News: Mikroteknologi och nanovetenskaphttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyThu, 21 Jun 2018 13:19:22 +0200http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Graphene-assembled-film-shows-higher-thermal-conductivity-than-graphite-film.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Graphene-assembled-film-shows-higher-thermal-conductivity-than-graphite-film.aspxGraphene assembled film shows higher thermal conductivity than graphite film<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have developed a graphene assembled film that has over 60 percent higher thermal conductivity than graphite film – despite the fact that graphite simply consists of many layers of graphene. The graphene film shows great potential as a novel heat spreading material for form-factor driven electronics and other high power-driven systems.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Until now, scientists in the graphene research community have assumed that graphene assembled film cannot have higher thermal conductivity than graphite film. Single layer graphene has a thermal conductivity between 3500 and 5000 W/mK. If you put two graphene layers together, then it theoretically becomes graphite, as graphene is only one layer of graphite.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Today, graphite films, which are practically useful for heat dissipation and spreading in mobile phones and other power devices, have a thermal conductivity of up to 1950 W/mK. Therefore, the graphene-assembled film should not have higher thermal conductivity than this. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Research scientists at Chalmers University of Technology have recently changed this situation. They discovered that the thermal conductivity of graphene assembled film can reach up to 3200 W/mK, which is over 60 percent higher than the best graphite films.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/jliu_2016_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Professor Johan Liu (to the right) and his research team have done this through careful control of both grain size and the stacking orders of graphene layers. The high thermal conductivity is a result of large grain size, high flatness, and weak interlayer binding energy of the graphene layers. With these important features, phonons, whose movement and vibration determine the thermal performance, can move faster in the graphene layers rather than interact between the layers, thereby leading to higher thermal conductivity. </div> <div>“This is indeed a great scientific break-through, and it can have a large impact on the transformation of the existing graphite film manufacturing industry”, says Johan Liu.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Furthermore, the researchers discovered that the graphene film has almost three times higher mechanical tensile strength than graphite film, reaching 70 MPa.  </div> <div>“With the advantages of ultra-high thermal conductivity, and thin, flexible, and robust structures, the developed graphene film shows great potential as a novel heat spreading material for thermal management of form-factor driven electronics and other high power-driven systems”, says Johan Liu.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>As a consequence of never-ending miniaturization and integration, the performance and reliability of modern electronic devices and many other high-power systems are greatly threatened by severe thermal dissipation issues.</div> <div>“To address the problem, heat spreading materials must get better properties when it comes to thermal conductivity, thickness, flexibility and robustness, to match the complex and highly integrated nature of power systems”, says Johan Liu. “Commercially available thermal conductivity materials, like copper, aluminum, and artificial graphite film, will no longer meet and satisfy these demands.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The IP of the high-quality manufacturing process for the graphene film belongs to SHT Smart High Tech AB, a spin-off company from Chalmers, which is going to focus on the commercialization of the technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More about the research</h5> <div>The work has been done in collaboration with research teams at Uppsala University and SHT Smart High Tech AB in Sweden, Shanghai and Tongji University in China and University of Colorado Boulder in USA.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>The paper is published online in the well-known scientific journal Small, with the weblink: </strong><a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/smll.201801346">onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/smll.201801346</a></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Related publications:</strong> </div> <div>Nat. Commun. 7:11281 doi: 10.1038/ncomms11281 (2016). <a href="http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160429/ncomms11281/full/ncomms11281.html">www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160429/ncomms11281/full/ncomms11281.html</a></div> <div>Carbon 106 (2016) 195-201, <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.014">dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2016.05.014</a> </div> <div>Carbon 61 (2013) 342-348,<a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.05.014">dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2013.05.014​</a></div> <div>Advanced Materials, DOI: 10.1002/adma.201104408)</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More about the graphene film</h5> <div>The manufacturing method of the graphene film is based on simultaneous graphene oxide film formation and reduction, on aluminum substrate, dry-bubbling film separation, followed by high-temperature treatment as well as mechanical pressing. These conditions enable the formation of the graphene film with large grain size, good atomic alignment, thin-film structure, and low interlayer binding energy. All these features have great benefit for the transfer of both high-frequency diffusive phonons and low-frequency ballistic phonons, and thereby lead to the improvement of in-plane thermal conductivity of the graphene film. Phonons are quantum particles that describe the thermal conductivity of a material.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">For further information, please contact:</h5> <div>Johan Liu, Professor at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience <span style="background-color:initial">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 31 772 30 67, </span><a href="mailto:jliu@chalmers.se">jliu@chalmers.se​</a></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Photo Source: Johan Liu/Krantz Nanoart</div> Thu, 21 Jun 2018 13:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/New-challenges-ahead-for-Sheila-Galt.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/New-challenges-ahead-for-Sheila-Galt.aspxNew challenges ahead for Sheila Galt<p><b>​For many years, Sheila Galt has been a positive and influential force at MC2. Now she puts on new challenges at Chalmers. On 1 June, she joined the Department of Communication and Learning in Science. &quot;It feels great and wonderful!&quot;, she says.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Sheila Galt is a professor of applied electromagnetics. She studied at the then Electron physics 2 department at Chalmers and got her doctoral degree in 1990 with the thesis &quot;Optical fiber scattering and biological electromagnetic effects&quot;.</span><br /></div> <div>She remained at the department until 2001 when she joined the Photonics Laboratory at MC2. 17 years later, it is time to lift and test the wings at Communication and Learning in Science, where she formally belongs to the Division of Engineering Education Research (EER). In fact, she already started at her new address on 1 June.</div> <div>&quot;It feels very much on spot and as if their activities correspond well with my own. I'm usually joking that I will do the same things I've always done, but with other colleagues to discuss educational ideas with. For parts of my business, it feels like a more logical residence&quot;, says Sheila.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/sheila_IMG_3169_665x330.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Resuming educational research</span><br /></div> <div>She hopes to continue to work with much of what she has done so far, but exactly what it will look like is still unclear.</div> <div>&quot;I will drop some of the activities I've had at MC2, and resume my educational research again. What I have taken care of at the Photonics Laboratory, I will have to let go. There will be changes. I've been dealing with labs for quite a few years and started functional photon-related labs in more courses. It has been great fun to do&quot;, says Sheila.</div> <div>Until recently, she was vice-head for the undergraduate education at MC2.</div> <div>&quot;It meant both strategic thinking – how we should improve the courses and how teachers will get more chances to teach – and to make sure the courses are properly procured, staffed and that we take care of our commitments properly on a daily basis. Then it also meant to be a member of Chalmers Joint Vice-Head Group, which works a bit more strategically. If you identify a need for a change in routines for how the undergraduate education is driven from a teacher perspective, then it is the vice-head's task to accomplish that.&quot;</div> <div>The assignment as vice-head for the undergraduate education has been taken over by Per Rudquist.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Outreaching role</h5> <div>Sheila Galt is perhaps best known for her outreaching role, where she worked extensively with The International Science Festival in Gothenburg, the International Physics Olympiad and other activities aimed at children and adolescents. Her laser shows has almost become a concept, and the Newton performances at the house of William Chalmers became very noticeable. The other year she had her own program in the radio. Many of these popular activities have unfortunately ceased.</div> <div>Nor is the much-liked activity &quot;Nanoscientist for a day&quot;, which Sheila ran along with Per Lundgren during the Science Festival, remains.</div> <div>&quot;I think they are such activities that should have been continued. We will see how it will be in the future.&quot;</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/sheila_IMG_3155_665x330.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Laser shows at Universeum</span><br /></div> <div>Instead, Sheila gets outflow of her outreaching work with a 60% mission at the science centre Universeum. There, among other things, she has continued to offer her laser shows.</div> <div>&quot;I have shared responsibility for activities directed at the public in something we call Teknoteket. It is a technology-oriented makerspace where we have specific themes that are replaced approximately every two months. It is important to have long-term planning and be able to develop new ideas and to freshen up old ones&quot;, she says.</div> <div>The challenge has been to find activities that work for a large range of ages, from fifth grade and upwards. Everyone is welcome to participate and you do not have to book time in advance.</div> <div>&quot;My aim has been to do more than just raise interest in technology. It is very important that we get people who like technology, science and math. You should be able to enjoy technology while learning something.&quot;</div> <div>In the theme called &quot;Värmeverket&quot;, visitors were able to explore the heat of the human body and on the ground, including studying the effects of exercise and the greenhouse effect. Visitors also had to think about how they themselves could contribute to the solution of the problems.</div> <div>&quot;Thinking about how technology is used is a matter of the heart for me, as well as linking the sustainability ideas to the subject. I'm quite proud of our success.&quot;</div> <div>The assignment at Universeum ends at the end of the year, but Sheila would like to continue if possible.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">The recognition meant the most</h5> <div>For several years, Sheila Galt was the leader of Chalmers gymnasiecentrum where she was a driving force. It was a job that was later awarded, but no longer remains in its original form.</div> <div>&quot;It started with Bo Håkansson's award &quot;Technician of the year&quot; in 2013. The prize included a pot that he could donate for some good purpose and then he chose us.&quot;</div> <div>But the money was not the most important aspect for Sheila. The recognition meant more.</div> <div>&quot;To get an acknowledgement that my struggles have been worth the effort,&quot; she says.</div> <div>Together with Per Lundgren, Sheila Galt was also honored with Sigurd Andersson's scholarship for best peer effort in 2014, something that also rejoiced her a lot.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Born in Canada</h5> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/sheila_IMG_3179_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Sheila Galt was born 1956 in Kingston, Canada. She laughs at saying that she never really grew up.</div> <div>&quot;I have no memories at all from Kingston. We moved to England when I was one year, and from there to Penticton, located in the southernmost part of the Canadian province of British Columbia.&quot;</div> <div>Dad was a radio astronomer and the Penticton conditions were ideal for that business. The town is located near a valley with mountains on all sides, pretty much like a bowl. There you could work in protection from electromagnetic interference.</div> <div>In 1972, the family moved to Sweden.</div> <div>&quot;My father wanted to borrow instruments from Onsala Space Observatory, and brought the whole family. We studied Swedish intensively and I started at the music program at Hvitfeldtska upper secondary school. That year became a turning point in my life. I was supposed to have the music as my profession, but after a year I realized that I didn't want to fight so hard, although I still enjoyed music a lot, and still do. So I decided to engage more in physics.&quot;</div> <div>Her technology interest come from her father.</div> <div>&quot;He always found new quirks. He played a lot with us. Among other things, we remodelled old bikes. Suddenly a bicycle had to be pedalled backwards to move forward. We also often accompanied daddy to the observatory and played there. Sometimes we got our own problems to solve, such as seeing what was wrong with some software. Dad used to buy kits for electronics and taught us to build our own music enhancers and our own oscilloscope. We had new projects all the time&quot;, recalls Sheila.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Met the husband</h5> <div>At Hvitfeldtska she also met her future life mate:</div> <div>&quot;Anders was the longest person in class and I was the shortest. He eventually became my husband!&quot;</div> <div>The family lives in a house in Sävedalen with two sons aged 25 and 19.</div> <div>&quot;Our youngest son went to the same music program like me at Hvitfeldtska and met his girlfriend there!&quot;</div> <div>Sheila plays the piano since childhood. During school, she also received a lot of prizes for her talent. She says modestly that she got awarded because she signed up for all competitions she could find...</div> <div>&quot;But I use to say I learned to read music scores even before I could read plain text.&quot;</div> <div>There is also room for some spare time in her life. She enjoys gardening and choral singing.</div> <div>&quot;I love to grow vegetables in the garden, preferably those that are cheap to buy and easy to grow. I also sing in the little choir Corona. I usually say it is a superannuated group of chalmerists, because almost all members have a Chalmers background. There is also a lot of other things I like to do but do not take time for. When I retire, I will resume my interest for ceramics and sewing.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">&quot;Like ingenious stuff&quot;</h5> <div>Her driving forces are several, but at the bottom there is a basic technology interest, which she describes as &quot;exuberant&quot;.</div> <div>&quot;I like ingenious stuff. My mom usually jokes with me and says I'm like Don Quijote; if I see a windmill, I'll go away and try to fight it! Taking care of what I see as important problems, although they are almost irresolvable, such as teaching technology students to apply ethical thinking. I took on the challenge and I actually believe it succeeded!&quot;</div> <div>Other major driving forces are curiosity and an interest in gender equality and sustainability.</div> <div>&quot;It must be fair in terms of a sustainable world. Much of what the UN writes in its sustainability goals, I have tried to fight for in my context.&quot;</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/sheila_IMG_3166_665x330.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Long-term student recruitment</span><br /></div> <div>In her outreaching activities, Sheila Galt has worked persistently with long-term student recruitment. She has seen the blink in the eyes of the children when the penny dropped. It has also become one and another thankful hug afterwards.</div> <div>But how many future Chalmers students she has inspired and ultimately attracted to the university, she will never know:</div> <div>&quot;I have no idea. No one has ever given any feedback to me. I have asked myself many times if it could be followed up in some way, but I have come to the conclusion that it is not possible. The efforts are so small for each child and it is impossible to say if we managed to affect anyone in just one hour's time. It's probably much more effective if you can influence their teachers. We need to provide inspiration and tools to the teachers, and we try to do this, among other things, in the Master's program Learning and Leadership, where the students become both civil engineers and high school teachers.&quot;</div> <div>In this program, Sheila teaches and examines vocational training, which means that the students practice as high school teachers. She will continue to do that.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Many small seeds and steps</h5> <div>You can certainly say that Sheila Galt has been planting small seeds in children and adolescents, although the results can not be measured.</div> <div>&quot;Of course, you do not know how many other people in the vicinity of the children are pushing and encouraging their technical interest. It may matter more and it is not certain that my little contribution will be a part of their life choice. But it's nice to imagine it could be so&quot;, she says.</div> <div>On 15 June, Sheila Galt is thanked by colleagues and friends with coffee and cake.</div> <div>&quot;I want to strike a blow for the small steps which are taken at Chalmers in order for the education to be better and better. It feels great to be part of that work and see how everyone works together to make it happen. I want to continue to support that&quot;, she concludes.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div>Thu, 14 Jun 2018 02:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Multiple-lasers-could-be-replaced-by-a-single-microcomb.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Multiple-lasers-could-be-replaced-by-a-single-microcomb.aspxMultiple lasers could be replaced by a single microcomb<p><b>​Every time we send an e-mail, a tweet, or stream a video, we rely on laser light to transfer digital information over a complex network of optical fibers. Dozens of high-performance lasers are needed to fill up the bandwidth and to squeeze in an increasing amount of digital data. Researchers have now shown that all these lasers can be replaced by a single device called a microcomb.​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">A microcomb is an optical device that generates very sharp and equidistant frequency lines in a tiny microphotonic chip. This technology was developed about a decade ago and is now reaching a maturity level that enables new applications, including lidar, sensing, timekeeping and of course optical communications.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/victor_torres_chalmers_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The soul of a microcomb is a tiny optical cavity that confines laser light in space. Therefore, this technology provides a fantastic playground to explore new nonlinear physical phenomena. These conditions have now been utilised by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, in cooperation with researchers at Purdue University, USA. Victor Torres Company (to the right), Associate Professor at Chalmers, is one of the authors of a paper that was recently published in the journal Nature Communications.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“We observed that the optical frequencies of the microcomb interfered destructively over a short period of time, thus providing the formation of a wave inside the cavity that resembled a ‘hole’ of light. The interesting aspect of this waveform is that it yielded a sufficient amount of power per frequency line, which was essential to achieve these high-performance experiments in fiber communication systems”, says Victor Torres Company.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The physical formation of these “dark” pulses of light is far from being fully understood, but the researchers believe that their unique properties will enable novel applications in fiber-optic communication systems and spectroscopy. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“I</span><span style="background-color:initial"> will be able to explore these aspects thanks to the financial support of the European Research Council (ERC)”, says Victor Torres Company. “This is a bright start to better understand the formation of dark pulses in microresonators and their potential use in optical communications. The research could lead to faster and more power-efficient optical communication links in the future.”</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The results are the fruit of a collaborative effort between researchers at the School of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Purdue University, who fabricated the samples, and the group of Professor Peter Andrekson at the Photonics Laboratory at Chalmers, which hosts world-class experimental facilities for fiber-optic communications research.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">Our findings do not represent the first demonstration of a microcomb in fiber communications, but it is the first time that the microcomb has achieved a performance compatible with the strong demands of future communication systems”, says Peter Andrekson, who is also one of the co-authors of the paper. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The main author is Attila Fülöp, who defended his doctoral thesis “Fiber-optic communications with microresonator frequency combs” at the Photonics Laboratory in April.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“Working with the microcomb and this experiment has been a great experience. This proof-of-concept demonstration has allowed us to explore the requirements for future chip-scale data transmitters while at the same time proving the potential of this very exciting dark pulse comb technology”, he says.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås<br />Photo of  <span style="background-color:initial">Victor Torres Company: Michael Nystås</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial">Read the paper &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /></div> <div>Fülöp et al., High-order coherent communications using mode-locked dark-pulse Kerr combs from microresonators, Nature Communications 9, 1598 (2018). DOI 10.1038/s41467-018-04046-6</div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/publication/17abc87f-538b-4039-9c3b-526d0cc82da1">research.chalmers.se/publication/17abc87f-538b-4039-9c3b-526d0cc82da1</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Prestigious-EU-funding-for-Victor-Torres-Company.aspx"><strong>Read more about the ERC grant to Victor Torres Company </strong><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(51, 51, 51);font-weight:300">&gt;&gt;&gt;</span></a></div>Tue, 12 Jun 2018 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Tord-Claeson-appointed-to-jubilee-doctor.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Tord-Claeson-appointed-to-jubilee-doctor.aspxTord Claeson appointed to jubilee doctor<p><b>​Tord Claeson, well-known professor at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience –​ MC2, defended his thesis for a doctoral degree of technology in 1967. On 2 June, he was promoted to jubilee doctor at the solemn Doctoral Conferment Ceremony in the Concert Hall in Göteborg. &quot;I&#39;ve been looking forward to this for 50 years,&quot; he says jokingly.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Jubilee doctor is at title earned by individuals who received their doctoral degrees fifty years earlier at the same university. Tord Claeson was the only one to be honored in this way in 2018.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>He became civil engineer in the field of engineering physics in 1963, and continued his academic career by defending his thesis in 1967, resumed by assignments as researcher at both Chalmers and Gothenburg University. In 1982, Tord Claeson was appointed to professor of physics at Chalmers.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/tordc_doktorspromotion_180602__S8A0246-1_665x330.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">Over the years, he has also been a guest researcher at the University of California and Stanford University in the United States, and has stayed for longer periods in Japan and Korea.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Tord Claeson's research has included basic condensed matter physics as well as different applications, primarily hypersensitive sensors based on superconducting tunnel effects. He has also been deeply engaged in the field of high-temperature superconductivity, regularly used the <span style="background-color:initial">synchrotron radiation facility at Stanford, and advocated facilities for nanostructures at Chalmers.</span></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/tclaeson_690x330.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">He is a member of the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences in Gothenburg (KVVS), the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA), the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (KVA) and the Korean and Flemish science academies. He has also been a member of the Nobel Committee for Physics, and has received several awards, including the Jacob Wallenberg Prize, the IVA Gold Medal, and the Celsius and Chalmers Medals.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Tord Claeson is one of the legendary MC2 pioneers and has been a part of the department ever since it was founded in the year 2000. Many are the PhD students who have had him as supervisor over the years. Tord Claeson has fostered many of today's leaders <span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:11pt;line-height:16.8667px;font-family:calibri, sans-serif">–</span><span style="background-color:initial"> both those who have stayed in different positions at MC2, and those who have undertaken leading challenges in Sweden and abroad.</span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Tord Claeson was born in Varberg in 1938. In November he turns 80 years old.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås and the Communications and Marketing department</div> <div>Photo: Susannah Carlsson and Anna-Lena Lundqvist</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a>Read more about the Doctoral Conferment Ceremony</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div>Mon, 21 May 2018 10:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Advanced-biofuels-can-be-produced-extremely-efficiently.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Advanced-biofuels-can-be-produced-extremely-efficiently.aspxAdvanced biofuels can be produced extremely efficiently, confirms industrial demonstration<p><b>​A chance to switch to renewable sources for heating, electricity and fuel, while also providing new opportunities for several industries to produce large numbers of renewable products. This is the verdict of researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, who now, after ten years of energy research into gasification of biomass, see an array of new technological achievements.&quot;The potential is huge! Using only the already existing Swedish energy plants, we could produce renewable fuels equivalent to 10 percent of the world&#39;s aviation fuel, if such a conversion were fully implemented,” says Henrik Thunman, Professor of Energy Technology at Chalmers.​</b></p><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Popreport_cover.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Report detailing 200 man-years of research  </h5> <div>​We have summarized the work of the last ten years at Chalmers Power Central and GoBiGas in the report: &quot;GoBiGas demonstration – a vital step for a large-scale transition from fossil fuels to advanced biofuels and electrofuels&quot;. Researchers at the division of Energy Technology at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers have worked together with colleagues at the departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Technology Management and Economics, Biology and Biological Engineering, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences​ as well as a wide range of Swedish and international collaborative partners in industry and academia. <a href="http://www.chalmers.se/SiteCollectionDocuments/SEE/News/Popularreport_GoBiGas_results_highres.pdf" style="outline:none 0px"><span style="background-color:initial">Download the report: </span><span style="background-color:initial">GoBiGas demonstration – a vital step for a large-scale transition from fossil fuels  to advanced biofuels and electrofuels. </span></a>(21 Mb). <div><h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">​Pathway to a radical transition</h6></div> <div><div>How to implement a switch from fossil-fuels to renewables is a tricky issue for many industries. For heavy industries, such as oil refineries, or the paper and pulp industry, it is especially urgent to start moving, because investment cycles are so long. At the same time, it is important to get the investment right because you may be forced to replace boilers or facilities in advance, which means major financial costs. Thanks to long-term strategic efforts, researchers at Sweden´s Chalmers University of Technology have now paved the way for radical changes, which could be applied to new installations, as well as be implemented at thousands of existing plants around the globe.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The solution presented involves widespread gasification of biomass. This technology itself is not new. Roughly explained, what is happening is that at high temperatures, biomass is converted into a gas. This gas can then be refined into end-products which are currently manufactured from oil and natural gas. The Chalmers researchers have shown that one possible end-product is biogas that can replace natural gas in existing gas networks.</div> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">The problems with tar are solved​</h6> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/tar-problem-before-and-after.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Previously, the development of gasification technology has been hampered by major problems with tar being released from the biomass, which interferes with the process in several ways. Now, the researchers from Chalmers’ division of Energy Technology have shown that they can improve the quality of the biogas through chemical processes, and the tar can also be managed in completely new ways, see images to the right. This, in combination with a parallel development of heat-exchange materials, provides completely new possibilities for converting district heating boilers to biomass gasifiers. <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1D2sWiGkcFg">Watch an animation with more details about how the problems with tar has been solved​</a>. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;What makes this technology so attractive to several industries is that it will be possible to modify existing boilers, which can then supplement heat and power production with the production of fossil-free fuels and chemicals.&quot;, says Martin Seemann, Associate Professor in Energy Technology at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We rebuilt our own research boiler in this way in 2007, and now we have more than 200 man-years of research to back us up,” says Professor Henrik Thunman. “Combined with industrial-scale lessons learned at the GoBiGas (Gothenburg Biomass Gasification) demonstration project, launched in 2014, it is now possible for us to say that the technology is ready for the world.” </div> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">Many applications</h6> <div>The plants which could be converted to gasification are power and district heating plants, paper and pulp mills, sawmills, oil refineries and petrochemical plants.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The technical solutions developed by the Chalmers researchers are therefore relevant across several industrial fields”, says Klara Helstad, Head of the Sustainable Industry Unit at the Swedish Energy Agency. “Chalmers´ competence and research infrastructure have played and crucial role for the demonstration of advanced biofuels within the GoBiGas-project.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Swedish Energy Agency has funded energy research and infrastructure at Chalmers for many years. </div> <div>How much of this technological potential can be realised depends on the economic conditions of the coming years, and how that will affect the willingness of the industrial and energy sectors to convert. The availability of biomass is also a crucial factor. Biomass is a renewable resource, but only provided we do not deplete the conditions for its biological production. There is therefore a limit for total biomass output.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Christian Löwhagen, Johanna Wilde. </div> <div>Translation: Joshua Worth.</div> <div>Tar illustration: BOID. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="http://goteborgenergi.streamingbolaget.se/video/156153/link"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Process-video.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Watch a film detailing the process in the GoBiGas Plant</a>. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="http://www.mynewsdesk.com/uk/chalmers/pressreleases/advanced-biofuels-can-be-produced-extremely-efficiently-confirms-industrial-demonstration-2511833">Read more in the international press release. ​</a></div> <div>​<br /></div></div>Mon, 21 May 2018 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Ida-Klappevik-and-Johan-Bremer-awarded-for-best-masters-theses.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Ida-Klappevik-and-Johan-Bremer-awarded-for-best-masters-theses.aspxIda Kläppevik and Johan Bremer awarded for best master&#39;s theses<p><b>​Ida Kläppevik and Johan Bremer have been awarded with the Microwave Road Scholarship for best master&#39;s thesis 2017, in the area of antenna and microwave engineering.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Ida Kläppevik gets the award of 10 000 SEK and a diploma for her thesis “Analysis, construction and evaluation of radial power divider/combiner”. Johan Bremer is awarded for his thesis “Compensation of thermal effects by dynamic bias in low noise amplifiers”. The winners got their scholarships at the Microwave Road seminar on Space and Satellite on 25 April, handed over to them by Johan Carlert, chairman of Microwave Road.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Microwave Road is a national cluster focusing on international technology and market development uniting industry, universities, research institutes and regional and national public authorities.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Read Ida Kläppevik's thesis &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div>http://studentarbeten.chalmers.se/publication/252937-analysis-construction-and-evaluation-of-a-radial-power-dividercombiner</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read Johan Bremer's thesis &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div>http://studentarbeten.chalmers.se/publication/252233-compensation-of-thermal-effects-by-dynamic-bias-in-low-noise-amplifiers</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read more about the scholarship &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div>http://www.microwaveroad.se/microwave-road-stipendiet.html</div></div>Fri, 27 Apr 2018 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/More-time-for-trombones-and-airplanes.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/More-time-for-trombones-and-airplanes.aspxMore time for trombones and airplanes<p><b>​Göran Alestig, research engineer at the Nanofabrication Laboratory at MC2, leaves Chalmers after 16 years. Now he gets more time to grow his big interests – the music and the aviation –​ and maybe find some brand new. &quot;It feels unexpected not to come here anymore. At the same time, it will be exciting to see what to find afterwards,&quot; says the new retiree.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Göran Alestig is basically a chalmerist. He studied as a MSc in Engineering Physics, graduated in 1977, and became a PhD at Chalmers in 1986 with the dissertation &quot;Some studies related to laser annealing of ion implanted silicon&quot;. He was born and raised in Karlstad. After the dissertation, Göran Alestig worked at ABB Hafo in Järfälla. The work area was mainly process development and CMOS processes.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;When the company was closed down and parts of the business moved to England, I followed and worked there for three years. Then I thought it was time to move to Sweden again. I was looking for a job and found this lab just finished. It was very good,&quot; says Göran Alestig.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Very mixed role</h5> <div>In 2002 he returned to Chalmers and began his service at the newly established Nanofabrication Laboratory.</div> <div>&quot;The lab was almost ready and most of it was in place. However, I was not involved during the intensive construction stage or when equipment was installed. Everything was very new back then.&quot;</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/galestig_665x330.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">He describes his role on MC2 as very mixed. He has served as the business community's entrance to the clean room. Potential business users have called or e-mailed Göran with questions about getting into the lab and use machines and instruments.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;Usually they tell you what they want to do and ask if it's possible. For example, do we have a certain equipment or process? Then I check it up and gets back to them. We may not always be able to help in just the way they wanted, but can suggest another solution and an approximate amount of time and cost.&quot;</div> <div>&quot;We have companies that work in the lab themselves, mainly those that continue year after year, and also orders that go straight in here without their own staff doing anything in the lab. It has been an interesting and very diverse mix of companies and assignments over the years,&quot; he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Most rewarding to help researchers</h5> <div>Göran has also been responsible for all offers and invoices to companies. In addition to this, he, like everyone in the lab group, spent a lot of time in the cleanroom and performed service and repairs, trained new users on the equipment, and helped when needed to run or develop recipes and programs in the machines.</div> <div>&quot;Most rewarding has been to help the researchers in the lab to move on with what they are doing, help them to work in different equipment, and make sure they can interpret their results with the aid of measuring equipment. I have always received very good appreciation and feedback when I succeeded in getting something done, getting fixed something that was annoying and understand what is happening together,&quot; says Göran Alestig.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Research engineer Martin Hollertz will succeed as new contact for companies. When Göran now leaves, he wants to ensure that the transition goes as smooth as possible. He is also happy for all the positive feedback companies give him:</div> <div>&quot;The lab gets very much praise, the companies think it worked well and it is fun to hear.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">What will you miss the most?</h5> <div>&quot;Both the people I have worked with and the advanced technical environment. It's easy to get home blind when you go inside and work, but it's a very advanced lab with very exciting technology. That's how it is. Even if you can come back and visit, it will not be the same.&quot;</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/galestig_665x330b.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">In May, Göran Alestig turns 65 years. He made his last working day on 26 April and was thanked by cake and presents. Staying at 67 was never an option:</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;I think you should go when you have the opportunity and hopefully have a number of pretty healthy years left. It's unwise not to take advantage of that opportunity,&quot; he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Music and aviation big interests</h5> <div>For many years he has lived in an apartment in Göteborg. He has never had a family of his own, but he has a large circle of friends he meets - not least in music and aviation.</div> <div>&quot;I have been active for a long time in aviation clubs, both in Säve and recently in Borås. I have also worked for a long time flight instruction in Borås. I have taught a little and it has also been fun, so I will continue.&quot;</div> <div>His own aircraft was sold a few years ago. Now he has access to planes via the club. However, he does not fly as much as before.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Music is another great interest. Göran plays trombone in three different orchestras; two big bands, The Orchestra Big Band and Frölunda Storband, and Mölndal's Symphonic Band. In two of them, the well-known MC2 professor Herbert Zirath also plays.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Do you have any other future plans?</h5> <div>&quot;I want to grow the interests I have and spend more time on them. Maybe it will be a bit of traveling too,&quot; concludes Göran Alestig.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås​</div> Thu, 26 Apr 2018 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspxSpikes of graphene can kill bacteria on implants<p><b>​A tiny layer of graphene flakes becomes a deadly weapon and kills bacteria, stopping infections during procedures such as implant surgery. This is the findings of new research from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, recently published in the scientific journal Advanced Materials Interfaces.</b></p><p>​Operations for surgical implants, such as hip and knee replacements or dental implants, have increased in recent years. However, in such procedures, there is always a risk of bacterial infection. In the worst case scenario, this can cause the implant to not attach to the skeleton, meaning it must be removed.<br /><br />Bacteria travel around in fluids, such as blood, looking for a surface to cling on to. Once in place, they start to grow and propagate, forming a protective layer, known as a biofilm.<br /><br />A research team at Chalmers has now shown that a layer of vertical graphene flakes forms a protective surface that makes it impossible for bacteria to attach. Instead, bacteria are sliced apart by the sharp graphene flakes and killed. Coating implants with a layer of graphene flakes can therefore help protect the patient against infection, eliminate the need for antibiotic treatment, and reduce the risk of implant rejection. The osseointegration – the process by which the bone structure grow to attach the implant – is not disturbed. In fact, the graphene has been shown to benefit the bone cells.<br /><br />Chalmers is a leader in the area of graphene research, but the biological applications did not begin to materialise until a few years ago. The researchers saw conflicting results in earlier studies. Some showed that graphene damaged the bacteria, others that they were not affected.<br /><br />“We discovered that the key parameter is to orient the graphene vertically. If it is horizontal, the bacteria are not harmed,” says Ivan Mijakovic, Professor at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering.<br /><br />The sharp flakes do not damage human cells. The reason is simple: one bacterium is one micrometer – one thousandth of a millimeter – in diameter, while a human cell is 25 micrometers. So, what constitutes a deadly knife attack for a bacterium, is therefore only a tiny scratch for a human cell.<br /><br />&quot;Graphene has high potential for health applications. But more research is needed before we can claim it is entirely safe. Among other things, we know that graphene does not degrade easily,” says Jie Sun, Associate Professor at the Department of Micro Technology and Nanoscience.<br /><br />Good bacteria are also killed by the graphene. But that’s not a problem, as the effect is localised and the balance of microflora in the body remains undisturbed.<br /><br />&quot;We want to prevent bacteria from creating an infection. Otherwise, you may need antibiotics, which could disrupt the balance of normal bacteria and also enhance the risk of antimicrobial resistance by pathogens,” says Santosh Pandit, postdoc at Biology and Biological Engineering.<br /><br />Vertical flakes of graphene are not a new invention, having existed for a few years. But the Chalmers research teams are the first to use the vertical graphene in this way. The next step for the research team will be to test the graphene flakes further, by coating implant surfaces and studying the effect on animal cells.<br /><br />Chalmers cooperated with <a href="http://www.wellspect.co.uk/">Wellspect Healthcare</a>, a company which makes catheters and other medical instruments, in this research. They will now continue with a second study. <br /><br />The projects are a part of the national strategic innovation programme SIO Grafen, supported by the Swedish government agencies Vinnova (Sweden’s innovation agency), the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Research Council Formas. The research results are published in Advanced Materials Interfaces: &quot;<a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/admi.201701331">Vertically Aligned Graphene Coating is Bactericidal and Prevents the Formation of Bacterial Biofilms</a>&quot;<br /><br /><strong>The making of vertical graphene</strong><br />Graphene is made of carbon atoms. It is only a single atomic layer thick, and therefore the world's thinnest material. Graphene is made in flakes or films. It is 200 times stronger than steel and has very good conductivity thanks to its rapid electron mobility. Graphene is also extremely sensitive to molecules, which allows it to be used in sensors.<br /><br />Graphene can be made by CVD, or Chemical Vapor Deposition. The method is used to create a thin surface coating on a sample. The sample is placed in a vacuum chamber and heated to a high temperature at the same time as three gases – usually hydrogen, methane and argon – are released into the chamber. The high heat causes gas molecules to react with each other, and a thin layer of carbon atoms is created.<br />To produce vertical graphene forms, a process known as Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition, or PECVD, is used. Then, an electric field – a plasma – is applied over the sample, which causes the gas to be ionized near the surface. With the plasma, the layer of carbon grows vertically from the surface, instead of horizontally as with CVD.<br /></p> <div class="ms-rtestate-read ms-rte-wpbox"><div class="ms-rtestate-notify ms-rtestate-read 21aa3563-502e-4205-bcb8-3e04875a5b8d" id="div_21aa3563-502e-4205-bcb8-3e04875a5b8d" unselectable="on"></div> <div id="vid_21aa3563-502e-4205-bcb8-3e04875a5b8d" unselectable="on" style="display:none"></div></div> <p><br />Text: Mia Malmstedt<br />Photo and video: Johan Bodell<br />Illustration: Yen Strandqvist </p>Mon, 16 Apr 2018 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Christian-Fager-is-Supervisor-of-the-Year.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Christian-Fager-is-Supervisor-of-the-Year.aspxChristian Fager is Supervisor of the Year<p><b>​Chalmers Research Supervisor of the Year 2017/2018 Award is granted to Christian Fager, Professor at the department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">The award committee has chosen to grant Christian Fager the award for his constant work on refining his supervision skills for his many PhD students. With his high receptivity, individualized supervisor style and research advice, Christian offers significant support to his PhD students' personal development. In addition, he supports the PhD students in their career opportunities and in dealing with obstacles that may occur in other parts of their postgraduate work. His efforts have been noted by both PhD students who have experienced the positive results of his tutoring, and by colleagues within and outside of the department.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">The evaluation procedure</h5> <div>The Doctoral Students Board Committee for the Supervisor of the Year award, selected the winner after a competitive process. Eight high quality nominations were signed by 30 PhD students. After the assessment of the nomination letters, three candidates were selected for the final decision. All PhD students of these candidates were interviewed, along with the heads of research education responsible for the ISP follow-up meetings with PhD students. All additional feedback from both PhD students and senior researchers was welcomed, gathered and analysed by the Committee before the final decision. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>With many commendable candidates, the decision was hard to make. The Committee would like to stress how happy we were to hear about all of the nominees and about everything that they do for our fellow PhD students.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Photo: Michael Nystås</div>Thu, 12 Apr 2018 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Aiming-higher-and-higher-with-industry-support.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Aiming-higher-and-higher-with-industry-support.aspxAiming higher and higher with industry support<p><b>​​30 years ago Herbert Zirath was one of the founders of the first electronics laboratory at Chalmers University of Technology. Today he is a professor of high speed electronics with responsibility for the Microwave Electronics Laboratory, which is housed in the university’s well-known MC2 laboratory.</b></p><img src="/en/departments/mc2/news/PublishingImages/hzirath_690x330.jpg" alt="hzirath_690x330.jpg" style="margin:5px" /><br />He also operates as a bi-directional knowledge conduit for Ericsson, where he is employed part-time as an expert on microwave circuits. The projects he presides over are almost limitless, but one clear objective is to create spectrum-efficient wireless communication in order to achieve ever higher data rates.<br /><br />It is impossible to provide a brief summary of Zirath’s career. After a few hours in his company this becomes clear. Instead, you have to cherry-pick from his densely packed portfolio, which started to take form more than 35 years ago when, at random, he started working on microwaves as a doctoral student at Chalmers.<br /><br />A common thread in his research has been the development of transistors with a higher and higher cut-off frequency. By combining materials with different band gaps, electrons can be made to move in a material without doping, thus increasing the speed.<br /><br />Text: Anna Wennberg<br />Photo: Magnus Bergström/KAW<br /><br /><strong>Read full story in Elektroniktidningen &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /><a href="http://www.etn.se/index.php/64460">www.etn.se/index.php/64460</a>Wed, 11 Apr 2018 11:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/New-Swedish-satellite-to-map-unstudied-winds.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/New-Swedish-satellite-to-map-unstudied-winds.aspxNew Swedish satellite to map unstudied winds high up in Earth&#39;s atmosphere<p><b>​Chalmers University of Technology has won the competition to provide Sweden’s next national research satellite to the Swedish National Space Board. The satellite, named SIW, will be the first to study wind currents in the upper atmosphere, increasing understanding about how they affect weather and climate.</b></p><div>​”I am really happy to see our proposal become a reality”, says Kristell Pérot, researcher in the Division of Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing, at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers.</div> <div>SIW, which stands for Stratospheric Inferred Winds, will study wind patterns in the atmosphere to answer questions about their dynamics and circulation. It will contribute important data to climate models, and increase understanding of how the different parts of the atmosphere interact.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Better weather forecasting</h4> The climate and weather in the troposphere, the layer closest to Earth’s surface, is affected by wind changes in the two layers above, the stratosphere and the mesosphere (altitudes between 11 and 85 kilometres). Observing and analysing events in the upper layers is therefore critical to achieving more reliable long-term predictions. <div> </div> <div>For example, many consider the recent cold weather across Europe this month, and concurrent warmer temperatures in the Arctic, to be linked to temperature changes in the upper atmosphere – so-called ’sudden stratospheric warming’.</div> <div> </div> <div>“This process is not very well understood in current models, and more knowledge is needed. With SIW, it will be easier to study this kind of event and to understand the forces behind them. That has never been done in this way before” says Kristell Pérot.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div>“SIW will also be a fine complement to the satellite Aeolus, to be launched by the European Space Agency later this year to study the winds lower down in the atmosphere,” she adds.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Dual purpose</h4> <div>Patrick Eriksson, professor of Global Environmental Measurements at Chalmers, believes the second part of SIW’s mission will be equally important – to measure the concentration of certain gases in the atmosphere.</div> <div> </div> <div>”As it stands, SIW looks to be alone in being able to measuring the gases that are important to assessing the status of the ozone layer. Above all, it’s chlorine- and nitrogen-bearing gases that we want to keep track of. SIW will take over that role after the <span style="background-color:initial">satellite </span><span style="background-color:initial">Odin</span><span style="background-color:initial">, </span><span style="background-color:initial">which will soon be ready for retirement after 17 years in space” says Eriksson.</span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div> </div> <div>Several Swedish companies will participate in the SIW project, including Omnisys Instruments, which will be responsible for the scientific instruments, and OHB Sweden, which will construct the satellite itself and have overall responsibility for the project. Donal Murtagh, professor of Global Environmental Measurements and Head of Division Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment, will be scientifically responsible for SIW. <span>The satellite will also contain parts manufactured at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2 – at Chalmers. <span></span><span style="display:inline-block"></span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div>   <div>The Swedish National Space Board will finance the production and launch of SIW, which will be the second satellite in its innovative research satellites venture. It is scheduled for launch in 2022.</div> <div> </div> <div>You can read more about the SIW satellite on the <a href="http://snsb.se/sv/Nyheter/Ny-svensk-forskningssatellit-ska-studera-vindarna-i-atmosfaren/">Swedish National Space Board’s website </a>(Swedish only).<br /> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>For more information, contact:</strong></div> <div><span><span>​</span>,</span> Professor of Global Environmental Measurements and Head of Division, Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment</div> <div><span>r</span><span>ot</span>, researcher from the Division of Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing, at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment</div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/patrick-eriksson.aspx">Patrick Eriksson</a>, Professor of Global Environmental Measurements at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment</div> <div><br /> </div>Wed, 21 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Well-attended-kickoff-for-new-center-in-quantum-technology.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Well-attended-kickoff-for-new-center-in-quantum-technology.aspxWell-attended kickoff for new center in quantum technology<p><b>​The starting signal for the Wallenberg Center for Quantum Technology (WACQT) has been fired. About 75 invited speakers and guests gathered for a kick-off on MC2 on 13 and 14 March. &quot;We have a very exciting ten-year journey ahead of us,&quot; says Per Delsing, head of the new center.</b></p><div>WACQT – formally launched on January 1 – is a total investment of almost SEK 1 billion. Most of the money come from Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, which contributes with 600 million. The rest comes from Chalmers University of Technology Foundation, and the cooperating universities in Lund, Linköping and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The goal is to build a Swedish quantum computer in ten years and to build competence in quantum technology in Sweden.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330a.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Collaboration with business</h5> <div>The idea is also to start collaborations with industry in different areas. At the kickoff there were representatives from about ten companies like Astra Zeneca, Ericsson and IBM.</div> <div>&quot;We want to reach both smaller and larger companies, including those who do not currently work with quantum technology. Companies will have the opportunity to influence the focus of research based on their needs. Let's say that a company wants to develop a certain pharmaceutical and simulate that, then we can adopt our quantum computer so that it makes it more useful to simulate a certain type of drug. In this way, we can adapt to make it more interesting for companies to cooperate with us,&quot; says Per Delsing (picture above), who heads WACQT.</div> <div>In Chalmers offering to companies there are opportunities for industrial PhD:s, advanced courses in quantum technology and invitations to workshops. It will also be possible to acquire licenses and establish intellectual property agreements for the research results. Conversations with companies will begin in the spring.</div> <div>On 14 March, on the second day of the kickoff, there was also a special program point where companies were given the opportunity to present themselves and their wishes. In the entrance hall at Kemivägen 9 was a poster exhibition with several participating universities. There was also the opportunity to accompany guided lab tours.</div> <div><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330e.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Exciting trip </h5></div> <div>The goal of the center effort is to take Swedish research and industry to the front of the second quantum revolution. The center is organizationally placed under the new Quantum Technology Laboratory at MC2. Per Delsing, Professor of quantum device physics, is the head of the laboratory.</div> <div>&quot;We have a very exciting ten-year journey ahead of us,&quot; he said in his welcoming speech.</div> <div>But Delsing pointed out that the project is not just about building the desirable quantum computer:</div> <div>&quot;An important part of the research will be to find out what you can use a quantum computer for,&quot; he said.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Long line of lectures</h5> <div>The two days featured a wide range of presentations and presentations, both comprehensive and more detailed. Among the speakers were Guilherme B Xavier, Linköping University, Witlef Wieczorek, Chalmers, and Jonathan Burnett, Chalmers.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330b.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /><br />Göran Johansson (picture above) told about the new graduate school to be built up. He concluded that it will be an attractive and competitive school: </div> <div>&quot;Therefore, we need to get the best ideas to make it as attractive as possible to apply to us,&quot; said Göran Johansson.</div> <div>Such enticing factors may include newly developed courses and study trips.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330g.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /><br />Göran Wendin (picture above) spoke in depth about a forthcoming guest research program and various EU-level quantitative support measures, with a planned research flagship being a key part. This will be as large as the current Graphene Flagship and will start on January 1, 2019. </div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Benefit be before the EU</h5> <div>The fact that WACQT started a whole year before the EU's new flagship, Per Delsing sees as a great advantage in terms of all recruitment of top researchers which needs to be done.</div> <div>&quot;Of course, everyone wants to recruit the best, so we have many challenges ahead of us. The size of the project is another competitive advantage,&quot; he said.</div> <div><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330f.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Ongoing recruitment work </h5></div> <div>Recruitment is underway at the time of writing. Over ten years, 60 PhD students, 40 postdoctoral students, ten assistant professors and a number of visiting researchers are to be hired. In the winter, advertisements have been published in newspapers like Metro, Dagens Industri, Dagens Nyheter and Ny Teknik. Giulia Ferrini (picture above), who also gave a lecture, is the first newly appointed assistant professor in the project. Application deadline is 18 March.</div> <div>&quot;We are looking forward to many good candidates,&quot; said Per Delsing.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330c.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /><br />In addition, Professor Gunnar Björk (picture above), Royal Institute of Technology, and Professor Stefan Kröll (picture below), Lund University, who lead related projects at their respective universities, projects that they also presented. </div> <div><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330d.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">New board was presented </h5></div> <div>During the kickoff days, the new board of WACQT was presented, with chairman Lena Gustafsson, former vice president of Chalmers, vice managing director at Vinnova and president at Umeå University, at the head. The other members of the board are Pontus de Laval, Saab AB, Sara Mazur, Ericsson, Tobias Ekholm, Institut Mittag-Leffler and KAW, Mats Viberg, vice president at Chalmers, Elisabeth Giacobino, École Normal Supérieure, and Charles Marcus, Copenhagen University. On 14 March, the board held its first meeting.</div> <div> </div> <div>Several people have been involved in the planning for the high-end, but the lion's share of the work has been performed by coordinator Susannah Carlsson, communications officer, and Professor Göran Wendin, with coordinator Debora Perlheden as practical support.</div> <div> </div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo: Susannah Carlsson och Michael Nystås</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Read more &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/New-center-for-quantum-technology-was-celebrated.aspx">New center for quantum technology was celebrated</a></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/news/Pages/Engineering-of-a-Swedish-quantum-computer-set-to-start.aspx">Engineering of a Swedish quantum computer set to start</a></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Read an interview with Giulia Ferrini &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Italian-researcher-strengthens-the-quantum-computer-project.aspx">Italian researcher strengthens the quantum computer project</a><br /><br /><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Italian-researcher-strengthens-the-quantum-computer-project.aspx"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_690x330g.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /></a></div>Thu, 15 Mar 2018 10:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Leaving-Chalmers-after-41-years.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Leaving-Chalmers-after-41-years.aspxLeaving Chalmers after 41 years<p><b>​Friends and colleagues. That&#39;s what Göran Reivall, technician at the Nanofabrication Laboratory, will miss the most when he leaves Chalmers after an unbelievable 41 years of service. &quot;Yes, but obviously it also feels melancholic,&quot; he says.</b></p>Nevertheless, Göran Reivall thinks it feels pretty good when we meet him on his last official working day, 28 February.<br />&quot;It has matured. After all, I have been prepared for this quite a while. But at the same time it is of course feeling strange,&quot; he says.<br /><br />On 15 January 1977, Göran Reivall entered the Department of Physics at Chalmers and began his career. The physics workshop was the first destination.<br />&quot;I started as a tool maker. We made all the instruments to the vacuum chamber. The researchers came and modelled what they wanted, simply. We worked more from scratch at that time,&quot; he says.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/greivall_avtackn_665x330_IMG_1383.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br />On 28 February, Göran Reivall was both jolly and emotionally celebrated with personal speeches by friends and colleagues. Göran was noticeably moved when thanking for gifts and flowers:<br />&quot;It's really been fun to work here with so many competent people,&quot; he said.<br /><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/reivall_kihlman_350x305_IMG_1454.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" />One of the present colleagues was the former precision mechanician Carl-Magnus Kihlman (posing with Göran to the left), <a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Long-time-employee-retires-after-45-years.aspx">who retired almost four years ago</a>, and worked closely with Göran Reivall for an impressive 32 years. In their youth in Trollhättan they even had the same teacher, so it's a friendship that goes a long way back in time.<br />After nine years at Physics, Reivall began with Professor Anders Larsson at the then department of electrical engineering in 1986. There he met Carl-Magnus Kihlman and worked with photonics and electrical measurement technology.<br /><br />When MC2 was founded in 2000, Göran went over and has remained faithful to the department ever since. He has been part of operations manager Svante Pålsson's group.<br />&quot;I have worked with service and maintenance, and have also been responsible for the equipment in the media cellar; vacuum pumps, gases, compressed air, water, all that,&quot; says Göran.<br />The media cellar is located under the Nanofabrication Laboratory, and contains all media which are connected to the lab via special channels.<br />&quot;It's as simple as that,&quot; says Reivall.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/greivall_blommor_665x330_IMG_1438.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br />His duties have varied over the years, and it is something that he put great value on.<br />&quot;The alternation has been fun. I have also had the opportunity to invent some own stuff that other companies have come and looked upon.&quot;<br />Among other things, Göran developed a method for removing oxygen from water.<br />&quot;ABB was here and photographed and wanted to implement the same system in Trondheim. Other companies have also been here and watched how we've done. It's fun to be able to help.&quot;<br />Most of all, he will miss all his colleagues.<br />But he will not vanish at first; so Göran remains at MC2 during a transition period until a successor is in place.<br /><br />Göran Reivall was born 1953 in Alingsås. He is married, has two grown children and one grandchild. He lives in an apartment in Alingsås, but is expanding the holiday cottage in Sjövik at Lake Mjörn in order to move there permanently.<br />The expansion work will of course take a lot of time in the future, but even the own boats are a great interest. Göran owns no less than four crafts; both sailboats and motorboats:<br />&quot;Sometimes you want to go a little faster,&quot; he smiles.<br /><br />Text and photo: Michael NyståsTue, 06 Mar 2018 10:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Surprise-visit-by-YouTube-profile-Therese-Lindgren.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Surprise-visit-by-YouTube-profile-Therese-Lindgren.aspxSurprise visit by YouTube profile Therése Lindgren<p><b>​The YouTube influencer and author Therése Lindgren came unexpectedly to visit the Nanofabrication Laboratory. The purpose was to learn more and record a movie about graphene.</b></p>The film is requested by the European Commission, who wants to highlight the Graphene Flagship for a younger audience. <br />During her visit at MC2, Therése Lindgren met with, among others, Helena Theander, Program Director of the National Innovation Program SIO Grafen, which is coordinated from Chalmers. The flagship is also led by Chalmers, and Therése Lindgren got to meet with the coordinator Jari Kinaret. On the agenda were meetings and demonstrations by Marlene Bonmann, PhD student at the Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory, professor Jan Stake, head at the same laboratory, and Martin Hollertz, researcher at the Nanofabrication Laboratory.<br /><br /><strong></strong>Text: Michael Nystås<br />Photo: Svante Pålsson<br /><br /><span><strong>Therése Lindgren's Youtubechannel &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /> <a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/theresejlindgren">www.youtube.com/user/theresejlindgren</a></span><br /><br /><strong>Read more about the Graphene Flagship &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/theresejlindgren"><br /></a><a href="https://graphene-flagship.eu/">graphene-flagship.eu<br /></a><br /><strong>Read more about SIO Grafen &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><a href="https://graphene-flagship.eu/"><br /></a><a href="https://siografen.se/">siografen.se</a><a href="https://www.youtube.com/user/theresejlindgren"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a>​Tue, 06 Mar 2018 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Spider-in-the-web-retires-after-30-years.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Spider-in-the-web-retires-after-30-years.aspxSpider in the web retires after 30 years<p><b>​Spider in the web, faithful servant and MC2 pioneer. Utility-man. There are many ways to describe research engineer Christer Andersson. A unique and popular employee in the Nanofabrication Laboratory now retires from Chalmers after just 30 years. &quot;Most rewarding has probably been all the colleagues at MC2, and that I&#39;ve had such free hands,&quot; says Christer.</b></p><div>He is a real native &quot;göteborgare&quot;. Born 1950 on Spaldingsgatan in Johanneberg, where the family lived until Christer turned five.</div> <div>&quot;Then we moved to Slottsbron in Värmland, where my father had a machine master service at Slottsbrons Bruk. We lived there until 1960, when my father began to work at Vänersborg hospital,&quot; he says.</div> <div>In 1965, the family built a house in Vänersborg, in which Christer lives today and counts as his childhood home.</div> <div>He has no children of his own, but lives with the two-year-old turtle Skalman II. The forerunner, Skalman I, became over 80 years old.</div> <div>&quot;Number 2 is going to survive me,&quot; laughs Christer, who also has a five year younger sister.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Trained Electrical Engineer</h5> <div>Christer is an electrical engineer from Chalmers and started his studies in 1972, so his relationship with the university started many years before joining. And actually even earlier than that:</div> <div>&quot;When I was a little boy, I told my mother that I would be one of those when I grow up, pointing to a Chalmers cap,&quot; Christer laughs.</div> <div>As for many others, the studies went on time because he also worked aside, among other things as operations manager at Teknologtryck. The summer holidays were spent at a hospital, where Christer worked as an engineer with a handful of employees.</div> <div><div>&quot;It was a managerial position in charge of boilers, heat, plumbing, electricity and spare power. I would actually have stayed there, but mental health care was about to be put down in Sweden and I did not judge that it was something to invest in.&quot;</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/christer_665x330_grp.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <div><em>Christer Andersson flanked by, from left to right, Svante Pålsson, </em><span><em>operations manager, </em></span><em>Mikael Fogelström, head of department, Peter Modh, head of the Nanofabrication Laboratory, and Ingrid Collin, head of finances and administration at MC2.</em></div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Old aviator</h5></div> <div>A possibly little unknown side of Christer Andersson is that he is also an old aviator and has a background as a combat pilot. When Christer was 18, he went to the air force's military flight school and upgraded his previous gliding license. For one year, he then flew the classic Saab 32 Lansen in an attack division. A dramatic and many times dangerous life:</div> <div>&quot;At that time, a larger number of pilots ran out every year. During my first two weeks at the flight school, I got single room when my roommate flew to death. It is significantly safer today, but called for some reflection. In the 70's we also had the cold war. Our war exercises were therefore realistic, we bombed with sharp ammunition every day and flew in any weather. We could be in a formation of four aircrafts in northern Sweden and just see the spotlight from one wing. It was fun, but risky,&quot; says Christer.</div> <div>Over the years, he has also towed sailplanes and flown round trips, but nowadays he does not fly at all.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Started at Solid State Electronics</h5> <div>On MC2, Christer has been in charge of purchasing laboratory equipment since the department's establishment. But his career at Chalmers started already in the 80's. Christer still remembers exactly how it began:</div> <div>&quot;On 11 April 1988 at 11 am, I walked in through the doors to the Solid State Department of Chalmers. I had been called by Professor Sten Norrman and Olle Engström to begin as a research engineer,&quot; he says.</div> <div>He remained at Solid State Electronics between 1988 and 2000. Christer had a broader role than he later got at MC2; he handled all the tasks a technician could have on his table; ranging from service to new installations of electricity and plumbing. He was also involved in various research projects in collaboration with, among others, Per Lundgren. In addition, he also handled the machines plus all purchases and chemicals. </div> <div>&quot;Another project was about development and etching of different types of sensors. I was quite intimately involved in those processes.&quot;</div> <div>Prior to that, Christer worked as a development engineer at a small company in Surte, in the field of electronics construction.</div> <div>&quot;At that time you could have three offers to choose from. Today it's significantly harder – you're applying for a hundred jobs and maybe gets one,&quot; says Christer.</div> <div> </div> <div>He has been around at MC2 even before the first shovel of soil.</div> <div>&quot;I came here before they even started to dig. I was very much involved in the discussions about how and where the house should be built. If you look for a little extra you can actually see a glove embedded in the roof of the clean room!&quot;</div> <div>In the end, it was decided to build on a place that proved unusually demanding:</div> <div>&quot;Old Physics stood on a rocky knoll. If you had started to blast conventionally there, you could miss and get the whole facade to fall. Therefore, instead of having a smooth edge, you had to saw up the mountain. It was very difficult,&quot; says Christer.</div> <div>He was employed almost at the same time as Lars-Åke Sidenberg, another MC2 pioneer who was <a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Appreciated-pioneer-and-faithful-servant-leaves-MC2.aspx">also retired recently</a>.</div> <div>&quot;I stayed at the Solid State Electronics until they started tearing out the lab there. Lars-Åke came to my aid when I needed help because I did not manage that work by myself,&quot; says Christer. </div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Appreciated knowledge bank</h5> <div>He has been part of the operations manager Svante Pålsson's group. Here too, Christer has been a spider in the web and played an important role as utility-man – in the utmost sense of the word. He has been an appreciated key to important knowledge, and have had a lot of this knowledge inside his mind. Much of the activities have been circling around Christer. He has been good at keeping track of things, and has played a role beyond the formal work description. He says with some self-criticism that he probably got into things he really did not have to do.</div> <div>&quot;I've had many controversies about the bulky waste with the contractor, and have probably loaded some tens of tonnes of coarse picks myself over the years.&quot;</div> <div>Christer has always worked according to a simple philosophy:</div> <div>&quot;My whole ambition has been to get something better, and especially environmentally friendly and economical.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Straight-out role</h5> <div>Purchasing has been the main task, but not only that, although his role has been more straight-out here. He has also had the main responsibility for boilers and spare power, among other things. The water treatment plant has also been on Christer's table, he has participated in the reinstallation of new water, and over the years has got through many of his opinions.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/christer_350x305b.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" />&quot;But my role narrowed after all when I got to MC2. In the beginning, I had Kaijas (Kaija Matikainen, technician, editor's note) job to go into the lab and handle chemicals and stuff. Though it turned out to be too much; I barely got into the lab until I had to go out again, so it eventually became untenable. One had just got dressed when a truck could call and say I had to receive a delivery. Kaija therefore came as the merciful samaritan!&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>He hopes to get on at MC2 even after his retirement, and has begun a new project that he hopes to have the opportunity to finish:</div> <div>&quot;It's about a new UPS device for the stepper. A UPS device is a battery backup that acts as a form of backup power which eliminates all interruptions of incoming power and buffers with energy as soon as it gets glitches and other things. If I'm allowed, I'll be happy to finish that project, it's really exciting.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>One problem Christer points out as a purchaser is that one often ignore the costs of installing the purchased equipment; both regarding to money and resources. For example, the gas system for the so-called IPC:s costed about 300,000 kronor just to install at its time.</div> <div>&quot;Nobody understood what a huge job it was; there were several hundred meters of gas pipes and connections. You had to be careful to get it really tight. I was also often interrupted. Just when I were bending a pipe the phone rang and someone needed a pair of rubber gloves. It was just to throw everything you had for your hands and hurry up with the rubber gloves. But I got everything together, and it worked.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">What has been most rewarding over the years?</h5> <div>&quot;I think it has been a lot of fun here at MC2. I got more colleagues when I started here, and it all became easier. I also got very free hands, and have experienced that as a very positive circumstance.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">What are you going to miss?</h5> <div>&quot;I am a real techie and Chalmers is the stronghold of technology, so leaving is like if someone would steal the motorcycle from me. I shall not hide the fact.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Several irons in the fire</h5> <div>But Christer does not intend to lie on his couch or feed the pigeons in the park. He plans to train himself to be an authorized trustee. In that role, he can certainly also benefit from his experience from many years as elected member in various housing societies. In Surte, for example, he was a member of the board of a HSB association for many years.</div> <div>The motorcycle and computers are other major leisure interests of Christer. He also manages two gardens of around 700 square meters each. One of the gardens belonged to Christer's mother, but when she passed away in 2017 he took over her house. </div> <div>&quot;Now I'll keep it until I know what to do with it.&quot;</div> <div>Apparently, he will not have any trouble filling his time as a retiree. With the temporary jobs at MC2, the calendar will certainly be fully subscribed, as well:</div> <div>&quot;I've told Svante that I'm going to work until I'm 90; then maybe we can discuss a de-escalation! With the right of my age,&quot; Christer jokes.</div> <div> </div> <div>Text och foto: Michael Nystås</div>Wed, 28 Feb 2018 10:00:00 +0100