News: Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskaphttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyTue, 24 Mar 2020 15:33:45 +0100http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Ewa-Simpanen-got-her-doctoral-hat-online.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Ewa-Simpanen-got-her-doctoral-hat-online.aspxEwa Simpanen got her doctoral hat online<p><b>​Ewa Simpanen, PhD student at the Photonics Laboratory, was in the limelight when MC2 for the first time streamed a thesis defence online on 20 March. &quot;It was tricky to get a flow in the presentation with all the technical issues and the fact that I had two cameras in front of me in different directions,&quot; she says.</b></p><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/esimpanen_disp_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Ewa Simpanen." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />Ewa Simpanen defended her thesis &quot;Longer Wavelength GaAs-Based VCSELs for Extended-Reach Optical Interconnects&quot; in front of a sparse audience in the lecture hall Kollektorn. In the simultaneous YouTube webcast, the audience was much bigger. The participants could also easily ask questions and make comments in the chat.</div> <div> </div> <div>The decision to broadcast the defence online was made at short notice as a result of the ongoing virus outbreak. The limited time for preparation led to some technical problems, which Ewa Simpanen describes as a &quot;roller coaster&quot;.</div> <div>&quot;At first everything worked as it should, but then the sound disappeared and we had to restart several times,&quot; she says.</div> <div> </div> <div>The grading committee and the opponent, Dr. Nicolae Chitica from Finisar Sweden AB, participated via link in the video conferencing system Zoom. He praised her for a solid and interesting job.</div> <div> </div> <div>Two unintended breaks made the public defense one of the longest in the department's history with its four hours. In retrospect, Ewa thinks back to the day with joy, despite the technical issues:</div> <div>&quot;I got a lot of support from everyone who watched my presentation remotely and I absolutely didn't feel alone! It was fun that colleagues in other parts of Europe who otherwise would not have been able to join me, could also follow me online. And what amazing cheers I received when it was announced that I had been approved! An absolutely incredible feeling! I am very happy and grateful to all those who watched and gave me their support, before, during and after the presentation.&quot;</div> <div><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/esimpanen_disp_665x330.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">What is your thesis about? </h3></div> <div>&quot;I presented the work on my lasers, which are used for optical cables in mega data centers. These lasers make it possible to send data at high-speed over longer distances of fiber, up to a few km, while being both cost and power efficient,&quot; Ewa says.</div> <div> </div> <div>With her fresh PhD grade, she plans to venture out into the world:</div> <div>&quot;I want to continue working with photonics or semiconductors in the industry and am now looking for jobs at large companies in the US,&quot; she says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>On the picture below, Ewa is nailing her thesis on the tree of knowledge in Canyon.<br /></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/esimpanen_disp_350x305b.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Picture of Ewa Simpanen." style="margin:5px" />Henric Fjellstedt, IT-responsible at the department, kept a watchful eye on the technology. Ewa Simpanen was very pleased with his efforts:</div> <div>&quot;Without Henric, this really wouldn't have worked! He fixed all the technical parts at really short notice. I'm also proud that we have a head of department who was with us all the way and helped everywhere he could, that's cool.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>Already, several upcoming thesis defences have been postponed, but MC2's head of department, Mikael Fogelström, opens up to stream more of them in the future - at least in times of crisis:</div> <div>&quot;I think that one must first and foremost protect the fact that a dissertation is one of the most important academic ceremonies we have. It is therefore of great value that as many as possible are present in the auditorium,&quot; he says.</div> <div> </div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo: Dag Winkler, Michael Nystås and private</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/publication/515598">Read Ewa Simpanen's doctoral thesis</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div>Tue, 24 Mar 2020 11:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Graphite-nanoplatelets-on-medical-devices-prevent-infections-.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Graphite-nanoplatelets-on-medical-devices-prevent-infections-.aspxGraphite nanoplatelets prevent infections<p><b>​Graphite nanoplatelets integrated into plastic medical surfaces can prevent infections, killing 99.99 per cent of bacteria which try to attach – a cheap and viable potential solution to a problem which affects millions, costs huge amounts of time and money, and accelerates antibiotic resistance. This is according to research from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, in the journal Small.​</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span>Every year, over four million people in Europe are affected by infections contracted during health-care procedures, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Many of these are bacterial infections which develop around medical devices and implants within the body, such as catheters, hip and knee prostheses or dental implants. In worst cases implants need to be removed.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Bacterial infections like this can cause great suffering for patients, and cost healthcare services huge amounts of time and money. Additionally, large amounts of antibiotics are currently used to treat and prevent such infections, costing more money, and accelerating the development of antibiotic resistance.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“The purpose of our research is to develop antibacterial surfaces which can reduce the number of infections and subsequent need for antibiotics, and to which bacteria cannot develop resistance. We have now shown that tailored surfaces formed of a mixture of polyethylene and graphite nanoplatelets can kill 99.99 per cent of bacteria which try to attach to the surface,” says Santosh Pandit, postdoctoral researcher in the research group of Professor Ivan Mijakovic at the Division of Systems Biology, Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Chalmers University of Technology. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​&quot;Outstanding antibacterial effects&quot;</h2> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Infections on implants are caused by bacteria that travel around in the body in fluids such as blood, in search of a surface to attach to. When they land on a suitable surface, they start to multiply and form a biofilm – a bacterial coating.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Previous studies from the Chalmers researchers showed how vertical flakes of graphene, placed on the surface of an implant, could form a protective coating, making it impossible for bacteria to attach – like spikes on buildings designed to prevent birds from nesting. The graphene flakes damage the cell membrane, killing the bacteria. But producing these graphene flakes is expensive, and currently not feasible for large-scale production.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“But now, we have achieved the same outstanding antibacterial effects, but using relatively inexpensive graphite nanoplatelets, mixed with a very versatile polymer. The polymer, or plastic, is not inherently compatible with the graphite nanoplatelets, but with standard plastic manufacturing techniques, we succeeded in tailoring the microstructure of the material, with rather high filler loadings , to achieve the desired effect. And now it has great potential for a number of biomedical applications,” says Roland Kádár, Associate Professor at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science at Chalmers.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​No damage to human cells</h2> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The nanoplatelets on the surface of the implants prevent bacterial infection but, crucially, without damaging healthy human cells. Human cells are around 25 times larger than bacteria, so while the graphite nanoplatelets slice apart and kill bacteria, they barely scratch a human cell. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“In addition to reducing patients’ suffering and the need for antibiotics, implants like these could lead to less requirement for subsequent work, since they could remain in the body for much longer than those used today,” says Santosh Pandit. “Our research could also contribute to reducing the enormous costs that such infections cause health care services worldwide .”</p> <p></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​Correct orientation is the decisive factor</h2> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">In the study, the researchers experimented with different concentrations of graphite nanoplatelets and the plastic material. A composition of around 15-20 per cent graphite nanoplatelets had the greatest antibacterial effect – providing that the morphology is highly structured.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“As in the previous study, the decisive factor is orienting and distributing the graphite nanoplatelets correctly. They have to be very precisely ordered to achieve maximum effect,” says Roland Kádár.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The study was a collaboration between the Division of Systems and Synthetic Biology at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, and the Division of Engineering Materials at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science at Chalmers, and the medical company Wellspect Healthcare, who manufacture catheters, among other things. The antibacterial surfaces were developed by Karolina Gaska when she was a postdoctoral researcher in the group of Associate Professor Roland Kádár. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The researchers’ future efforts will now be focused on unleashing the full potential of the antibacterial surfaces for specific biomedical applications.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Read the scientific article in the scientific journal Small</strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="https://www.livsmedelsverket.se/matvanor-halsa--miljo/kostrad-och-matvanor/all-fisk-ar-inte-nyttig"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><span style="background-color:initial"><font color="#333333"><a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/smll.201904756">Precontrolled Alignment of Graphite Nanoplatelets in Polymeric Composites Prevents Bacterial Attachment​</a></font></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Read the previous news text, from April 2018</strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="https://www.livsmedelsverket.se/matvanor-halsa--miljo/kostrad-och-matvanor/all-fisk-ar-inte-nyttig"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspx">Spikes of graphene can kill bacteria on implants​</a></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Text:</strong> Susanne Nilsson Lindh and Joshua Worth<br /><strong>Ilustration:</strong> Yen Strandqvist</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p>Mon, 23 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Researchers-facing-the-big-challenges.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Researchers-facing-the-big-challenges.aspxResearchers facing the big challenges<p><b>Research into everything from galaxies to human health, developing the shipping industry, electric vehicles, material properties and sustainable cities. They may focus on widely different subjects, but their research contributes to sustainable development and generates academic success.​</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>​There are many prominent researchers at Chalmers and in connection to 8 March, International Women's Day, we have chosen to acknowledge some researchers who are highly cited within their own fields of research: Marie Alminger, Karin Andersson, Yuliya Kalmykova, Kirsten Kraiberg Knudsen, Elsebeth Schröder and Sonja Tidblad Lundmark.</span><span><span>​</span></span></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span><span></span></span><span><span><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Marie Alminger" src="/SiteCollectionImages/20200101-20200701/8%20mars/Alminger_textbild.jpg" style="margin:5px 10px" />Marie Alminger, Professor, Biology and Biological Engineering</span></span></h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Marie Alminger wants to improve knowledge on how foods are disintegrated during digestion, identify bioactive compounds that are released and absorbed in the body, investigate potential effects of these compounds on human health.</p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong> </strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What benefit does your research give to society?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“Increased knowledge on how food composition, structures and content of specific bioactive compounds affect health will be useful to understand how foods can contribute to the prevention of some diseases, for example type 2 diabetes and cardio-vascular disease.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What are the biggest challenges within your research area?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> “Food digestion is a highly complex process. Many questions remain on how, for example, different compounds in the body are released, transported, and absorbed, and about their biological activity. Multiple methods are required to identify and analyse digested compounds. Interlaboratory studies, using the same methods, are important to yield successful results.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Marie-Alminger.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about Marie Alminger</a></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Karin Andersson" src="/SiteCollectionImages/20200101-20200701/8%20mars/KarinAndersson_textbild.jpg" style="margin:5px 10px" />Karin Andersson, Professor, Maritime Environmental Science</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Karin Andersson’s research investigates the relationship between technical systems and nature, and how to develop technology to become more sustainable. Since 2007 she has focused on working with shipping and sea transport. The conversion from the traditional heavy fuel oils to non-fossil energy carriers with minimal emissions sets demands for evaluating the large spectrum of new alternatives. <span style="background-color:initial">Together with the research group, Karin Andersson is working with fuels and energy conversion in shipping, and methods for providing scientifically based support for using natural resources in a sustainable way, with minimal environmental impact. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">“A bonus is that the group consists of several female senior scientists who are on their way to become highly cited&quot;, says Karin Andersson.</span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What benefit does your research give to society?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“The societal impact of the research is that results and knowledge is transferred to and used by decision makers in industry and shipping sector. Other important target groups are those who work with regulations and policy making within authorities and politics.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What are the biggest challenges?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“The challenge is to communicate a complex reality in a manner that not only answers the questions but also contributes to increased knowledge and understanding in both industry and society”.  </div> <div><br /></div> <a href="/en/staff/Pages/karin-andersson.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="/en/staff/Pages/karin-andersson.aspx"><div style="display:inline !important">Read more about Karin Andersson</div></a><br /><div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Yuliya Kalmykova" src="/SiteCollectionImages/20200101-20200701/8%20mars/Kalmykova_textbild.jpg" style="margin:5px 10px" />Yuliya Kalmykova, Associate Professor, Architecture and Civil Engineering </h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Yuliya Kalmykova’s research is about Urban Metabolism - to study and understand the turnover of resources, energy and emission flows in cities. </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What benefit does your research give to society?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“The benefit for society is comprehension of the relationship between a city’s metabolism, the measures taken to manage it and the environmental impacts or benefits the measures have”.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What are the biggest challenges?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“55 percent of the Earth’s population live in cities today, and our cities are responsible for about 80 percent of global resource use and greenhouse gas emissions. By the year 2050 the urban population is expected to have increased to 70 percent, which will further increase cities environmental impact - unless we transform cities to become more sustainable. Here is where our research comes in, and I believe we can achieve a lot by planning and making a transition to a circular economy.”</div> <div><br /></div> <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/yuliya-kalmykova.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/yuliya-kalmykova.aspx"><div style="display:inline !important">Read more about <span style="background-color:initial">Yuliya Kalmykova</span></div></a><div></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/20200101-20200701/8%20mars/TEST_KRAIBERG.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px 10px" /><span style="font-family:inherit;background-color:initial">Kirsten Kraiberg Knudsen, Professor, Department of Space, Earth and Environment</span></h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Our universe is about 13.8 billion years old and our home galaxy, the Milky Way, is almost as old. Kirsten Kraiberg Knudsen’s research topic is galaxy formation and evolution, and she studies the early phases of galaxy evolution to understand why they appear the way to they do today.  Some of the goals are to understand how super-massive black holes impact the growth of galaxies, to push as far back in time as possible to find the earliest galaxies and understand how the Milky Way might have looked in the early times.  </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What benefit does your research give to society?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“Basic science is the key to our understanding of nature and provides the basis for subsequent innovations and new technology. Astronomy inspires many people, young and old, as it focuses on fundamental questions about our place in the universe.”  </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What are the biggest challenges?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“There are the general challenges, for example, stable funding, long-term investments in large telescopes, clear career paths, and the necessary political will to support basic science. As for the topic itself, we do not know what the first galaxies look like, which makes the searches very challenging. Also, the new, large telescopes are providing large amounts of new unexpected results that challenge the models that are otherwise used for interpretation. Of course, facing the scientific challenges is really exciting because it pushes our knowledge forward”.  </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/kraiberg.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about <span style="background-color:initial">Kirsten Kraiberg Knudsen</span></a></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Elsebeth Schröder" src="/SiteCollectionImages/20200101-20200701/8%20mars/Schröder_textbild.jpg" style="margin:5px 10px" />Elsebeth Schröder, Professor, Microtechnology and Nanoscience</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Elsebeth Schröder works on theoretical methods in physics on an atomic scale. In her research, she strives to describe how the nature of the electrons determines the material properties, to predict material structure and behavior from computations. Materials is here to be understood in quite general terms, covering a range of systems, from oxide surfaces, over carbon-based filters, to DNA fragments.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What benefit does your research give to society?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“The method development that I contribute to is of great value to other researchers around the world.  I and other researchers use the methods for problems that are important for materials production or have health-related aspects. For example, I have looked at the mechanisms of water purification of perfluorinated molecules and how the structure of DNA is affected by, for example, intercalation of carcinogenic molecules between base pairs in DNA”.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What are the biggest challenges?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“The greatest challenges lie in further developing the theoretical methods, so that we can become even better at understanding and predicting properties in materials. This involves both refining the methods and enabling application to even more complicated material systems”.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Elsebeth-Schröder.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about Elsebeth Schröder​</a><br /></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt=" Sonja Tidblad Lundmark" src="/SiteCollectionImages/20200101-20200701/8%20mars/sonja_textbild.jpg" style="margin:5px 10px" />Sonja Tidblad Lundmark, Associate Professor, Electrical engineering</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Sonja Tidblad Lundmarks research is about modelling and designing electrical machines for applications in, among other things, electric vehicles and wind power stations.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What benefit does your research give to society?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“The benefits lie in developing sustainable, cost-effective alternatives that can contribute to, for example, more people being able to afford to drive an electric car, or that magnets and copper material can be recycled from electric motors when the electric car is scrapped”.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What are the biggest challenges?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“A major challenge is to develop calculation models that are neither too simple, nor overly complicated. The goal is to find models that are sufficiently detailed to be able to simulate real-world conditions, and yet being manageable when the electric machine models are connected to a larger system. That applies, for example, if the entire electric car is to be modelled for various drive cycles and different weather conditions. In order to develop functional models, good cooperation between different areas of knowledge is needed. I have been fortunate to be part of good collaborations!”.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/sonja-lundmark.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about <span style="background-color:initial">Sonja Tidblad Lundmark</span>​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Julia Jansson, Susanne Nilsson Lindh, Anders Ryttarson Törneholm, Catharina Björk, Christian Löwhagen, Mikael Nystås, Yvonne Jonsson​</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div>Fri, 06 Mar 2020 03:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Time-to-take-the-days-as-they-come.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Time-to-take-the-days-as-they-come.aspxTime to take the days as they come<p><b>​It doesn&#39;t mean a thing if it ain&#39;t got that swing. It could be a fitting description of Ulf Södervall&#39;s attitude to life. When he leaves Chalmers after 45 years, he gets more time to swing the golf clubs and live life. &quot;I feel ready,&quot; he says.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/usodervall_IMG_8207_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Ulf Södervall" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" />We meet Ulf in his almost vacant office for a relaxed conversation about his career at Chalmers. After doing the military service in Dalarna and Linköping, the young Örebro son started to study technical physics at Chalmers in September 1975. Since then he has remained loyal to the university.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;It's really a little crazy that it's been so long. But now I feel ready, even though there are different aspects to it. I am prepared to live a little freer now, but will miss the environment and all the colleagues,&quot; he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/sv/institutioner/mc2/nyheter/Sidor/Redo-att-ta-dagarna-som-de-kommer.aspx">Read a longer interview with Ulf Södervall</a> (in Swedish) &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div>Tue, 03 Mar 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/New-book-combines-quantum-physics-and-biology.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/New-book-combines-quantum-physics-and-biology.aspxNew book combines quantum physics and biology<p><b>​Seven years of work is over. On 16 March, the book that unites quantum physics and biology is released. Among the authors are the MC2 professors Göran Johansson and Göran Wendin. &quot;Not many physicians and biologists have worn quantum physical glasses before,&quot; says Göran Johansson.​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;Kvantfysiken och livet&quot; (&quot;Quantum physics and life&quot;) with the imaginative subtitle &quot;Våra innersta mekanismer och världarna omkring oss&quot; (&quot;Our innermost mechanisms and the worlds around us&quot;) (Volante Förlag) is an interdisciplinary book that shows how the meeting between quantum physics and medical research can form the basis for the next scientific revolution.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;Life is always interesting and it is fascinating to think about how quantum physics comes in&quot;, says Göran Johansson, professor of applied quantum physics, and head of the Applied Quantum Physics Laboratory at MC2.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/sv/institutioner/mc2/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-bok-forenar-kvantfysik-och-biologi.aspx">Read a longer article about the book</a> (in Swedish) &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Text: Michael Nystås</span><br /></div> <div>Photo: Ulf Sirborn</div>Tue, 03 Mar 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/New-deputy-head-of-the-Terahertz-and-Millimetre-Wave-Laboratory.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/New-deputy-head-of-the-Terahertz-and-Millimetre-Wave-Laboratory.aspxNew deputy head of the Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory<p><b>​Helena Rodilla is substituting Jan Stake as head of the Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory (TML) at MC2 until 1 September. &quot;I think it is interesting to learn how the lab and the department work&quot;, she says.​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/hrodilla_2016_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Helena Rodilla" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />Associate Professor Helena Rodilla came to Chalmers in 2011 after receiving her PhD in physics at the University of Salamanca in Spain, on the topic Monte Carlo simulations of semiconductor devices. She had a postdoc assignment at the Microwave Electronics Laboratory (MEL) for two years.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;My work there was quite similar to my PhD, on the same device but for a different type of materials. But then I started to be more familiar with measurements and how the cleanroom works&quot;, Helena says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A rather brave shift in her career occurred in 2013 when she joined TML and changed research field completely to find new applications in terahertz technology for life science. It has an interdisciplinary approach that Helena enjoys.</div> <div>&quot;It is challenging and has also been a lot of fun. I liked what I was doing but had been working in many years with that, and I felt I wanted to learn new things. The topic was new at TML and new for me. I started from scratch. One of the things I like the most is the collaboration with colleagues in biology and chemistry at the University of Gothenburg. I think I have been very lucky&quot;, she says.</div> <div>Helena Rodilla's current research has two main lines - one of more basic science, for example studies of how proteins are moving, and the other one a more practical industrial collaboration with Astra Zeneca, on controlling different processes in the tablet production.</div> <div>&quot;For the moment we are developing tools in the terahertz frequency range for addressing these challenges. It's still in a really early stage&quot;, she explains.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Helena Rodilla's new challenge is to be deputy head of laboratory during Jan Stake's current sabbatical leave at TU Delft in the Netherlands.</div> <div>&quot;I think it is interesting to learn how the lab and the department work. When I first got the question I was a little afraid for the responsibility, but now I feel more comfortable. I'm maintaining the lab while Jan is away, and is in contact with him continously, so I don't see it like I'm taking over his role. I'm not planning any big decisions or changes&quot;, she smiles.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Helena is married and have a two year old son. She was born and raised in Salamanca, a city with around 150.000 inhabitants, located west of Madrid in western Spain. As said, she achieved her PhD at the University of Salamanca, which happens to be one of the oldest in Europe, founded already in 1134.</div> <div>&quot;Salamanca is a university city, a small town with lots of students, similar to Lund. It's a nice place for studying&quot;, she concludes. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo: Anna-Lena Lundquist</div>Tue, 03 Mar 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Making-the-internet-more-energy-efficient-through-systemic-optimisation.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Making-the-internet-more-energy-efficient-through-systemic-optimisation.aspxMaking the internet more energy efficient<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers ​recently completed a 5-year research project looking at how to make fibre optic communications systems more energy efficient. Among their proposals are smart, error-correcting data chip circuits, which they refined to be 10 times less energy consumptive. The project has yielded multiple scientific articles, in publications including Nature Communications.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Streaming films and music, scrolling through social media, and using cloud-based storage services are everyday activities now. But to accommodate this digital lifestyle, a huge amount of data needs to be transmitted through fibre optic cables – and that amount is increasing at an almost unimaginable rate, consuming an enormous amount of electricity. This is completely unsustainable – at the current rate of increase, if no energy efficiency gains were made, within ten years the internet alone would consume more electricity than is currently generated worldwide. The electricity production cannot be increased at the same rate without massively increasing the usage of fossil fuels for electricity generation, which of course would lead to a significant increase in carbon dioxide emissions.</span><div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Smarta%20datachips%20del%20av%20lösningen%20för%20att%20göra%20internet%20energisnålare/Peter-Andrekson_250x333px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Peter Andrekson" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:263px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">“The challenge lies in meeting that inevitable demand for capacity and performance, while keeping costs at a reasonable level and minimising the environmental impacts,” says Peter Andrekson, Professor of Photonics at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience at Chalmers.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Peter Andrekson was the leader of the 5-year research project <a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=5914" target="_blank">‘Energy-efficient optical fibre communication’</a>, which has contributed significant advances to the field.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the early phase of the project, the Chalmers researchers identified the biggest energy drains in today's fibre optic systems. With this knowledge, they then designed and built a concept for a system for data transmission which consumes as little energy as possible. Optimising the components of the system against each other results in significant energy savings.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Currently, some of the most energy-intensive components are error-correction data chips, which are used in optical systems to compensate for noise and interference. The Chalmers researchers have now succeeded in designing these chips with optimised circuits.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Smarta%20datachips%20del%20av%20lösningen%20för%20att%20göra%20internet%20energisnålare/Per-Larsson-Edefors_250x333px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Per Larsson-Edefors" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:263px" />“Our measurements show that the energy consumption of our refined chips is around 10 times less than conventional error-correcting chips,” says Per Larsson-Edefors, Professor in Computer Engineering at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At a systemic level, the researchers also demonstrated the advantages of using ‘optical frequency combs’ instead of having separate laser transmitters for each frequency channel. An optical frequency comb emits light at all wavelengths simultaneously, making the transmitter very frequency-stable. This makes reception of the signals much easier – and thus more energy efficient.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Energy savings can also be made through controlling fibre optic communications at the network level. By mathematically modelling the energy consumption in different network resources, data traffic can be controlled and directed so that the resources are utilised optimally. This is especially valuable if traffic varies over time, as is the case in most networks. For this, the researchers developed an optimisation algorithm which can reduce network energy consumption by up to 70%.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The recipe for these successes has been the broad approach of the project, with scientists from three different research areas collaborating to find the most energy-saving overall solution possible, without sacrificing system performance.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Smarta%20datachips%20del%20av%20lösningen%20för%20att%20göra%20internet%20energisnålare/Erik-Agrell_250x333px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Erik Agrell" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:263px" />These research breakthroughs offer great potential for making the internet of the future considerably more energy-efficient. Several scientific articles have been published in the three research disciplines of optical hardware, electronics systems and communication networks.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Improving the energy efficiency of data transmission requires multidisciplinary competence. The challenges lie at the meeting points between optical hardware, communications science, electronic engineering and more. That’s why this project has been so successful”, says Erik Agrell, Professor in Communications Systems at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>More on the research</strong></div> <div>The research could have huge potential to make future internet usage significantly more energy efficient. It has resulted in several research publications within the three scientific disciplines of optical hardware, electronics systems and communications networks.The research results have been published in multiple articles, including the following three:</div> <div><ul><li><a href="http://postman.mynewsdesk.com/wf/click?upn=jT4ao6EIWq-2B-2Fx9SECyWO4-2F3NrlX2-2Fnm4FQcveXCi43isecyOuYW7oWnBr4foZiiDxPTbB82z7TI6BXHyW07hfQ-3D-3D_X6nVGqSMdJTrz-2FI1LxXG5p2migGMf1WazWDFt93-2FtiI1gYqAxvDcGyKwx2VSvp2QlDC8zwl-2FiQ3z2nU-2FDvBfcCXNBfSZya5hShDiF8z08wfY7Q-2FR1Jl97JC9YEVeNAuUKw8A6Hg9HFJqED33HyC6X-2FPdIthmPed6oD5We0Cz87flAJm27k78v9LfPFamfc6duUGlnbrgzUumapYLt9CqXRkCTRLkkbhfMNmxjd1h7iXQb-2BOPNzQT4bZTPmb1ZIjaOFnwDCQE5HLYh3Mri-2BWrjHOC4kzMhCIBi1-2FNW8vRW76K7Tk7QGjX780n-2BSbUF7FlOtYLygDDS4wPuoHqi3RKntryQc11wS-2B7ixuLgOjOpxfR0LworYeAvjl6WCn-2F7MRPmR9TqGwYnOmpd8PUhD68XM-2BE0bkDD309Y4u6oF0oqFYVv7m0PMWSqA7I-2Fumtm0si">Phase-coherent lightwave communications with frequency combs</a>, in the journal Nature Communications</li> <li><a href="http://postman.mynewsdesk.com/wf/click?upn=jT4ao6EIWq-2B-2Fx9SECyWO476aL63ZsrzN6XM2ZyLUkt4LVCzdaMF6a-2BbtzhvUwUNAPg5CrkovkVIZl32zUyuVDA-3D-3D_X6nVGqSMdJTrz-2FI1LxXG5p2migGMf1WazWDFt93-2FtiI1gYqAxvDcGyKwx2VSvp2QlDC8zwl-2FiQ3z2nU-2FDvBfcCXNBfSZya5hShDiF8z08wfY7Q-2FR1Jl97JC9YEVeNAuUKw8A6Hg9HFJqED33HyC6X-2FPdIthmPed6oD5We0Cz87flAJm27k78v9LfPFamfc6duUGlnbrgzUumapYLt9CqXaMOvQXSbSnPVHd7JGZmXlLnNRGpyxYUzDnnGBpduNzYe59Jypgq3i2XlfcsP3jyAOgvphzUmCJDC0Doc3P2lWApRkWgPn53L8Xv7KLoBaBTMKdagQ-2BJt-2FYg3iMSvkdvxHKZEyxe0Bbwdd9j-2Fon9v3dZ9qXSGo6nPuhjSydnrT4zt4i7YlM7aHkKlCOiYXwIrd7fIJjwM0w79a51f3XNP6B5K-2FV-2FLX0I5BKZjP6Hha7Q" target="_blank">Energy-Efficient High-Throughput VLSI Architectures for Product-Like Codes</a>, in the Journal of Lightwave Technology</li> <li><a href="http://postman.mynewsdesk.com/wf/click?upn=jT4ao6EIWq-2B-2Fx9SECyWO45ylyOQAxTlckGFPvpsOSfmETKhei9ty-2FGzNz3WavkKCxfhOKjZjQLgQnwnpXvl6PzOwocXiDbtcgAQSLukL6jFQGZmg46jsdzSB6P9sSovl_X6nVGqSMdJTrz-2FI1LxXG5p2migGMf1WazWDFt93-2FtiI1gYqAxvDcGyKwx2VSvp2QlDC8zwl-2FiQ3z2nU-2FDvBfcCXNBfSZya5hShDiF8z08wfY7Q-2FR1Jl97JC9YEVeNAuUKw8A6Hg9HFJqED33HyC6X-2FPdIthmPed6oD5We0Cz87flAJm27k78v9LfPFamfc6duUGlnbrgzUumapYLt9CqXfRTKFpEtDMh-2BfW9a51nHBFj7O70TmIHGP9cZbVbjLNtwxgdvzK3G-2B-2BUvZCdlRa1y6qdR3Gzw-2Fa7FLh5DIO1hSoc9uXCYiuoXAlgUNsCi6w9tFtxDTkABgoqpHycm-2BoZ8DvOdQQNR7816C8YXaXbHueyTSeBUqpVxpxb73U6FJUpGqLvpqiMbUbxJwR47BTFERCY88tAvDa7PhfAFsUA5gcgdDirN4WjS4k76MksJoVd" target="_blank"><span style="background-color:initial">Join</span><span style="background-color:initial">t power-efficient traffic shaping and service provisioning for metro elastic optical networks</span>​</a><span style="background-color:initial">, in the journal IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Com</span><span style="background-color:initial">munications and Networking, </span><br /></li></ul></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The 5-year research project <a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=5914">’Energy-efficient optical fibre communication’</a> ran from 2014–2019, and was financed by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Some more information on some of the research breakthroughs:</strong></div> <div>Smart, error correcting chips:</div> <div>The data chips have been designed by Chalmers and manufactured in Grenoble in France. The Chalmers researchers subsequently verified the chips’ performance and measured the energy usage, which was just a tenth of current error-correcting chips. </div> <div>At an energy transfer speed of 1 terabyte per second (1 terabyte = 1 trillion bits) <a href="https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8611331" target="_blank">the researchers demonstrated that the chip drew less energy than 2 picojoules​</a> (1 picojoule = 1 trillionth of a joule) per bit. This equates to a power consumption of 2 Watts at this data rate. Comparatively, the current energy usage at such high transfer speeds is around 50 picojoules per bit, around 50 Watts.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Yvonne Jonsson</div> <div>Portrait photos: Johan Bodell, Chalmers, Laurence L Levin</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>For more information, contact:</strong></div> <div>Optical hardware: </div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Peter-Andrekson.aspx">Peter Andrekson</a>, leader of the research project, and Professor of Photonics at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience at Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div><a href="mailto:%20peter.andrekson@chalmers.se">peter.andrekson@chalmers.se</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Electronics systems: </div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/perla.aspx">Per Larsson-Edefors</a>, Professor in Computer Engineering at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Chalmers <span style="background-color:initial">University of Technology</span></div> <div><a href="mailto:%20perla@chalmers.se">perla@chalmers.se</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Communications networks: </div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/erik-agrell.aspx">Erik Agrell​</a>, Professor in Communications Systems at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers <span style="background-color:initial">University of Technology</span></div> <div><a href="mailto:%20perla@chalmers.se">agrell@chalmers.se</a></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div></div></div>Thu, 13 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Graphene-spin-circuits-–-towards-all-spin-computing.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Graphene-spin-circuits-%E2%80%93-towards-all-spin-computing.aspxGraphene spin circuits – towards all-spin computing<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have demonstrated spin circuit architectures with large area graphene channels efficiently carrying and communicating the electronic spin information between nanomagnets arranged in different complex geometries consisting of multiple devices. The findings were recently published in the scientific journal Carbon. ​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Solid-state electronics based on utilizing the electron spin degree of freedom for storing and processing information can pave the way for next-generation spin-based computing. However, the realization of spin communication between multiple devices in complex spin circuit geometries, essential for practical applications, still remained challenging.</span><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/saroj_prasad_dash_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Picture of Saroj Dash." style="margin:5px" />&quot;Our experimental demonstration of spin communication in large area CVD graphene spin circuit architectures is a milestone towards large-scale integration and development of spin-logic and memory technologies”, says Saroj Dash (to the left), associate professor and group leader, who supervised the research project.  </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Dmitrii Khokhriakov, PhD student at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory at Chalmers University of Technology, carved complicated graphene Y-junction and Hexa-arm spin circuit architectures utilizing nanofabrication techniques compatible with industrial manufacturing processes. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers demonstrate that the spin-polarized current can be effectively communicated between the magnetic memory elements in different 2D graphene circuit architectures. They take advantage of extraordinary long-distance spin transport observed in commercially available wafer-scale CVD graphene with transport lengths exceeding 34 μm at room temperature. In addition, the researchers also demonstrate that by engineering the graphene channel geometry and orientation of spin polarization, the symmetric and antisymmetric spin precession signals can be tuned in a precise manner.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>This research at Chalmers is funded by the EU Graphene Flagship and the Swedish Research Council (VR).</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Illustration: Dmitrii Khokhriakov​<br /></div> <div>Photo of Saroj Prasad Dash: Oscar Mattsson</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Read the article &quot;<a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0008622320301226?via%3Dihub">Two-Dimensional Spintronic Circuit Architectures on Large Scale Graphene</a>&quot; &gt;&gt;&gt;</span></div>Wed, 12 Feb 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/gpc/news/Pages/Nomination_for_the_Lise_Meitner_Award_2020.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/gpc/news/Pages/Nomination_for_the_Lise_Meitner_Award_2020.aspxCall for nominations: Gothenburg Lise Meitner award 2020<p><b>​The Gothenburg Physics Centre (GPC) is seeking nominations for the 2020 Gothenburg Lise Meitner Award.  Nominations are due on Monday, 2 March, 2020.​​</b></p>​​The Lise Meitner award honors exceptional individuals for a “<em>groundbreaking discovery in physics</em>”.  <br />In addition to their scientific accomplishments, the candidates must meet the following selection criteria:<br /><ul><li>They have distinguished themselves through public activities of popularizing science and are prepared to deliver the annual Lise Meitner Lecture (middle of September).</li> <li>Their research activity is connected to or benefit activities at GPC.<br /></li></ul> Nominations should include a motivation describing the achievements of the candidate, a short biography/CV, contact details and a local contact person. <br /><br />We would also like to thank those of you who did make an effort to nominate a candidate in the past! In case your nomination has not been chosen, we encourage you to submit her or his name again. As the number of nominations has declined in recent years, we <span style="font-weight:700">strongly </span>encourage all members of GPC to nominate a candidate! Please think broadly! There are certainly outstanding candidates you either know personally or whom you would like to come here to Gothenburg.  ​<br /><br />Nominations should be sent to any member of the of the Lise Meitner Award Committee 2020: <br /><br />Dinko Chakarov <a href="mailto:dinko.chakarov@chalmers.se">dinko.chakarov@chalmers.se</a> <br />Hans Nordman <a href="mailto:hans.nordman@chalmers.se">hans.nordman@chalmers.se</a><br />Vitali Zhaunerchyk<a href="mailto:%20vitali.zhaunerchyk@physics.gu.se"> vitali.zhaunerchyk@physics.gu.se​</a><br />Vitaly Shumeiko <a href="mailto:vitaly.shumeiko@chalmers.se">vitaly.shumeiko@chalmers.se​</a><br />Andreas Heinz (Chair) <a href="mailto:andreas.heinz@chalmers.se">andreas.heinz@chalmers.se</a><br /><a href="mailto:andreas.heinz@chalmers.se"></a><br /><a href="/en/centres/gpc/activities/lisemeitner"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />More information about Lise Meitner and the award can be found at the GPC website</a><br /><br />With best regards,<br /><br />The 2020 Lise Meitner Committee​Wed, 29 Jan 2020 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Non-equilibrium-distributions-can-be-a-new-power-source.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Non-equilibrium-distributions-can-be-a-new-power-source.aspxNon-equilibrium distributions can be a new power source<p><b>​​Researchers from Chalmers, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS, show that non-equilibrium distributions can be a new power source. &quot;It is very appealing to think that we might be able to take such a distribution as a resource, and recycle it for power production&quot;, says Janine Splettstößer, professor in theoretical physics at the Applied Quantum Physics Laboratory (AQP) at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/janine_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Non-equilibrium distributions of states are all around us, and are often generated as an unwanted by-product of some physical process. In the article &quot;Nonequilibrium System as a Demon&quot;, recently published in the scientific journal Physical Review Letters, the researchers find that such distributions can be a new power source.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;They generate a paradoxical effect similar to a &quot;Maxwell demon&quot;, whereby they reduce another system's entropy at no apparent cost, suggesting that perpetual motion is possible&quot;, says Janine Splettstößer (to the left).</div> <div>The researchers call this a &quot;N-demon&quot; (with the &quot;N&quot; for non-equilibrium). </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Maxwell's demon is a thought experiment created by the physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1867 in which he suggested how the second law of thermodynamics might hypothetically be violated. In 1982, the physicist Charles H Bennett showed that the paradox of the Maxwell demon was resolved by treating information as a thermodynamic resource like heat or work.</div> <div>&quot;Similarly, we resolve the paradox of the N-demon by treating &quot;non-equilibrium&quot; as a thermodynamic resource, which is used up as it reduces another system's entropy. This forbids the building of a perpetual motion machine, but does allow us to propose devices that use such resources (in particular non-equilibrium distributions of <span style="background-color:initial">electrons or photons) to generate more power than is conventionally believed possible&quot;, explains Janine Splettstößer.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Her co-authors are Rafael Sánchez, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain, and Robert S Whitney, Université Grenoble Alpes and CNRS in France.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Illustration: Janine <span style="background-color:initial">Splettstößer</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Read the article &quot;Nonequilibrium System as a Demon&quot; in Physical Review Letters &gt;&gt;&gt;</span><br /></div> <div>Rafael Sánchez, Janine Splettstoesser, Robert S. Whitney: <a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.216801">Nonequilibrium System as a Demon​</a>. Phys. Rev. Lett. 123, 216801 (2019)</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxwell%27s_demon">Read more about Maxwell's demon</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div>Mon, 13 Jan 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Honourable-extension-as-Wallenberg-Academy-Fellow.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Honourable-extension-as-Wallenberg-Academy-Fellow.aspxHonourable extension as Wallenberg Academy Fellow<p><b>​Janine Splettstößer, professor of theoretical physics at the Applied Quantum Physics Laboratory (AQP) at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, has got a five-year extension of her ongoing Wallenberg Academy Fellow appointment. &quot;I am of course extremely happy about this –​ it’s a great honour!&quot;, she says. ​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">When Janine Splettstößer was appointed as a fellow in 2013, she was the first at MC2, although she belonged to another university at the time of her application. She came to Chalmers in the end of 2013 and has been here since then.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;Since I have moved here, I have built up my group at the AQP. We have mostly been working on dynamics of time-dependent transport in nano electronic systems, but have moved more and more in the direction of quantum thermodynamics, which is also the topic of the proposal for the extension grant. Since I have arrived here, the first three PhD students have graduated and also some Master students and Postdocs have been part of my group. Some new people will join the group in the coming months&quot;, Janine tells us.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The extension means five more years to spend on her research. As a fellow, Janine Splettstößer plans to work on a project which deals with the thermodynamics of nanoscale systems. </div> <div>&quot;In particular, I am interested in non-equilibrium and quantum effects and how they can be exploited for possible future applications. For example, one might wonder whether certain non-equilibrium conditions make thermoelectric effects at the nanoscale more efficient.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>She and her group will work on a wide span of approaches: from developing theoretical methods, to proposing realistic devices and work in collaboration with experimentalists. </div> <div>&quot;I also hope to be able to extend local collaborations in this context. The new people joining my group might also be very helpful for this.&quot;<span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Has being an Academy Fellow opened any doors for you?</h3> <div>&quot;Absolutely! Since I had not worked in Sweden before, being an academy fellow was extremely helpful to meet people, have a mentor, regular meetings with scientists from different Universities and disciplines etc. But of course also the generous funding allowed me to build up a real group from the very beginning! So for me this was really a door-opener!&quot;, says Janine.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div>Thu, 09 Jan 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Big-breakthrough-for-quantum-computers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Big-breakthrough-for-quantum-computers.aspxBig breakthrough for quantum computers<p><b>​Researchers at Google have for the first time succeeded in solving a problem that is beyond the reach of a regular computer with a quantum computer. In just minutes, their quantum computer performed a computational task that, according to the researchers, would have taken more than ten thousand years for a powerful supercomputer. Göran Johansson, one of the leaders of Chalmers quantum computer project, sees this as a major milestone.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>How did you feel when you heard of the news?</strong></span><br /></div> <div>“I felt very happy! I knew that Google's research team was starting to get results with their 53-qubit quantum computer Sycamore, but that they have now managed to get such good reliability in their operations that they can perform this kind of calculation – it's a fantastic breakthrough!”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What lies behind the breakthrough?</strong></div> <div>“Sycamore is quite similar to Google's previous quantum computers in its structure. The breakthrough rather results from careful design of the hardware and software used to control the chip and a thorough analysis of which computational task to choose.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Does this mean that quantum computers now outperform regular computers in general?</strong></div> <div>“No, absolutely not. The research team has shown that their quantum computer can solve a single calculation task better than a regular computer. The solved task is completely useless, it was chosen solely because it was judged to be easy to solve for a quantum computer but very difficult for a conventional one. But as quantum computers evolve, they will outperform conventional computers in more and more types of tasks.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>IBM criticizes Google’s calculations and states that their best supercomputer could solve the task in less than three days. What do you think about that?</strong></div> <div>“If that is the case, it would still be the first time a quantum computer performs something that requires the full capacity of the world's largest supercomputer, for almost three whole days, to reproduce. Whether it's ten thousand years or three days, I see the achievement of Google’s team as a very important step forward.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What does this breakthrough mean to Chalmers quantum computer project?</strong></div> <div>“We are aiming for a quantum computer with one hundred well-functioning qubits, and Google has now shown that it is possible to create over fifty qubits that operate at over 99 percent reliability. It is incredibly inspiring and motivating!”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>How does your quantum computer compare to Google’s?</strong></div> <div>“We use the same basic building blocks – superconducting circuits – as Google. So far, we are working, completely according to our plan, with a chip with only two qubits. Our strategy is to first get it to work really, really well on a small scale. For example, Google's qubits have an average lifetime of 16 microseconds, while we have over 80 microseconds. The longer the lifetime, the more computational operations you can do. On the other hand, Google has managed to reach significantly faster operations than we have, but we are working at getting really good at that as well. Then we will start to scale up in fairly large steps.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What will be the next milestone in the development of quantum computers?</strong></div> <div>“Finding a useful problem that is beyond the reach of ordinary computers, but which a quantum computer with fifty to a hundred qubits can solve. We work intensively on this in collaboration with our industry partners. Probably, it will be within logistics or simulation of large molecules.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Ingela Roos</div> <div>Photo: Johan Bodell</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The article has previously been published in Swedish in Chalmers magasin #2 2019</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/centres/wacqt">Read more about Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology​</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div>Wed, 18 Dec 2019 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Self-cooled-bolometer-with-ultimate-sensitivity-created-for-the-first-time.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Self-cooled-bolometer-with-ultimate-sensitivity-created-for-the-first-time.aspxSelf-cooled bolometer with ultimate sensitivity created for the first time<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have managed to create the first cold-electron bolometer in the world with ultimate sensitivity due to an effective on-chip self-cooling. The results were recently published in the scientific journal Communications Physics of Nature group.​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/lkuzmin_350x305.jpg" alt="Photo of Leonid Kuzmin." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Superconducting bolometers are widely used for balloon and space missions and have seen extensive development because of their capacity to test primordial conditions of the Universe. The major improvements consist in lowering the operating temperature to reach higher sensitivities.</span><br /></div> <div>“The big difference between our cold-electron bolometer with an effective self-cooling and other types, is that the latter ones require cooling of the entire sample. Our technology can significantly reduce the cost of future space missions because we can avoid dilution refrigerators”, says Leonid Kuzmin (to the right), professor at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, and main author of the paper.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In their study, the researchers show that an array of 192 cold-electron bolometers demonstrates photon-noise-limited operation at the cryostat temperature of 310 millikelvin (mK) due to effective self-cooling of the absorber. </div> <div>“This bolometer works at electron temperature less than phonon temperature, thus being a good candidate for future space missions without the use of complicated dilution refrigerators that can’t normally work in space due to absence of gravity”, says Leonid Kuzmin.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>He describes the research as a four-step-process which led to the invention of a bolometer that operates at an electron temperature that is less than the phonon temperature. Attempts and failures along the way stimulated the team to even more intensive thinking for better decisions and suggestions.</div> <div>“As a result, the optimal decision in Step 4 has been found. Instead of a ‘six-legged cuttlefish’, which turned out to be too complicated, the two-legged cold-electron bolometer with only one pair of SIN tunnel junctions was invented”, says Leonid Kuzmin.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The study suggests that such cold-electron bolometers with internal self-cooling are potential candidates for advanced radio astronomy projects that must avoid dilution refrigerators. </div> <div>“This can solve the main problem of the COrE space mission that was not accepted by the European Space Agency due to necessity to find a compromise between sensitivity, cryogenics and cost. We can develop arrays of cold-electron bolometers practically for any frequency range achieving ultimate sensitivity at 300 mK without dilution refrigerator”, says Leonid Kuzmin.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research was a collaboration between Chalmers University of Technology, Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University, Institute for Physics of Microstructures of RAS in Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, and Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita La Sapienza in Rome, Italy.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The paper has already earned wide interest in the science community, with more than 2 000 accesses. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo of Leonid Kuzmin: Private</div> <div>Illustration: Leonid Kuzmin</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Contact:</div> <div>Leonid Kuzmin, Professor, Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, +46 31 772 36 08, leonid.kuzmin@chalmers.se</div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s42005-019-0206-9">Read the article “Photon-noise-limited cold-electron bolometer based on strong electron self-cooling for high-performance cosmology missions”</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/lkuzmin_cover_CommPhys_660x330.jpg" alt="Picture of frontcover from journal." style="margin:5px" /><br /><a href="https://www.nature.com/commsphys">The findings were also highlighted on the cover of Nature Communications Physics</a><span style="background-color:initial"> &gt;&gt;&gt;</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://astronomycommunity.nature.com/users/295770-leonid-kuzmin/posts/53529-story-of-the-invention-of-a-cold-electron-bolometer">Read a behind-the-paper blog post of Leonid Kuzmin, “Story of the Invention of a Cold-Electron Bolometer”</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Two more papers about Cold Electron Bolometers were selected as &quot;featured article of the issue&quot; of Superconductor Science and Technology in 2019 &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong></div> <div><a href="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6668/aafeba">Multichroic seashell antenna with internal filters by resonant slots and cold-electron bolometers</a></div> <div><a href="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1361-6668/ab151d">Absorption and cross-talk in a multipixel receiving system with cold electron bolometers</a></div>Mon, 16 Dec 2019 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Engineering-Magnetic-Graphene-in-2D-Hybrid-Devices.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Engineering-Magnetic-Graphene-in-2D-Hybrid-Devices.aspxEngineering Magnetic Graphene in 2D Hybrid Devices<p><b>Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have found that graphene can be made magnetic when placed in proximity with a layered insulating magnetic material in a van der Waals heterostructure. The findings were recently published in the scientific journal 2D Materials.​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">After graphene, various 2D materials of semiconducting and magnetic properties, among others, were discovered down to one-atom-thick layers. This opened plethora of opportunities for engineering heterostructures by combining the best of different 2D materials in one ultimate unit with different layers held together by weak van der Waals forces.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Here, Bogdan Karpiak, PhD student at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, assemble van der Waals heterostructures of the graphene and layered ferromagnetic insulator Cr2Ge2Te6. The choice of such a ferromagnet is motivated by its layered structure, insulating behavior, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and is expected to induce a magnetic exchange interaction in graphene in the heterostructure of the two materials. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers' measurements show an out-of-plane proximity-induced ferromagnetic exchange interaction in graphene, resulting in significant modification of the spin transport and dynamics in graphene. Furthermore, the observation of a larger lifetime for perpendicular spins in comparison to the in-plane counterpart suggests the creation of a proximity-induced anisotropic spin texture in graphene.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;This finding will open opportunities for the realization of proximity-induced magnetic interactions and spin-polarized filters in two-dimensional (2D) material heterostructure and can form the basic building blocks for future spintronics and topological quantum technologies&quot;, says Saroj Dash, associate professor and group leader at the Quantum Device Physics laboratory, and supervisor of the work. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The article combines device fabrication and spin transport measurements in the Saroj Dash Group at Chalmers, magnetization measurements by Peter Svedlindh at Uppsala University, and theory calculation from the Jaroslav Fabian Group at University of Regensburg, Germany and the Stephan Roche Group at ICN2, Barcelona, Spain. This research at Chalmers is funded by the Graphene Flagship and the Swedish Research Council (VR).</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/2053-1583/ab5915/meta">Read the article &quot;Magnetic proximity in a van der Waals heterostructure of magnetic insulator and graphene&quot;</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div>Wed, 11 Dec 2019 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/MC2-researcher-gets-major-grant-from-The-European-Research-Council.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/MC2-researcher-gets-major-grant-from-The-European-Research-Council.aspxMC2 researcher gets major grant from The European Research Council<p><b>​Åsa Haglund, Professor at the Photonics Laboratory at MC2, has been awarded a Consolidator Grant from the European Research Council. &quot;This is the best Christmas present you can receive as a researcher and I am truly honored to be awarded with this prestigious grant. This is the beginning of something big&quot;, she says.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">The ERC Consolidator Grant is one of the finest personal research grants available from the European Research Council (ERC). Competition is razor sharp. Åsa Haglund is one of only ten Swedish researchers and one of only two at Chalmers who receives the award. Of the 2 453 applicants from all over Europe, only 301 were successful in this round. They were granted a total of 600 million euro.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Åsa Haglund receives around 2 million euro to lead the five-year project &quot;Out of the blue: membrane-based microcavity lasers from the blue to the ultraviolet wavelength regime&quot; or in short &quot;UV-LASE&quot;. </div> <div>&quot;It feels fantastic of course! This will allow me to strengthen my team, concentrate on research and invest in more high-risk ideas that will hopefully pay off in the long run. A necessity if we are going to realize our dream that is now also a project goal; the demonstration of an electrically driven ultraviolet-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser&quot;, she says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Her project is focused on pushing the wavelength of microcavity lasers really into the ultraviolet. </div> <div>&quot;Our approach is based upon a unique membrane technique we have developed over the past three years to enable vertical cavity lasers with highly reflective dielectric mirrors on both sides of the cavity – a device concept previously un-realizable for UV-lasers. Once realized these lasers would be of interest for a wide range of applications such as water purification, photolithography, enhancing health-promoting substances in plants, gas sensing, medical diagnostics and treatments, and UV curing&quot;, Åsa Haglund explains.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/ahaglund_191129_11_350x305.jpg" alt="Photo of Åsa Haglund." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />But at first, she didn't plan to apply for the grant at all. She tells us that she was uncertain about having the time to deliver an application strong enough to be successful in the harsh competition. In the end, Peter Andrekson, head of the Photonics Laboratory, managed to convince her:</div> <div>&quot;Reprioritize! he said, which I managed to do despite the fact that my daughter got the stomach flue in this period! Luckily, this was the most fun application I have written so far. Thanks to my great team at Chalmers and our excellent collaborators, in particular in the group of professor Michael Kneissl and Tim Wernicke at TU Berlin in Germany, I had a lot of exciting and promising results to put into the application&quot;, Åsa tells us.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The ERC has high demands on its applicants. They have to undergo a serious evaluation process including an interview at the ERC headquarter in Brussels. There, they are given two slides and 5 minutes sharp to present their research proposal and themselves, followed by a 20 minutes question session by the reviewers. Åsa tells us about nervous candidates returning from their interviews with a look of resignation on their faces.</div> <div>&quot;This is a very stressful event, and maybe even more so before the interview when many candidates are waiting in the same room for about two hours for their turn. But I really enjoyed the interview! I was given the opportunity to describe my research project and respond to a lot of relevant questions posted by the reviewers. Many of these questions were in fact the same as those my colleagues at Chalmers had posed to me at my mock-up interview. Normally when you apply for funding you are never given the opportunity to explain things that might be misinterpreted in the application nor to oppose the criticism and explain your point of view. In my opinion this is an important part of a thorough evaluation process.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Åsa Haglund is in good company at MC2. Her laboratory has been successful in getting ERC Grants, Åsa Haglund is the third grant holder from Photonics in recent years.</div> <div>&quot;I believe this is the best Christmas present you can receive as a researcher and I am truly honored to be awarded with this prestigious grant&quot;, says Åsa.</div> <div>She continues:</div> <div>&quot;As a side note, when I checked into the hotel the day before my interview in Brussel there was a note book on the desk with the following statement &quot;This may be the beginning of something big (or just some bad handwriting)&quot;. For me, being awarded with an ERC Consolidator grant is indeed the beginning of something big. Now I have the opportunity to focus on research for five years with the aim to realize a dream – the demonstration of an electrically driven ultraviolet-emitting vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser.&quot; </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Åsa Haglund is one of the most talented and successful young researchers at MC2. She got her PhD from Chalmers in 2005. In 2012 she was able to start her own group when she was awarded with a young researcher grant from The Swedish Research Council (VR). And as late as 2018, she got a consolidator grant from the same council.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Besides Åsa, Fredrik Westerlund, Professor at the Department of Biology and Biology Engineering, managed to get an ERC Consolidator Grant in this round.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo: Johan Bodell</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://erc.europa.eu/news/erc-awards-over-600-million-euro-europes-top-researchers">Read pressrelease from ERC​</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://erc.europa.eu/funding/consolidator-grants">Read more about the ERC Consolidator Grant</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/ERC-grant-for-next-generation-DNA-repair-analysis.aspx">Read interview with Fredrik Westerlund who also recieved an ERC Consolidator Grant​</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div>Tue, 10 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0100