News: Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskaphttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyThu, 13 Feb 2020 08:14:18 +0100http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Making-the-internet-more-energy-efficient-through-systemic-optimisation.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Making-the-internet-more-energy-efficient-through-systemic-optimisation.aspxMaking the internet more energy efficient<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers ​recently completed a 5-year research project looking at how to make fibre optic communications systems more energy efficient. Among their proposals are smart, error-correcting data chip circuits, which they refined to be 10 times less energy consumptive. The project has yielded multiple scientific articles, in publications including Nature Communications.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Streaming films and music, scrolling through social media, and using cloud-based storage services are everyday activities now. But to accommodate this digital lifestyle, a huge amount of data needs to be transmitted through fibre optic cables – and that amount is increasing at an almost unimaginable rate, consuming an enormous amount of electricity. This is completely unsustainable – at the current rate of increase, if no energy efficiency gains were made, within ten years the internet alone would consume more electricity than is currently generated worldwide. The electricity production cannot be increased at the same rate without massively increasing the usage of fossil fuels for electricity generation, which of course would lead to a significant increase in carbon dioxide emissions.</span><div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Smarta%20datachips%20del%20av%20lösningen%20för%20att%20göra%20internet%20energisnålare/Peter-Andrekson_250x333px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Peter Andrekson" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:263px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">“The challenge lies in meeting that inevitable demand for capacity and performance, while keeping costs at a reasonable level and minimising the environmental impacts,” says Peter Andrekson, Professor of Photonics at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience at Chalmers.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Peter Andrekson was the leader of the 5-year research project <a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=5914" target="_blank">‘Energy-efficient optical fibre communication’</a>, which has contributed significant advances to the field.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the early phase of the project, the Chalmers researchers identified the biggest energy drains in today's fibre optic systems. With this knowledge, they then designed and built a concept for a system for data transmission which consumes as little energy as possible. Optimising the components of the system against each other results in significant energy savings.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Currently, some of the most energy-intensive components are error-correction data chips, which are used in optical systems to compensate for noise and interference. The Chalmers researchers have now succeeded in designing these chips with optimised circuits.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Smarta%20datachips%20del%20av%20lösningen%20för%20att%20göra%20internet%20energisnålare/Per-Larsson-Edefors_250x333px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Per Larsson-Edefors" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:263px" />“Our measurements show that the energy consumption of our refined chips is around 10 times less than conventional error-correcting chips,” says Per Larsson-Edefors, Professor in Computer Engineering at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At a systemic level, the researchers also demonstrated the advantages of using ‘optical frequency combs’ instead of having separate laser transmitters for each frequency channel. An optical frequency comb emits light at all wavelengths simultaneously, making the transmitter very frequency-stable. This makes reception of the signals much easier – and thus more energy efficient.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Energy savings can also be made through controlling fibre optic communications at the network level. By mathematically modelling the energy consumption in different network resources, data traffic can be controlled and directed so that the resources are utilised optimally. This is especially valuable if traffic varies over time, as is the case in most networks. For this, the researchers developed an optimisation algorithm which can reduce network energy consumption by up to 70%.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The recipe for these successes has been the broad approach of the project, with scientists from three different research areas collaborating to find the most energy-saving overall solution possible, without sacrificing system performance.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Smarta%20datachips%20del%20av%20lösningen%20för%20att%20göra%20internet%20energisnålare/Erik-Agrell_250x333px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Erik Agrell" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:263px" />These research breakthroughs offer great potential for making the internet of the future considerably more energy-efficient. Several scientific articles have been published in the three research disciplines of optical hardware, electronics systems and communication networks.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Improving the energy efficiency of data transmission requires multidisciplinary competence. The challenges lie at the meeting points between optical hardware, communications science, electronic engineering and more. That’s why this project has been so successful”, says Erik Agrell, Professor in Communications Systems at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>More on the research</strong></div> <div>The research could have huge potential to make future internet usage significantly more energy efficient. It has resulted in several research publications within the three scientific disciplines of optical hardware, electronics systems and communications networks.The research results have been published in multiple articles, including the following three:</div> <div><ul><li><a href="http://postman.mynewsdesk.com/wf/click?upn=jT4ao6EIWq-2B-2Fx9SECyWO4-2F3NrlX2-2Fnm4FQcveXCi43isecyOuYW7oWnBr4foZiiDxPTbB82z7TI6BXHyW07hfQ-3D-3D_X6nVGqSMdJTrz-2FI1LxXG5p2migGMf1WazWDFt93-2FtiI1gYqAxvDcGyKwx2VSvp2QlDC8zwl-2FiQ3z2nU-2FDvBfcCXNBfSZya5hShDiF8z08wfY7Q-2FR1Jl97JC9YEVeNAuUKw8A6Hg9HFJqED33HyC6X-2FPdIthmPed6oD5We0Cz87flAJm27k78v9LfPFamfc6duUGlnbrgzUumapYLt9CqXRkCTRLkkbhfMNmxjd1h7iXQb-2BOPNzQT4bZTPmb1ZIjaOFnwDCQE5HLYh3Mri-2BWrjHOC4kzMhCIBi1-2FNW8vRW76K7Tk7QGjX780n-2BSbUF7FlOtYLygDDS4wPuoHqi3RKntryQc11wS-2B7ixuLgOjOpxfR0LworYeAvjl6WCn-2F7MRPmR9TqGwYnOmpd8PUhD68XM-2BE0bkDD309Y4u6oF0oqFYVv7m0PMWSqA7I-2Fumtm0si">Phase-coherent lightwave communications with frequency combs</a>, in the journal Nature Communications</li> <li><a href="http://postman.mynewsdesk.com/wf/click?upn=jT4ao6EIWq-2B-2Fx9SECyWO476aL63ZsrzN6XM2ZyLUkt4LVCzdaMF6a-2BbtzhvUwUNAPg5CrkovkVIZl32zUyuVDA-3D-3D_X6nVGqSMdJTrz-2FI1LxXG5p2migGMf1WazWDFt93-2FtiI1gYqAxvDcGyKwx2VSvp2QlDC8zwl-2FiQ3z2nU-2FDvBfcCXNBfSZya5hShDiF8z08wfY7Q-2FR1Jl97JC9YEVeNAuUKw8A6Hg9HFJqED33HyC6X-2FPdIthmPed6oD5We0Cz87flAJm27k78v9LfPFamfc6duUGlnbrgzUumapYLt9CqXaMOvQXSbSnPVHd7JGZmXlLnNRGpyxYUzDnnGBpduNzYe59Jypgq3i2XlfcsP3jyAOgvphzUmCJDC0Doc3P2lWApRkWgPn53L8Xv7KLoBaBTMKdagQ-2BJt-2FYg3iMSvkdvxHKZEyxe0Bbwdd9j-2Fon9v3dZ9qXSGo6nPuhjSydnrT4zt4i7YlM7aHkKlCOiYXwIrd7fIJjwM0w79a51f3XNP6B5K-2FV-2FLX0I5BKZjP6Hha7Q" target="_blank">Energy-Efficient High-Throughput VLSI Architectures for Product-Like Codes</a>, in the Journal of Lightwave Technology</li> <li><a href="http://postman.mynewsdesk.com/wf/click?upn=jT4ao6EIWq-2B-2Fx9SECyWO45ylyOQAxTlckGFPvpsOSfmETKhei9ty-2FGzNz3WavkKCxfhOKjZjQLgQnwnpXvl6PzOwocXiDbtcgAQSLukL6jFQGZmg46jsdzSB6P9sSovl_X6nVGqSMdJTrz-2FI1LxXG5p2migGMf1WazWDFt93-2FtiI1gYqAxvDcGyKwx2VSvp2QlDC8zwl-2FiQ3z2nU-2FDvBfcCXNBfSZya5hShDiF8z08wfY7Q-2FR1Jl97JC9YEVeNAuUKw8A6Hg9HFJqED33HyC6X-2FPdIthmPed6oD5We0Cz87flAJm27k78v9LfPFamfc6duUGlnbrgzUumapYLt9CqXfRTKFpEtDMh-2BfW9a51nHBFj7O70TmIHGP9cZbVbjLNtwxgdvzK3G-2B-2BUvZCdlRa1y6qdR3Gzw-2Fa7FLh5DIO1hSoc9uXCYiuoXAlgUNsCi6w9tFtxDTkABgoqpHycm-2BoZ8DvOdQQNR7816C8YXaXbHueyTSeBUqpVxpxb73U6FJUpGqLvpqiMbUbxJwR47BTFERCY88tAvDa7PhfAFsUA5gcgdDirN4WjS4k76MksJoVd" target="_blank"><span style="background-color:initial">Join</span><span style="background-color:initial">t power-efficient traffic shaping and service provisioning for metro elastic optical networks</span>​</a><span style="background-color:initial">, in the journal IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Com</span><span style="background-color:initial">munications and Networking, </span><br /></li></ul></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The 5-year research project <a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=5914">’Energy-efficient optical fibre communication’</a> ran from 2014–2019, and was financed by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Some more information on some of the research breakthroughs:</strong></div> <div>Smart, error correcting chips:</div> <div>The data chips have been designed by Chalmers and manufactured in Grenoble in France. The Chalmers researchers subsequently verified the chips’ performance and measured the energy usage, which was just a tenth of current error-correcting chips. </div> <div>At an energy transfer speed of 1 terabyte per second (1 terabyte = 1 trillion bits) <a href="https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8611331" target="_blank">the researchers demonstrated that the chip drew less energy than 2 picojoules​</a> (1 picojoule = 1 trillionth of a joule) per bit. This equates to a power consumption of 2 Watts at this data rate. Comparatively, the current energy usage at such high transfer speeds is around 50 picojoules per bit, around 50 Watts.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Yvonne Jonsson</div> <div>Portrait photos: Johan Bodell, Chalmers, Laurence L Levin</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>For more information, contact:</strong></div> <div>Optical hardware: </div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Peter-Andrekson.aspx">Peter Andrekson</a>, leader of the research project, and Professor of Photonics at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience at Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div><a href="mailto:%20peter.andrekson@chalmers.se">peter.andrekson@chalmers.se</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Electronics systems: </div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/perla.aspx">Per Larsson-Edefors</a>, Professor in Computer Engineering at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Chalmers <span style="background-color:initial">University of Technology</span></div> <div><a href="mailto:%20perla@chalmers.se">perla@chalmers.se</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Communications networks: </div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/erik-agrell.aspx">Erik Agrell​</a>, Professor in Communications Systems at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers <span style="background-color:initial">University of Technology</span></div> <div><a href="mailto:%20perla@chalmers.se">agrell@chalmers.se</a></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div></div></div>Thu, 13 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Graphene-spin-circuits-–-towards-all-spin-computing.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Graphene-spin-circuits-%E2%80%93-towards-all-spin-computing.aspxGraphene spin circuits – towards all-spin computing<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have demonstrated spin circuit architectures with large area graphene channels efficiently carrying and communicating the electronic spin information between nanomagnets arranged in different complex geometries consisting of multiple devices. The findings were recently published in the scientific journal Carbon. ​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Solid-state electronics based on utilizing the electron spin degree of freedom for storing and processing information can pave the way for next-generation spin-based computing. However, the realization of spin communication between multiple devices in complex spin circuit geometries, essential for practical applications, still remained challenging.</span><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/saroj_prasad_dash_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Picture of Saroj Dash." style="margin:5px" />&quot;Our experimental demonstration of spin communication in large area CVD graphene spin circuit architectures is a milestone towards large-scale integration and development of spin-logic and memory technologies”, says Saroj Dash (to the left), associate professor and group leader, who supervised the research project.  </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Dmitrii Khokhriakov, PhD student at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory at Chalmers University of Technology, carved complicated graphene Y-junction and Hexa-arm spin circuit architectures utilizing nanofabrication techniques compatible with industrial manufacturing processes. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers demonstrate that the spin-polarized current can be effectively communicated between the magnetic memory elements in different 2D graphene circuit architectures. They take advantage of extraordinary long-distance spin transport observed in commercially available wafer-scale CVD graphene with transport lengths exceeding 34 μm at room temperature. In addition, the researchers also demonstrate that by engineering the graphene channel geometry and orientation of spin polarization, the symmetric and antisymmetric spin precession signals can be tuned in a precise manner.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>This research at Chalmers is funded by the EU Graphene Flagship and the Swedish Research Council (VR).</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Illustration: Dmitrii Khokhriakov​<br /></div> <div>Photo of Saroj Prasad Dash: Oscar Mattsson</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Read the article &quot;<a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0008622320301226?via%3Dihub">Two-Dimensional Spintronic Circuit Architectures on Large Scale Graphene</a>&quot; &gt;&gt;&gt;</span></div>Wed, 12 Feb 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/gpc/news/Pages/Nomination_for_the_Lise_Meitner_Award_2020.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/gpc/news/Pages/Nomination_for_the_Lise_Meitner_Award_2020.aspxCall for nominations: Gothenburg Lise Meitner award 2020<p><b>​The Gothenburg Physics Centre (GPC) is seeking nominations for the 2020 Gothenburg Lise Meitner Award.  Nominations are due on Monday, 2 March, 2020.​​</b></p>​​The Lise Meitner award honors exceptional individuals for a “<em>groundbreaking discovery in physics</em>”.  <br />In addition to their scientific accomplishments, the candidates must meet the following selection criteria:<br /><ul><li>They have distinguished themselves through public activities of popularizing science and are prepared to deliver the annual Lise Meitner Lecture (middle of September).</li> <li>Their research activity is connected to or benefit activities at GPC.<br /></li></ul> Nominations should include a motivation describing the achievements of the candidate, a short biography/CV, contact details and a local contact person. <br /><br />We would also like to thank those of you who did make an effort to nominate a candidate in the past! In case your nomination has not been chosen, we encourage you to submit her or his name again. As the number of nominations has declined in recent years, we <span style="font-weight:700">strongly </span>encourage all members of GPC to nominate a candidate! Please think broadly! There are certainly outstanding candidates you either know personally or whom you would like to come here to Gothenburg.  ​<br /><br />Nominations should be sent to any member of the of the Lise Meitner Award Committee 2020: <br /><br />Dinko Chakarov <a href="mailto:dinko.chakarov@chalmers.se">dinko.chakarov@chalmers.se</a> <br />Hans Nordman <a href="mailto:hans.nordman@chalmers.se">hans.nordman@chalmers.se</a><br />Vitali Zhaunerchyk<a href="mailto:%20vitali.zhaunerchyk@physics.gu.se"> vitali.zhaunerchyk@physics.gu.se​</a><br />Vitaly Shumeiko <a href="mailto:vitaly.shumeiko@chalmers.se">vitaly.shumeiko@chalmers.se​</a><br />Andreas Heinz (Chair) <a href="mailto:andreas.heinz@chalmers.se">andreas.heinz@chalmers.se</a><br /><a href="mailto:andreas.heinz@chalmers.se"></a><br /><a href="/en/centres/gpc/activities/lisemeitner"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />More information about Lise Meitner and the award can be found at the GPC website</a><br /><br />With best regards,<br /><br />The 2020 Lise Meitner Committee​Wed, 29 Jan 2020 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Non-equilibrium-distributions-can-be-a-new-power-source.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Non-equilibrium-distributions-can-be-a-new-power-source.aspxNon-equilibrium distributions can be a new power source<p><b>​​Researchers from Chalmers, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, show that non-equilibrium distributions can be a new power source. &quot;It is very appealing to think that we might be able to take such a distribution as a resource, and recycle it for power production&quot;, says Janine Splettstößer, professor in theoretical physics at the Applied Quantum Physics Laboratory (AQP) at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/janine_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Non-equilibrium distributions of states are all around us, and are often generated as an unwanted by-product of some physical process. In the article &quot;Nonequilibrium System as a Demon&quot;, recently published in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters, the researchers find that such distributions can be a new power source.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;They generate a paradoxical effect similar to a &quot;Maxwell demon&quot;, whereby they reduce another system's entropy at no apparent cost, suggesting that perpetual motion is possible&quot;, says Janine Splettstößer (to the left).</div> <div>The researchers call this a &quot;N-demon&quot; (with the &quot;N&quot; for non-equilibrium). </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Maxwell's demon is a thought experiment created by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1867 in which he suggested how the second law of thermodynamics might hypothetically be violated. In 1982, the physicist Charles H Bennett showed that the paradox of the Maxwell demon was resolved by treating information as a thermodynamic resource like heat or work.</div> <div>&quot;Similarly, we resolve the paradox of the N-demon by treating &quot;non-equilibrium&quot; as a thermodynamic resource, which is used up as it reduces another system's entropy. This forbids the building of a perpetual motion machine, but does allow us to propose devices that use such resources (in particular non-equilibrium distributions of <span style="background-color:initial">electrons or photons) to generate more power than is conventionally believed possible&quot;, explains Janine Splettstößer.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Her co-authors are Rafael Sánchez, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain, and Robert S Whitney, Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS in France.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Illustration: Janine <span style="background-color:initial">Splettstößer</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Read the article &quot;Nonequilibrium System as a Demon&quot; in Physical Review Letters &gt;&gt;&gt;</span><br /></div> <div>Rafael Sánchez, Janine Splettstoesser, Robert S. Whitney: <a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.216801">Nonequilibrium System as a Demon​</a>. Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 216801 (2019)</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxwell%27s_demon">Read more about Maxwell's demon</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div>Mon, 13 Jan 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Honourable-extension-as-Wallenberg-Academy-Fellow.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Honourable-extension-as-Wallenberg-Academy-Fellow.aspxHonourable extension as Wallenberg Academy Fellow<p><b>​Janine Splettstößer, professor of theoretical physics at the Applied Quantum Physics Laboratory (AQP) at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, has got a five-year extension of her ongoing Wallenberg Academy Fellow appointment. &quot;I am of course extremely happy about this –​ it’s a great honour!&quot;, she says. ​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">When Janine Splettstößer was appointed as a fellow in 2013, she was the first at MC2, although she belonged to another university at the time of her application. She came to Chalmers in the end of 2013 and has been here since then.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;Since I have moved here, I have built up my group at the AQP. We have mostly been working on dynamics of time-dependent transport in nano electronic systems, but have moved more and more in the direction of quantum thermodynamics, which is also the topic of the proposal for the extension grant. Since I have arrived here, the first three PhD students have graduated and also some Master students and Postdocs have been part of my group. Some new people will join the group in the coming months&quot;, Janine tells us.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The extension means five more years to spend on her research. As a fellow, Janine Splettstößer plans to work on a project which deals with the thermodynamics of nanoscale systems. </div> <div>&quot;In particular, I am interested in non-equilibrium and quantum effects and how they can be exploited for possible future applications. For example, one might wonder whether certain non-equilibrium conditions make thermoelectric effects at the nanoscale more efficient.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>She and her group will work on a wide span of approaches: from developing theoretical methods, to proposing realistic devices and work in collaboration with experimentalists. </div> <div>&quot;I also hope to be able to extend local collaborations in this context. The new people joining my group might also be very helpful for this.&quot;<span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Has being an Academy Fellow opened any doors for you?</h3> <div>&quot;Absolutely! Since I had not worked in Sweden before, being an academy fellow was extremely helpful to meet people, have a mentor, regular meetings with scientists from different Universities and disciplines etc. But of course also the generous funding allowed me to build up a real group from the very beginning! So for me this was really a door-opener!&quot;, says Janine.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div>Thu, 09 Jan 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Big-breakthrough-for-quantum-computers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Big-breakthrough-for-quantum-computers.aspxBig breakthrough for quantum computers<p><b>​Researchers at Google have for the first time succeeded in solving a problem that is beyond the reach of a regular computer with a quantum computer. In just minutes, their quantum computer performed a computational task that, according to the researchers, would have taken more than ten thousand years for a powerful supercomputer. Göran Johansson, one of the leaders of Chalmers quantum computer project, sees this as a major milestone.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>How did you feel when you heard of the news?</strong></span><br /></div> <div>“I felt very happy! I knew that Google's research team was starting to get results with their 53-qubit quantum computer Sycamore, but that they have now managed to get such good reliability in their operations that they can perform this kind of calculation – it's a fantastic breakthrough!”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What lies behind the breakthrough?</strong></div> <div>“Sycamore is quite similar to Google's previous quantum computers in its structure. The breakthrough rather results from careful design of the hardware and software used to control the chip and a thorough analysis of which computational task to choose.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Does this mean that quantum computers now outperform regular computers in general?</strong></div> <div>“No, absolutely not. The research team has shown that their quantum computer can solve a single calculation task better than a regular computer. The solved task is completely useless, it was chosen solely because it was judged to be easy to solve for a quantum computer but very difficult for a conventional one. But as quantum computers evolve, they will outperform conventional computers in more and more types of tasks.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>IBM criticizes Google’s calculations and states that their best supercomputer could solve the task in less than three days. What do you think about that?</strong></div> <div>“If that is the case, it would still be the first time a quantum computer performs something that requires the full capacity of the world's largest supercomputer, for almost three whole days, to reproduce. Whether it's ten thousand years or three days, I see the achievement of Google’s team as a very important step forward.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What does this breakthrough mean to Chalmers quantum computer project?</strong></div> <div>“We are aiming for a quantum computer with one hundred well-functioning qubits, and Google has now shown that it is possible to create over fifty qubits that operate at over 99 percent reliability. It is incredibly inspiring and motivating!”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>How does your quantum computer compare to Google’s?</strong></div> <div>“We use the same basic building blocks – superconducting circuits – as Google. So far, we are working, completely according to our plan, with a chip with only two qubits. Our strategy is to first get it to work really, really well on a small scale. For example, Google's qubits have an average lifetime of 16 microseconds, while we have over 80 microseconds. The longer the lifetime, the more computational operations you can do. On the other hand, Google has managed to reach significantly faster operations than we have, but we are working at getting really good at that as well. Then we will start to scale up in fairly large steps.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What will be the next milestone in the development of quantum computers?</strong></div> <div>“Finding a useful problem that is beyond the reach of ordinary computers, but which a quantum computer with fifty to a hundred qubits can solve. We work intensively on this in collaboration with our industry partners. Probably, it will be within logistics or simulation of large molecules.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Ingela Roos</div> <div>Photo: Johan Bodell</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The article has previously been published in Swedish in Chalmers magasin #2 2019</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/centres/wacqt">Read more about Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology​</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div>Wed, 18 Dec 2019 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Self-cooled-bolometer-with-ultimate-sensitivity-created-for-the-first-time.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Self-cooled-bolometer-with-ultimate-sensitivity-created-for-the-first-time.aspxSelf-cooled bolometer with ultimate sensitivity created for the first time<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have managed to create the first cold-electron bolometer in the world with ultimate sensitivity due to an effective on-chip self-cooling. The results were recently published in the scientific journal Communications Physics of Nature group.​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/lkuzmin_350x305.jpg" alt="Photo of Leonid Kuzmin." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Superconducting bolometers are widely used for balloon and space missions and have seen extensive development because of their capacity to test primordial conditions of the Universe. The major improvements consist in lowering the operating temperature to reach higher sensitivities.</span><br /></div> <div>“The big difference between our cold-electron bolometer with an effective self-cooling and other types, is that the latter ones require cooling of the entire sample. Our technology can significantly reduce the cost of future space missions because we can avoid dilution refrigerators”, says Leonid Kuzmin (to the right), professor at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, and main author of the paper.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In their study, the researchers show that an array of 192 cold-electron bolometers demonstrates photon-noise-limited operation at the cryostat temperature of 310 millikelvin (mK) due to effective self-cooling of the absorber. </div> <div>“This bolometer works at electron temperature less than phonon temperature, thus being a good candidate for future space missions without the use of complicated dilution refrigerators that can’t normally work in space due to absence of gravity”, says Leonid Kuzmin.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>He describes the research as a four-step-process which led to the invention of a bolometer that operates at an electron temperature that is less than the phonon temperature. Attempts and failures along the way stimulated the team to even more intensive thinking for better decisions and suggestions.</div> <div>“As a result, the optimal decision in Step 4 has been found. Instead of a ‘six-legged cuttlefish’, which turned out to be too complicated, the two-legged cold-electron bolometer with only one pair of SIN tunnel junctions was invented”, says Leonid Kuzmin.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The study suggests that such cold-electron bolometers with internal self-cooling are potential candidates for advanced radio astronomy projects that must avoid dilution refrigerators. </div> <div>“This can solve the main problem of the COrE space mission that was not accepted by the European Space Agency due to necessity to find a compromise between sensitivity, cryogenics and cost. We can develop arrays of cold-electron bolometers practically for any frequency range achieving ultimate sensitivity at 300 mK without dilution refrigerator”, says Leonid Kuzmin.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research was a collaboration between Chalmers University of Technology, Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, Institute for Physics of Microstructures of RAS in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita La Sapienza in Rome, Italy.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The paper has already earned wide interest in the science community, with more than 2 000 accesses. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo of Leonid Kuzmin: Private</div> <div>Illustration: Leonid Kuzmin</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Contact:</div> <div>Leonid Kuzmin, Professor, Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, +46 31 772 36 08, leonid.kuzmin@chalmers.se</div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s42005-019-0206-9">Read the article “Photon-noise-limited cold-electron bolometer based on strong electron self-cooling for high-performance cosmology missions”</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/lkuzmin_cover_CommPhys_660x330.jpg" alt="Picture of frontcover from journal." style="margin:5px" /><br /><a href="https://www.nature.com/commsphys">The findings were also highlighted on the cover of Nature Communications Physics</a><span style="background-color:initial"> &gt;&gt;&gt;</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://astronomycommunity.nature.com/users/295770-leonid-kuzmin/posts/53529-story-of-the-invention-of-a-cold-electron-bolometer">Read a behind-the-paper blog post of Leonid Kuzmin, “Story of the Invention of a Cold-Electron Bolometer”</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Two more papers about Cold Electron Bolometers were selected as &quot;featured article of the issue&quot; of Superconductor Science and Technology in 2019 &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong></div> <div><a href="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6668/aafeba">Multichroic seashell antenna with internal filters by resonant slots and cold-electron bolometers</a></div> <div><a href="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6668/ab151d">Absorption and cross-talk in a multipixel receiving system with cold electron bolometers</a></div>Mon, 16 Dec 2019 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Engineering-Magnetic-Graphene-in-2D-Hybrid-Devices.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Engineering-Magnetic-Graphene-in-2D-Hybrid-Devices.aspxEngineering Magnetic Graphene in 2D Hybrid Devices<p><b>Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have found that graphene can be made magnetic when placed in proximity with a layered insulating magnetic material in a van der Waals heterostructure. The findings were recently published in the scientific journal 2D Materials.​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">After graphene, various 2D materials of semiconducting and magnetic properties, among others, were discovered down to one-atom-thick layers. This opened plethora of opportunities for engineering heterostructures by combining the best of different 2D materials in one ultimate unit with different layers held together by weak van der Waals forces.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Here, Bogdan Karpiak, PhD student at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, assemble van der Waals heterostructures of the graphene and layered ferromagnetic insulator Cr2Ge2Te6. The choice of such a ferromagnet is motivated by its layered structure, insulating behavior, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and is expected to induce a magnetic exchange interaction in graphene in the heterostructure of the two materials. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers' measurements show an out-of-plane proximity-induced ferromagnetic exchange interaction in graphene, resulting in significant modification of the spin transport and dynamics in graphene. Furthermore, the observation of a larger lifetime for perpendicular spins in comparison to the in-plane counterpart suggests the creation of a proximity-induced anisotropic spin texture in graphene.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;This finding will open opportunities for the realization of proximity-induced magnetic interactions and spin-polarized filters in two-dimensional (2D) material heterostructure and can form the basic building blocks for future spintronics and topological quantum technologies&quot;, says Saroj Dash, associate professor and group leader at the Quantum Device Physics laboratory, and supervisor of the work. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The article combines device fabrication and spin transport measurements in the Saroj Dash Group at Chalmers, magnetization measurements by Peter Svedlindh at Uppsala University, and theory calculation from the Jaroslav Fabian Group at University of Regensburg, Germany and the Stephan Roche Group at ICN2, Barcelona, Spain. This research at Chalmers is funded by the Graphene Flagship and the Swedish Research Council (VR).</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2053-1583/ab5915/meta">Read the article &quot;Magnetic proximity in a van der Waals heterostructure of magnetic insulator and graphene&quot;</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div>Wed, 11 Dec 2019 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/MC2-researcher-gets-major-grant-from-The-European-Research-Council.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/MC2-researcher-gets-major-grant-from-The-European-Research-Council.aspxMC2 researcher gets major grant from The European Research Council<p><b>​Åsa Haglund, Professor at the Photonics Laboratory at MC2, has been awarded a Consolidator Grant from the European Research Council. &quot;This is the best Christmas present you can receive as a researcher and I am truly honored to be awarded with this prestigious grant. This is the beginning of something big&quot;, she says.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">The ERC Consolidator Grant is one of the finest personal research grants available from the European Research Council (ERC). Competition is razor sharp. Åsa Haglund is one of only ten Swedish researchers and one of only two at Chalmers who receives the award. Of the 2 453 applicants from all over Europe, only 301 were successful in this round. They were granted a total of 600 million euro.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Åsa Haglund receives around 2 million euro to lead the five-year project &quot;Out of the blue: membrane-based microcavity lasers from the blue to the ultraviolet wavelength regime&quot; or in short &quot;UV-LASE&quot;. </div> <div>&quot;It feels fantastic of course! This will allow me to strengthen my team, concentrate on research and invest in more high-risk ideas that will hopefully pay off in the long run. A necessity if we are going to realize our dream that is now also a project goal; the demonstration of an electrically driven ultraviolet-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser&quot;, she says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Her project is focused on pushing the wavelength of microcavity lasers really into the ultraviolet. </div> <div>&quot;Our approach is based upon a unique membrane technique we have developed over the past three years to enable vertical cavity lasers with highly reflective dielectric mirrors on both sides of the cavity – a device concept previously un-realizable for UV-lasers. Once realized these lasers would be of interest for a wide range of applications such as water purification, photolithography, enhancing health-promoting substances in plants, gas sensing, medical diagnostics and treatments, and UV curing&quot;, Åsa Haglund explains.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/ahaglund_191129_11_350x305.jpg" alt="Photo of Åsa Haglund." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />But at first, she didn't plan to apply for the grant at all. She tells us that she was uncertain about having the time to deliver an application strong enough to be successful in the harsh competition. In the end, Peter Andrekson, head of the Photonics Laboratory, managed to convince her:</div> <div>&quot;Reprioritize! he said, which I managed to do despite the fact that my daughter got the stomach flue in this period! Luckily, this was the most fun application I have written so far. Thanks to my great team at Chalmers and our excellent collaborators, in particular in the group of professor Michael Kneissl and Tim Wernicke at TU Berlin in Germany, I had a lot of exciting and promising results to put into the application&quot;, Åsa tells us.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The ERC has high demands on its applicants. They have to undergo a serious evaluation process including an interview at the ERC headquarter in Brussels. There, they are given two slides and 5 minutes sharp to present their research proposal and themselves, followed by a 20 minutes question session by the reviewers. Åsa tells us about nervous candidates returning from their interviews with a look of resignation on their faces.</div> <div>&quot;This is a very stressful event, and maybe even more so before the interview when many candidates are waiting in the same room for about two hours for their turn. But I really enjoyed the interview! I was given the opportunity to describe my research project and respond to a lot of relevant questions posted by the reviewers. Many of these questions were in fact the same as those my colleagues at Chalmers had posed to me at my mock-up interview. Normally when you apply for funding you are never given the opportunity to explain things that might be misinterpreted in the application nor to oppose the criticism and explain your point of view. In my opinion this is an important part of a thorough evaluation process.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Åsa Haglund is in good company at MC2. Her laboratory has been successful in getting ERC Grants, Åsa Haglund is the third grant holder from Photonics in recent years.</div> <div>&quot;I believe this is the best Christmas present you can receive as a researcher and I am truly honored to be awarded with this prestigious grant&quot;, says Åsa.</div> <div>She continues:</div> <div>&quot;As a side note, when I checked into the hotel the day before my interview in Brussel there was a note book on the desk with the following statement &quot;This may be the beginning of something big (or just some bad handwriting)&quot;. For me, being awarded with an ERC Consolidator grant is indeed the beginning of something big. Now I have the opportunity to focus on research for five years with the aim to realize a dream – the demonstration of an electrically driven ultraviolet-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser.&quot; </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Åsa Haglund is one of the most talented and successful young researchers at MC2. She got her PhD from Chalmers in 2005. In 2012 she was able to start her own group when she was awarded with a young researcher grant from The Swedish Research Council (VR). And as late as 2018, she got a consolidator grant from the same council.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Besides Åsa, Fredrik Westerlund, Professor at the Department of Biology and Biology Engineering, managed to get an ERC Consolidator Grant in this round.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo: Johan Bodell</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://erc.europa.eu/news/erc-awards-over-600-million-euro-europes-top-researchers">Read pressrelease from ERC​</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://erc.europa.eu/funding/consolidator-grants">Read more about the ERC Consolidator Grant</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/ERC-grant-for-next-generation-DNA-repair-analysis.aspx">Read interview with Fredrik Westerlund who also recieved an ERC Consolidator Grant​</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div>Tue, 10 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Wieczorek-WAF.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Wieczorek-WAF.aspxQuantum scientist becomes Wallenberg Academy Fellow<p><b>Witlef Wieczorek, Assistant Professor at the Quantum Technology Laboratory at MC2, has been honoured with a prestigious Wallenberg Academy Fellow assignment. &quot;It feels just great and I am overwhelmed by this decision and award,&quot; says Witlef.</b></p><div><div>The Wallenberg Academy Fellow is a five-year grant which provides young researchers with opportunities to make important scientific breakthroughs by providing long-term research funding in Sweden. Witlef Wieczorek is funded with 7.5 MSEK for the years 2020-2024 with a possibility to apply for five years extension after that.</div> <div>&quot;It feels just great and I am overwhelmed by this decision and award. The Wallenberg Academy Fellow means much to me as it provides me with the opportunity to pursue a long-term and challenging research project, here at Chalmers,&quot; he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Witlef joined MC2 in 2017 as tenure-track Assistant Professor in the Excellence Initiative Nano. Since then, he built up a lab and a research group, whose focus lies on research with mechanical-based quantum devices.</div> <div> </div> <div>As a Wallenberg Academy Fellow, he will pursue his research project entitled &quot;Levitated superconducting mechanical resonators: a novel platform for quantum experiments and sensing&quot;.</div> <div>&quot;The big goal of the project is to prepare a micrometer-sized object in a spatial superposition state. Though superposition states are at the heart of the flourishing field of quantum technologies, such big objects have never been brought into such states.&quot;</div> <div>  </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/Witlef%20december2019/witlef_puffbild_portratt_350x305_IMG_8291_adj.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:300px;height:260px" />Witlef gives us an example:</div> <div>&quot;Erwin Schrödinger, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, invented the gedankenexperiment of a cat being dead and alive at the same time. Though, such a state of a cat is in principle allowed by the laws of quantum mechanics, we have never observed superposed cats. The current record in superposition size is held by impressive experiments that observe the interference of large molecules. My project aims to superpose 10 million times heavier objects. This goal is ambitious! Therefore, we construct a novel experimental platform that should make this possible: levitated micrometer-sized superconducting objects that are coupled to superconducting circuitry,&quot; he explains.</div> <div> </div> <div>The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation is announcing 29 new Wallenberg Academy Fellows on 3 December 2019. The underlying intention of this investment is to strengthen Sweden as a research nation by retaining the greatest talent in the country, while also recruiting young international researchers to Sweden.</div> <div>&quot;To make scientific breakthroughs, it is important to concentrate on your research for a long period and have good resources. Wallenberg Academy Fellows provides these conditions, and they are available during what could be the most creative phase of their research careers. They also have the opportunity to participate in a mentoring program, which helps boost their scientific leadership,&quot; says Göran K. Hansson, Secretary General of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Read about Witlef Wieczorek's research in brief </div> <div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/witlef-wieczorek" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Can Schrödinger’s cat weigh ten million times as much?​​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Read pressrelease from The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation</div> <div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/press/twenty-nine-young-researchers-become-wallenberg-academy-fellows-2019" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Twenty nine young researchers become Wallenberg Academy Fellows 2019​</a></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/witlef-wieczorek" target="_blank"></a>Read more about the other two Chalmers researchers who received a research grant through the Wallenberg Adacemy Fellows: </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-Wallenberg-Academy-Fellow-2019.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Elin Esbjörner - </a><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(51, 51, 51)"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-Wallenberg-Academy-Fellow-2019.aspx" target="_blank">New Wallenberg Academy Fellow seeks to prevent neurodegenerative disorders</a></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/math/news/Pages/The-mathematics-of-shape-is-addressed-by-new-Wallenberg-Academy-Fellow.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Klas Modin - The mathematics of shape is addressed by new Wallenberg Academy Fellow</a><br /></p></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read an interview from January 2018 with Witlef Wieczorek</div> <div><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Setting-up-a-new-laboratory-for-mechanical-quantum-device-research.aspx" target="_blank" title="Setting-up-a-new-laboratory-for-mechanical-quantum-device-research"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />New laboratory for mechanical quantum device research</a></div> <div><br /></div></div>Tue, 03 Dec 2019 10:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/130-participants-on-the-fourth-Centre-Day.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/130-participants-on-the-fourth-Centre-Day.aspx130 participants on the fourth Centre Day<p><b>​With around 130 participants, the fourth joint day of the GigaHertz Centre and ChaseOn also became a success. &quot;We gather Sweden&#39;s industry and academia in wireless research, probably the best in Sweden,&quot; says Jan Grahn, director of the GigaHertz Centre.</b></p><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/centreday_191106_IMG_8116_665x330.jpg" alt="Picture from Centre Day 2019." style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">It was a huge agenda in Palmstedtsalen in the student union building on 6 November. And Gustav Adolf's baking was of course a mandatory element in honor of the day. One new feature for this year was a &quot;poster flash presentation&quot; where all the poster exhibitors held an elevator presentation of about a minute about their respective posters.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>A number of speakers from Chalmers, the business community, other educational institutions and organisations replaced each other on the stage. Particularly invited keynote speaker was Dr Thomas Merkle from Fraunhofer IAF in Freiburg, Germany. </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/centreday_191106_IMG_8155_isab_toppbild_750x340.jpg" alt="Picture from Centre Day 2019." style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">For the first time, all members of the International Scientific Advisory Board (ISAB) were also gathered, from left to right Christoph ​Mecklenbräuker, TU Vienna, Riana Geschke, Fraunhofer FHR, Christophe Gaquière, Univ. de Lille, IEMN, and Wolfgang Heinrich, FBH, Berlin.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/centreday_191106_wolfgang_IMG_7924_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture from Centre Day 2019." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />Professor Heinrich also gave a speech explaining why wireless is an ever-present area:</div> <div>&quot;Microwaves are everywhere, even in space. If you want to communicate between galaxies, you can only use microwaves. If you are looking for extraterrestrial life - either human or not - you can only use... that's right! ... microwaves&quot;, he said among other things.</div> <div>He predicted a bright future:</div> <div>&quot;Our biggest challenge is to make millimeter waves 5g-compatible.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Centre Day was organized by the departments Microtechnology and Nanoscience - MC2, Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Engineering. This year the GigaHertz Centre hosted the event.</div> <div>&quot;What is unique about these events is the high industrial participation with Chalmers researchers and students&quot;, says Jan Grahn.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/centres/ghz">Read more about the GigaHertz Centre​</a><span style="background-color:initial"> &gt;&gt;&gt;</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/centres/chaseon">Read more about ChaseOn</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/centreday_191106_IMG_8009_665x330.jpg" alt="Picture from Centre Day 2019." style="margin:5px" /><br /></span><em style="background-color:initial">Jan Grahn, head of the GigaHertz Centre, and Erik Ström, head of ChaseOn, were pleased with the Centre Day 2019.</em><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div>Tue, 19 Nov 2019 10:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Light-at-the-end-of-the-nano-tunnel-for-future-catalysts.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Light-at-the-end-of-the-nano-tunnel-for-future-catalysts.aspxLight at the end of the nanotunnel for catalysts of the future<p><b>Using a new type of nanoreactor, researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have succeeded in mapping catalytic reactions on individual metallic nanoparticles. Their work could help improve chemical processes, and lead to better catalysts and more environmentally friendly chemical technology. The results are published in the journal Nature Communications. ​​​</b></p><div><div><span style="background-color:initial">Catalysts increase the rate of chemical reactions. </span><span style="background-color:initial">They play a vital role in many important industrial processes, from making fuels to medicines, to helping limit harmful vehicle emissions.</span><span style="background-color:initial"> They are also essential building blocks for new, sustainable technologies like fuel cells, where electricity is generated through a reaction between oxygen and hydrogen. Catalysts can also contribute to breaking down environmental toxins, through cleaning water of poisonous chemicals, for example. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>To design more effective catalysts for the future, fundamental knowledge is needed, such as understanding catalysis at the level of individual active catalytic particles. <span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>To visualise the problem of understanding catalytic reactions today, imagine a crowd at a football match, where a number of spectators light up flares. The smoke spreads rapidly through the crowd, and once a smoke cloud has formed, it is almost impossible to say who actually lit the flares, or how powerfully each one is burning. The chemical reactions in catalysis occur in a comparable way. Millions of individual particles are involved, and it is currently very difficult to track and determine the roles of each specific one – how effective they are, how much each has contributed to the reaction. <span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>To better understand the catalytic process, it is necessary to investigate it at the level of individual nanoparticles. The new nanoreactor has allowed the Chalmers researchers to do exactly this. The reactor consists of around 50 glass nanotunnels filled with liquid, arranged in parallel. In each tunnel the researchers placed a single gold nanoparticle. Though they are of similar size, each nanoparticle has varied catalytic qualities – some are highly effective, others decidedly less optimal. To be able to discern how size and nanostructure influence catalysis, the researchers measured catalysis on the particles individually. <span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/Sune%20Levin_foto_Kristofer%20Jakobsson%20350x305.jpg" alt="" style="margin:1px 10px;width:200px;height:174px" /><div>“We sent into the nanotunnels two types of molecules, which react with each other. One molecule type is fluorescent and emits light. The light is only extinguished when it meets a partner of the second type on the surface of the nanoparticles, and a chemical reaction between the molecules occurs. Observing this extinction of the ’light at the end of the nanotunnel’, downstream of the nanoparticles, allowed us to track and measure the efficiency of each nanoparticle at catalysing the chemical reaction,” says Sune Levin, Doctoral Student at the Department of Biology and Biotechnology at Chalmers University of Technology, and lead author of the scientific article.<span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div>He carried out the experiments under the supervision of Professors Fredrik Westerlund and Christoph Langhammer. The new nanoreactor is a result of a broad collaboration between researchers at several different departments at Chalmers.</div> <img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/Fredrik%20Westerlund_foto_Peter_Sandin_350x305.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:174px" /><div><br /> <span style="background-color:initial">“Effective catalysis is essential for both the synthesis and decomposition of chemicals. For example, catalysts are necessary for manufacturing plastics, medicines, and fuels in the best way, and effectively breaking down environmental toxins,” says Fredrik Westerlund, Professor at the Department of Biology and Biotechnology.</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>Developing better catalyst materials is necessary for a sustainable future and there are big social and economic gains to be made. <span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/ChristophLanghammerfarg350x305.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px 8px;width:200px;height:174px" /><div>“In the chemical industry for example, making certain processes just a few per cent more effective could translate to significantly increased revenue, as well as drastically reduced environmental impacts,” says research project leader Christoph Langhammer, Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers. </div></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-12458-1"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the scientific article.​​</a><br /></div> <div><a href="http://www.mynewsdesk.com/uk/chalmers/pressreleases/light-at-the-end-of-the-nanotunnel-for-future-catalysts-2942083"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release and download high resolution images.​​​​</a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><br /></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-weight:700;background-color:transparent">Text: </span><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);background-color:initial">Joshua Worth,</span><a href="mailto:joshua.worth@chalmers.se"> joshua.worth@chalmers.se</a><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);background-color:initial">​ and </span><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);background-color:transparent">Mia Halleröd Palmgren, </span><a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se</a><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);background-color:transparent"> ​</span><br /></div> <div> <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se"></a></div> <div><strong>Photos:</strong> Kristofer Jakobsson (Sune Levin), Peter Sandin (Fredrik Westerlund) och Henrik Sandsjö (Christoph Langhammer). <span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span style="font-family:inherit;background-color:initial">For more information, contact: </span><br /></h2> <div><strong><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/fredrik-westerlund.aspx">Fredrik Westerlund​</a></strong>, <span style="background-color:initial">Professor at the Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Chalmers University of Technology, </span><span style="background-color:initial">+ 46 31 772 30 49, </span><a href="mailto:fredrik.westerlund@chalmers.se">fredrik.westerlund@chalmers.se</a></div> <div> </div> <div><strong><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Sune-Levin.aspx">Sune Levin</a></strong>, <span style="background-color:initial">Doctoral Student, Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Chalmers University of Technology<br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">+ 46 76 242 92 68, </span><a href="mailto:lsune@chalmers.se">lsune@chalmers.se </a></div> <div> </div> <div><strong><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Christoph-Langhammer.aspx">Christoph Langhammer</a></strong>, <span style="background-color:initial">Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, </span><span style="background-color:initial">+46 31 772 33 31, </span><a href="mailto:clangham@chalmers.se">clangham@chalmers.se​</a></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on the res​earch behind the discovery: </h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The scientific article</span> <a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-12458-1">&quot;A nanofluidic device for parallel single nanoparticle catalysis in solution&quot; </a><span style="background-color:initial">was published in Nature Communications. It was written by Sune Levin, Joachim Fritzsche, Sara Nilsson, August Runemark, Bhausaheb Dhokale, Henrik Ström, Henrik Sundén, Christoph Langhammer and Fredrik Westerlund. The researchers are active in the Departments of Biology and Biotechnology, Physics, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, as well as Mechanics and Maritime Sciences. The project originated from the framework of the current Nano Excellence Initiative at Chalmers (formerly the Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Area of Advance).</span></div> <div> </div> <div>The research was funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and the European Research Council.<span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on catalysis</h2> <div>Catalysis is the process by which a catalyst is involved in a chemical reaction. In a catalyst, metal nanoparticles are often some of the most crucial active ingredients, because the chemical reactions take place on their surface. The best-known example is probably the three-way catalytic converter found in cars, which mitigates harmful emissions. Catalysis is also widely used in industry at large scale and has a key role to play in new sustainable energy technologies, such as fuel cells. To develop catalysts for the future, new and effective materials are needed. It is therefore necessary to be able to identify how the size, shape, nanostructure and chemical composition of individual nanoparticles affects their performance in a catalyst. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​More on the nanoreactor</h2> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Illustration av nanoreaktor" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/Nanotunnlar%20350x305%20webb.jpg" style="width:200px;height:174px;background-color:initial" /><div>​A nanoreactor developed at Chalmers visualises the activity of individual catalytic nanoparticles. To identify the efficiency of each particle in the catalytic process, the researchers isolated individual gold nanoparticles in separate nanotunnels. They then sent in two kinds of molecules that react with each other on the particles’ surfaces. One molecule (fluorescein) is fluorescent and when it meets its partner molecule (borohydride) the light emission stops upon reaction between the two. This makes it possible to track the catalytic process​.</div></div> <div>​<br /></div>Wed, 13 Nov 2019 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/New-radar-components-reduce-the-climate-impact-of-aviation.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/New-radar-components-reduce-the-climate-impact-of-aviation.aspxNew radar components reduce the climate impact of aviation<p><b>​More efficient air traffic management systems (ATMs) are believed to be able to reduce aviation&#39;s climate impact by ten percent. Chalmers leads an EU project to develop cost-effective surface-mounted radar components for the enhanced flight vision systems (EFVS) of the future. The first circuits are currently under characterization in the Kollberg laboratory – Chalmers infrastructure for high-frequency electronics.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/dan_k_2015_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Picture of Dan Kuylenstierna." style="margin:5px" />The EU project “GaN mm-wave Radar Components Embedded” (GRACE) is led by Dan Kuylenstierna (to the right), associate professor at the Microwave Electronics Laboratory at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2 at Chalmers:</span><br /></div> <div>“The impact of aviation on global warming is something that is frequently discussed in society. Concepts such as “flight shame” have been invented to make people fly less. However, much in our society depends on reliable and sustainable transport”, he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Advisory Council for Aeronautical Research in Europe (ACARE) has therefore set ambitious targets for reducing the climate impact of aviation. The goal is to reduce emissions by 50%, of which a more efficient ATM is expected to contribute 10%.</div> <div>A key technology for such better ATMs is the so-called enhanced flight vision system (EFVS), which is used to facilitate lifting and landing in poor visibility conditions. In the EFVS systems of the future, millimeter wave radar for the frequency range 93-100 GHz is expected to be an important building block for completing of the IR cameras that form the basis of today's system.</div> <div>“At present, however, there are no cost-effective surface-mounted components to build these radar systems”, explains Dan Kuylenstierna.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/krets_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of circuit." class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" />Together with partners from Fraunhofer IZM in Germany, OMMIC in France and MC2 Technologies, also located in France, Chalmers has therefore taken up this challenge. The EU project GRACE covers both circuit design and packaging of the radar components. For the circuit design, so-called GaN HEMT monolithic microwave circuit (MMIC) technology is used, a type of semiconductor technology particularly suitable for generating high power at higher frequencies. The end-goal is to demonstrate a technology concept for future surface-mounted millimetre-wave radar components.</div> <div>The signal sources are designed at Chalmers and the power amplifiers at MC2 Technologies. OMMIC is liable for the GaN HEMT MMIC technology including processing. Fraunhofer IZM's responsibility is to package the completed circuits.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>After system analysis and design, the first circuits have now left OMMIC´s foundry for characterization at Chalmers and MC2. After characterization, functional chips will be sent to Fraunhofer IZM for packaging.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The GRACE project started in November 2018 and is funded by the EU's research and innovation program Horizon 2020 for two years with a total of SEK 18.7 million.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo of Dan Kuylenstierna: Michael Nystås</div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Contact:</h3> <div>Dan Kuylenstierna, Associate Professor, Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, <a href="mailto:dan.kuylenstierna@chalmers.se">dan.kuylenstierna@chalmers.se</a>, 031-772 17 98</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/sv/projekt/Sidor/GaN-mm-wave-Radar-Components-Embedded-QGRACEQ.aspx">Read more about the GRACE project​</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/dan_k_grp_665x330.jpg" alt="Team members." style="margin:5px" /><br /></div> Mon, 11 Nov 2019 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/More-students-and-stress-themes-on-institution-day.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/More-students-and-stress-themes-on-institution-day.aspxMore students and stress themes on department day<p><b>​Stress and recovery in working life were key themes during MC2&#39;s department day at Gothia Towers on 10 October. The 140 participants also spewed creative suggestions on how MC2 should attract more students and degree projects.​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/mfogelstrom_IMG_7871_665x330.jpg" alt="Picture from department day" style="margin:5px" /><br />In his welcome greeting, the head of the department Mikael Fogelström (picture above), emphasized the participants' importance for today's discussions to be fruitful.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;Hopefully you get something from here that you can continue working with,&quot; he said.</div> <div>The day started with a lecture on stress, recovery and creativity with Kerstin Wentz, a psychologist at the School of Public Health and Community Medicine at the Institute of Medicine at the University of Gothenburg.</div> <div>&quot;This is a topic that is always important to keep up to date with and work with continuously,&quot; said Mikael Fogelström.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>We work longer and faster with more and biting off more than we can chew. But only 10,000 years ago, the situation was different:</div> <div>&quot;Then we worked between two and three hours a day. So there was plenty of time left over for another,” Kerstin Wentz (picture below) pointed out.</div> <div>Among other things, she stated that stress is not something you can get used to, but something that you gradually become more sensitive to if you do not learn how to handle it.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/kwentz_IMG_7818_665x330.jpg" alt="Picture from department day" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;There are also different types of stress that affect us in different ways, and impair mood, memory and concentration. In the end it can make us sick. Stress sensitivity also increases during the day.&quot;</span><br /></div> <div>Kerstin Wentz lined up a palette of strategies that each can help reduce stress. It was everything from classic tips like training and taking breaks, to changing focus, doing one thing at a time and having fun after work.</div> <div>&quot;Unfortunately, those who are most in need of the latter tend to get too little because they are too tired after the work day,&quot; Kerstin Wentz noted.</div> <div>Another tip was to alternate between taking the initiative and just sitting back and listening to get variety if you work in a group.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/publik_IMG_7816_665x330.jpg" alt="Picture from department day" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">Today's second presentation was held by Jörgen Blennow, who is the dean of education for the educational area Electric, computer, IT and industrial engineering (EDIT-I). He introduced this afternoon's discussions in small groups about how MC2 can attract more students to the department. He saw great potential for the department to grow in terms of getting more Bachelor's theses and master's students.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;But the projects have to be really student-oriented,&quot; was Blennow's firm call.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the subsequent group discussions, participants were asked to reflect on three things: Why you should teach, what they think of when they hear MC2 are mentioned, and how we should attract more students to the department. They also had to spend a moment to come up with powerful examples of student works and projects.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/improverket_IMG_7845_665x330.jpg" alt="Picture from department day" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">During the day, the participants were both entertained and activated by three actors from the improvisation theatre group Improverket (picture above) in Gothenburg. Frida Sundström, Tobias Rosén and Johan Carlberg sometimes had the laugh to echo between the tables.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Some who were satisfied with the day were Daniel Perez Lozano, postdoc at the Quantum Technology Laboratory, and Silvia Ruffieux, PhD student at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory.</div> <div>&quot;I think there have been dynamic discussions around the tables and liked the entertainment with Improverket, which was given between the tasks. A useful day,&quot; said Daniel Perez Lozano.</div> <div>Silvia Ruffieux agreed:</div> <div>&quot;It was a very good mix of people around the tables, you had to sit with people you didn't know before,&quot; she said.</div> <div>Daniel also appreciated the lecture with Kerstin Wentz, whom he had heard before:</div> <div>&quot;It was important to understand that you can counter stress by taking breaks and exercising, for example, but really it's nothing new,&quot; he said.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The MC2 day was organized by a committee consisting of Mikael Fogelström, Susannah Carlsson, Linda Brånell, Lena Lindgren and Per Rudquist.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div>Fri, 18 Oct 2019 10:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Prestigious-grant-to-explore-strong-light-matter-coupling.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Prestigious-grant-to-explore-strong-light-matter-coupling.aspxPrestigious grant to explore strong light-matter coupling<p><b>Researchers from Chalmers have been awarded 25 million kronor through a prestigious project grant from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. Over five years, physicists Eva Olsson and Timur Shegai will seek answers to fundamental questions about the interaction between light and matter at room temperature.</b></p><div>“We look forward to combining unique cutting-edge abilities and building a platform for new knowledge about the interaction between light and matter.  We can dive even deeper and push the boundaries of what is possible to understand of both time and space,” says Professor Eva Olsson at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.<br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Eva Olsson’s research focuses on investigating materials with the help of electrons exploring properties down to the atomic level. Timur Shegai researches into the same area, but with the help of light studying ultrafast interactions. In the new project, they will combine light, matter, theory and experimentation, together with Chalmers colleagues Ermin Malic and Paul Erhart, as well as Laszlo Veisz at Umea University. In their new project they will explore strong light-matter coupling, where light and matter intermix to form new compositional light-matter quasi-particles called polaritons. Their hybrid character gives polaritons a set of intriguing optical and electronic properties.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Tailoring strong light-matter coupling at room temperature is an important challenge, since today’s quantum technology needs extremely low temperatures and advanced laboratories. Through developing a concept which can work at room temperature, the researchers can create sought after opportunities. </div> <div><br /></div> <div> “We can open doors to new applications in society, such as ultrafast optical switches, quantum information and new energy-saving light sources, for example. Light and matter exist everywhere around us and are essential to our lives. This new knowledge could also be used to customise material properties​, for example the reactivity of chemicals,” says Timur Shegai, Associate Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers. </div></div> <div><br /></div> <div></div> <div>In total, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation has awarded 640 million kronor to 20 pre-eminent basic research projects in the fields of medicine, natural sciences and technology. The projects are seen as offering potential for future scientific breakthroughs.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The new Chalmers-led project is called “Plasmon-exciton coupling at the attosecond-subnanometer scale: Tailoring strong light-matter interactions at room temperature”​<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se​​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/press/20-ground-breaking-research-projects-receive-grants-totaling-sek-640-million"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation​</a></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation</h2> <div><div>The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation supports Swedish basic research and education, primarily in medicine, technology and the natural sciences. This is achieved by awarding grants to excellent researchers and projects. <span style="background-color:initial">SEK 30 billion in grants has been awarded since the Foundation was established, with annual funding of SEK 1.8 billion in recent years, making the Foundation the largest private funder of scientific research in Sweden, and one of the largest in Europe.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="http://www.kaw.wallenberg.org/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more on Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation</a></span></div></div> ​Tue, 01 Oct 2019 10:00:00 +0200