The observations suggest that the magnetic fields at the black hole’s edge are strong enough to push back on the hot gas and help it resist gravity’s pull. Only the gas that slips through the field can spiral inwards to the event horizon,” explains Jason Dexter, Assistant Professor at the University of Colorado Boulder, US, and Coordinator of the EHT Theory Working Group. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>To observe the heart of the M87 galaxy, the collaboration linked eight telescopes around the world – including the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) and APEX (Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment) in northern Chile – to create a virtual Earth-sized telescope, the EHT. The impressive resolution obtained with the EHT is equivalent to that needed to measure the length of a credit card on the surface of the Moon.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“With ALMA and APEX, which through their southern location enhance the image quality by adding geographical spread to the EHT network, European scientists were able to play a central role in the research,” says Ciska Kemper, European ALMA Programme Scientist at ESO. “With its 66 antennas, ALMA dominates the overall signal collection in polarised light, while APEX has been essential for the calibration of the image.”</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/eso2105d_72dpi_340x340.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;ALMA data were also crucial to calibrate, image and interpret the EHT observations, providing tight constraints on the theoretical models that explain how matter behaves near the black hole event horizon,&quot; adds Ciriaco Goddi, a scientist at Radboud University and Leiden Observatory, the Netherlands, who led an accompanying study that relied only on ALMA observations.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The EHT setup allowed the team to directly observe the black hole shadow and the ring of light around it, with the new polarised-light image clearly showing that the ring is magnetised. The results are published today in two separate papers <span style="background-color:initial">by the EHT collaboration </span><span style="background-color:initial">in </span><span style="background-color:initial">Astrophysical Journal Letters</span><span style="background-color:initial">. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The research involved over 300 researchers from multiple organisations and universities worldwide. </span></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Chalmers scientists Michael Lindqvist and John Conway, <span style="background-color:initial">both at</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">Onsala Space Observatory and the Department of Space, Earth and Environment, </span><span style="background-color:initial">represent Sweden in the EHT collaboration. </span><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div> &quot;In Onsala we have participated <span style="background-color:initial">since the 1960s </span><span style="background-color:initial">in the development of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI),</span><span style="background-color:initial"> the technique used in the EHT. </span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">Onsala Space Observatory</span><span style="background-color:initial"> is one of three partners in APEX, one of the telescopes in the EHT network, and we have worked for many years with our partners building up capacity for VLBI at APEX&quot;, says Michael Lindqvist.</span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The Swedish contribution to this research has been significant&quot;, says Iván Martí-Vidal, who worked at Onsala Space Observatory until 2018. “The observatory in Onsala has also been responisble for calibrating ALMA data, and its role as a partner in the APEX telescope has been critical for being able to calculate and correct for the instrumental polarisation in ALMA.&quot; </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Detailed knowledge of these aspects is of great importance for the conclusions about the supermassive black hole that have now been presented.</div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>More information</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>This research is presented in two papers by the EHT collaboration published on 24 March 2021 in Astrophysical Journal Letters: &quot;First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results VII: Polarization of the Ring&quot; (doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/abe71d) and &quot;First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results VIII: Magnetic Field Structure Near The Event Horizon&quot; (doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/abe4de). Accompanying research is presented in the paper &quot;Polarimetric properties of Event Horizon Telescope targets from ALMA&quot; (doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/abee6a) by Goddi, Martí-Vidal, Messias, and the EHT collaboration, which has been accepted for publication in ​​Astrophysical Journal Letters.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://www.eso.org/public/sweden/news/eso2105/">See ESO's press release for links to the science papers and more background information</a><span style="background-color:initial">.</span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><div><span style="font-weight:700">Contacts</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Robert Cumming, communications officer, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers, +46 70-493 31 14, robert.cumming@chalmers.se</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Michael Lindqvist, astronomer, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers, michael.lindqvist@chalmers.se</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em><strong>Images</strong></em></div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div><span></span><a href="https://www.eso.org/public/sweden/news/eso2105/"><em>See ESO's press release for high-resolution images</em></a><span style="background-color:initial"><em>.</em></span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><i>A (överst) - <span style="background-color:initial"></span></i><span style="background-color:initial"><i>A view of the M87 supermassive black hole in polarised light. </i></span><span style="background-color:initial"><i>The lines mark the orientation of polarisation, which is related to the magnetic field around the shadow of the black hole.</i></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><i>Bild: EHT-samarbetet</i></span></div> <div><i><br /></i></div> <div><i>B - Composite image showing </i><span style="background-color:initial"><i>M 87's supermassive black hole and jet, as seen in polarized light. Images from different radio telescopes show the jet's polarisation at different scales. Top: ALMA observations taken at the same time as the EHT observations. In the middle are measurements with the VLBA in the USA. The EHT observations are shown at the bottom of the image.</i></span></div> <div><i>Bild: <span style="background-color:initial">EHT Collaboration; ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), Goddi et al.; VLBA (NRAO), Kravchenko et al.; J. C. Algaba, I. Martí-Vidal</span></i></div> <div><i><br /></i></div> <div><i>C: Jetstrålen i M 87 i polariserat ljus uppmätt av ALMA. </i></div> <div><i>Bild: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), Goddi et al.</i><br /></div></div> <div><i><br /></i></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div>Wed, 24 Mar 2021 15:00:00 +0100