Development of solid state hardware for processing quantum information and practical implementation of quantum algorithms is one of the most exciting problems in contemporary solid state physics. It is generally believed that quantum computers may outperform classical computers in many ways in the future.
Properties of superconducting materials, especially those with a complex structure of the order parameter, differ greatly from the bulk properties when the size of the sample is small. Moreover, current transport properties of superconductors are of great interest when they are put in contact with normally conducting metals or ferromagnets (proximity effect). Particularly interesting is the regime when the size of the non-superconducting region is small enough that the current transport is fully coherent.
In the near future, conventional lithography based electronics approaches the limits of possible miniaturization. One of the technologically favourable tracks for further development is based on molecular electronics.
Graphene – the one-atom thick 2D honeycomb lattice allotrope of carbon - is the basic building block of 3D graphite as well as of the 1D carbon nanotube and the 0D Fullerene.