News: Fysik related to Chalmers University of TechnologyThu, 21 Jun 2018 09:17:44 +0200 summer course with focus on nuclear safety<p><b></b></p><div>Since last year, Chalmers University of Technology is coordinating the research and innovation project Cortex to improve nuclear power safety. On 18-21 June 2018, about 30 young researchers from Europe, the US and Asia took part in a summer course at Chalmers, organised by <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Christophe-Demazière.aspx">Professor Christophe Demazière </a>. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The topic was reactor dynamics with a focus on nuclear safety. About half of the participants were on-site, at the Department of Physics at Chalmers. The other participants took part in the activities via distance education, thanks to a multimedia room at the department. In addition, an innovative pedagogical format relying on flipped classrooms and adapted to both the on-site and off-site audiences was used throughout the course.</div> <br /><div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Chalmers-gets-5,1-M€-to-improve-nuclear-safety.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read the news article &quot;Chalmers gets 5,1 MSEK to improve nuclear safety&quot;.</a>  <br /></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more about the project at Cortex webpage. <br /></a></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Follow Cortex on LinkedIn.</a><br /><a href=""></a></div>Thu, 21 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200 alloys could be possible, thanks to ground-breaking research<p><b>Many current and future technologies require alloys that can withstand high temperatures​ without corroding. Now, researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have hailed a major breakthrough in understanding how alloys behave at high temperatures, pointing the way to significant improvements in many technologies. The results are published in the highly ranked journal Nature Materials.​</b></p><div style="font-size:14px"><div><span>Developing alloys that can withst​and high temperatures without corroding is a key challenge for many fields, such as renewable and sustainable energy technologies like concentrated solar power and solid oxide fuel cells, as well as aviation, materials processing and petrochemistry. </span></div> <span> </span><div><span><br /></span> </div> <span> </span><div><span>At high temperatures, alloys can react violently with their environment, quickly causing the materials to fail by corrosion. To protect against this, all high temperature alloys are designed to form a protective oxide scale, usually consisting of aluminium oxide or chromium oxide. This oxide scale plays a decisive role in preventing the metals from corroding. Therefore, research on high temperature corrosion is very focused on these oxide scales – how they are formed, how they perform at high heat, and how they sometimes fail.</span></div> <span> </span><div><span>The article in Nature Materials answers two classical issues in the area. One applies to the very small additives of so-called ‘reactive elements’ – often yttrium and zirconium – found in all high-temperature alloys. The second issue is about the role of water vapour.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:10.66px"> </span></div></div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/TItan%20Microscope.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="font-size:10.66px"><span style="background-color:window"> <span style="font-size:14px">“Adding reactive elements to alloys results in a huge improvement in performance – but no one has been able to provide robust experimental proof why,” says Nooshin Mortazavi, materials researcher at Chalmers’ Department of Physics, and first author of the study. “Likewise, the role of water, which is always present in high-temperature environments, in the form of steam, has been little understood. Our paper will help solve these enigmas”. </span></span></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:10.66px"><span style="background-color:window"><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></span></span> </div> <span style="font-size:14px"> </span><span style="font-size:14px"></span><div style="font-size:14px"><span>In this paper, the Chalmers researchers show how these two elements are linked. They demonstrate how the reactive elements in the alloy promote the growth of an aluminium oxide scale. The presence of these reactive element particles causes the oxide scale to grow inward, rather than outward, thereby facilitating the transport of water from the environment, towards the alloy substrate. Reactive elements and water combine to create a fast-growing, nanocrystalline, oxide scale. </span></div> <div style="font-size:14px"><span><br /></span> </div> <span style="font-size:14px"> </span><div style="font-size:14px"><span>“This paper challenges several accepted ‘truths’ in the science of high temperature corrosion and opens up exciting new avenues of research and alloy development,” says Lars Gunnar Johansson, Professor of Inorganic Chemistry at Chalmers, Director of the Competence Centre for High Temperature Corrosion (HTC) and co-author of the paper. </span></div> <div style="font-size:14px"><span><br /></span> </div> <span style="font-size:14px"> </span><div style="font-size:14px"><span>“Everyone in the industry has been waiting for this discovery. This is a paradigm shift in the field of high-temperature oxidation,” says Nooshin Mortazavi. “We are now establishing new principles for understanding the degradation mechanisms in this class of materials at very high temperatures.” </span></div> <div style="font-size:14px"><span><br /></span> </div> <span style="font-size:14px"> </span><div style="font-size:14px"><span>Further to their discoveries, the Chalmers researchers suggest a practical method for creating more resistant alloys. They demonstrate that there exists a critical size for the reactive element particles. Above a certain size, reactive element particles cause cracks in the oxide scale, that provide an easy route for corrosive gases to react with the alloy substrate, causing rapid corrosion. This means that a better, more protective oxide scale can be achieved by controlling the size distribution of the reactive element particles in the alloy.</span></div> <span style="font-size:14px"> </span><div style="font-size:14px"><span>This ground-breaking research from Chalmers University of Technology points the way to stronger, safer, more resistant alloys in the future. </span></div> <div><br /> </div> <div>Text: Joshua Worth and Johanna Wilde</div> <div>Image: Johan Bodell</div> <div>Caption (the image in the text above): Nooshin Mortazavi and the Titan TEM microscope, which was used to investigate the nanocrystalline oxide forming on high-temperature alloys.  ​​<br /></div> <div><br /> </div> <a href=""></a><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><div style="display:inline !important"><a href="">Read the scientific paper <span style="background-color:initial"><em>Interplay of water and reactive eleme</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>nts in oxidation of alumina-forming alloys</em> </span></a><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="">in Nature Materials.</a></span></div> <div><div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release from Chalmers University of Technology and download high-resolution images. ​</a></div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">More about: Potential consequences of the research breakthrough</h4> <div>High temperature alloys are used in a variety of areas, and are essential to many technologies which underpin our civilisation. They are crucial for both new and traditional renewable energy technologies, such as &quot;green&quot; electricity from biomass, biomass gasification, bio-energy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS), concentrated solar energy, and solid oxide fuel cells. They are also crucial in many other important technology areas such as jet engines, petrochemistry and materials processing.</div> <div>All these industries and technologies are entirely dependent on materials that can withstand high temperatures – 600 ° C and beyond – without failing due to corrosion. There is a constant demand for materials with improved heat resistance, both for developing new high temperature technologies, and for enhancing the process efficiency of existing ones. </div> <div>For example, if the turbine blades in an aircraft's jet engines could withstand higher temperatures, the engine could operate more efficiently, resulting in fuel-savings for the aviation industry. Or, if you can produce steam pipes with better high-temperature capability, biomass-fired power plants could generate more power per kilogram of fuel. </div> <div>Corrosion is one of the key obstacles to material development within these areas. The Chalmers researchers' article provides new tools for researchers and industry to develop alloys that withstand higher temperatures without quickly corroding. </div> <div><br /> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">More About: The Research</h4> <div>The Chalmers researchers’ explanation of how oxide scale growth occurs – which has been developed using several complementary methods for experimentation and quantum chemistry modelling – is completely new to both the research community, and the industry in the field of high-temperature materials.</div> <div>The research was carried out by the High Temperature Corrosion Center (HTC) ( in a collaboration between the Departments of Chemistry and Physics at Chalmers, together with the world leading materials manufacturer Kanthal, part of the Sandvik group. HTC is jointly funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, 21 member-companies and Chalmers. </div> <div>The paper was published in the highly prestigious journal <a href="">Nature Materials​</a>. </div> <div>​<br /></div> <div style="display:inline !important"><span style="background-color:initial"><a href=""></a></span> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/Nooshin%20WEB.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br />Nooshin Mortazavi is a postdoctoral researcher in the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. <a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Materials-scientists-wins-two-prestigious-fellowships-------.aspx">She was recently awarded prestigious fellowships by the Wenner-Gren Foundation and the Wallenberg Foundation. ​</a><span style="background-color:initial">She can now choose between two or three years of postdoctoral training at either Harvard University or at Stanford University in the US – followed by two years at Chalmers Univ</span><span style="background-color:initial">​ersity. </span></div> <div><br /> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">For more information: </h4> <div><div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Nooshin-Mortazavi-Seyedeh.aspx">Nooshin Mortazavi​</a>, Postdoctoral researcher, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, , +46 73 387 32 26, +46 31 772 67 83, <span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/lg.aspx">Lars-Gunnar Johansson</a>, Professor, Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 772 28 72, <span style="background-color:initial">,​</span></div> </div></div>Tue, 19 Jun 2018 07:00:00 +0200!.aspx!.aspxClean water for the win!<p><b></b></p><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/atiumresidenset270x170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />A patented innovation to detect and selectively remove heavy metals, such as mercury, from water has attracted a great deal of attention lately. Now, Chalmers Assistant Professor <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Björn-Wickman.aspx">Björn Wickman</a> and his colleagues at the startup<a href=""> Atium</a> have won another prestigious award. On Friday 15 June 2018 they received the SKAPA award at the residency of the County Governor of Västra Götaland. The prize was distributed by the County Governor Anders Danielsson and the County Jury Chairman Andreas Albertsson, who also works as a business developer at GU Ventures.</div> <div><br /></div> The award is one of the country's finest innovation prizes, awarded every year since 1986. The regional winners also qualify for the national finals in Stockholm on 8 November. <br /><br /><div><a href="">Atium will also represent western Sweden in the National finals of Venture Cup​</a> in September. Last year Björn Wickman and the team - Emma Ericson, Johan Björkquist and Cristian Tunsu - also made it to the idea competition Swedish Venture Cup Top 20. The innovation has also been awarded by Almi företagspartner Väst and WaterCampus Business Challenge.</div> <br />Atium’s concept is based on Björn Wickman's research at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.<br /><br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release about the SKAPA award (in Swedish).</a><br />​Mon, 18 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200 for international workshop on detection of dark matter<p><b></b></p><div>Dark matter is one of the great mysteries of the universe. For every star, galaxy and dust cloud we can see in space, there are five times more invisible, so-called dark matter. On 11-15 June 2018, there was a workshop on dark matter at Chalmers University of Technology. The conference was the first of its kind in Gothenburg and the event attracted about 50 international experts in the field – both experimentalists and theorists.</div> <div><br />&quot;The detection of dark matter may come at any moment in the coming years. We must be prepared to interpret a discovery with optimal strategies, in order to learn as much as possible about dark matter,” says Riccardo Catena, assistant professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers and the organiser of the event.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Unveiling-the-nature-of-dark-matter.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about dark matter. </a><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/calendar/Pages/Workshop-on-dark-matter.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the workshop at Chalmers 11-15 June 2018. </a></div> <div><br /></div> <div></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Unveiling-the-nature-of-dark-matter.aspx"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/darkmatterute750x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /></a>The workshop attracted <span style="background-color:initial">about 50 international experts in the field – both experimentalists and theorists.</span></div> <div>Image: Mia Halleröd Palmgren</div>Sun, 17 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200 master of light elected to the Young Academy of Sweden<p><b>​Chalmers physicist Philippe Tassin is elected member of the Young Academy of Sweden. He is an Associate Professor at the Department of Physics and one of eight prominent researchers who will join the academy for five years.​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">In the Young Academy of Sweden, just over thirty selected young researchers collaborate on issues related to research policy and outreach. The Academy is an independent platform providing young researchers with a strong voice in the science policy debate and promoting science and research to young adults and children.</span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;I'm really looking forward to working with researchers from across the country and collaborating with researchers from a wide spectrum of scientific disciplines. As a member of the Young Academy of Sweden, I want to further my commitment to a number of research policy issues and popular science activities,&quot; said Philippe Tassin, the only physicist to be elected.</span><br /></div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5"><span>Studying how light can be controlled</span></h5></div> <div>Philippe Tassin’s research group is active in nanophotonics, a subfield of physics studying how light can be controlled and manipulated with electromagnetic structured materials. Light and electromagnetic waves are of paramount importance to our modern society, for the internet, smartphones, TV screens, etc. But further progress of optics technology is limited by the availability of natural optical materials.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">To circumvent the limitations of natural materials, Tassin and his co-workers study and design man-made structured materials that can manipulate electromagnetic waves—from microwaves, over terahertz waves, to visible light—in ways that are impossible with natural materials. This is achieved by using small electric circuits instead of atoms as the basic constituents for the interaction of electromagnetic waves with matter. Electromagnetic structured materials have the potential to create devices that can exert precise and advanced control over light.</span><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Researcher, teacher and clarinettist</h5> <div>Philippe Tassin’s research has attracted attention around the world and he himself has worked in Belgium, Greece, and the USA before joining Chalmers in 2013. Along with his research, he teaches electromagnetism, optics, quantum mechanics, and computer science at Chalmers. Music being a great interest to him, he also likes to play the clarinet whenever he has the time.</div> <div>As a member of the Young Academy of Sweden, he can take his interest in science and education policy and in science popularization to a new level.  <br /></div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;I would like to work with questions regarding the internationalization of Swedish universities, the public's awareness of science, and academic careers. There are no simple solutions to these challenges, but I think it is important that young academics have a voice in the debate and take their responsibility.” </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More Chalmers Professors in the academy</h5> <div>In addition to <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Philippe-Tassin.aspx">Philippe Tassin​</a>, Chalmers Professor <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/rikard-landberg.aspx">Rikard Landberg </a>from the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering is also elected  to the Young Academy of Sweden. Read more about him in the article <a href="">Food and nutrition makes an entry in Young Academy of Sweden​</a>. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers Professor </span><a href="/en/staff/Pages/kraiberg.aspx">Kirsten Kraiberg Knudsen</a><span style="background-color:initial"> at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment is already a member of the academy. </span><br /></div> <div>Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="">​​</a><br /></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">More about Philippe Tassin </h4> <div><strong>Born</strong>: 1982 in Belgium, he moved to Gothenburg in 2013 when he started working at Chalmers.</div> <div><strong>Interests: </strong>When he does not teach or research, he can be found playing clarinet in a symphony orchestra, on the ski slopes, discovering countries all over the world, or simply reading a good book.</div> <div><strong>About his passion for physics:</strong> “You face a problem that no one has ever solved before. After having tried and failed many times, you find the solution and then you realize you’re the only person in the world to know the solution. This is one thing that inspires me”.</div> <div><strong>Read more about Philippe Tassin and his research</strong>:</div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />How to trick light into flexing its muscles</a></div> <div><div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Worldwide-attention-for-optic-invention-.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Worldwide attention for optic invention from Chalmers </a></div></div> <div>​<a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Light bending material facilitates the search for new particles​</a></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />With a Love for Music and Mathematics​​</a><br /></div> <div><br /> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">More about the Young Academy of Sweden </h4> <div>The Young Academy of Sweden is a transdisciplinary academy for a selection of the most prominent, younger researchers in Sweden. Its operations rest firmly on three pillars: transdisciplinarity, science policy and outreach. The Academy is an independent platform that provides younger researchers with a strong voice in the science policy debate and that promotes science and research to young adults and children. In the Academy young researchers meet across institutional and disciplinary borders to discuss research and research related topics. The Young Academy of Sweden was formed at the initiative of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and currently has 33 members.</div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more on the webpage of the Young Academy of Sweden. </a></div> <a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Find all Chalmers researchers who are or have been members of the Young Academy of Sweden.</a>Mon, 28 May 2018 14:00:00 +0200 scientist awarded two prestigious fellowships<p><b>​Postdoctoral researcher Nooshin Mortazavi has recently been awarded two prestigious fellowships by the Wenner-Gren Foundations and Wallenberg Foundations. She can now choose between two or three years of postdoctoral training at either Harvard University or at Stanford University in the US – followed by two years at Chalmers University of Technology after her return.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">I am now trying to understand which position is a good fit for me and my career goals and is located in a place where I enjoy spending time. This is indeed a very tough decision to make,&quot; says Nooshin Mortazavi who currently works at the Division of Materials Microstructure at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>One choice is a grant from the Wenner-Gren Foundation to carry out research on &quot;High Temperature Thermoelectrics Based on Natural Superlattice Oxides&quot; in John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Science at Harvard University, Boston, USA. The project that Nooshin Mortazavi has proposed to carry out at Harvard comes with an ambitious goal: conversion of large amounts of waste heat to electricity using an intriguing but poorly characterized class of still-developing high-temperature ceramics, known as natural superlattices (NSLs).</div> <div>In this program, she will spend up to three years abroad, followed by two years of research at Chalmers. This fellowship is the Wenner-Gren Foundation’s most exclusive program where only five candidates are chosen in Sweden from different fields of research.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Nooshin Mortazavi has also been selected as one of the Wallenberg’s fellows of a postdoctoral scholarship program at Stanford University, California, USA. This grant supports her to make an impact on the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) research in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Stanford University. In this program she will spend two years at Stanford, followed by two years of research at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;I plan to expand my research horizon from metallic materials to ceramics with various applications in emerging renewable energy technologies such as thermoelectric materials and SOFCs. It is a privilege to be in a situation where I can choose, even though it is hard to decide. Apparently, it is not possible to perform two projects in the east and west coast of the US simultaneously…&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">For more information: <br /></h4> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Nooshin-Mortazavi-Seyedeh.aspx">Nooshin Mortazavi</a>, Postdoctoral researcher, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, <a href=""> </a>, +46 73 387 32 26, +46 31 772 67 83 </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Nooshin Mortazavi defended her doctoral thesis at the Department of Physics at Chalmers on 21 December 2017. <a href="/en/departments/physics/calendar/Pages/Thesis-defence-Nooshin-Mortazavi-171221.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read the abstract here.   </a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Read more about the foundations and the fellowships:</h5> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />The Wenner-Gren Foundations.</a><br /></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />The Stanford-Wallenberg Fellowship. </a><br /></div></div> <div>​<br /></div>Wed, 23 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200 of physics awarded by the City of Gothenburg<p><b>​Professor Per-Olof Nilsson at the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology is well-known for his skills in communicating science to the public in an accessible, creative and passionate way.</b></p>Through the years, he has inspired thousands and thousands of students of all ages. With his popular Physics toys, crowded science cafés and many other activities he has spread his enthusiasm for physics and natural sciences to the public. Now, he has been awarded a badge of merit by the City of Gothenburg. (Göteborgs stads förtjänsttecken).<p></p> <p></p> <img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/po-nilssonflytandekvave350x305.jpg" width="208" height="180" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block">&quot;</span>This really shows how important it is to communicate science to the public. Most of all I’m happy on behalf of Chalmers because public understanding of science is crucial in our society,” says Per-Olof “P-O” Nilsson.<p></p> <p></p> The motivation for the award from the City of Gothenburg will be announced in connection with the award ceremony on 4 June.<p></p> <p></p> The reconstruction work of the new locations for Per-Olof Nilsson’s Physics toys at the Gothenburg Physics Centre has recently begun.<p></p> <p></p> “I’m really looking forward to a new start and I hope that we can soon invite lots of young people to explore physics with us again”, says P-O Nilsson.<p></p> <p></p> Besides <a href="">Per-Olof Nilsson</a>, Chalmers Professor <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Ann-Sofie-Sandberg.aspx">Ann-Sofie Sandberg </a>has also been awarded the badge of merit by the City of Gothenburg. <a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Gothenburg-award-to-Ann-Sofie-Sandberg.aspx">Read an article about her.   </a><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span style="display:inline-block"><br /></span></span></span></span><p></p> <p><strong>Text</strong>: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href=""></a></p> <p><br /></p> <p></p> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More about Professor Per-Olof &quot;P-O&quot; Nilsson</h5> <div><span><span></span></span></div> <p></p> <p><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Watch</a><span> a short video clip when he demonstrates the “Finnish rocket.”</span><br /><br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Watch a news feature about P-O Nilsson when he was awarded the prize from “Längmanska Kulturfonden” in 2015. The film was recorded at the old location for the Physics toys. </a><br /><br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the plans for ”Fysiklek” at Gothenburg Physics centre.</a><br /></p>Mon, 14 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200 the nature of dark matter<p><b>​Dark matter is one of the great mysteries of the universe. It is highly abundant, yet nobody knows what it is. But now, scientific instruments have become sensitive enough that soon, researchers will be able to detect the leading dark matter candidate – that is, if it exists.</b></p><div><span><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Riccardo_Catena_IMG_0222270x170.jpg" width="256" height="162" alt="" style="margin:5px" /></span>For every star, galaxy and dust cloud we can see in space, there are five times more invisible, so-called dark matter.</div> <p></p> <div><div>&quot;We do not know what dark matter is, but without it we cannot explain how the universe evolved into what we see today. Dark matter is one of the pillars of modern cosmology”, says Riccardo Catena, researcher at the Division of Subatomic and Plasma Physics at Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Hints of invisible matter</h2></div> <p></p> <div>As early as the 1930s, the Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky noted that galaxies in nearby galaxy clusters moved faster than could be explained by the gravity of just visible matter. He therefore suggested the existence of invisible matter. But the idea did not get much attention.</div> <p></p> <div>However, when the American astronomer Vera Rubin studied the rotation of galaxies in the 1970s, she discovered the same thing – the velocities of the stars were too great to be explained by visible matter alone. Now, the science community began to take the idea of dark matter seriously.</div> <p></p> <div>Dark matter has also been shown to be indispensable to the formation of the structure of the universe.</div> <p></p> <div>“In the early universe, the gravitational force, which pulls matter together, and radiation, which draws matter apart, struggled against each other. In order for galaxies and galaxy clusters to form as quickly as they did, a dark component that is not affected by radiation is needed”, explains Catena.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">An unknown particle</h2> <p></p> <div>Most of the evidence indicates that dark matter consists of some type of particles – particles that neither absorb nor emit light, or other radiation, are stable for billions of years and move at a significantly lower speed than light.</div> <p></p> <div>No known particle matches these criteria. Therefore, scientists are looking for a new particle. The most popular hypothesis is that it is a particle about as heavy as an atomic nucleus and which interacts weakly with common matter, a so-called weakly-interacting massive particle, or WIMP.</div> <p></p> <div><div>If the hypothesis is correct, the earth passes through clouds of WIMPs all the time. Most of them pass unaffected right through the earth, but in theory, some of them should happen to hit the nucleus of an atom in a detector. If so, there is a chance to detect it.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Weak signals to interpret</h2></div> <p></p> <div>But the signals are extremely weak. One of the leading experiments, Xenon1T, is located in Italy under a mountain to shield its huge detector from disturbances such as cosmic rays.</div> <p></p> <div>&quot;The experiments are becoming increasingly sensitive. If WIMPs exist, we should find them within ten years”, says Catena.</div> <p></p> <div>He himself is a theorist and calculates what the signature signals from WIMPs would look like, in order for those running the experiments to know what to search for.</div> <p></p> <div>“I also design strategies for how to interpret the measurements, so that we can learn as much as possible about the WIMPs once they are found.”</div> <p></p> <div>In June he will arrange a conference for both experimentalists and theorists in dark matter research. Several prestigious speakers have already accepted invitations.</div> <p></p> <div>“The detection of WIMPs may come at any moment in the coming years. We must be prepared to interpret a discovery with optimal strategies, in order to learn as much about them as possible”, says Riccardo Catena.</div> <p></p> <div>Text: Ingela Roos, <a href=""></a></div> <p></p> <div> <a href="/en/departments/physics/calendar/Pages/Workshop-on-dark-matter.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />The workshop &quot;Preparing for dark matter particle discovery&quot; will be held at Chalmers from the 11th to the 15th June 2018.</a><br /><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Joint-efforts-to-reveal-the-darkest-secret.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read an earlier article: Joint efforts to reveal the darkest secret in the Universe </a><br /></div>Fri, 04 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200 in the universe can now be studied on earth<p><b>Solar flares, cosmic radiation, and the northern lights are well-known phenomena. But exactly how their enormous energy arises is not as well understood. Now, physicists at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have discovered a new way to study these spectacular space plasma phenomena in a laboratory environment. The results have been published in the renowned journal Nature Communications.</b></p><div><span><span><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/LongqingYi_170327_01_beskuren_270x.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span>“Scientists have been trying to bring these space phenomena down to earth for a decade. With our new method we can enter a new era, and investigate what was previously impossible to study. It will tell us more about how these events occur,” says Longqing Yi, researcher at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.<p></p> <p>The research concerns so-called ‘magnetic reconnection’ – the process which gives rise to these phenomena. Magnetic reconnection causes sudden conversion of energy stored in the magnetic field into heat and kinetic energy. This happens when two plasmas with anti-parallel magnetic fields are pushed together, and the magnetic field lines converge and reconnect. This interaction leads to violently accelerated plasma particles that can sometimes be seen with the naked eye – for example, during the northern lights.</p> <p>Magnetic reconnection in space can also influence us on earth. The creation of solar flares can interfere with communications satellites, and thus affect power grids, air traffic and telephony.</p> <p>In order to imitate and study these spectacular space plasma phenomena in the laboratory, you need a high-power laser, to create magnetic fields around a million times stronger than those found on the surface of the sun. In the new scientific article, Longqing Yi, along with Professor Tünde Fülöp from the Department of Physics, proposed an experiment in which magnetic reconnection can be studied in a new, more precise way. Through the use of 'grazing incidence' of ultra-short laser pulses, the effect can be achieved without overheating the plasma. The process can thus be studied very cleanly, without the laser directly affecting the internal energy of the plasma. The proposed experiment would therefore allow us to seek answers to some of the most fundamental questions in astrophysics.<span><span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span></p> <p>“<span><span><span><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Tunde270x.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /></span></span></span>We hope that this can inspire many research groups to use our results. This is a great opportunity to look for knowledge that could be useful in a number of areas. For example, we need to better understand solar flares, which can interfere with important communication systems. We also need to be able to control the instabilities caused by magnetic reconnection in fusion devices,” says Tünde Fülöp.</p> <p>The study on which the new results are based was financed by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation, through the framework of the project ‘Plasma-based Compact Ion Sources’, and the ERC project ‘<span>Running away and radiating<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>'.</p> <p>Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href=""></a></p></div> <div>Translation: Joshua Worth, <a href=""></a></div> <div>Portrait pictures: Peter Widing (Tünde Fülöp) and Mia Halleröd Palmgren (Longqing Yi) <span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/reconnection_LongqingYi750x340.jpg" height="340" width="750" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><strong>A new way of studying magnetic reconnection. </strong>The picture shows the experiment setup. The laser (the red triangle on the right) hits the micro-scale film (the grey slab), which splits the beam like a knife. Electrons accelerate on both sides of the ‘knife’ and produce strong currents, along with extremely strong, anti-parallel magnetic fields. Magnetic reconnection occurs beyond the end of the film (the blue frame). The magnetic field is illustrated with black arrows. The boomerang-like structures illustrate the electrons in the different stages of the simulation. The rainbow colours represent the electron transverse momenta.</div> <div>Illustration: Longqing Yi</div> <div> <div>The scientific article was published in the journal Nature Communications.</div> <div><a href="">'Relativistic magnetic reconnection driven by a laser interacting with a micro-scale plasma slab'</a></div></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More Information:</h5> <strong><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Tünde-Fülöp.aspx">Tünde Fülöp,</a></strong> <span>Professor, <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 72 986 74 40, <a href=""></a><div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Longqing-Yi.aspx"><strong>Longqing Yi</strong></a>, Postdoctoral researcher,Department of Physics,Chalmers University of Technology,+46 31 772 68 82, <a href=""></a><br /><br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release and download high-resolution images. </a><br /></div> Wed, 02 May 2018 07:00:00 +0200's-lectures-.aspx's-lectures-.aspxPopular Physics Day&#39;s lectures<p><b>​The annual Gothenburg Physics Centre event &quot;Fysikens dag&quot; (Physics Day) at the International Science Festival in Gothenburg attracted many curious physics lovers of all ages to listen to interesting lectures in Gustaf Dalén lecture hall on 21 April.</b></p>It<span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Fysikensdag1.jpg" alt="Fysikens dag 2018" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" width="341" height="164" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span> was probably a record attendance and<a href="/en/centres/gpc/calendar/Pages/Fysikens-dag-2018.aspx"> the event </a>attracted more young people than usual. Many thanks to all visitors and to our inspiring lecturers Ulf Gran, Cecilia Fager, <span>Daniel Midtvedt,<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span> Dag Hanstorp and Tatsiana Lobovkina.<p></p> <p></p> We also thank Fredrik Höök and Christian Forssén who hosted the day. Christian Forssén was also the highly appreciated &quot;secret Einstein lecturer&quot; this year. <br />His talk about artificial intelligence inspired some young students to bring up questions, perspectives and ideas of their own. <br /><br />You can now watch some of the lectures (in Swedish) on Youtube. <br /><a href=";"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Learn about gravitational waves and black holes (Professor Ulf Gran) and have a look into the world of atoms and molecules (PhD Student Cecilia Fager). </a><br /><br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />You can also watch the Einstein lecture about artificial intelligence (Professor Christian Forssén).  </a><br />Wed, 02 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Joshi winner of the Gothenburg Lise Meitner Award<p><b>​The Gothenburg Physics Centre proudly presents Chandrashekhar Joshi as the winner of the Gothenburg Lise Meitner Award 2018.</b></p><img src="/en/centres/gpc/news/Documents/Porträtt_Chandrashekhar_Josh350x305webb.jpg" alt="Porträtt_Chandrashekhar_Josh350x305webb.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" width="303" height="263" style="margin:5px 10px" /> Professor Chandrashekhar Joshi, University of California, Los Angeles, USA, works on plasma-based accelerators and receives the award &quot; for conclusively demonstrating the advantages of using relativistically propagating plasma waves for electron acceleration.&quot;<br /><br />Chandrashekhar Joshi is considered the Father of the experimental field of High-Gradient Plasma-based Charged Particle Acceleration – a paradigm shift for building accelerators of tomorrow. <br /><br />In a career spanning four decades, Joshi and his colleagues have carried out pioneering experiments – using laser and ultra-relativistic electron pulses as drivers<span> –<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span> on electron and positron acceleration using plasma waves thousands of times more rapidly than in a conventional accelerator.<br /><br /><span>The Gothenburg Lise Meitner award ceremony will take place on 20 September 2018 at 15.15 in FB lecture hall at Fysikgården 4. In connection with the award ceremony, the laureate will hold a lecture in honour of the Austrian-Swedish physicist Lise Meitner. <br /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the award and previous laureates. </a><br />Thu, 05 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Great Gold Medal to Chalmers professor<p><b>​Chalmers Professor Björn Jonson has been rewarded with the highest award of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - the Great Gold Medal named after the Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov.</b></p><p>The prize acknowledges outstanding achievements in the natural sciences and the humanities. Among the previous recipients, there are many renowned scientist and even Nobel Prize laureates. <br /><br />&quot;Of course, I’m honoured, but it’s also a recognition of the importance of our field of research within subatomic physic, both here at Chalmers and internationally,” says <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Bjorn-Jonson.aspx">Björn Jonson</a>, Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology. <br /><br />He was awarded for his extensive contributions within fundamental nuclear physics. Björn Jonson has been engaged in research at Chalmers since 1967 and the Russian Academy of Sciences emphasize that his work is of fundamental importance for the study of the nuclear structure and nuclear stability of exotic lightest nuclei at the boundaries of nucleon stability.<br /><br />The award ceremony was held in Moscow at the General Meeting of the RAS, on Friday 30 March 2018. The Lomonosov Gold Medal is awarded each year since 1959. Since 1967, two medals are awarded annually: one to a Russian and one to a foreign scientist. This time the Russian nuclear physicist Yuri Oganessian was rewarded together with Björn Jonson.  <br />Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href=""></a></p> <p>Image: Elena Puzynina, JINR<br /><br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more about the award and previous recipients at Wikipedia.</a><br /></p>Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0200 are ready for an Olympic challenge in physics<p><b>​The best physics students from Swedish upper secondary schools visited the Gothenburg Physics Centre 12-16 March to compete for five places in the International Physics Olympiad in Lisbon, Portugal 21-29 July 2018. The week in Gothenburg also offered lots of seminars, workshops, study visits, experimental work and social activities.</b></p>” It is with pleasure I note that the participants enjoyed their stay with us and that the week encouraged to future studies in physics, not the least in Gothenburg. I’ve met several participants from previous years who are now studying physics here with us&quot;, says Jonathan Weidow, Associate Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers and one of the organisers of the week. <br /><br />The Physics Olympiad in Sweden is arranged by the Swedish Physical Society, with financial support from the Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation. The Swedish award is known as the Wallenberg Physics Prize. <br />The students did some experimental tests during the week at the Gothenburg Physics Centre. On 25-27 April the competitions will continue in Estonia. After that we will know the names of the five who will represent Sweden in Lisbon. <br /><br />In addition to the competing students, some of the most talented female students in the second year of their upper secondary studies took part of the physics week in Gothenburg as VIP guests. The aim is to encourage them to take part of the competition next year. <br />“I really appreciated the week. I have learned a lot and it was nice to meet students from all over Sweden who also love physics,” says Johanna Odbratt, one of the invited students.  <br /><br />The last day the whole group enjoyed a very special ice-cream. The delicious dessert was ready-made in a minute - thanks to liquid nitrogen. The students also tried to dip biscuits into the substance, resulting in lots of cold smoke flowing out of the mouth. <a href="">Check out the experiment here! <br /></a>Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href=""></a><br /><a href=""></a><br /><span><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><a href=""><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a></span>The Swedish Radio reported from the last day of the week in Gothenburg. <a href=";artikel=6908698">Listen to the report (in Swedish) here.</a> (The report starts after 23 seconds in the clip.)<br /><br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more about Wallenbergs fysikpris.</a><br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Check out more pictures on Facebook. </a><a href=""></a><br />Mon, 26 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0200 new way to improve catalytic processes<p><b>​How does the catalytic activity of a nanoparticle depend on size and shape?  This is a fundamental question that has been studied by PhD Student Mikkel Jørgensen and Professor Henrik Grönbeck, using a newly developed computational technique for first principles based kinetic modelling.</b></p><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/catalyticprocesses270x.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The researchers at the Department of Physics at Chalmers have found that the activity depends sensitively on particle size and shape through complex kinetic couplings. <br />Being able to simulate the catalytic activity of nanoparticles offers a possibility to understand and improve catalytic processes.<br /><br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />The study “The Site-Assembly Determines Catalytic Activity of Nanoparticles” has recently been published in Angewandte Chemie Int. Ed.</a><br /><br /><strong>More information: </strong><br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/mikjorge.aspx">Mikkel Jørgensen</a>, PhD Student, <span>Division of Chemical Phyiscs,</span> Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 772 29 53, <br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Henrik-Gronbeck.aspx">Henrik Grönbeck</a>, Professor, Division of Chemical Phyiscs, Department of Physics, Chalmers Univeristy of Technology, +46 31 772 29 63, <br />Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0100 for her physics research<p><b>​Marianne Liebi, Assistant Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers, has been awarded the L&#39;Oréal-Unesco For Women in Science Award. The prize is intended to pay attention to female researchers at the beginning of their career. She received the award from Helene Hellmark Knutsson, Minister of Higher Education and Research, in a ceremony in Stockholm, 7 March, 2018.</b></p><div>​&quot;The prize represents recognition of my work and trust in me that I am on a good way to become a more independent scientist.&quot;  </div> <div> </div> <div>Marianne Liebi uses powerful X-ray technology to study how, for example, the smallest building blocks in bone tissue, collagen fibrils organize. The goal is to develop a tempering, biomimetic material, where nature's own design principles are imitated and applied to develop artificial bone and cartilage.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What is your driving force?</strong></div> <div>&quot;Working on projects in a team with different experts, trying to understand the world around us a little bit better. The excitement during a beamtime running day and night if the experiment finally is successful can compensate for many hours of frustration.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What expectations you have for the coming year?</strong></div> <div>&quot;In the coming year the main task is to build my group and establish myself as a supervisor. My first PhD student will start in a few weeks, I am really looking forward to this.&quot; </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What do you hope that your research will lead to in the long run?</strong></div> <div>&quot;I hope that my research will help to bring new methods [such as SAXS tensor tomography, with which I mainly work] developed at large scale facilities and the application in university and industrial research closer together. For that it is important to have specialists also placed at the university which can bring the new development into education and can assist new users of the method to get started.&quot; </div> <div> </div> <div>Marianne Liebi has been awarded the prize for &quot;the constructive use of advanced imaging methods for biomaterials with the aim of understanding the connection between molecular and mechanical properties&quot;.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What do you wish for in the future? </strong></div> <div>&quot;I wish that there is no such price as the Women in Science award because the gender simply doesn't matter any more and there is instead a prize for young scientists in general.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about Marianne and her research</h3> <div>Marianne Liebi is Assistant Professor in Materials Science at the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology, since August 2017. Before that, she worked as a scientist at the Swedish synchrotron (MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University), to which she remains affiliated. The focus of her research is in the development of advanced X-ray imaging techniques and their application towards on materials with hierarchical structures. With a background in food science, she started using large-scale facilities for the characterization of materials during her PhD. As a postdoc working at the Swiss synchrotron (Paul Scherrer Institute), she started working on method development in X-ray scattering and imaging. </div> <div><br />She earned her PhD in Food Science 2013 at Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland. </div> <div> </div> <div>Today's X-ray imaging methods used in research today go far beyond from what is possible in a conventional radiography or CT used in hospitals. Using the very bright X-ray beam, as produced by the Swedish national synchrotron radiation facility MAX IV in Lund, one can for example visualize how tiny fibers, thousand times finer than a human hair, are organized in biological or artificial materials. <br /><br />Marianne Liebi and her collaborators have developed a method that allows such studies in intact three-dimensional samples. Human bone for instance is made of such tiny fibers, so called collagen fibrils. One major feature of these fibers is that they are ordered and aligned differently depending on the part of the bone where they are found, thereby adapting determining the local mechanical stability. Together with different bone experts, Marianne Liebi applies this method to characterize bone in embryonic development or around implants that slowly degrade while new bone material is being formed. The method will be key in a project to develop a biomimetic material, which uses design principles from nature to create artificial bone and cartilage. 3D printing is used to introduce similar alignment of the artificial fibers as found for the collagen fibrils within bone in order to create a material with similar mechanical properties. <br /><br /><strong>Contact:</strong><br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Marianne-Liebi.aspx">Marianne Liebi</a></div>Wed, 07 Mar 2018 16:00:00 +0100