News: Fysikhttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyThu, 04 Mar 2021 16:48:25 +0100http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Inspiration-from-e-sports-takes-online-education-to-a-new-level.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Inspiration-from-e-sports-takes-online-education-to-a-new-level.aspxInspiration from e-sports takes online education to a new level<p><b>E-sports professionals, Youtubers or physics professors? Perhaps the differences are less than you might think. That is, when it comes to the technical equipment necessary for interacting with the viewers, or, in this case – the students.​</b></p><div><div>When the coronavirus pandemic forced a rapid transition to remote education last spring, teachers and lecturers were faced with great challenges, but also with new opportunities. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>At Chalmers, two physics professors took inspiration and technical know-how from the world of e-sports to make their online teaching as effective as possible for the students. Professional e-sports players who stream their gaming sessions live are well practised in making sure their viewers can follow along with the action, discerning all the subtle details of the game and being able to interact with the streamer.</div></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/Onlineundervisning_Andreas_Isacsson_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:140px;height:122px" /> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“We realised pretty quickly that we could learn and benefit from the expertise and technical solutions that have been developed over a long period of time by professional e-sports streamers, and apply them in an education environment, to create a distance learning studio,” says Andreas Isacsson, Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><div>To understand the concept, the professors studied in detail the technical setups of several experienced e-sports professionals and successful Youtubers for live streaming and interaction with their co-players and followers.  </div> <div>Now, Andreas Isacsson and his colleague Philippe Tassin have built two teaching studios with several webcams, a high-quality video camera, a specially optimised computer, wireless microphones and more. The cameras allow the students to view, for example, detailed calculations written on a blackboard, much like in a traditional lecture. The studios are in high demand for teaching physics students at Chalmers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>According to the five course evaluations carried out so far, the concept has been enthusiastically received by the students. </div> <div><br /></div></span></div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/Rebecka_beskuren_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:122px;width:140px" /><div><div>“The professors have really handled it well based on the circumstances. They are really trying to do everything they can to make the teaching as successful as possible for us,” says Rebecka Mårtensson, a first-year student at Chalmers.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><div>The success of the studios has recently been evidenced by the fact the professors were awarded the educational prize “Guldkritan” (The Golden Chalk) from the physics students, for their remote education efforts. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The distance learning studios have also received a lot of attention from teaching colleagues at Chalmers since the start of the semester last autumn. More and more students have had their lectures broadcast from there as the academic year has progressed. </div> <div>The new concept makes it easier for lecturers too, whose workloads have increased greatly due to the pandemic.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>“By being able to give the lectures in a more usual environment, the transition to distance education is much less labour-intensive. And since the students appreciate this form of teaching, it is a clear win-win situation,” says Professor Ulf Gran, Vice Head of the Department of Physics. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Mia Halleröd Palmgren and Joshua Worth<span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://chalmersuniversity.box.com/s/wa88d18t4myt7ep209j439l2lgfcgtzr"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Do you want to check out more photos from the studios? You will find our press images here! </a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/Onlineundervisning_bakom_kameran_2_750x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <div><br /></div> ​Mon, 01 Mar 2021 10:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/ict/news/Pages/Call-for-ICT-seed-projects-2022.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/ict/news/Pages/Call-for-ICT-seed-projects-2022.aspxCall for ICT seed projects 2022<p><b>Call for proposals within ICT strategic areas and involving interdisciplinary approaches.​</b></p><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Important dates:</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li><b>Submission date: </b>April 29, 2021</li> <li><b>Notification:</b> mid-June, 2021</li> <li><b>Expected start of the project:</b> January 2022</li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Background</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><b>The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Area of Advance</b> (AoA) provides financial support for SEED projects, i.e., projects involving innovative ideas that can be a starting point for further collaborative research and joint funding applications. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>We will prioritize research projects that <strong>involve researchers from different research communities</strong> (for example across ICT departments or between ICT and other Areas of Advances) and who have not worked together before (i.e., have no joint projects/publications). </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Research projects involving a <strong>gender-balanced team and younger researchers</strong>, e.g., assistant professors, will be prioritized. Additionally, proposals related to <strong>sustainability</strong> and the UN Sustainable Development Goals are encouraged.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><b><em>Note: </em></b><em>Only researchers employed at Chalmers can apply and can be funded. PhD students cannot be supported by this call.  Applicants and co-applicants of research proposals funded in the 2020 and 2021 ICT SEED calls cannot apply. </em></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><em><br /></em></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><b>The total budget of the call is 1 MSEK.</b> We expect to fund 3-5 projects</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Details of the call</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li>The project should include at least two researchers from different divisions at Chalmers (preferably two different departments) and who should have complementary expertise, and no joint projects/publications.</li> <li>Proposals involving teams with good gender balance and involving assistant professors will be prioritized.</li> <li>The project should contribute to sustainable development. </li> <li>The budget must be between 100 kSEK and 300 kSEK, including indirect costs (OH). The budget is mainly to cover personnel costs for Chalmers employees (but not PhD students). The budget cannot cover costs for equipment or travel costs to conferences/research visits. </li> <li>The project must start in early 2022 and should last 3-6 months. </li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">What must the application contain?</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The application should be at most 3 pages long, font Times–roman, size 11. In addition, max 1 page can be used for references. Finally, an additional one-page CV of each one of the applicants must be included (max 4 CVs). Proposals that do not comply with this format will be desk rejected (no review process).</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The proposal should include:</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>a)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>project title </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>b)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>name, e-mail, and affiliation (department, division) of the applicants</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>c)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the research challenges addressed and the objective of the project; interdisciplinary aspects should be highlighted; also the applicant should discuss how the project contributes to sustainable development, preferably in relation to the <a href="https://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/" title="link to UN webpage">UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDG)</a>. Try to be specific and list the targets within each Goal that are addressed by your project.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>d)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the project description </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>e)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the expected outcome (including dissemination plan) and the plan for further research and funding acquisition</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>f)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the project participants and the planned efforts</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>g)<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>the project budget and activity timeline
</div> <div><div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Evaluation Criteria</h3> <div><ul><li>Team composition</li> <li>Interdisciplinarity</li> <li>Novelty</li> <li>Relevance to AoA ICT and Chalmers research strategy as well as to SDG</li> <li>Dissemination plan</li> <li>Potential for further research and joint funding applications</li> <li>Budget and project feasibility​</li></ul></div></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Submission</span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The application should be submitted as one PDF document to</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="https://easychair.org/my/conference?conf=seed2022">https://easychair.org/conferences/?conf=seed2022</a></span></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><br /></span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The proposals will be evaluated by the AoA ICT management group and selected Chalmers researchers.

</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><b><br /></b></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><b>Questions</b> can be addressed to <a href="mailto:erik.strom@chalmers.se">Erik Ström</a> or <a href="mailto:durisi@chalmers.se">Giuseppe Durisi​</a> </span></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">General information about the ICT Area of Advance can be found at <a href="/en/areas-of-advance/ict/Pages/default.aspx">www.chalmers.se/ict ​</a></span><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Information%20and%20Communication%20Technology/About%20us/IKT_logo_600px.jpg" alt="" /><span style="background-color:initial">​​<br /></span></div>Mon, 01 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Solving-complex-physics-problems-at-lightning-speed.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Solving-complex-physics-problems-at-lightning-speed.aspxSolving complex physics problems at lightning speed<p><b>A calculation so complex that it takes twenty years to complete on a powerful desktop computer can now be done in one hour on a regular laptop. Physicist Andreas Ekström at Chalmers University of Technology, together with international research colleagues, has designed a new method to calculate the properties of atomic nuclei incredibly quickly. ​​​</b></p><div>The new approach is based on a concept called emulation, where an approximate calculation replaces a complete and more complex calculation. Although the researchers are taking a shortcut, the solution ends up almost exactly the same. It is reminiscent of algorithms from machine learning, but ultimately the researchers have designed a completely new method. It opens up even more possibilities in fundamental research in areas such as nuclear physics.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/AndreasEkstrom_200924_webb_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:169px;width:200px" /> </div> <div><div><div>“Now that we can emulate atomic nuclei using this method, we have a completely new tool to construct and analyse theoretical descriptions of the forces between protons and neutrons inside the atomic nucleus,” says research leader Andreas Ekström, Associate Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</div></div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​Fundamental to understanding our existence</h2> <div>The subject may sound niche, but it is in fact fundamental to understanding our existence and the stability and origin of visible matter. Most of the atomic mass resides in the centre of the atom, in a dense region called the atomic nucleus. The constituent particles of the nucleus, the protons and neutrons, are held together by something called the strong force. Although this force is so central to our existence, no one knows exactly how it works. To increase our knowledge and unravel the fundamental properties of visible matter, researchers need to be able to model the properties of atomic nuclei with great accuracy.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>The basic research that Andreas Ekström and his colleagues are working on sheds new light on topics ranging from neutron stars and their properties, to the innermost structure and decay of nuclei. Basic research in nuclear physics also provides essential input to astrophysics, atomic physics, and particle physics.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Opening doors to completely new possibilities</h2> <div>“I am incredibly excited to be able to make calculations with such accuracy and efficiency. Compared with our previous methods, it feels like we are now computing at lightning speed. In our ongoing work here at Chalmers, we hope to improve the emulation method further, and perform advanced statistical analyses of our quantum mechanical models. With this emulation method it appears that we can achieve results that were previously considered impossible. This certainly opens doors to completely new possibilities,&quot; says Andreas Ekström.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Mia Halleröd Palmgren<br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>The project is funded by the European Research Council within the framework of an ERC Starting Grant.​</strong> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/He-will-explore-the-secrets-of-atomic-nuclei.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the work to explore the secrets of the atomic nuclei: .</a></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> More on the mathematical shortcut  </h2> <div><div>The new emulation method is based on something called eigenvector continuation (EVC). It allows for emulation of many quantum mechanical properties of atomic nuclei with incredible speed and accuracy. Instead of directly solving the time-consuming and complex many-body problem over and over again, researchers have created a mathematical shortcut, using a transformation into a special subspace. This makes it possible to utilise a few exact solutions in order to then obtain approximate solutions much faster. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>If the emulator works well, it generates solutions that are almost exactly – circa 99 per cent – similar to the solutions to the original problem. This is in many ways the same principles used in machine learning, but it is not a neural network or a Gaussian process – a completely new method underpins it. The EVC method for emulation is not limited to atomic nuclei, and the researchers are currently looking further into different types of applications.<span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/Ljusets%20hastighet_experimentella%20värden_webb_750x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">Plot of the energy and radius of the oxygen isotope 16-O for 100,000 different parametrisations of the strong nuclear interaction. Using the new method, the results were generated within a few minutes on a standard laptop. The dashed lines indicate the values of experimental data.</span><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div>Illustration: Andreas Ekström and Yen Strandqvist/Chalmers University of Technology</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><p class="MsoNormal"></p></h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">The new findings have been published in two articles</h2> <div>“<a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physletb.2020.135814">Eigenvector continuation as an efficient and accurate emulator for uncertainty quantification</a>” <span style="background-color:initial">published in Physics Letters B, written by Sebastian König, Andreas Ekström, Kai Hebeler, Dean Lee and Achim Schwenk. The researchers are active at North Carolina State University, USA, Chalmers University of Technology, Darmstadt University of Technology, Germany and Michigan State University, USA.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“<a href="https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.252501">Global Sensitivity Analysis of Bulk Properties of an Atomic Nucleus</a>” <span style="background-color:initial">published in Physical Review Letters, written by Andreas Ekström, Chalmers, and Gaute Hagen, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA.</span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">For more information, please contact:: </h2> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Andreas-Ekstrom.aspx">Andreas Ekström</a>, Associate Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 772 36 85 <a href="mailto:andreas.ekstrom@chalmers.se">andreas.ekstrom@chalmers.se</a></div></div>Mon, 01 Feb 2021 06:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/New-results-challenge-nuclear-theory.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/New-results-challenge-nuclear-theory.aspxNew results challenge nuclear theory<p><b>​​In a recent paper in prestigious Nature Physics, Weiguang Jiang, Andreas Ekström and Christian Forssén at the Department of Physics at Chalmers challenge nuclear theory and the magic character of nucleon number N = 32. ​</b></p><div> The study is based on an experiment with radioactive beams at the ISOLDE facility at CERN, where researchers have succeeded in measuring the size of exotic potassium isotopes. In the international collaboration, the Chalmers researchers have contributed with the theoretical interpretation of the results.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Weiguang.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />“The study becomes really interesting when confronted with theoretical calculations. We find that previous claims that N = 32 would be a so-called magic number may not be so well-founded. We have also found that these new results challenge our understanding of the strong force between nucleons in very neutron-rich systems.” says Weiguang Jiang, postdoc at the Department of Physics at Chalmers. <br /></div>  <br />Read more in the paper in Nature Physics: <br /><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41567-020-01136-5" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />“Charge radii of exotic potassium isotopes challenge nuclear theory and the magic character of N = 32&quot;.​</a><br /><br />Fri, 29 Jan 2021 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/How-short-circuits-in-lithium-metal-batteries-can-be-prevented.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/How-short-circuits-in-lithium-metal-batteries-can-be-prevented.aspxHow lithium metal batteries can be safe and effective<p><b>There are high hopes for the next generation of high energy-density lithium metal batteries, but before they can be used in our vehicles, there are crucial problems to solve. An international research team led by Chalmers has now developed concrete guidelines for how the batteries should be charged and operated, maximising efficiency while minimising the risk of short circuits.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Lithi</span><span style="background-color:initial">um metal batteries are one of several promising concepts that could eventually replace the lithium-ion batteries which are currently widely used – particularly in various types of electric vehicles.</span><div><span style="background-color:initial"><div>The big advantage of this new battery type is that the energy density can be significantly higher. This is because one electrode of a battery cell – the anode – consists of a thin foil of lithium metal, instead of graphite, as is the case in lithium-ion batteries. Without graphite, the proportion of active material in the battery cell is much higher, increasing energy density and reducing weight. Using lithium metal as the anode also makes it possible to use high-capacity materials at the other electrode – the cathode. This can result in cells with three to five times the current level of energy-density.</div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Avoiding the ’needles’ which cause punctures and internal short circuits</span></h2></div> </span><span style="background-color:initial"><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Dendrites_ENG_250x250.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:200px" />​The big problem, however, is safety. In two recently published scientific articles in the prestigious journals Advanced Energy Materials and Advanced Science, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, together with colleagues in Russia, China and Korea, now present a method for using the lithium metal in an optimal and safe way. It results from designing the battery in such a way that, during the charging process, the metal does not develop the sharp, needle-like structures known as dendrites, which can cause short circuits, and, in the worst cases, lead to the battery catching fire. Safety during charging and discharging is the key factor. </div> <div><div><br /></div></div> </span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Shizhao_Xiong_.jpg_webb.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:138px;width:120px" /><div><span style="background-color:initial">“Sho</span><span style="background-color:initial">rt circ</span><span style="background-color:initial">uiting in lithium metal batteries usually occurs due to the metal depositing unevenly during the charging cycle and the formation of dendrites on the anode. These protruding needles cause the anode and the cathode to come into direct contact with one another, so preventing their formation is therefore crucial. Our guidance can now contribute to this,” says researcher Shizhao Xiong at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</span><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial"> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Optimised charging provides safer batteries</h2> <div>There are a number of different factors that control how the lithium is distributed on the anode. In the electrochemical process that occurs during charging, the structure of the lithium metal is mainly affected by the current density, temperature and concentration of ions in the electrolyte.</div> <div>The researchers used simulations and experiments to determine how the charge can be optimised based on these parameters. The purpose is to create a dense, ideal structure on the lithium metal anode.</div></span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Aleksandar%20Matic%20200930_webb.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:140px;width:120px" /><span style="background-color:initial"><div><br /></div> <div>“Getting the ions in the electrolyte to arrange themselves exactly right when they become lithium atoms during charging is a difficult challenge. Our new knowledge about how to control the process under different conditions can contribute to safer and more efficient lithium metal batteries,” says Professor Aleksandar Matic from Chalmers’ Department of Physics.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Mia Halleröd Palmgren</div> <div><strong>Portrait photos: </strong>Anna-Lena Lundqvist (Aleksandar Matic), Chalmers (Shizhao Xiong)</div></span><span style="background-color:initial"> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More about: The research project</h2> <div>The international research collaboration between Sweden, China, Russia and Korea is led by Professor Aleksandar Matic and researcher Shizhao Xiong at the Department of Physics at Chalmers. The research in Sweden is funded by FORMAS, STINT, the EU and Chalmers Areas of Advance.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Read the scientific article <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/advs.202003301">‘Insight into the Critical Role of Exchange Current Density on Electrodeposition Behavior of Lithium Metal’</a> in Advanced Science. The article is written by Yangyang Liu, Xieyu Xu, Matthew Sadd, Olesya O. Kapitanova, Victor A. Krivchenko, Jun Ban, Jialin Wang, Xingxing Jiao, Zhongxiao Song, Jiangxuan Song, Shizhao Xiong and Aleksandar Matic. </div> <div>The researchers are active at Lomonosov Moscow State University and the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology in Russia, Xi’an Jiaotong University in China and at Chalmers University of Technology.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read the scientific article <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/aenm.202002390">‘Role of Li ‐ Ion Depletion on Electrode Surface: Underlying Mechanism for Electrodeposition Behavior of Lithium Metal Anode’ ​</a>in Advanced Energy Materials. The article is written by Xieyu Xu, Yangyang Liu, Jang ‐ Yeon Hwang, Olesya O. Kapitanova, Zhongxiao Song, Yang ‐ Kook Sun, Aleksandar Matic and Shizhao Xiong. </div> <div>The researchers are active at Lomonosov Moscow State University, Russia, Xi’an Jiaotong University in China, Chonnam National University and Hanyang University in Korea, as well as at Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More about: Next generation batteries</h2> <div>There are a number of battery concepts which researchers hope will eventually be able to replace today's lithium-ion batteries. Solid state batteries, lithium-sulphur batteries and lithium air batteries are three oft-mentioned examples. In all these concepts, lithium metal needs to be used on the anode side to match the capacity of the cathode and maximise the energy density of the cell.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The goal is to produce safe, high energy-density batteries that take us further, at lower cost – both economically and environmentally. So far, researchers estimate that a breakthrough to the next generation of batteries is at least ten years away.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At Chalmers, research is conducted in a number of projects in the field of batteries and the researchers participate in both national and international collaborations and are part of the large European initiative 2030+ in the <a href="https://www.big-map.eu/">BIGMAP ​</a>project.</div> <div style="text-align:right"><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/Battery_Illustration_Muhammad750x340.jpg" alt="" />​<span style="background-color:initial">​Illustration: Muhammad Abdelhamid​</span><span style="background-color:initial;font-family:inherit;font-size:20px"> </span></div></div></span><span style="background-color:initial"> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More battery news from Chalmers.</h2> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-spreadable-way-to-stabilise-solid-state-batteries.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />A spreadable way to stabilise solid state batteries</a></div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/Testbed-for-electromobility-gets-575-million-SEK.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Testbed for electromobility gets 575 million SEK</a></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-new-concept-could-make-more-environmentally-friendly-batteries-possible-.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />A new concept for more sustainable batteries </a></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Graphene_sponge_paves_the_way_for_future_batteries.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Graphene sponge paves the way for future batteries​</a></div> <div><a href="/en/news/Pages/Three-out-of-eight-to-Chalmers-in-Vinnova-investment.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />New center for Swedish batteries</a></div> <div><br /></div> </span><a href="https://www.batteriessweden.se/"></a><div style="display:inline !important"><a href="https://www.batteriessweden.se/">Read more about Swedish battery research on the website for Batteries Sweden (BASE)</a><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://www.batteriessweden.se/">  ​</a> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>For m</span><span>ore information contact:</span></h2></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Shizhao-Xiong.aspx">Shizhao Xiong</a>, Researcher, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 7726284, <a href="mailto:shizhao.xiong@chalmers.se">shizhao.xiong@chalmers.se</a></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Aleksandar-Matic.aspx">Aleksandar Matic​</a>, Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 772 51 76, <a href="mailto:%20matic@chalmers.se">matic@chalmers.se​</a></div> <div></div></span></div>Tue, 19 Jan 2021 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/In-memory-of-Bengt-Kasemo.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/In-memory-of-Bengt-Kasemo.aspxIn memory of Bengt Kasemo<p><b>​Professor Emeritus Bengt Kasemo passed away on 26 November at the age of 78. He is most closely missed by his wife Lena and their children Andreas, Jonas, Anna and Totta, with families, including 10 grandchildren. Bengt Kasemo was one of Chalmers&#39; most brilliant profiles and shaped for decades the Department of Physics and Chalmers.</b></p>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/B%20Kasemo%202007.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:300px;height:400px" /><span style="background-color:initial">Bengt was born in Dalsland in 1942 and grew up on the shores of Ånimmen and Vänern. He got his interest in nature, fishing and hunting from his father. He attended senior high school in Åmål and after graduation, he began studies to become a medical doctor. However, after a year he switched to Physics. After graduating in 1966, Bengt began his PhD-studies on a project related to thin film physics, with Ingvar Marklund as his supervisor. After a while he met one-year-older Stig Andersson and together they initiated research projects in surface physics, focusing on atomic and electronic structure, which at that time was a completely new field of research. Bengt gradually established his own line of research connected to light emission during surface reactions. This provided information on the dynamics of surface reactions and in 1974 he defended his thesis “A study of surface layer structures and chemisorptive luminescence in surface reactions”. Bengt became an associate professor in 1975 and with his sharpness, combined with a rare dynamic and enthusiastic personality, he quickly established himself as an authority in surface physics with many national and international collaborations. Bengt became Professor of Chemical Physics at Chalmers and Gothenburg University in 1983.<br /><br /></span><div>With surface physics as a base, Bengt developed activities in several directions. Ultra-high vacuum studies of the dynamics of surface reactions and reaction kinetics on model surfaces were among his main interests. Inspired by discussions with Per-Ingvar Brånemark, he began research on biomaterials and especially biomaterial surfaces based on titanium in the 80-ties. This led to his research in biophysics and studies of biological membranes, which in the 90-ties grew to a large part of his activities, mainly thanks to his innovative contribution to the development of the quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D) technique. During the period 1990-2010, Bengt was a pioneer in the study of catalytic reactions at atmospheric pressure on model catalysts and electro/photocatalysis, where he used nanofabrication and nanoplasmonics to study surface phenomena. With these new areas of research, Bengt's division grew to around 40 coworkers with almost as many nationalities. He was a clear and caring research leader, with many ideas and an incredible conviction. He also had a unique ability to encourage and develop his coworkers, especially doctoral students, which resulted in over 50 dissertations under his leadership. The large division, and the many external assignments, needed time. For many years, Bengt commuted weekly from his home in Tjärkil outside Mellerud and worked long days when he was in Göteborg. In fact, it was only for three days in October during the moose hunt that Bengt was unreachable. The best occasions to discuss physics and science with Bengt were between midnight and 2-3 in the morning in his office, when no phone calls or scheduled meetings disturbed the discussions.<br /><br /></div> <div>A part of Bengt's success and great importance for our department and Chalmers was his vision and ability to create interdisciplinary activities that included method development, connection to theoretical models and contacts between basic and applied research questions. Bengt was, for example, one of the founders of the Competence Center for Catalysis, which combined industry-oriented and research-driven research in the field of catalysis. Similarly, he conceived and led the Swedish Biomaterials Consortium, an interdisciplinary research and development program with industrial and academic partners. In the field of method development, he was very proud of his work on the QCM-D and indirect nanoplasmonic sensing techniques. Bengt was, moreover, a co-founder of several start-up companies that originated from basic research and method developments at Chemical Physics. Q-Sense and Insplorion are two successful examples.<br /><br /></div> <div>Bengt became professor emeritus in 2009, however, he continued to be active as a researcher and a member of IVA and KVA. He chaired, for example, the project at IVA and KVA that produced Energiboken. This is a popular science book that has been printed in 60,000 copies and is used in the education of high school teachers. Bengt published as late as September this year, a research paper with models for the spread of aerosol particles, as carriers of Covid-19 virus, through the atmosphere.</div> <div>Bengt was an honorary doctor at DTU and some of his awards include IVA's large gold medal, George Winter's award from the European Society for Biomaterials, Georg Engström's ASEA award for Energy Research and the Chalmers medal.<br /><br /></div> <div>We are many who are very grateful to have had the pleasure of working with Bengt and he will continue to influence the department and Chalmers. Six of his former students and postdocs are now a part of the faculty at Physics; Dinko Chakarov, Fredrik Höök, Julie Gold, Lars Hellberg, Christoph Langhammer and Björn Wickman. We are, of course, many more who have been inspired by Bengt's achievement as a researcher, research leader, mentor, teacher and coworker. He was a strong and kind person with a rich life. His friends will always remember his love for his family. Family, science and service to the society were the holy trinity in his life.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>On behalf of colleagues and friends at the Department of Physics</div> <div>Igor Zoric and Henrik Grönbeck</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A memorial for Bengt Kasemo will be arranged at Chalmers when circumstances allow us to meet in larger groups again.<br /><br />Photo: J-O Yxell​</div> <div><br /></div> Mon, 21 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-winning-idea-for-an-electric-and-sustainable-society.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-winning-idea-for-an-electric-and-sustainable-society.aspxA winning idea for an electric and sustainable society<p><b>​The new start-up Compular (formerly Svala Technologies), based on research from the Department of Physics at Chalmers, has been awarded the scholarship “Tänk: Om” by Göteborg Energi.</b></p>​The start-up develops a computational tool for analyzing molecular dynamics trajectories. The tool can be used in the development of new and better materials, such as electrolytes for the next generation of batteries, and thereby accelerate the transition towards a more sustainable society. <div><br /><div>The company is built upon the doctoral thesis work of Rasmus Andersson and Fabian Årén in Professor Patrik Johansson’s group at the Division of Material Physics. <span style="background-color:initial">Compular </span><span style="background-color:initial">is a Chalmers Ventures supported collaboration between the three researchers and three students at Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship: Emil Krutmeijer, Sirikun Loetsakwiman and Johannes Henriksson. </span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><br />The “Tänk: Om” award acknowledges sustainable ideas and projects. In total, six projects share SEK 702 000.​<br /><br /><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:10px"><span style="font-weight:700">Text:</span> Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se​​</a><br /></p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:10px"><a href="https://www.mynewsdesk.com/se/goteborg_energi/pressreleases/pressmeddelande-sex-haallbara-projekt-vinner-goeteborg-energis-haallbarhetsstipendium-taenk-om-3048592" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more about the six winning projects</a> (In Swedish)</p> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-bottom:10px"><a href="/en/departments/tme/school-of-entrepreneurship/technology-venture-creation/Pages/Current-Projects.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more on the project </a></p> <br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/750svalacollage.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br />Compular's founders: Rasmus Andersson, Fabian Årén, Patrik Johansson, <span style="background-color:initial"> Emil Krutmeijer, Sirikun Loetsakwiman and </span><span style="background-color:initial">Johannes Henriksson​.</span><br /></div></div>Wed, 11 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/They-received-grants-from-the-Swedish-Research-Council.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/They-received-grants-from-the-Swedish-Research-Council.aspxThey received grants from the Swedish Research Council<p><b>​​Eight researchers at the Department of Physics at Chalmers were successful in getting grants from The Swedish Research Council (VR) within natural and engineering sciences. Altogether they will receive SEK  29 145 000 in funding from 2020 to 2024. Congrats to Andreas Ekström, Paul Erhart, Henrik Grönbeck, Patrik Johansson, Mikael Käll, Eva Olsson, Philippe Tassin and Andrew Yankovich.</b></p><div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Projektbidrag</span></h2></div> <div><strong>Andreas Ekström </strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;Stark nukleonkraft: atomkärnors kvantmekaniska egenskaper och neutronstjärnors tillståndsekvation&quot;</span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">SEK 3 565 000 </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Paul Erhart</strong></div> <div>&quot;Fasbeteende och elektroniska egenskaper hos halogenid-perovskiter från simulering på atomskala&quot;</div> <div> SEK 4 200 000 <br /><br /></div> <div><strong>Henrik Grönbeck</strong></div> <div>&quot;Adaptiv beräkningskatalys över tids- och längdskalor&quot;</div> <div> SEK 3 280 000<br /> </div> <div><strong>Patrik Johansson</strong></div> <div>&quot;Elektrolyter för Metallorganiska Multivalenta Batterier&quot;</div> <div> SEK  3 400 000 </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Mikael Käll</strong></div> <div>&quot;Optotermisk Marangonikonvektion och sensorik på nanoskala&quot;</div> <div>SEK 4 000 000<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>Eva Olsson</strong></div> <div>&quot;Kontroll av optiska och elektriska egenskaper hos mono- och fåtal lager av tvådimensionella material genom mekanisk töjning&quot;</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">SEK 3 400 000</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Philippe Tassin</strong></div> <div>&quot;Utveckling av nya fotoniska metaytor med hjälp av artificiell intelligens&quot;</div> <div> SEK  3 700 000 </div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Etableringsbidrag: </h2> <div><strong>Andrew Yankovich</strong></div> <div>&quot;Visualisering av stark växelverkan mellan ljus och materia genom NEX-GEN-STEM&quot;</div> <div> SEK  3 600 000 </div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/news/Pages/43-Chalmers-researchers-receive-funding-for-more-research.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read a news article on all the granted researchers at Chalmers and learn more on Phillippe Tassin’s research project: </a></div> <div><br /></div>Wed, 04 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/The-importance-of-good-neighbours-in-catalysis.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/The-importance-of-good-neighbours-in-catalysis.aspxThe importance of good neighbours in catalysis<p><b>Are you affected by your neighbours? So are nanoparticles in catalysts. New research from Chalmers, published in the journals Science Advances and Nature Communications, reveals how the nearest neighbours determine how well nanoparticles work in a catalyst.​​​</b></p><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/400_ChristophLanghammerfarg.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:197px;width:150px" /></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">“T</span><span style="background-color:initial">he long-term goal of the research is to be able to identify ‘super-particles’, to contribute to more efficient catalysts in the future. To utilise the resources better than today, we also want as many particles as possible to be actively participating in the catalytic reaction at the same time,” says research leader Christoph Langhammer at the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology.</span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /><br /></span><div>Imagine a large group of neighbours gathered together to clean a communal courtyard. They set about their work, each contributing to the group effort. The only problem is that not everyone is equally active. While some work hard and efficiently, others stroll around, chatting and drinking coffee. If you only looked at the end result, it would be difficult to know who worked the most, and who simply relaxed. To determine that, you w​ould need to monitor each person throughout the day. The same applies to the activity of metallic nanoparticles in a catalyst. <br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>The possibility to study which particle</span><span>s do what, and when</span></h2></div> <div><div>Inside a catalyst several particles affect how effective the reactions are. Some of the particles in the crowd are effective, while others are inactive. But the particles are often hidden within different ‘pores’, much like in a sponge, and are therefore difficult to study.</div> <div>To be able to see what is really happening inside a catalyst pore, the researchers from Chalmers University of Technology isolated a handful of copper particles in a transparent glass nanotube. When several are gathered together in the small gas-filled pipe, it becomes possible to study which particles do what, and when, in real conditions.</div> <div>​<br /></div></div> <div></div> <div><div>What happens in the tube is that the particles come into contact with an inflowing gas mixture of oxygen and carbon monoxide. When these substances react with each other on the surface of the copper particles, carbon dioxide is formed. It is the same reaction that happens when exhaust gases are purified in a car’s catalytic converter, except there particles of platinum, palladium and rhodium are often used to break down toxic carbon monoxide, instead of copper. But these metals are expensive and scarce, so researchers are looking for more resource-efficient alternatives.</div> <br /></div> <div><span style="font-family:bitter, serif;font-size:18px;background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/400_DavidAlbinsson.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:150px;height:197px" /></span><span style="background-color:initial">“Copper can be an interesting candidate for oxidising carbon monoxide. The challenge is that copper has a tendency to change itself during the reaction, and we need to be able to measure what oxidation state a copper particle has when it is most active inside the catalyst. With our nanoreactor, which mimics a pore inside a real catalyst, this will now be possible,” says David Albinsson, Postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Physics at Chalmers and first author of two scientific articles recently published in Science Advances and Nature Communications.</span></div> <div><span></span><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2" style="font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif">Optimised neighbourly cooperation can save resources<span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px">​​ ​</span></h2> <span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​Anyon</span><span style="background-color:initial">e who has seen an old copper rooftop or statue will recognise how the reddish-brown metal soon turns green after contact with the air and pollutants. A similar thing happens with the copper particles in the catalysts. It is therefore important to get them to work together in an effective way.​</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“What we have shown now is that the oxidation state of a particle can be dynamically affected by its nearest neighbours during the reaction. The hope therefore is that eventually we can save resources with the help of optimised neighbourly cooperation in a catalyst,” says Christoph Langhammer, Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.<br /></span> <br /></div> <div><b>Text:</b> Mia Halleröd Palmgren and Joshua Worth</div> <div><b>Portrait pictures: </b>Henrik Sandsjö (Christoph Langhammer) Helén Rosenfeldt (David Albinsson)</div> <div><strong>Illustrations:</strong> David Albinsson</div> <div><div><br /><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2" style="font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif">More on the scientific publications​: </h2> <div><ul><li>The article <a href="https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/25/eaba7678">Operando detection of single nanoparticle activity dynamics inside a model pore catalyst material​</a> is written by David Albinsson, Stephan Bartling, Sara Nilsson, Henrik Ström, Joachim Fritzsche and Christoph Langhammer, and has been published in the scientific journal Science Advances. The researchers are active at the Department of Physics and the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers University of Technology, as well as at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, NTNU) in Trondheim, Norway.<br /><br /></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">The article </span><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18623-1">Copper catalysis at operando conditions—bridging the gap between single nanoparticle probing and catalyst-bed-averaging​</a><span style="background-color:initial"> </span>is written by David Albinsson, Astrid Boje, Sara Nilsson, Christopher Tiburski, Anders Hellman, Henrik Ström and Christoph Langhammer and was recently published in the scientific journal Nature Communications. The researchers are active at the Department of Physics and the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers, as well as at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, (NTNU), in Trondheim, Norway.</li></ul></div></div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/750x340_llustration2.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /></div> <br />Tue, 03 Nov 2020 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/43-Chalmers-researchers-receive-funding-for-more-research.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/43-Chalmers-researchers-receive-funding-for-more-research.aspx43 Chalmers researchers receive funding for more research<p><b>​​43 Chalmers researchers have now learned about new grants after the Swedish Research Council published the successful applications. The Swedish Research Council will distribute a total of SEK 1.1 billion in natural and engineering sciences. The grants are for the period up to 2024.</b></p><div>​​<span style="background-color:initial">The Council’s funding mostly goes to research in biology, physics and chemistry, which receives nearly half of the research grants. The information released by the Swedish Research Council in the last week of October revealed that SEK 149 million of this year’s project grants will go to researchers at Chalmers. </span></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Here is the reaction of four of the 43 Chalmers researchers who have had their projects and research funded.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Philippe Tassin, Department of Physics</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What is your project about?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>We want to use artificial intelligence in the development of nanophotonics, which is about how light can be used in various ways. Computer algorithms that can identify patterns in large volumes of data have advanced greatly in recent years. For example, neural networks, which function in a similar way to the human brain. Technology is as good as or better than people at things like face recognition or driving cars. We want to use similar algorithms to design metasurfaces, optical components that are much thinner than a hair. Using neural networks, we will design new metasurfaces with shapes that we cannot even imagine that will have entirely new optical properties. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Why is it important to research this?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The big challenge with photonic metasurfaces is that extremely powerful calculations are needed to find the structure that gives rise to a metasurface with the desirable properties. Even the most powerful computers in the world are often inadequate. Using neural networks, we will be able to develop new optical components, for example metasurfaces for optical tweezers that make it possible to hold and move small objects like cells and viruses with just light. Metasurfaces that are good at absorbing light can give us better solar cells, and thin optical membranes with extremely high reflection may be an important component of the quantum computers of the future.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Elin Esbjörner, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What is your project about?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are examples of common diseases that break down the brain. A typical characteristic of the diseases is that abnormal protein lumps are formed in the regions of the brain affected. This is linked to neuronal cell death. The protein lumps consist of fibres – amyloid fibrils. Previous research has taught us much about how they are formed and the focus has been on stopping the formation of fibrils and neutralising small protein lumps (oligomers) which have been shown to be particularly dangerous to the brain. Our previous research into the Parkinson’s protein alpha synuclein showed that fragments of fibrils are more toxic than long fibrils.  Consequently, this project will focus instead on the fibrils that have already been formed. We want to study how stable they are, the circumstances under which they can be broken down and whether unstable fibrils are more dangerous to the brain than stable fibrils. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Why is it important to research this?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>There are currently around 160,000 dementia sufferers in Sweden, and around 20,000 people with Parkinson’s. It is expected that, in the future, more than 50% of Swedes may suffer from a neurodegenerative disease. So we need better medicines. Our aim is to map the factors that control the stability of the fibrils to see whether stabilisation of fibrils could be a successful treatment strategy for Parkinson’s and other neurodegenerative diseases.  </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Riccardo Arpaia, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What is your project about?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>A superconducting material has infinite electrical conductivity at very low temperatures. The discovery of high-temperature superconductors in 1986 showed that a material can be superconducting at temperatures above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (-196°C). But no one has yet been able to explain why. It is obvious that we need an entirely new type of experiment to understand the mechanism behind high-temperature superconductivity. We want to solve the mystery by focusing on the charge order in these materials and its role in determining the properties of a material. Using experiments with synchrotron light, which makes it possible to measure the charge order of unique samples, we will check how the charge order can be changed by varying certain parameters such as mechanical strain and confinement.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <strong> </strong><div><strong> </strong></div> <strong> </strong><div><strong> </strong></div> <strong> </strong><div><strong> </strong></div> <strong> </strong><div><strong>Why is it important to research this?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The unique electrical conductivity of superconductors, in which resistance and energy losses are zero, permits many technical applications. However, as superconductors require very low temperatures, they have to be cooled with liquid helium, which makes them expensive and difficult to use. The discovery of high-temperature superconductors was a great boost for superconductor research as, for the first time, it was enough to use liquid nitrogen to maintain the superconducting state. A superconductor that can function close to room temperature would have enormous potential. Consequently, there is great interest in improving understanding of how high-temperature superconductors work.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Ross King, Department of Biology and Biological Engineering</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What is your project about?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>We aim to develop an AI system, Genesis, to automate the understanding of human cells. Genesis is a robot scientist, a laboratory system using artificial intelligence to perform automated repetitions of scientific experiments. The robot scientist creates hypotheses, selects effective experiments to distinguish between hypotheses, conducts experiments by using automated laboratory equipment and analyses the results. Genesis will have the capacity to perform 10,000 parallel cycles to create and test hypotheses. Our robot scientist will work with yeast cells. Most elements of yeast function as in humans, but yeast cells are much easier to work with. It is also easier to understand the mechanisms in yeast. So to find out how human cells function, it is best to understand how yeast functions first.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Why is it important to research this?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>AI systems have superhuman powers that supplement the work of human researchers. They are able to remember a large number of facts without errors, execute logical arguments without mistakes, execute almost optimum probability arguments, learn from large volumes of data, extract information from millions of scientific journals, etc. These powers mean that AI has the potential to change science and, via science, to make a difference in society, for example through better technology, better medicines and higher food safety. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Here are all researchers at Chalmers University of Technology who was granted funding – sorted by department<span style="font-family:inherit;background-color:initial">:</span></h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering:</strong> Eleni Gerolymatou</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Department of Biology and Biological Engineering: </strong>Elin Esbjörner, Ross King, Johan Larsbrink, Ivan Mijakovic, Mikael Molin, Lisbeth Olsson, Santosh Pandit, Fredrik Westerlund</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering:</strong> Maria Abrahamsson, Martin Andersson, Ronnie Andersson, Ann-Sofie Cans, Bengt Nordén, Martin Rahm, Xiaoyan Zhang </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Department of Computer Science and Engineering:</strong> Robert Feldt, Morten Fjeld, Miquel Pericas, Alejandro Russo</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Department of Electrical Engineering:</strong> Alexandre Graell i Amat, Christian Häger, Max Ortiz Catalan</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Department of Industrial and Materials Science:</strong> Kenneth Runesson</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Department of Mathematical Sciences:</strong> Annika Lang, Hjalmar Rosengren</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience:</strong> Riccardo Arpaia, <span style="background-color:initial">Thilo Bauch,</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">Attila Geresdi, Helena Rodilla, Elsebeth Schröder, Victor Torres Company</span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/They-received-grants-from-the-Swedish-Research-Council.aspx" target="_blank">Department of Physics:​</a></strong> Andreas Ekström, Paul Erhart, Henrik Grönbeck, Patrik Johansson, Mikael Käll, Eva Olsson, Philippe Tassin, Andrew Yankovich</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Department of Space, Earth and Environment:</strong> Tobias Mattisson, Pär Strand, Wouter Vlemmings</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="https://www.vr.se/download/18.5802420e174c82affbb2384/1603960808173/Lista_beviljade_bidrag_NT%202020.xlsx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icxlsx.png" alt="" />The full list of research grants is available on the website of the Swedish Research Council</a></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><span style="font-weight:700">Text:</span> Anita Fors<br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Photo:</span> <span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">Johan Bodell, Martina Butorac</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">och Anna-Lena Lundgren.​</span></div></div> <div> </div> <div> </div>Tue, 03 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Magic-chemical-makes-perfect-edges-in-2D-materials.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Magic-chemical-makes-perfect-edges-in-2D-materials.aspxHow to make perfect edges in 2D-materials<p><b>Ultrathin materials such as graphene promise a revolution in nanoscience and technology. Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have now made an important advance within the field. In a recent paper in Nature Communications they present a method for controlling the edges of two-dimensional materials using a ‘magic’ chemical.</b></p><div><div>​</div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/500_Battulga%20Munkhbat-200924.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:166px;width:130px" /><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">Our method makes it possible to control the edges – atom by atom – in a way that is both easy and scalable, using only mild heating together with abundant, environmentally friendly chemicals, such as hydrogen peroxide,” says Battulga Munkhbat, a postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology, and first author of the paper. </span><div><br /></div> <div>Materials as thin as just a single atomic layer are known as two-dimensional, or 2D, materials. The most well-known example is graphene, as well molybdenum disulphide, its semiconductor analogue. Future developments within the field could benefit from studying one particular characteristic inherent to such materials – their edges. </div> <div>Controlling the edges is a challenging scientific problem, because they are very different in comparison to the main body of a 2D material. For example, a specific type of edge found in transition metal dichalcogenides (known as TMD’s, such as the aforementioned molybdenum disulphide), can have magnetic and catalytic properties. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Typical TMD materials have edges which can exist in two distinct variants, known as zigzag or armchair. These alternatives are so different that their physical and chemical properties are not at all alike. For instance, calculations predict that zigzag edges are metallic and ferromagnetic, whereas armchair edges are semiconducting and non-magnetic. Similar to these remarkable variations in physical properties, one could expect that chemical properties of zigzag and armchair edges are also very different. If so, it could be possible that certain chemicals might ‘dissolve’ armchair edges, while leaving zigzag ones unaffected. </span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>Now, such a ‘magic’ chemical is exactly what the Chalmers researchers have found – in the form of ordinary hydrogen peroxide. At first, the researchers were completely surprised by the new results. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“It was not only that one type of edge was dominant over the others, but also that the resulting edges were extremely sharp – nearly atomically sharp. This indicates that the ‘magic’ chemical operates in a so-called self-limiting manner, removing unwanted material atom-by-atom, eventually resulting in edges at the atomically sharp limit. The resulting patterns followed the crystallographic orientation of the original TMD material, producing beautiful, atomically sharp hexagonal nanostructures,” says Battulga Munkhbat.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The new method, which includes a combination of standard top-down lithographic methods with a new anisotropic wet etching process, therefore makes it possible to create perfect edges in two-dimensional materials.</div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Timur%20Shegai-webb_NY.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:166px;width:130px" /></div> <div>​<br /><div>“This method opens up new and unprecedented possibilities for van der Waals materials (layered 2D materials). We can now combine edge physics with 2D physics in one single material. It is an extremely fascinating development,” says Timur Shegai, Associate Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers and leader of the research project. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>These and other related materials often attract significant research attention, as they enable crucial advances within in nanoscience and technology, with potential applications ranging from quantum electronics to new types of nano-devices. These hopes are manifested in the Graphene Flagship, Europe’s biggest ever research initiative, which is coordinated by Chalmers University of Technology. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>To make the new technology available to research laboratories and high-tech companies, the researchers have founded <a href="http://www.smena-tech.com/">a start-up company ​</a>that offers high quality atomically sharp TMD materials. The researchers also plan to further develop applications for these atomically sharp metamaterials.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Mia Halleröd Palmgren and Joshua Worth</div> <div><strong>Portrait pictures: </strong>Anna-Lena Lundqvist</div> <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-10/cuot-cpe101620.php"><div><br /></div> <div><div><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release and download high resolution images.​​​​</div></div></a></div> <div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on the publication </h2> <div>The paper <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18428-2">Transition metal dichalcogenide metamaterials with atomic precision​</a> recently appeared in Nature Communications The article is written by Battulga Munkhbat, Andrew Yankovich, Denis Baranov, Ruggero Verre, Eva Olsson and Timur Shegai at the Department of Physics at Chalmers. </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>For more information, please contact: </span></h2></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Battulga-Munkhbat.aspx">Battulga Munkhbat</a>, Post Doc, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 73 995 34 79, <a href="mailto:battulga@chalmers.se">battulga@chalmers.se​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Timur-Shegai.aspx">Timur Shegai</a>, Associate Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 31 772 31 23, <a href="mailto:timurs@chalmers.se">timurs@chalmers.se</a></div> </div>Mon, 19 Oct 2020 06:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/International-award-to-Chalmers-physicist.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/International-award-to-Chalmers-physicist.aspxInternational award to Chalmers physicist<p><b>​Chalmers Professor Björn Jonson has been awarded the prestigious Lise Meitner Prize by the European Physical Society (EPS). It is awarded to one or more researchers who have made outstanding contributions to nuclear science. ​​​​​</b></p><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Bjorn-Jonson.aspx">​​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/Bjorn_Jonson_180330_Portratt_webb_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:174px;font-weight:300;width:200px" /><span style="font-weight:300;background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">​Björn Jonson</span>​</a><span style="background-color:initial"> has been engaged in research at Chalmers since 1967. His dynamic work is of fundamental </span><span style="background-color:initial">importance for the study of the nuclear structure and stability focused on exotic light halo nuclei at the </span><span style="background-color:initial">boundaries of nuclear stability. He is elected member of several academies of science and his work has been recognized internationally. He is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and was for seven years a member of the Nobel Committee for Physics. </span><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Russian-Great-Gold-Medal-to-Chalmers-professor-.aspx">In 2018 he received the highest award of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - the Great Gold Medal named after the Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov. ​</a><div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span><div>Over the years, Björn Jonson has conducted research at CERN in Switzerland. CERN is one of the world's most powerful particle accelerator facilities. For almost two decades Jonson contributed to the successful development of the scientific programme at the ISOLDE research facility, for which he was scientific group leader for seven years. <br /><br /></div> <div>“I’m very happy to see all the successful work performed at the facility today. It’s also nice to receive a prize in honor of the prominent nuclear physicist Lise Meitner. In recent years, I have been engaged in various activities to highlight her contributions to nuclear science,” says Björn Jonson, Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology. <br /><br /></div> <div>Björn Jonson has been one of the driving forces behind designating the “Lise Meitner House” in Kungälv (close to Gothenburg) a European Physical Historical site. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Björn Jonson receives the Lise Meitner award 2020 for his development and application of on-line instrumentation and techniques, his precise and systematic investigation of properties of nuclei far from stability, and for shaping the scientific program at the on-line isotope separator facility ISOLDE, CERN.</div> <div>Björn Jonson shares the award for 2020 with Klaus Blaum, Heidelberg, and Piet Van Duppen, Leuven. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial">Text: </strong><span style="background-color:initial">Mia Halleröd Palmgren, </span><a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se</a><span style="background-color:initial"> and</span><br /></div> <div>Göran Nyman, <a href="mailto:goran.nyman@chalmers.se">goran.nyman@chalmers.se</a><br /><span style="font-weight:700">Image:</span> Elena Puzynina, JINR<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>About the Lise Metiner Prize:</strong></div> <div>The Lise Meitner Prize is given biennially by the Nuclear Physics Division of the European Physical Society. It is awarded to one or more researchers who have made outstanding contributions to nuclear science. Such contributions may comprise experimental nuclear physics, theoretical nuclear physics and all areas of application of nuclear science. The prize consists of a Medal and a Diploma, in addition to a cash award. </div> <div>The award ceremony of the Lise Meitner Prize 2020 will take place during the ISOLDE workshop on 26 November 2020 as an online event.  ​</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://www.eps.org/blogpost/751263/357282/2020-Lise-Meitner-Prize-to-Klaus-Blaum-Bjorn-Jonson-Piet-Van-Duppen"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more on the Lise Meitner Prize 2020 on EPS' web site.  </a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/person/bjn" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more on Björn Jonson’s research</a></div> <div><a href="https://home.cern/science/experiments/isolde" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Learn more on ISOLDE, CERN</a></div> <div><a href="http://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-new-EPS-historic-site-in-Sweden.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read a news article on the inauguration of the “Lise Meitner House” as an EPS historic site (2016)</a></div> </div> ​Thu, 08 Oct 2020 15:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Major-grant-to-explore-heavy-element-creation-in-neutron-star-mergers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Major-grant-to-explore-heavy-element-creation-in-neutron-star-mergers.aspxExploring heavy element creation in neutron-star mergers<p><b>Violent collisions of neutron stars are believed to be the origin of, for example, gold and platinum. Now, subatomic physicists at Chalmers will explore how such heavy elements are formed. In a new project, granted SEK 29.6 million in funding from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, they will perform novel experiments to understand how the laws of subatomic physics influence the collision of neutron stars. ​​​​</b></p><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/350x305Andreas%20Heinz-200924.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:250px;height:218px" /><div>“Recent breakthroughs in astronomical observations, especially the detection of gravitational waves, together with advances in instrumentation for subatomic physics experiments offer unique research opportunities.  We will be able to understand how nuclear fission impacts the creation of heavy elements in the collision of neutron stars. <br />I am thrilled to be a part of this endeavor and grateful to the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation for making this research possible,” says Andreas H​einz, Associate Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers. <br /><br /></div> <div>Together with Doctor Håkan T. Johansson and Professor Thomas Nilsson, he will investigate how the laws of the subatomic world, and in particular nuclear fission, influence the creation of heavy elements in the universe. For five years, the Chalmers researchers will carry out innovative experiments at the European research facility CERN in Switzerland.<br /><br /></div> <div>“To understand how heavy elements are formed, astronomical observations alone are not sufficient. It is also necessary to understand the underlying nuclear physics processes caused by a high flux of neutrons,” says Andreas Heinz, leader of the recently founded project. <br /><br /></div> <div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/press/total-sek-541-million-granted-18-research-projects-sweden">In total, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation has granted SEK 541 million to 18 outstanding basic research projects in medicine, science and technology that are considered to have the possibility to lead to future scientific breakthroughs. ​</a><br /><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/news/Pages/Large-grants-enables-new-cutting-edge-research.aspx">Out of the 18 projects, three will be conducted at Chalmers​</a>. At the Department of Physics, <a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Bright-prospects-for-revolutionary-optics-research.aspx">Professor Mikael Käll will lead a project on light sources of the future</a>. At the Department of Space, Earth and Environment, <a href="/en/departments/see/news/Pages/KAW-grant-cosmic-dust.aspx">Professor Kirsten Kraiberg Knudsen will lead a project on the origin and fate of dust in the universe.​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Mia Halleröd Palmgren</div> <div><strong>Portrait photo:</strong> Anna-Lena Lundqvist</div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More about the project and the financier</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The research project &quot;Creation of heavy elements in neutron-star mergers&quot; has been granted SEK 29,600,000 for five years by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.</span><br /></div> <div>The project is led by<a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Andreas-Heinz.aspx"> Andreas Heinz​,​</a> Associate Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers. Professor <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Thomas-Nilsson.aspx">Thomas Nilsson</a> and Doctor <a href="/en/staff/Pages/Håkan-T-Johansson.aspx">Håkan T. Johansson​</a>, both from the same department, are also participating in the project. <a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en" style="outline:0px">The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation</a> is Sweden's largest private research funder and one of the largest in Europe.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What is a neutron star?</strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">A neutron star is the remaining core of a star, which had about 10-20 times the mass of the sun. The core of such a star collapses once it runs out of material for nuclear fusion. Infalling matter bounces back from the extremely dense core, leading to a supernova explosion. The remaining core forms a neutron star with a density as high, or higher, than that of an atomic nucleus – with masses similar to those of the sun within a sphere of a few kilometers in diameter. The exact composition of neutron stars is not known. They are, short of black holes, the densest known objects in the universe.</span></div></div> Wed, 30 Sep 2020 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Bright-prospects-for-revolutionary-optics-research.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Bright-prospects-for-revolutionary-optics-research.aspxBright prospects for revolutionary optics research<p><b>The light sources of the future can be created with the help of lasers and artificial surfaces - meta surfaces - thinner than a wavelength of light. Optics research is facing a revolutionary development. Researchers at Chalmers are at the forefront in this field and have been granted more than SEK 38 million in funding from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. ​</b></p><div>Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) are becoming the laser of choice for a rapidly increasing number of applications, including optical communication and 3D sensing for smart phones and autonomous vehicles. <br /><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/350x305MikaelKall_200924.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:171px;width:200px" /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">“By combining world-leading expertise on VCSEL and nanophotonics research, we take on the challenge of </span><span style="background-color:initial">merging the fields of semiconductor laser technology and flat optics based on 2D nanophotonic metasurfaces to realize monolithic metasurface emitting lasers (MELs). We believe that this new miniaturized light source will be so powerful, versatile, compact, cost- and energy-effcient that it will have disruptive and generic impact on photonics across a huge range of fields and applications,” says Professor Mikael Käll at the Department of Physics at Chalmers and Principal Investigator of the project “Metasurface-Emitting Lasers: Tomorrows Light Sources for Applied Photonics”. </span></div> <div><div><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/METAYTA_WEBB.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:330px;height:246px" /><span style="background-color:initial">With the help of the new technology, the researchers can control light in sophisticated ways.  For example, metasurface emitting lasers could be used to create light fields for optical sensing in three dimensions, to generate extremely strong laser beams and for applications within biophotonics. </span><br /></div> <div>Mikael Käll and his research colleagues in the project have expertise in nanooptics, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, optical calculation methods, and biophotonics. Furthermore, they have access to world-leading infrastructure at Chalmers.<br /><br /></div> <div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/press/total-sek-541-million-granted-18-research-projects-sweden">In total, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation has granted SEK 541 million to 18 outstanding basic research projects in medicine, science and technology that are considered to have the opportunity to lead to future scientific breakthroughs. ​</a><br /><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/news/Pages/Large-grants-enables-new-cutting-edge-research.aspx">Out of the 18 projects, three will be conducted at Chalmers.​</a> At the Department of Physics, <a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Major-grant-to-explore-heavy-element-creation-in-neutron-star-mergers.aspx">Associate Professor Andreas Heinz will lead a project about the creation of heavy elements in neutron-star mergers</a>. At the Department of Space, Earth and Environment,<a href="/en/departments/see/news/Pages/KAW-grant-cosmic-dust.aspx"> Professor Kirsten Kraiberg Knudsen will lead a project on the origin and fate of dust in our universe​</a>. <br /><br /><div><span style="font-weight:700">Text: </span>Mia Halleröd Palmgren</div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Portrait photo:</span> Anna-Lena Lundqvist​<br /><strong>Image:</strong> Daniel Andrén <span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">-​ </span><span style="background-color:initial">Section of a metalens fabricated in the cleanroom at </span><span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers.</span></div> <span></span><div></div> <br /><span></span><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on the project and the financier:</h2> <div>The research project &quot;Metasurface-Emitting Lasers: Tomorrows Light Sources for Applied Photonics” has been granted SEK 38,100,000 over five years by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.</div> <div>Professor <a href="/en/staff/Pages/Mikael-Käll.aspx">Mikael Käll</a> is the Principal Investigator of the project and the work will be carried out in collaboration with Professor <a href="/en/staff/Pages/Åsa-Haglund.aspx">Åsa Haglund​</a>, Professor <a href="/en/staff/Pages/Anders-Larsson.aspx">Anders Larsson</a>, Associate Professor <a href="/en/staff/Pages/Philippe-Tassin.aspx">Philippe Tassin</a> and Associate Professor <a href="/en/staff/Pages/Ruggero-Verre.aspx">Ruggero Verre</a>. </div> <div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en">The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation​</a> is Sweden's largest private research funder and one of the largest in Europe.</div></div></div> ​Wed, 30 Sep 2020 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Generating-an-ultrafast-train-of-promising-X-ray-pulses.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Generating-an-ultrafast-train-of-promising-X-ray-pulses.aspxGenerating an ultrafast train of promising X-ray pulses<p><b>​High-intensity X-ray sources are essential diagnostic tools for science, technology and medicine. Such X-ray sources can be produced in laser-plasma accelerators, where electrons emit short-wavelength radiation due to their betatron oscillations in the plasma wake of a laser pulse.</b></p><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://rdcu.be/b7G9o">In a recent paper, published in Scientific reports,​</a> Vojtěch Horný and Tünde Fülöp at the Department of Physics at Chalmers, present a way to generate an ultrafast “attosecond betatron radiation pulse train”. </span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span><div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span><span></span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/170x170px/170x170_VojtechHorny.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div><span style="background-color:initial">​“It improves the resolution of diagnostics techniques based on betatron radiation by an order of magnitude. The promising applications include the X-ray absorption spectroscopy of warm dense matter or the scanning of fundamental processes such as chemical reactions and phase transitions occurring at the timescale of femtoseconds,” says researcher Vojtěch Horný at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.<br /><br /><div>Betatron radiation is the hard X-rays which are emitted by electrons accelerated at the plasma wave after the intense laser interaction with a gaseous target. The researchers modified such a scheme by adding another delayed laser pulse, which separates the accelerated electron bunch into a series of equidistant micro-bunches.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>As a result, the emitted betatron radiation is modulated as well and can thus be interpreted as a train of the attosecond X-ray pulses - separated by the half of the modulator pulse wavelength</div> <div>The new results are published in collaboration with colleagues in the Czech Republic and China. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial;font-weight:700"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial;font-weight:700">Text: </span><span style="background-color:initial">Mia Halleröd Palmgren​</span></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>For more information, please contact: </span></h2> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Vojtech-Horny.aspx">Vojtěch Horný</a> , Researcher, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technolgy, <a href="mailto:vojtech.horny@chalmers.se">vojtech.horny@chalmers.se ​</a><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Tünde-Fülöp.aspx"><span>Tünde Fülöp,​</span> </a>Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, </span><a href="mailto:tunde.fulop@chalmers.se">tunde.fulop@chalmers.se</a></div></div></span></div></div>Thu, 24 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0200