News: Space, Earth and Environment, Rymd- och geovetenskap, Energi och miljö related to Chalmers University of TechnologyThu, 15 Apr 2021 12:22:09 +0200;s space journey: from interstellar clouds to habitable planets<p><b>​An international team of astronomers, among them scientists from Chalmers, has published a comprehensive survey of water’s journey through space. Using data from the Herschel Space Observatory, they have shown that life&#39;s most important molecule can thrive in all new-born solar systems - not just ours.</b></p><div>Only ten years ago, it was not known how and where water is formed in space, and how it eventually ends up on a planet like Earth. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Now, an international research team has put together everything scientists know about water in interstellar clouds, and the origin of water on newborn, potentially habitable, planets. The article, published in the journal Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics, is based on observations with the Herschel Space Observatory. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial">Space telescopes</strong><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span></span><div><span style="background-color:initial">Seeing water in space </span>is a challenge for astronomers. Even the best ground-based telescopes are affected by water vapour in our own atmosphere.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><span style="background-color:initial">Following an early pioneering effort by </span><a href="/sv/institutioner/see/nyheter/Sidor/Satelliten-Odin-firar-20-ar-i-rymden.aspx" style="outline:0px">the Swedish science satellite Odin​</a><span style="background-color:initial">, the Herschel Space Observatory was launched in 2009 by the European Space Agency, ESA.</span><br /></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>During its four-year mission, Herschel had as one of its main objectives to investigate water in space. Of particular importance was the instrument HIFI, which was built under Dutch leadership with important contributions from Sweden, and in particular from Chalmers.</div></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">In the new study, Ewine van Dishoeck and her colleagues have been able to study how water molecules follow each part of the process that leads to the birth of new stars and planets.</span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><strong>Starts with Ice</strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The new study shows that </span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">most of the water is formed as ice on tiny dust particles in cold and tenuous interstellar clouds.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>When a cloud collapses into new stars and planets, this water is largely preserved and quickly anchored into pebble-sized dust particles. In the rotating disk around the young star, these pebbles then form the building blocks for new planets.<br /></div> <div><br /></div></span></div> <div> <div>&quot;Water is mostly transported as ice from large interstellar clouds to these disks. The ice seems not to melt or break up on the way in. We can't say yet exactly how much water there is in these disks, but it's enough to form oceans on Earth-like planets&quot;, says Per Bjerkeli, astronomer at Chalmers.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Earth's water has also migrated here in this way, the researchers believe. <span style="background-color:initial">Furthermore, they have calculated that most new solar systems are born with enough water to fill several thousand oceans. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;It's fascinating to realise that when you drink a glass of water, most of those molecules were made more than 4.5 billion years ago in the cloud from which our sun and the planets formed&quot;, says Ewine Van Dishoeck.</span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/Rho_Ophiuchi_star-forming_region_72dpi_340x340.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">For water molecules, the road from interstellar clouds to the drinking glass is complex, the scientists show. Previous studies with the Herschel Space Observatory showed how </span><span style="background-color:initial">hot water vapour seen and copiously produced near forming stars is lost to space in powerful outflows.</span><span style="background-color:initial"> Now, the researchers have also been able to trace both cold water vapor and ice deposits in these star systems, among other things by examining weak signals from heavy water (where the molecule H<sub>2</sub>0 contains one or two atoms of heavy hydrogen, or deuterium).</span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Many mysteries remain concerning water's path to the planets which new and future telescopes will have to address. NASA/ESA's James Webb telescope, which will be launched later this year, as well as the radio telescope ALMA in Chile and the future radio telescope SKA all have roles to play. The instrument </span><span style="background-color:initial">MIRI</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">on board the James Webb Telescope </span><span style="background-color:initial">will be able to detect warm water vapour in the innermost zones of dust disks.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">– </span><span style="background-color:initial">Herschel has already shown that planet-forming disks are rich in water ice. With MIRI we can now follow that trail into the regions where Earth-like planets are formed, says </span><span style="background-color:initial">Michiel Hogerheijde, astronomer at Leiden University and the University of Amsterdam.</span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Press release in English from NOVA: <a href="" style="outline:0px"></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>More about the research and the Herschel Space Observatory </strong></div> <strong> </strong><div><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial">Herschel was a space telescope of the European Space Agency (ESA) built in cooperation with NASA. Its HIFI and PACS instruments were used for the water research. HIFI was designed and built by a consortium of institutes and university departments across Europe, Canada, and the United States under the leadership of SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, the Netherlands, with major contributions from Germany, France, and the USA. The PACS instrument was developed by a consortium of institutes and universities across Europe led by the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany. Chalmers scientists played an active role in the scientific planning for Herschel, and were involved in several projects using data from the telescope.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​<br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/Water_trail-credit-ESA-ALMA-NASA-LE-Kristensen_72dpi_340x254.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The results are </span><span style="background-color:initial">published in a paper by Ewine F. van Dishoeck et al., <em>Water in star-forming regions: Physics and chemistry from clouds to disks as probed by Herschel spectroscopy, </em>in the journal Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics. Link to the paper: </span><a href="">​</a><span style="background-color:initial"> (see also </span><a href=""></a><span style="background-color:initial">).</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><div>Ewine van Dishoeck led the water research programme WISH (<a href="">Water in Star-forming regions with Herschel</a>). ​The team consists of 50 astronomers, among them Chalmers scientists Per Bjerkeli, René Liseau och Magnus Persson, and Bengt Larsson (Stockholm University).</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Images</em></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <em> </em><div><div><em>A (top) - The path of water molecules from vast interstellar clouds to potentially habitable planets has been traced in the star-forming region Rho Ophiuchi, 440 light years distant in the constellation Ophiuchus. This wide-angle image from Herschel, taken in light with a wavelength between 70 and 250 micrometers with the telescope's camera PACS, is 4 degrees wide (equivalent to eight full moons). In the brightest part of the image (above right) lies the young star VLA 1623, subject of detailed observations of water with the instrument HIFI.</em></div> <em> </em><div><em>Image: ESA / Herschel / NASA / JPL-Caltech, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO; Acknowledgment: R. Hurt (JPL-Caltech)</em></div> <em> </em><div><a href="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/750x340/Rho_Ophiuchi_star-forming_region_H2O_300dpi_full.jpg"><em>Download high resolution image (with molecules)</em></a><em> or </em><a href=""><em>see the original image at ESA</em></a></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <em> </em><div><em>B - The </em><span style="background-color:initial"><em>star-forming region </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Rho Ophiuchi, 440 light</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>years</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>distant </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>in the constellation</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Ophiuchus</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>. This wide-angle image from</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Herschel,</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>taken in light with a wavelength between 70 and 250 micrometers with the telesco</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>pe'</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>s camera</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>PACS, is 4 degrees wide (equivalent to eight full moons). In the brightest part</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>of the image</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>(above right) lies</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> the young star VLA 1623,</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>subject of</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>detailed observations</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>of water with the instrument HIFI.</em></span></div> <em> </em><div><em>Image: ESA / Herschel / NASA / JPL-Caltech, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO; Acknowledgment: R. Hurt (JPL-Caltech)</em></div> <em> </em><div><a href="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/750x340/Rho_Ophiuchi_star-forming_region_300dpi_full.jpg"><em>Download high resolution image (without molecules)</em></a><em> or </em><a href=""><em>view in original version at ESA</em></a></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <em> </em><div><em>C - This illustration shows the </em><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Journey of water from interstellar clouds to habitable worlds. From top left to bottom right: water in a cold interstellar cloud, near a young, forming star with an outflow, in a protoplanetary disc, in a comet and in the oceans of an exoplanet. The first three stages show the spectrum of water vapour measured by the HIFI instrument on the Herschel space observatory. The signals from the cold interstellar cloud and from the protoplanetary disk have been exaggerated in this image by a factor of 100 compared to those from the young, forming star in the centre.​</em></span></div> <em> </em><div><em>Image: ESA / ALMA / NASA / L. E. Kristensen</em></div></div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div><div><strong>Contacts</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Robert Cumming, communications officer, Onsala Space Observatory, +46 70 493 31 14,</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Per Bjerkeli, astronomer, Department of Space, Earth and Environment, +46 31 772 64 30,</div></div> <div><br /></div></span></div>Wed, 14 Apr 2021 15:00:00 +0200​This spring&#39;s tandem seminars<p><b>Here are Area of Advance Materials Science new exciting seminars all connected to the challenges of the future. Due to the pandemic, we hold most seminars online via zoom.  We will present the autumn and winter seminars on this page in the end of the summer.  If you miss a seminar, you will have the opportunity to see it afterwards. You find the link to the recording on this page.</b></p><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>UPCOMMING SEMINARS</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>:</strong></span><div><span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700">2</span></span><span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700">7 April:</span> <a href="/sv/styrkeomraden/material/kalendarium/Sidor/Tandem-Webinar-Materials-for-batteries.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Tandem Webinar – Materials for batteries</a></span><br /></div> <div>It’s time for our third Tandem Webinar held by Chalmers Area of Advance Materials Science. </div> <div>When: 27 April 2021, at noon (12 am). Place: Online. </div> <div>We will have two presentations dedicated to materials for batteries. Two hot topics will be covered, one on the use of digital twins for battery manufacturing and one on development and advanced modelling of battery electrolytes – from DFT to artificial intelligence. </div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">To login and participate, click on the following link: </span></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Password: 018200</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial;font-weight:700">4 May:</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><a href="/sv/styrkeomraden/material/kalendarium/Sidor/Tandem-Webinar--Design-for-new-sustainable-thermoplastics-and-their-nanocomposites.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Tandem Webinar – Design for new sustainable thermoplastics and their nanocomposites</a><br /></div> <div>It’s time for our fourth Tandem Webinar held by Chalmers Area of Advance Materials Science. </div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">When: 4 May 2021, at 11 am. Place: Online.</span></div> <div>In this tandem seminar, we will have two presentations dedicated to sustainable materials engineering. Two hot topics will be covered, one on the transfer of Chemistry from flask to extruder and one on the design of reactive extrusion methods for lignocellulosic nanocomposites towards large scale applications. This collaboration has been selected in 2020 by Genie Initiative at Chalmers.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700">T</span></span><span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700">he webinar is held on the platform zoom.</span> To login and participate, click on the following link: </span><br /></div> <div><a href=""></a></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Password: 913556</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700;background-color:initial">Wat</span><span style="font-weight:700;background-color:initial">ch the seminars on Chalmers Play</span><span style="font-weight:700;background-color:initial">:</span><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">TANDEM SEMINAR  –  MATERIALS FOR SOLAR ENERGY</span></div> <div>Materials for Solar Energy, 26 March, 2021. <span style="background-color:initial">Organizer: Chalmers Area of Advance Mater</span><span></span><span style="background-color:initial">ials Science.<br /></span>In this webinar we have two presentations dedicated to materials for solar energy conversion, specifically how we can manipulate the solar spectrum to make better use of it, will be covered. <span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><a href="">Chalmers Play: Tandem Webinar – Materials for Solar Energy</a><br /><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700;background-color:initial">TANDEM SEMINAR  –  MATERIALS FOR HEALTH</span><br /><span style="background-color:initial">Materials for Health, 25 February, 2021.  Organizer: Chalmers Area of Advance Mater</span><span style="background-color:initial">ials Science.<br /></span>In this webinar we  have two presentations dedicated to materials for health.  One on the design of bioinks for 3D-printing of cell-laden constructs and one on the development of novel medical device surfaces to prevent infections.<br /></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Chalmers Play: Tandem Webinar – Materials for Health</a></div> ​Tue, 13 Apr 2021 19:00:00 +0200 Europe Calling!<p><b>A webinar on opportunities for AI research in the upcoming European Framework Programme.  ​</b></p><span>Come listen to an inspirational webinar about opportunities for AI research in the new European Framework Program – Horizon Europe! This webinar is hosted by CHAIR, Chalmers AI Research Centre and led by Magnus Andersson, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Finance E</span><span style="background-color:initial">xpert at IMCG International, who will introduce and walk you thorugh the largest R&amp;I programme in Horizon Europe. For example:</span><p><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></p> <p></p> <ul><li><span style="background-color:initial">When and how to enter</span></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">When it will be relevant</span></li> <li>Relevant AI calls</li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">Details on 2021 and early 2022</span></li> <li>Horizon Europe CHAIR support<span style="background-color:initial"> <br /><br /></span></li></ul> <p><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Special guest from Chalmers</strong><br />Kasper Moth Poulsen, professor of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and head of Division Applied Chemistry at Chalmers,</span><span> will be joining the webinar to present his Horizon journey, lessons learned and highlights. Kasper is coordinating Molecular Solar Thermal Energy Storage Sytems, a 4.2 M</span><span>€ Horizon 2020 project, aimed at developing and demonstrating a zero-emission solar energy storage system based on benign, all-renewable materials.</span></p> <div><span style="font-family:lato, helvetica, arial, sans-serif;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <p><strong style="background-color:initial">Save the date:</strong><span style="background-color:initial"> Monday, 3rd of May, at 13–15 CET.</span><br /></p> <div><p><strong><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Link to registration</a></strong></p> <div>Zoom link will be sent out to registered participants.<br /></div> <p></p> <div><br /></div> <p><strong style="background-color:initial"><br /></strong></p> <p><strong style="background-color:initial">About the speaker</strong><br /></p> <p><strong><img src="/en/centres/chair/news/Documents/Namnlös.jpg" alt="Namnlös.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:0px;width:124px;height:174px" /></strong></p> <p><span lang="EN-US"><strong>Magnus Andersson,</strong> is co-owner and co-founder of the innovation company </span><span lang="EN-US" style="background-color:initial">IMCG – Impact Management Consulting Group. Magnus has in the past two decades worked as manager, coordinator and business development leader for 50+ large international and national R&amp;I projects and programmes within Machine Learning, Sustainable Cities, <br />Energy and Transport and mobility as well as Cities and Buildings, including the design <br />and development of three Lighthouse projects, CELSIUS, IRIS, SharingCities. <br /><br /></span></p> <p><br /></p> <p><strong style="background-color:initial">Prof. Kasper Moth Poulsen</strong><br /></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial"><strong><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/kasper-moth-poulsen.aspx">Kasper Moth-Poulsen​</a>,</strong> is a research leader in the field of nano-chemistry, energy storage materials and synthetic chemistry. His research activities focus on the development of methods to address single molecules and innovative technologies for solar thermal energy storage. The objective is to make materials from nanoparticles, nanorods and tailor made small molecules for a broad range of applications ranging from single molecule electronics to sensors and renewable energy technologies. </span></p> <p><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p><span lang="EN-US"><a href="">Click here to go to IMCG's website</a></span></p></div>Tue, 13 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 the EU can reduce tropical deforestation<p><b>​​EU imports of products including palm oil, soybeans, and beef contribute significantly to deforestation in other parts of the world. In a new study, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and the University of Louvain, Belgium, evaluated over a thousand policy proposals for how the EU could reduce this impact, to assess which would have the largest potential to reduce deforestation – while also being politically feasible.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">“Unsurprisingly, there is weaker support for tougher regulations, such as import restrictions on certain goods. But our study shows that there is broad support in general, including for certain policies that have real potential to reduce imported deforestation,” says Martin Persson, Associate Professor of Physical Resource Theory at Chalmers University of Technology.​</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><a href="/en/departments/see/news/Pages/EU-consumption-plays-major-role-in-tropical-deforestation.aspx">Previous research from Chalmers University of Technology has already shown the EU's great impact in this area​</a>. More than half of tropical deforestation is linked to production of food and animal feed, such as palm oil, soybeans, wood products, cocoa and coffee – goods which the EU imports in vast quantities. The question is, what can the EU do to reduce its contribution to deforestation?</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“This issue is particularly interesting now, as this year the EU is planning to present legislative proposals for reducing deforestation caused by European consumption. The question has been discussed by the EU since 2008, but now something political is actually happening,” says Simon Bager, a doctoral student at the Université Catholique de Louvain, Belgium, and lead author of the study.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The authors of the article mapped 1141 different proposals, originating from open consultations and workshops, where the EU has collected ideas from companies, interest groups and think tanks. The researchers also compiled proposals from a large number of research reports, policy briefs and other publications, where different stakeholders have put forward various policy proposals. After grouping together similar proposals, they arrived at 86 unique suggestions.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Two sugg​estions stand out</h2> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Finding proposals for measures that would have the desired effect but are also possible to implement in practice, and enjoy the necessary political support, is no easy task. But after their extensive survey, the researchers identify two policy options in particular which show promise. The first is to make importers of produce responsible for any deforestation in their supply chains, by requiring them to carry out the requisite due diligence.</span><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div>“If the importing companies’ suppliers have products that contribute to deforestation, the company may be held responsible for this. We consider such a system to be credible and possible to implement both politically and practically – there are already examples from France and England where similar systems have been implemented or are in the process thereof,” says Simon Bager.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Due diligence is also the measure which is most common in our survey, put forward by many different types of actors, and there is broad support for this proposal. However, it is important to emphasise that for such a system to have an impact on deforestation, it must be carefully designed, including which companies are affected by the requirements, and which sanctions and liability options exist.”</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The other possibility is to support multi-stakeholder forums, where companies, civil society organisations, and politicians come together to agree on possible measures for ridding a supply-chain, commodity, or area, of deforestation. There are positive examples here too, the most notable being the Amazon Soy Moratorium from 2006, when actors including Greenpeace and the World Wide Fund for Nature gathered with soy producers and exporters and agreed to end soy exports from deforested areas in the Amazon rainforest.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/EU-Mercosur-martin-Persson.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />“Examples suc<span style="background-color:initial">h as these demonstrate the effect that multi-stakeholder forums can have. And in our opinion, it is a measure that is easier to get acceptance for, because it is an opportunity for the affected parties to be directly involved in helping design the measures themselves,” says Martin Persson.</span></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Such discussions can also be adapted to the relevant areas or regions, increasing the likelihood of local support for the initiatives.</div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">A delicate ​​balance</h2> <div> </div> <div>The researchers also investigated how to deal with the trade-off between policy impacts and feasibility. An important part of this is combining different complementary measures. Trade regulations on their own, for example, risk hitting poorer producing countries harder, and should therefore be combined with targeted aid to help introduce more sustainable production methods, increasing yields without having to resort to deforestation. This would also reduce the risk of goods that are produced on deforested land simply being sold in markets other than the EU.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“If the EU now focuses on its contribution to deforestation, the effect may be that what is produced on newly deforested land is sold to other countries, while the EU gets the ‘good’ products. Therefore, our assessment is that the EU should ensure that the measures introduced are combined with those which contribute to an overall transition to sustainable land use in producing countries,” says Simon Bager.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>In conclusion, the researchers summarise three essential principles needed for new measures, if the EU is serious about reducing its impact on tropical deforestation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“First, enact measures that actually are able to bring about change. Second, use a range of measures, combining different tools and instruments to contribute to reduced deforestation. Finally, ensure the direct involvement of supply chain actors within particularly important regions, expanding and broadening the measures over time,” concludes Simon Bager.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The authors hope that the research and identified policy options can serve as inspiration for policy makers, NGOs, industries, and other stakeholders working to address the EU's deforestation footprint. With at least 86 different unique alternatives, there is a wide range of opportunities to focus on the problem – very few of these are political 'non-starters' or proposals which would have no effect on the issue.</div> <div> </div> <div>The full study, Eighty-six EU policy options for reducing imported deforestation is available open-access in the journal One Earth:</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For more information, contact:​</h3> <div> </div> <div>Martin Persson, Associate Professor, Physical Resource Theory at Chalmers University of Technology,, +46 31 772 2148</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Simon Bager, Ph.D. candidate UCLouvain and MSCA fellow COUPLED,, +45 2721 7414</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>More detailed information regarding how the study was conducted:</span></h3></div> <div> </div> <div>To investigate the potential impact and political feasibility of the 1141 proposals, the researchers first categorised them based on who submitted the proposal, who the policy would affect, and what type of policy is proposed. Since many of the proposals were essentially the same or similar, they were then summarised, resulting in 86 unique suggestions. The majority are based on weaker measures, such as making more information and types of support available to producers, rather than statutory restrictions and regulations on imports and exports. The researchers interpret this as meaning that there is greater support for softer proposals. However, the researchers themselves consider these proposals to be less effective.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“One example is eco-labelling, where the purpose is to influence consumers to stop buying products that contribute to deforestation. The intent is good, but previous research does not support the argument that this changes consumer behaviour to such a level that production itself is affected. But if import restrictions are instead introduced on goods that are linked to deforestation, it is already known that this has direct effects,” says Martin Persson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>After evaluating the likely effects, the next step was to see which proposals could actually receive political support, and how complex and costly the formulation and implementation was likely to be. For this evaluation, methodological innovations were required.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“After categorising the 1141 proposals, we could see how many stakeholders, and of which kind, proposed a certain type of measure. If the same option was proposed by many actors, of different kinds – environmental organisations, companies, and authorities – we interpreted that as strong, broad support for the proposal,” explains Martin Persson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The last two steps in the assessment of the measures were then about how complicated and expensive it would be to realise the proposals.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“For example, commissioning a research institute to investigate, at a detailed level, what drives deforestation – that would be quite easy. But a new tax or punitive duty at EU-wide level would be very difficult and costly to successfully implement. There are some measures, which the EU can take alone, while others require cooperation with the individual member states or third countries. And there we simply rated the institutional difficulty for implementation of each proposal,” says Simon Bager.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The last aspect for assessing the political feasibility was looking at the economic impact of the proposal.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“If you influence a large impo</span><span style="background-color:initial">rt flow, that will result in major economic consequences. Directing the EU aid </span><span style="background-color:initial">budget to support less forest-intensive production, meanwhile, would have a significantly smaller financial impact. </span><span style="background-color:initial">The consequences for the economy also depend on how much of a market is affected. It is important that a will to change taxation or regulation in the area exists,&quot;</span><span style="background-color:initial"> says Martin Persson.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text: Christian Löwhagen and Joshua Worth. </em></div> <div><em>Images: Jungle: CC 0.0. Portrait: </em><em>Anna Lena Lundqvist / Chalmers</em></div>Mon, 29 Mar 2021 10:00:00 +0200 hole&#39;s magnetic fields revealed by the Event Horizon Telescope<p><b>​​A new view of the supermassive black hole shows the centre of galaxy M 87 in polarised light. The observations with the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) reveal how energetic jets form close to the black hole, 55 million light years distant. Astronomers from Chalmers are part of the international EHT collaboration.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) collaboration, who produced the first ever image of a black hole, has revealed a new view of the massive object at the centre of the galaxy Messier 87 (M87): how it looks in polarised light. This is the first time astronomers have been able to measure polarisation, a signature of magnetic fields, this close to the edge of a black hole. The observations are key to explaining how the galaxy, located 55 million light-years away, is able to launch energetic jets from its core.</span><div><br /></div> <div>“We are now seeing the next crucial piece of evidence to understand how magnetic fields behave around black holes, and how activity in this very compact region of space can drive powerful jets that extend far beyond the galaxy,” says Monika Mościbrodzka, Coordinator of the EHT Polarimetry Working Group and Assistant Professor at Radboud University in the Netherlands.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>On 10 April 2019, scientists released the first ever image of a black hole, revealing a bright ring-like structure with a dark central region — the black hole’s shadow. Since then, the EHT collaboration has delved deeper into the data on the supermassive object at the heart of the M87 galaxy collected in 2017. They have discovered that a significant fraction of the light around the M87 black hole is polarised.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“This work is a major milestone: the polarisation of light carries information that allows us to better understand the physics behind the image we saw in April 2019, which was not possible before,” explains Iván Martí-Vidal, also Coordinator of the EHT Polarimetry Working Group and GenT Distinguished Researcher at the University of Valencia, Spain. He adds that “unveiling this new polarised-light image required years of work due to the complex techniques involved in obtaining and analysing the data.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Light becomes polarised when it goes through certain filters, like the lenses of polarised sunglasses, or when it is emitted in hot regions of space where magnetic fields are present. In the same way that polarised sunglasses help us see better by reducing reflections and glare from bright surfaces, astronomers can sharpen their view of the region around the black hole by looking at how the light originating from it is polarised. Specifically, polarisation allows astronomers to map the magnetic field lines present at the inner edge of the black hole. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The newly published polarised images are key to understanding how the magnetic field allows the black hole to 'eat' matter and launch powerful jets,” says EHT collaboration member Andrew Chael, a NASA Hubble Fellow at the Princeton Center for Theoretical Science and the Princeton Gravity Initiative in the US.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/eso2105b_72dpi_340x227.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /></div> <div>The bright jets of energy and matter that emerge from M87’s core and extend at least 5000 light-years from its centre are one of the galaxy’s most mysterious and energetic features. Most matter lying close to the edge of a black hole falls in. However, some of the surrounding particles escape moments before capture and are blown far out into space in the form of jets. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Astronomers have relied on different models of how matter behaves near the black hole to better understand this process. But they still don’t know exactly how jets larger than the galaxy are launched from its central region, which is comparable in size to the Solar System, nor how exactly matter falls into the black hole. With the new EHT image of the black hole and its shadow in polarised light, astronomers managed for the first time to look into the region just outside the black hole where this interplay between matter flowing in and being ejected out is happening. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The observations provide new information about the structure of the magnetic fields just outside the black hole. The team found that only theoretical models featuring strongly magnetised gas can explain what they are seeing at the event horizon. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The observations suggest that the magnetic fields at the black hole’s edge are strong enough to push back on the hot gas and help it resist gravity’s pull. Only the gas that slips through the field can spiral inwards to the event horizon,” explains Jason Dexter, Assistant Professor at the University of Colorado Boulder, US, and Coordinator of the EHT Theory Working Group. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>To observe the heart of the M87 galaxy, the collaboration linked eight telescopes around the world – including the ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array) and APEX (Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment) in northern Chile – to create a virtual Earth-sized telescope, the EHT. The impressive resolution obtained with the EHT is equivalent to that needed to measure the length of a credit card on the surface of the Moon.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“With ALMA and APEX, which through their southern location enhance the image quality by adding geographical spread to the EHT network, European scientists were able to play a central role in the research,” says Ciska Kemper, European ALMA Programme Scientist at ESO. “With its 66 antennas, ALMA dominates the overall signal collection in polarised light, while APEX has been essential for the calibration of the image.”</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/eso2105d_72dpi_340x340.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;ALMA data were also crucial to calibrate, image and interpret the EHT observations, providing tight constraints on the theoretical models that explain how matter behaves near the black hole event horizon,&quot; adds Ciriaco Goddi, a scientist at Radboud University and Leiden Observatory, the Netherlands, who led an accompanying study that relied only on ALMA observations.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The EHT setup allowed the team to directly observe the black hole shadow and the ring of light around it, with the new polarised-light image clearly showing that the ring is magnetised. The results are published today in two separate papers <span style="background-color:initial">by the EHT collaboration </span><span style="background-color:initial">in </span><span style="background-color:initial">Astrophysical Journal Letters</span><span style="background-color:initial">. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The research involved over 300 researchers from multiple organisations and universities worldwide. </span></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Chalmers scientists Michael Lindqvist and John Conway, <span style="background-color:initial">both at</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">Onsala Space Observatory and the Department of Space, Earth and Environment, </span><span style="background-color:initial">represent Sweden in the EHT collaboration. </span><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div> &quot;In Onsala we have participated <span style="background-color:initial">since the 1960s </span><span style="background-color:initial">in the development of very long baseline interferometry (VLBI),</span><span style="background-color:initial"> the technique used in the EHT. </span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">Onsala Space Observatory</span><span style="background-color:initial"> is one of three partners in APEX, one of the telescopes in the EHT network, and we have worked for many years with our partners building up capacity for VLBI at APEX&quot;, says Michael Lindqvist.</span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The Swedish contribution to this research has been significant&quot;, says Iván Martí-Vidal, who worked at Onsala Space Observatory until 2018. “The observatory in Onsala has also been responisble for calibrating ALMA data, and its role as a partner in the APEX telescope has been critical for being able to calculate and correct for the instrumental polarisation in ALMA.&quot; </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Detailed knowledge of these aspects is of great importance for the conclusions about the supermassive black hole that have now been presented.</div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>More information</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>This research is presented in two papers by the EHT collaboration published on 24 March 2021 in Astrophysical Journal Letters: &quot;First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results VII: Polarization of the Ring&quot; (doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/abe71d) and &quot;First M87 Event Horizon Telescope Results VIII: Magnetic Field Structure Near The Event Horizon&quot; (doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/abe4de). Accompanying research is presented in the paper &quot;Polarimetric properties of Event Horizon Telescope targets from ALMA&quot; (doi: 10.3847/2041-8213/abee6a) by Goddi, Martí-Vidal, Messias, and the EHT collaboration, which has been accepted for publication in ​​Astrophysical Journal Letters.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="">See ESO's press release for links to the science papers and more background information</a><span style="background-color:initial">.</span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><div><span style="font-weight:700">Contacts</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Robert Cumming, communications officer, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers, +46 70-493 31 14,</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Michael Lindqvist, astronomer, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers,</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em><strong>Images</strong></em></div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div><span></span><a href=""><em>See ESO's press release for high-resolution images</em></a><span style="background-color:initial"><em>.</em></span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><i>A (överst) - <span style="background-color:initial"></span></i><span style="background-color:initial"><i>A view of the M87 supermassive black hole in polarised light. </i></span><span style="background-color:initial"><i>The lines mark the orientation of polarisation, which is related to the magnetic field around the shadow of the black hole.</i></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><i>Bild: EHT-samarbetet</i></span></div> <div><i><br /></i></div> <div><i>B - Composite image showing </i><span style="background-color:initial"><i>M 87's supermassive black hole and jet, as seen in polarized light. Images from different radio telescopes show the jet's polarisation at different scales. Top: ALMA observations taken at the same time as the EHT observations. In the middle are measurements with the VLBA in the USA. The EHT observations are shown at the bottom of the image.</i></span></div> <div><i>Bild: <span style="background-color:initial">EHT Collaboration; ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), Goddi et al.; VLBA (NRAO), Kravchenko et al.; J. C. Algaba, I. Martí-Vidal</span></i></div> <div><i><br /></i></div> <div><i>C: Jetstrålen i M 87 i polariserat ljus uppmätt av ALMA. </i></div> <div><i>Bild: ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), Goddi et al.</i><br /></div></div> <div><i><br /></i></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div>Wed, 24 Mar 2021 15:00:00 +0100 are one thing – values another<p><b>In the climate debate you can often hear the argument that ‘science requires us to cut emissions’. But that argument is problematic,” says Christian Azar, Professor of Energy and Environment at Chalmers University of Technology. In a filmed keynote presentation at the Act Sustainable Research Conference he questions the &quot;science-demands&quot; rhetoric in a discussion about the relationship between science and politics.</b></p><div><strong>Christian Azar, why is it problematic or even wrong to claim that “the science requires” various actions. </strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">– Science is essentially a method of finding out what the world is like. But what we should do about the various problems humanity faces is a different matter. Science alone cannot give you the answers to that. To find out what we should do about, for example, environmental degradation, we don’t just need knowledge about the problem but also values, and science cannot tell us what those values should be. In essence we can’t say that science requires us to do this or that. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span>This difference between facts and values, between what is and what we ought to do, is something we humans have been aware of for centuries. The philosopher David Hume stated already back in the 18th century that we cannot derive an ‘ought’ from an ‘is’. Time after time many people fall back on the idea that science can tell us what we ought to do. It’s a wrong and unfortunate idea. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>But politicians are not experts on the climate, energy technologies, human behaviour, policy instruments and so on, nor can we expect them to be. Shouldn’t the experts decide when the issues are so complex? That’s why we have experts. </strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span>Yes, but it’s matter of exercising care. What’s needed is some sort of balance. Experts have to determine how to operate an electrical power grid or a nuclear power plant, and I would obviously rather be operated on by a surgeon than a politician. But when it comes to how much money should be invested in healthcare, the environment or schools, we can’t let experts decide that since these are interests that compete with one another, and it’s a matter of what we value most. These issues are quite central to both the climate issue and the pandemic (where a similar discussion about pitting experts and politicians against one another has emerged). How different goals should be valued against one another is ultimately a political question. We can’t get away from that. </div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong>Why is this important?</strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">I think there are two reasons for that. </span><span style="background-color:initial">Firstly, it’s a matter of trust. If researchers say that “the science requires” something when that’s not correct, then there’s a risk that we undermine people's trust in science. I believe that that is something we should be careful about because many powerful actors are already trying to feed that mistrust – for instance politicians like Donald Trump – but for completely different reasons. We should simply be careful not to give them legitimate cause for complaint.</span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span>Secondly, it’s a matter of democracy. If some experts were to decide what we should do in key issues for our society, then we’d be giving up democracy to some extent. This is particularly important in matters such as the climate issue since this is an issue we’ll need to wrestle with for decades to come – and where some actors – scientists, policy makers and environmental movements alike – argue that people have to change large parts or their entire way of life to solve the climate challenge. However, in order to be able to implement major changes over an extended period, it’s necessary for them to have democratic legitimacy. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What does this mean for the discussion on <a href="">planetary boundaries​</a> – a key concept in the sustainability debate? They are often presented as boundaries set by science for how much impact we can have on the planet. Researchers such as Johan Rockström, who has been a driving force in the development of these boundaries, say that they are “non-negotiable”. </strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span>I think that such formulations are very unfortunate. The goals formulated in their articles may be produced by researchers, but they are also subjective and something reasonable people may disagree about. The more of various pollutants we emit the greater the damage to nature, but the precise level of damage we should accept is a matter of values and not something that science can determine as being correct or not. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">The same applies to risks. There’s a great deal of uncertainty in the climate system, for example. Let’s assume that we believe that extremely serious damage would arise if the temperature were to rise by two degrees, but we are not certain. The damage could also arise below or above two degrees. What level should we then aim for? We’d like to have a certain safety margin against really dire consequences. But how great should that margin be? It depends on how much risk we want to take and that has to do with our values. It’s not something science can determine for us. </span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span>Finally, I’d also like to stress that I don’t think that there is anything wrong with researchers taking part in the public debate. We researchers are also citizens. I also think it’s reasonable for researchers to be involved and suggest targets for various environmental problems – the issues are so complex that experts are needed in the process and it can’t just be left to politics. So there needs to be an interaction between experts in specific areas and politicians – it’s entirely unavoidable. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span>The problem comes when researchers (and others) try to make it appear that their proposals are pure science when they are not. Instead, they should acknowledge that the proposed goals are also based on their values and ethical aspects – and that these values can, of course, also be discussed and questioned. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In addition to the filmed presentation, you can also read <a href="">Azar’s article about the boundary between politics and science in the newspaper Dagens Nyheter</a> (only available in Swedish though).</div>Wed, 10 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 prize awarded to energy researcher<p><b>​Filip Johnsson, Professor of Sustainable Energy Systems at Chalmers, is the recipient of the Åforsk Foundation&#39;s prestigious Knowledge Award for 2021. The prize money is SEK 100,000, with candidate prize winners being nominated by the rectors of universities and colleges.​</b></p>​The Åforsk Foundation awards the prize each year to a researcher who has conducted outstanding dissemination of knowledge. The 2021 award goes to Filip Johnsson at the Department Space, Earth and Environment. Filip is one of Sweden's most prominent researchers in the field of sustainable energy systems.​<div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>Congratulations on being awarded this prize! How does it feel?</strong></div> <div>&quot;I was very happy and surprised when I got the phone call that I had received the award. It is of course a great honor, and it reflects the fact that the research group that I have built up together with my talented colleagues produces relevant results&quot;.</div> <div> </div> <div>The motivation for the award states, among other things, that you are very active as a committed disseminator of knowledge outside the academic sphere. This is exemplified, among other things, by the countless interviews that you gave given to newspapers and on radio and television, your strong participation in the public discussion forum, and a number of debate articles that have appeared in the daily press. <em>&quot;Filip does not shy away from the big issues and his multifaceted work is permeated by knowledge as a means of contributing to sustainable societal development.&quot;</em></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Why is it important to get involved in the public debate?</strong></div> <div>&quot;My research is concerned with studying how the current energy system can be switched to a more sustainable system. In this arena, many exciting things are happening right now, even though there remain great challenges and different views as to what should be done. Hopefully, a commitment to the public debate can contribute to the debate becoming more objective and the avoidance of “non-fact-based” polarization of opinions&quot;, says Filip Johnsson.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Here is Åforsk's motivation for the 2021 winners:</strong></div> <div>&quot;Professor Filip Johnsson, who is active at the Department of Space, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Energy Technology at Chalmers University of Technology, is awarded the 2021 Knowledge Prize by the ÅForsk Foundation. Filip Johnsson is one of Sweden's most prominent researchers in the field of sustainable energy systems, and is very active as a committed disseminator of knowledge outside the academic sphere. This is exemplified, among other things, by countless interviews in newspapers, radio and television, participation with great commitment in the public discussion, and a number of debate articles in the daily press. Filip does not shy away from the big issues and his multifaceted work is permeated by knowledge as a means of contributing to sustainable societal development. ”</div> <div> </div> <div>Information about previous prize winners can be found on the foundation's website: <a href="">​</a></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>About the prize</strong></div> <div>Every year since 1995, the Åforsk Foundation has awarded a prize for outstanding contributions to the dissemination of knowledge from universities and colleges. The disseminators of one's own knowledge, as well as messages about the importance of research have previously been awarded prizes. The prize of SEK 100,000 is personal.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>About</strong> <strong>ÅForsk</strong></div> <div>Since its inception in 1985, ÅForsk has had the purpose of working for research and development as its main areas. The foundation is the largest shareholder in the listed company ÅF Pöyry AB (AFRY). The grants that are distributed come from share dividends from the company. The board consists of members from the founders - King. The Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences, IVA, Skogsindustrierna, Energiföretagen Sverige, and ÅF Pöyry AB (AFRY).</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>By: Ann-Christine Nordin​</div> <div><br /></div>Fri, 05 Mar 2021 01:00:00 +0100 for ICT seed projects 2022<p><b>Call for proposals within ICT strategic areas and involving interdisciplinary approaches.​</b></p><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Important dates:</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li><b>Submission date: </b>April 29, 2021</li> <li><b>Notification:</b> mid-June, 2021</li> <li><b>Expected start of the project:</b> January 2022</li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Background</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><b>The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Area of Advance</b> (AoA) provides financial support for SEED projects, i.e., projects involving innovative ideas that can be a starting point for further collaborative research and joint funding applications. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>We will prioritize research projects that <strong>involve researchers from different research communities</strong> (for example across ICT departments or between ICT and other Areas of Advances) and who have not worked together before (i.e., have no joint projects/publications). </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Research projects involving a <strong>gender-balanced team and younger researchers</strong>, e.g., assistant professors, will be prioritized. Additionally, proposals related to <strong>sustainability</strong> and the UN Sustainable Development Goals are encouraged.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><b><em>Note: </em></b><em>Only researchers employed at Chalmers can apply and can be funded. PhD students cannot be supported by this call.  Applicants and co-applicants of research proposals funded in the 2020 and 2021 ICT SEED calls cannot apply. </em></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><b>The total budget of the call is 1 MSEK.</b> We expect to fund 3-5 projects</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Details of the call</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li>The project should include at least two researchers from different divisions at Chalmers (preferably two different departments) and who should have complementary expertise, and no joint projects/publications.</li> <li>Proposals involving teams with good gender balance and involving assistant professors will be prioritized.</li> <li>The project should contribute to sustainable development. </li> <li>The budget must be between 100 kSEK and 300 kSEK, including indirect costs (OH). The budget is mainly to cover personnel costs for Chalmers employees (but not PhD students). The budget cannot cover costs for equipment or travel costs to conferences/research visits. </li> <li>The project must start in early 2022 and should last 3-6 months. </li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">What must the application contain?</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The application should be at most 3 pages long, font Times–roman, size 11. In addition, max 1 page can be used for references. Finally, an additional one-page CV of each one of the applicants must be included (max 4 CVs). Proposals that do not comply with this format will be desk rejected (no review process).</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The proposal should include:</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>a)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>project title </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>b)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>name, e-mail, and affiliation (department, division) of the applicants</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>c)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the research challenges addressed and the objective of the project; interdisciplinary aspects should be highlighted; also the applicant should discuss how the project contributes to sustainable development, preferably in relation to the <a href="" title="link to UN webpage">UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)</a>. Try to be specific and list the targets within each Goal that are addressed by your project.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>d)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the project description </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>e)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the expected outcome (including dissemination plan) and the plan for further research and funding acquisition</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>f)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the project participants and the planned efforts</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>g)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the project budget and activity timeline
</div> <div><div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Evaluation Criteria</h3> <div><ul><li>Team composition</li> <li>Interdisciplinarity</li> <li>Novelty</li> <li>Relevance to AoA ICT and Chalmers research strategy as well as to SDG</li> <li>Dissemination plan</li> <li>Potential for further research and joint funding applications</li> <li>Budget and project feasibility​</li></ul></div></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Submission</span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The application should be submitted as one PDF document to</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><span lang="EN-GB"><a href=""></a></span></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><br /></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The proposals will be evaluated by the AoA ICT management group and selected Chalmers researchers.

</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><b><br /></b></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><b>Questions</b> can be addressed to <a href="">Erik Ström</a> or <a href="">Giuseppe Durisi​</a> </span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">General information about the ICT Area of Advance can be found at <a href="/en/areas-of-advance/ict/Pages/default.aspx"> ​</a></span><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Information%20and%20Communication%20Technology/About%20us/IKT_logo_600px.jpg" alt="" /><span style="background-color:initial">​​<br /></span></div>Mon, 01 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 space music from rotating molecules<p><b>Light frequencies of rotating molecules have been used to create music, interpreting a star forming region in space. The music is created by German music student Vera Matenaar, collaborating with Chalmers astronomer Hannah Calcutt, among others.</b></p><div>This work has been led by Vera Matenaar, a student in Innovative Music Technologies at TRIAGON Academy in Germany, in an effort to translating sounds of the molecular universe into music. She has used data from the research project PILS - Protostellar Interferometric Line survey, which is mapping light frequencies from more than a 100 different molecules, observed by the Alma telescope in Chile. <span style="background-color:initial">The musical experiment has involved several astronomers, among them Chalmers astronomer </span><span style="background-color:initial">Hannah Calcutt, currently at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Poland.</span><br /></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">– The motions of these molecules can be expressed using their measured frequencies, which is convenient because musical tones can also be expressed as frequencies. For example, orchestras tend to tune to a ‘concert A’, which can be expressed as a frequency of 440 Hz. We could therefore draw a parallel, and translate these rotating molecule frequencies into audible tones, explains Vera Matenaar.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">The duration of the recording of the frequency spectrum (14 hours) provided the musical structure of 14 bars. Subsequently the identified tones are played within the frame of 14 bars and in the order they actually occur based on the measurement of the molecules. <br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Profilbilder/Hannah_Calcutt_170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Through her supervisor, Vera came into contact with several astronomers, including Hannah Calcutt, an astrophysicist working with the PILS project. </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US" style="background-color:initial">– I’m a musician myself as well as an astronomer, so I have thought in the past that this combination of interests could lead to something. Unfortunately, I’ve never had the time to explore this idea at all. So when I was contacted, I thought this would be a very cool project to be involved in, says Hannah Calcutt, </span><span style="background-color:initial">working at Chalmers at the time of her involvement in the project, but currently an adjunct professor at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Poland: </span><br /></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Hannah, do you think that arts and science collaborations like this one have a role to play?</strong></span></p> <strong> </strong><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">– We’re in an age right now where a lot of people are distrusting science, and I think this kind of project is important because it allows people to connect with science in a different way.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">– When I was at school, I was taught that art and science are two very different pathways. However, I find that having a creative side is very important for scientists to be able to communicate new ideas clearly. Sometimes displaying a beautiful image or using some other kind of medium to clearly represent your science can be a really important thing to get people excited and to encourage discussions about what you’re doing, says Hannah Calcutt.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><a href="">Read more about the project on the European Southern Observatory’s website​​</a>, which the text above is based on. </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="background-color:initial">This is not the first time that observations from Alma have been used in a music project. The spiral nebula around the star R Sculptoris, which was studied by Matthias Maercker and colleagues, was immortalized in the <a href="">musical artwork ALMA Music Box​</a>.  </span><br /></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Image credits.</em></span></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><span style="background-color:initial"><em>The Rho Ophiuchi star forming region, located in the constellation of Ophiuchus. </em></span></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Credit: ESO/Digitized Sky Survey 2</em></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><em>One of the ALMA array’s high-precision antennas, seen underneath the reddish glow of the Carina Nebula — a star forming region in the constellation of Carina.</em></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="background-color:initial"></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><em>Credit: ESO/B. Tafreshi</em></p></div>Fri, 26 Feb 2021 12:00:00 +0100 final event for Help A Scientist<p><b>​​In the Star Hunt project, 1,400 school students have helped researchers at Chalmers University of Technology to gather new knowledge about how stars are born. On 12 February, the project ended with a digital event where the students&#39; great scientific results were presented - and where they got to meet Nobel Laureate Reinhard Genzel and Swedish astronaut Christer Fuglesang.</b></p><div><div>The Star Hunt is the tenth edition of Help A Scientist, an annual project where the Nobel Prize Museum connects school classes around the country with researchers at Swedish universities. The students who participated in the Star Hunt have analyzed details in infrared images from space and marked where there may be dust and particles that are about to form new stars. This has been a great help to the Chalmers astronomers , who can spend more time investigating what the dust clouds contain to increase knowledge about how stars are formed.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The three participating astronomers from Chalmers' department of Space, Earth and Environment - Jonathan Tan, Giuliana Cosentino and Rubén Fedriani are all happy with the results and their participation in the project:</div> <div><div>​<br />– I was very impressed by the amount of results we got back from the students. They performed a very meticulous work and was committed during the whole project, says Giuliana Cosentino, Chalmers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– I had great expectations for the project, but the level of commitment shown by the students really exceeded them. The interest shown during the school virtual visits, the questions that the students felt comfortable to ask us directly via email, all this gave me a sense of appreciation for my and my colleagues’ work that is by far the greatest results and reward, says Giuliana Cosentino.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Dark streaks and bright bubbles</h3> <div>The students was given access to a tool called World Wide Telescope, and asked to perform two different tasks. In the first part they were mapping dark streaks, or filaments, and bright structures, &quot;bubbles&quot;, in molecular clouds in different star forming regions. The dark filaments are the birth place of many stars and the idea was to answer how and where these filaments arise, and how the bright bubbles are affecting them. </div> <div>The students mapped 6 000 filaments and 200 bubbles, and contributed greatly to the understanding of these phenomenon. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the second task the students were asked to map the stars surrounding massive stars, to test theories about how the massive stars are formed - on their own or if they are influenced by surrounding stars. All in all, 140 000 stars were mapped by the students in the excercise! And the accuracy of their star maps proved to be greater than the previous computerized attempts. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The astronomers will now follow up, analyze and work on the results, and the plan is to showcase the results in at least one coming research paper. </div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Important to work with school students​</h3> <div><div>– Our research group has a long-standing interest in involving relatively early stage students in research. For example, for the last several years we have been running summer undergraduate research projects at Chalmers. As a result of this work, we were informed about the possibility to work with school students via the Nobel Prize Museum Help a Scientist program - it seemed like an unique and fun opportunity - so we applied, says Jonathan Tan, Chalmers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– These students are important to work with, since this is an age when they can be making choices about their future careers. We want to give them some experience of scientific research and hope that some will follow such a career path, says Jonathan Tan.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The students also sent in 160 poster, describing their results. Among them Jonathan, Giuliana and Rubén chose a winning team from class 8B in Carlssons skola, Stockholm, who will get to come to Chalmers and Onsala Space Observatory, meet the researchers and learn more about their work. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– I will definitely remember most the interaction with the students. With their passion, curiosity, and fresh ideas, I was motivated to perform my best for them. I will also remember the stimulating teachers that did a great job and the Nobel Prize Museum Staff that worked behind the scenes to run everything smoothly, says Rubén Fedriani, Chalmers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– I have learnt many things from this project. Not only from the scientific point of view but also from the pedagogical one. The students have taught me that every single detail is of great importance and that a single sentence can inspire one to pursue a career in astronomy, says Rubén Fedriani, Chalmers.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Christian Löwhagen. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="">Watch the final event of the Star Hunt</a>. (The link will make the Youtube video start at the 37 minute mark, when the students' results are presented by Jonathan, Giuliana och Rubén). <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="">Read more about the Help a Scientist programme​</a>. </div>Mon, 15 Feb 2021 14:00:00 +0100 birth of a new global observatory<p><b>​A new, global intergovernmental organization in radio astronomy has been founded. The SKA Observatory (SKAO) will build and operate the world&#39;s largest and most complex radio telescopes to answer big questions about the universe. Chalmers leads Sweden&#39;s participation in the project.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The new observatory, SKAO, was launched on 4 February 2021 when the first meeting of its governing Council was held. The observatory is the world’s second intergovernmental organisation dedicated to astronomy. </span><div>Catherine Cesarsky has been appointed as the first Chair of the SKAO Council.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“This is a historic moment for radio astronomy”, she said. “Behind today’s milestone, there are countries that had the vision to get deeply involved because they saw the wider benefits their participation in SKAO could bring to build an ecosystem of science and technology involving fundamental research, computing, engineering, and skills for the next generation, which are essential in a 21st century digital economy.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The new observatory has its headquarters at on the grounds of the Jodrell Bank UNESCO World Heritage Site in the United Kingdom, with telescopes located at sites in Australia and South Africa.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>SKAO’s telescope in South Africa will be composed of 197 dish antennas, each 15 m in diameter, located in the Karoo region. Of these, 64 already exist and are operated by the South African Radio Astronomy Observatory (SARAO). The telescope in Australia will be composed of 131 072 two-metre-tall antennas located on the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation’s (CSIRO) Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The creation of SKAO follows a decade of detailed engineering design work, scientific prioritisation, and policy development under the supervision of its predecessor the SKA Organisation, supported by more than 500 engineers, over 1,000 scientists and dozens of policy-makers in more than 20 countries; and is the result of 30 years of thinking and research and development since discussions first took place about developing a next-generation radio telescope.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Philip Diamond, professor at the University of Manchester, has been appointed as the first Director-General of SKAO.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Today marks the birth of a new observatory,” he said. “And not just any observatory – this is one of the mega-science facilities of the 21st century. It is the culmination of many years of work and I wish to congratulate everyone in the SKA community and in our partner governments and institutions who have worked so hard to make this happen. For our community, this is about participating in one of the great scientific adventures of the coming decades. It is about skills, technology, innovation, industrial return, and spin offs but fundamentally it is about a wonderful scientific journey that we are now embarking on.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Lars Börjesson, professor of physics at Chalmers, is Sweden’s representative as an observer to the SKAO Council.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The establishment of the SKA Observatory is a major event for the field of radio astronomy, and a decisive organisational step towards the construction of the SKA telescope”, he said. “We’ve reached this milestone thanks to a huge amount of work in a truly global network, involving the world’s leading radio astronomy institutes and observatories. Together, across international borders, we have combined expertise and enthusiasm to develop the SKA’s science goals, its technical design and organisational structure, and this is something we can be really proud of. For Sweden, funding has now been secured for participation in the construction phase, and the formal process for membership in the SKA Observatory has been initiated.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The first SKAO Council meeting follows the signature of the SKA treaty, formally known as the convention establishing the SKA Observatory, on 12 March 2019 in Rome, and its subsequent ratification by Australia, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa and the United Kingdom and entry into force on 15 January 2021, marking the official birth date of the observatory.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The council is composed of representatives from the Observatory’s Member States, as well as observer countries aspiring to join SKAO. Sweden is one of several observer countries that took part in the design phase of the SKA, along with Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Spain and Switzerland. These countries’ future accession to SKAO is expected in the coming weeks and months, once their national processes have been completed. Representatives of national bodies in Japan and South Korea complement the select list of observers in the SKAO Council.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At its first meeting, the SKAO Council approved policies and procedures that have been prepared in recent months – covering governance, funding, programmatic and HR matters, among others. These approvals are required to transfer staff and assets from the SKA Organisation to the observatory.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The coming months will keep us very busy, with hopefully new countries formalising their accession to SKAO and the expected key decision of the SKAO Council giving us green light to start the construction of the telescopes,” added Prof. Diamond.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>SKAO will begin recruitment in Australia and South Africa in the next few months, working alongside local partners CSIRO and SARAO to supervise construction, which is expected to last eight years, with early science opportunities starting in the mid 2020s. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>About the SKA Observatory</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>SKAO, formally known as the SKA Observatory, is a global collaboration of member states to build and operate cutting-edge radio telescopes to answer fundamental questions about our universe. Headquartered in the UK, its first two telescopes, the two largest and most complex radio telescope networks ever built, will be constructed in Australia and South Africa. A later expansion is envisioned in both countries and other African partner countries. SKAO’s telescopes will conduct transformational science and, together with other state-of-the-art research facilities, address gaps in our understanding of the universe including the formation and evolution of galaxies, fundamental physics in extreme environments and the origins of life. Through the development of innovative technologies and its contribution to addressing global societal challenges, SKAO will play its part to address the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals and deliver significant non-science impact across its membership and beyond. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Current SKAO Members are Australia, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa and the United Kingdom with several other countries, among them Sweden, aspiring to membership or engagement with SKAO in the future.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>About Onsala Space Observatory and Sweden’s role in the SKA project</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Onsala Space Observatory is Sweden's national facility for radio astronomy. The observatory provides researchers with equipment for the study of the earth and the rest of the universe. In Onsala, 45 km south of Gothenburg, it operates four radio telescopes and a station in the international telescope Lofar. The SKA is one of several international projects that the observatory participates in. The observatory is hosted by the Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers University of Technology, and is operated on behalf of the Swedish Research Council.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Between 2012 and 2021, Onsala Space Observatory represented Sweden as a member country of the SKA Organization. Chalmers and Onsala Space Observatory have been working on the development of the SKA since its inception. Scientists in Sweden have worked both in preparing the SKA's scientific programme, and developing the technical components and systems that the telescopes need to be able to make new discoveries. Sweden has contributed with the development and prototypes of receivers for SKA's dish antennas, for example unique low-noise amplifiers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>With the support of Big Science Sweden, Chalmers and Onsala Space Observatory engaged companies in the SKA at an early stage, particularly in areas where Sweden is strong (e.g. radio and microwave engineering, ICT and signal processing), developing close collaborations with several universities and institutes. Thanks to both technical development work and cooperation with other research organizations involved in SKA's development, Sweden has been able to lead the completion and delivery of two important systems for SKA’s telescope in South Africa (about 200 receivers for the frequency band 350 - 1050 MHz, low noise amplifiers for several frequency bands and digitising systems for faint signals). In this work, Sweden works together with colleagues in Canada, France, India, Spain and South Africa.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Contacts</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Robert Cumming, communicator, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers, tel: +46 31-772 5500 or +46 70 493 3114,</div> <div>John Conway, professor and director, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers, +46 31-772 5500,</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Images</em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>A (top) - </em><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Composite image of the SKA combining all elements in South Africa and Australia. This image blends photos of real hardware already on the ground on both sites with artist's impressions of the future SKA antennas. From left: artist's impression of the future SKA dishes blend into the existing precursor MeerKAT telescope dishes in South Africa. From right: artist's impression of the future SKA-Low stations blends into the existing AAVS2.0 prototype station in Western Australia.</em></span></div> <div><em>Credit: SKA Organisation</em></div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div><div><span style="background-color:initial"><i>Mer information och material finns på <a href=""></a> och <a href=""></a></i></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="">Read this release at the SKAO​</a></span></div> <div><i style="background-color:initial"><a href="">SKAO Prospectus</a></i><br /></div> <div><i><a href="">SKAO Media Kit</a></i></div> <div><i><a href="">About Catherine Cesarsky</a></i></div> <div><i><a href="">About Philip Diamond</a></i></div> <em></em></div> <div><br /></div> ​Fri, 05 Feb 2021 17:00:00 +0100 exoplanets challenge theories on planet formation<p><b>Astronomers have revealed a system consisting of six exoplanets, five of which are locked in a rare rhythm around their central star. The researchers believe the system could provide important clues about how planets, including those in the Solar System, form and evolve.</b></p><p>The Swedish research contribution in this study has been significant, with the participation of, among others, Malcolm Fridlund and Carina Persson at Chalmers University of Technology.<br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span></p> <p><br /></p> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><div>The first time the team observed TOI-178, a star some 200 light-years away in the constellation of Sculptor, they thought they had spotted two planets going around it in the same orbit. However, a closer look revealed something entirely different. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– Through further observations we realised that there were not two planets orbiting the star at roughly the same distance from it, but rather multiple planets in a very special configuration, says Adrien Leleu from the Université de Genève and the University of Bern, Switzerland, who led a new study of the system published today in Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The new research has revealed that the system boasts six exoplanets and that all but the one closest to the star are locked in a rhythmic dance as they move in their orbits. In other words, they are in resonance. This means that there are patterns that repeat themselves as the planets go around the star, with some planets aligning every few orbits. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The five outer exoplanets of the TOI-178 system follow a complex chain of resonance, one of the longest yet discovered in a system of planets. The five outer planets in the TOI-178 system follow a 18:9:6:4:3 chain: while the second planet from the star (the first in the resonance chain) completes 18 orbits, the third planet from the star (second in the chain) completes 9 orbits, and so on. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The six exoplanets found are very close to the star, with orbital periods ranging from 2 to 21 days, which is closer than the the star's so called habitable zone. But the researchers suggest that, by continuing the resonance chain, they might find additional planets that could exist in or very close to this zone. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– For a planet to be in the habitable zone where liquid water can be found on the surface, the orbital period in this system must be at least 40 days. The fact that the planets around TOI-178 have orbits so extremely close to their star means that any water on their surfaces would boil away, even though the star is cooler than our Sun, says Carina Persson, at the department of Space, Earth and Environment.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><span style="background-color:initial">Read the full press release from ESO, European Southern Observatory: </span><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="">Puzzling six-exoplanet system with rhythmic movement challenges theories of how planets form</a>.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The study is published in the article: </span><a href=""><div style="display:inline !important"><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;</span><span style="background-color:initial">Six transiting planets and a chain of Laplace resonances in</span></div></a></div> <div><a href=""><span style="background-color:initial">TOI-178&quot;</span><span style="background-color:initial">, in Astronomy and Astrophysics</span></a><span style="background-color:initial">. </span></div></div></span></div>Wed, 27 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0100 collisions: Hubble shows 6 galaxy mergers<p><b>​To celebrate a new year, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has published a montage of six beautiful galaxy mergers. Each of these merging systems was studied as part of the recent HiPEEC survey to investigate the rate of new star formation within such systems. These interactions are a key aspect of galaxy evolution and are among the most spectacular events in the lifetime of a galaxy.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">It is during rare merging events that galaxies undergo dramatic changes in their appearance and in their stellar content. These systems are excellent laboratories to trace the formation of star clusters under extreme physical conditions.</span><div><br /></div> <div>The Milky Way typically forms star clusters with masses that are 10 thousand times the mass of our Sun. This doesn’t compare to the masses of the star clusters forming in colliding galaxies, which can reach millions of times the mass of our Sun.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>These dense stellar systems are also very luminous. Even after the collision, when the resulting galactic system begins to fade into a more quiescent phase, these very massive star clusters will shine throughout their host galaxy, as long-lasting witnesses of past merging events.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>By studying the six galaxy mergers shown here, the Hubble imaging Probe of Extreme Environments and Clusters (HiPEEC) survey has investigated how star clusters are affected during collisions by the rapid changes that drastically increase the rate at which new stars are formed in these galaxies. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>– For me the most interesting result was that the two minor merger <span style="background-color:initial">systems (i.e., the collision between one massive galaxy and a less </span><span style="background-color:initial">massive galaxy) in the study have by far the highest cluster formation </span><span style="background-color:initial">efficiencies, says Sabine König, one of two Chalmers astronomers involved in the study. </span></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>– So the conditions in these two galaxies support that more of the stellar mass in a galaxy is located in stellar clusters, than what can be observed in the other, major mergers of the study (collisions between two galaxies with equal masses). <span style="background-color:initial">One reason for the difference between the cluster formation efficiencies in this study could be that for the two minor mergers we have found that the stellar clusters are not located where the molecular gas is found, </span><span style="background-color:initial">as one would normally expect it to be</span><span style="background-color:initial">.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><div>–That's why I find it particularly important to not only study major <span style="background-color:initial">galaxy mergers and their importance for how galaxies and the Universe </span><span style="background-color:initial">evolve, but indeed the minor mergers as well, which occur much more </span><span style="background-color:initial">often than the major mergers, says Sabine König.</span></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Hubble’s capabilities have made it possible to resolve large star-forming “knots” into numerous compact young star clusters. Hubble’s ultraviolet and near-infrared observations of these systems have been used to derive star cluster ages, masses, and extinctions and to analyse the star formation rate within these six merging galaxies. The HiPEEC study reveals that the star cluster populations undergo large and rapid variations in their properties, with the most massive clusters formed towards the end of the merger phase.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Each of the merging systems shown here has been previously published  by Hubble.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The text is based on a <a href="">press release from ESA/NASA: When Galaxies Collide: Hubble Showcases 6 Beautiful Galaxy Mergers​</a>, edited by Christian Löwhagen.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More information</h3> <div><a href="">The Hubble Space Telescope​</a> is a project of international cooperation between NASA<span style="background-color:initial">, National Aeronautics and Space Administration</span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"> and ESA</span><span style="background-color:initial">, the European Space Agency. </span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The HiPEEC survey was led by Angela Adamo, Stockholm University. Susanne Aalto and Sabine König, Chalmers Univsersity of Technology, the Department of Space, Earth and Environment were part of the inter<span style="background-color:initial">national team of astronomers in this study</span><span style="background-color:initial">.​ </span></div> Fri, 15 Jan 2021 07:00:00 +0100 something constructive of the report&#39;s message<p><b>​The pandemic may offer a rare opportunity for countries to transition to a new and more sustainable world, when recovery packages are to be distributed. This is stated by researchers in a new report, which also shows that current emission levels of carbon dioxide are incompatible with the climate targets of 1.5 to 2 degrees temperature increase. Filip Johnsson, professor of sustainable energy systems at Chalmers University of Technology, has read the report and comments on it here.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">It has been five years since the Paris Agreement was concluded. The planned extraction of fossil fuels in the world will make the agreement’s global warming goals impossible to meet. A special report, <a href="">The Production Gap​</a>, was launched in December 2020. Researchers from several research institutes together with the UN's environmental program examined how much fossil fuels are planned to be used by 2030 and compared their use with the fossil-fuel reduction required to limit global warming according to climate goals. The gap has grown since last year.<br /><br /></span><div><img src="/sv/styrkeomraden/energi/nyheter/PublishingImages/filipj.jpg" alt="Filip Johnsson" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />“The report shows a far too large gap between how much the world's fossil fuel use would need to be reduced and different countries' plans to utilize their fossil fuels. In many cases, plans are being made for the expansion of fossil fuel use, and in many cases fossil fuels are being subsidized. It is important to remember that there are many countries, unlike countries such as Sweden, which have large domestic reserves of fossil fuels and they tend to use their resources. We pointed out that challenge a couple of years ago in Dagens Nyheter: <a href="">No reduction in fossil energy despite a major investment in renewables​</a>”, says Filip Johnsson.<br /><br /></div> <div>“The positive thing is that many companies have started to communicate that they intend to become climate neutral at a certain year and that this should include all emissions resulting from their products, including emissions in connection with the extraction of materials and inputs, emissions of production and emissions caused by using the product”, says Filip Johnsson, who hopes that many politicians, business leaders and actors in the financial market will embrace the message in the report.<br /><br /></div> <div><div><strong>The pandemic has been going on for a while</strong>. Is it even possible to change course and meet climate targets now when many industries are fighting for their survival and the government is forced to present crisis package after crisis package?</div> <div>“I think there is a will among many politicians. But much of the measures and the support that has been decided on so far are to eliminate short-term effects on redundancies and unemployment, and then the capacity to act to influence is not so great. But now time has come to plan for a change”.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>What do you think is the best thing about the report?</strong></div> <div>“That it shows in black and white that it is urgent to change the development. Not least to find ways for the EU and Sweden to establish so-called border adjustments so that carbon intensive products imported from fossil-rich countries are subject to the same carbon dioxide tax as we will have within the EU. There are many indications that it would accelerate the phasing out of fossil fuels in countries such as China and other countries, from which we import much of our consumer goods. It must be “out of fashion” with fossil fuels”.</div></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Who should read the report?</strong></div> <div>“It is more like the opposite, who shouldn’t read it? However, it is important not to become too pessimistic and instead start doing something constructive of the report's message”, Filip Johnsson concludes.<br /><br />By: Ann-Christine Nordin</div> <div><br /></div> Wed, 23 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100 million for research on a sustainable energy system<p><b>​Mistra, the Swedish foundation for strategic environmental research has decided to grant the program proposal Mistra Electric Transition with Energiforsk and Chalmers University of Technology as the main applicant for the call &quot;Energy transitions - a systems perspective&quot;. The program’s vision is to accelerate a fair and competitive transition to a sustainable and efficient energy system.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Mistra Electric Transition has three primary goals:<br /><br /></span><div><ul><li><span style="text-indent:-18pt;background-color:initial">To describe technically feasible and cost-effective solutions that lead to a fossil-free energy system, with a special focus on electrification and to connect different sectors.</span></li> <li>To analyze how fossil-free technologies and infrastructures can implement at the pace required to achieve Sweden's emissions targets.</li> <li>To show how the energy transition can support a positive socio-economic development. The program is allocated a maximum of SEK 50 million over four years</li></ul> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“Mistra Electric Transition can make a real difference to accelerate the ongoing positive transformation of the Swedish energy system. We are very happy and proud that Mistra gives us the confidence to implement the program together with a fantastic team. The issues we will work with are at the absolute forefront of the field, and through close collaboration between researchers and companies, we hope that the results will have a direct impact and application”, says Markus Wråke, CEO of Energiforsk, which will be the program host.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“I am very much looking forward to working with the program. Together with the Swedish energy industry and Energiforsk, I believe that we will show the great potential in connecting the energy sector and other industries, and also provide support for how the transition can be carried out in the best way”, says Filip Johnsson, professor of sustainable energy systems at Chalmers, who led the work of drafting the program proposal.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">The programme's objectives involve technical, as well as social and economic methods and aspects, to increase the possibilities for an energy system in line with Sweden's climate goal of net zero emissions by 2045. Technical results and conclusions will be balanced together with political and social feasibility.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“In the current call, we received many exciting ideas and high-quality proposals. The program that is now being funded focuses on the possibilities of electrification and the interaction between different sectors. Technically feasible and cost-effective development paths are in focus, as is the connection to social and political opportunities. The program is characterized by an innovative methodological approach and a strong focus on societal benefits, fair adjustment and industrial competitiveness. All these parts will be needed in the transition to a fossil-free welfare society”, says Linda Bell, Mistra's program manager.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"> </span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><b>Special studies in the transport and industrial sectors</b></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Instead of focusing on electricity, heating, transport and industry separately, the approach is electrification and sector connections. However, Mistra Electric Transition will in particular study the transport and industrial sectors, the connections between them and their relationship to the electricity system, in order to increase the understanding of how each sector can contribute to a change. Case studies with the companies involved and other stakeholders will be an important part of the results' application.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">“There are a number of research initiatives in the energy field and our approach at Mistra has been to address the complexity of the system as a whole, with an environmental strategic and long-term perspective. Our programs work transdisciplinary and intersectoral, leading to innovative approaches and solutions. Now that many regions and countries have set goals and roadmaps to achieve fossil freedom, there is a great demand for research and innovation that contributes with knowledge and concrete solutions along the way”, says Linda Bell.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><b>FACTS:<br /> </b><span lang="EN-US">Energiforsk will host the program and the work will be carried out in an interdisciplinary consortium together with Chalmers, IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, University of Exeter, Lund University and the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU. <b></b></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Svenska Kraftnät, Stockholm Exergi, Fortum, Nordion Energi, Göteborg Energi, Vattenfall, Hitachi-ABB, Egain and Utilifeed, as well as other stakeholders also participate in the program.</span></p> </div>Mon, 14 Dec 2020 07:00:00 +0100