News: Mechanics and Maritime Sciences related to Chalmers University of TechnologyTue, 11 Dec 2018 09:40:50 +0100 ways to measure drag resistance and heat transfer<p><b>​On December 18 Bercelay Niebles Atencio will defend his thesis Flow over rough surfaces, and conjugate heat transfer, in engineering application. The research contributes to a better energy efficiency in the fields of fluid dynamics and heat transfer.</b></p>​His PhD project was actually about two different projects. The first one is a research to gain a better understanding of the resistance that is caused by a rough surface when a fluid is passing by that surface. The second project is basically a research to better understand how the cooling works in an electrical generator used in hydropower and provide better tools for the design of those machines. <br /><br />The first project was about finding new ways to measure the drag resistance. This is important since this opens the door for new and more affordable tools for measuring the drag caused by rough surfaces. <br /><br />“To date, this is still unclear, and it is an old problem in fluid mechanics. Regarding the second project, I think one thing to highlight is that we can provide new experimental alternatives for understanding how the cooling occurs not only in electrical generators, but for industrial applications in general” says Bercelay Niebles Atencio. <br /><br />The research findings contribute to a better energy efficiency in the fields in which these projects can be applied. Here, the energy efficiency is understood as the performing of a work with the lowest energy consumption as possible and lowest negative impact in the environment, Bercelay Niebles Atencio explains. And the research conducted is already applied. The first project is especially applicable to the naval industry. <br /><br /><div>“The roughness in the hull of ships, boats, etc, is a parameter that needs to be considered for estimating the powering of such vessels. The consumption of fuel and the emission of contaminating particles are also related to the powering and having a low drag will impact all these factors positively.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Regarding the second project, it’s currently applicable to the design of electric generators. The design of these machines relies on the estimation of the cooling that is required. <br /><br />“If these machines are not properly cooled, then they will operate at low efficiency and potential damage in its components might occur due to overheating”</div>Fri, 30 Nov 2018 13:00:00 +0100 help LFV to reduce environmental impact from aviation<p><b>​During next year, the Chalmers researcher Olivier Petit will be lent out to the Swedish air transport agency LFV. At LFV he will analyze how aeroplanes fly today. A change in how they fly will save money and reduce environmental impact.</b></p>​Olivier Petit is a researcher in the field of fluid dynamics at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences. His research area for five years back is the development of future aircraft engines. But there is more to do than to improve the aircraft engine itself. It's also important to analyze how the aircraft is flying, he believes. <div><br /></div> <div>There is currently a lot of ongoing research that deals with how aeroplanes fly in and out from airports, tells Olivier Petit. One example is smarter start and landing procedures. Another example is the so-called curved approach landing, which means that the aircraft can land in a shorter distance. It could provide a number of advantages that reduces both noise and environmental impact. At LFV Olivier Petit will work as a performance specialist. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;There is a lot of things you can do if you only optimize how to fly today. I will analyze the radar data that the aircraft sends to LFV. The goal is to improve air traffic from a logistical perspective and thereby reduce environmental impact&quot; says Olivier Petit. </div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">If research could prove better in- and outflows, landing procedures and more, why are the changes not implemented? </h5> <div>Olivier Petit believes that a number of actors must cooperate. The biggest challenge is to convince all parties in the aviation industry that it is important to look at how to fly today from an environmental perspective. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;LFV, airline companies, aircraft manufacturers, airports and more must cooperate and agree with each other. Sometimes there is a reluctance to make changes before you are completely sure that it really works. Therefore, more research is important&quot; says Olivier Petit. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The interaction between Chalmers and LFV brings great benefits to both parties. For Chalmers, cooperation with LFV involves more industrial contacts in air traffic management. A valuable network that can be used for future research projects, which in turn may benefit LFV by bringing them closer to the research community. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;It feels very exciting to start working at LFV. It will give me a more applied view of the aviation industry and I will, as a performance specialist, be able to contribute with an educational dimension that is very relevant for presenting data analysis in a good way&quot; says Olivier Petit.</div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More information</h5> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/research/fluiddynamics">Research on Fluid dynamics​</a></div> <div><a href=";query=Olivier+Petit">Olivier Petit's publications​</a></div>Wed, 28 Nov 2018 12:00:00 +0100 internal combustion engine – a part of the future<p><b>​Many are currently pointing out electric cars as the only solution for us to be able to drive a car in the future. The cars are marketed as cars without emissions but it&#39;s not that simple. Lucien Koopmans is a professor at the Division of Combustion and Propulsion Systems and believes that the internal combustion engine is one part of the solution.</b></p>On November 29, AVL will organize the conference <a href="">Product Development in Motion 2018 </a> at Chalmers. A conference for the engineers of tomorrow where they can get insights into today's rapidly evolving engineering industry and the trends that they need to know to support the development of future mobility. <div><br /></div> <div>Lucien Koopmans, Professor and Head of Division for Combustion and Propulsion Systems at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, is one of the speakers and launches a series of workshops with his presentation <em>The end of the combustion engine – or a new life?</em> Spoiler Alert! He is convinced that the internal combustion engine will be a part of the future solutions. The field of application is too wide and the potential of making it climate neutral is too big for the internal combustion engine to go away. The best thing would be to combine the benefits of the two technology solutions to achieve a climate-friendly and sustainable solution for the future, he believes. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;I think that a system-based internal combustion engine can enable a sustainable transport system, but only through electrification, renewable fuels and online controls of the system,&quot; says Lucien Koopmans. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>One important aspect is that since the combustion engine will be an integral part of a connected electrified propulsion system, it should be developed with that in mind, but increased efficiency, renewable fuels, unconventional control strategies and near-zero emissions require research. </div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">But what is the most climate-friendly today, a car with an electric motor or a car with an internal combustion engine? </h5> <div>The answer to the question is, of course, that it depends. A small electric car with a small battery recharged with renewable energy such as solar energy is very climate-friendly but as soon as you want to drive long distances that require a bigger battery and start charging the battery with electricity produced through combustion of fossil fuels, significant amounts of CO2 are produced over a lifecycle; from the manufacturing of the battery to the propulsion of the vehicle. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Compared with the latter, for example, a new diesel car fueled with 50% renewable fuel can be a lot more climate-friendly. The car, engine, driving style, driving conditions and electricity mix are part of a complex system and therefore the answers are never easy, says Lucien Koopmans. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>However, something that Lucien Koopmans easily states is that more research is needed on both electric cars and combustion engines. A hybrid that uses a large proportion of renewable fuel is the most attractive, cost-effective and climate-friendly transport solution for most vehicle users in a foreseeable future, both for passenger cars and freight transport on the road. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Regardless of future scenario, several generations of internal combustion engines will be manufactured and they have a great potential to reach a zero emission scenario with unexplored technologies,&quot; says Lucien Koopmans.</div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More information</h5> <div><a href=""> Product Development in Motion 2018</a><br /><a href="/en/departments/m2/research/combustion">Research at the Division of Combustion and Propulsion Systems</a></div>Fri, 23 Nov 2018 08:00:00 +0100 emission shipping on the horizon<p><b>​Electromethanol made from carbon dioxide and hydrogen can propel ships completely without emissions. Selma Brynolf investigates alternative fuels for shipping – an industry that hurries to reach tough environmental goals.</b></p><div>​The UN International Maritime Organization, IMO, aims to reduce shipping emissions of greenhouse gases by 50 percent by 2050 and eliminate them completely over the century. Strict international rules for sulfur emissions in sensitive marine environments will be followed by stricter global rules from 2020. After a slow start, the shipping industry is waking up.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_bilder-utan-fast-format/SelmaBrynolf_230x180.jpg" alt="Audio description: Portrait of Selma Brynolf" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /><br /> “The goals are tough, but we really need to do even more,” says Selma Brynolf, doctor of maritime environmental sciences at Chalmers. In a newly launched EU project, she investigates the potential of electromethanol to achieve zero emissions from ships. </div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Carbon dioxide + hydrogen gas = electromethanol</h4> <div>Electromethanol is made from carbon dioxide and hydrogen, using renewable energy. On board the ship, a so-called reformer transforms the methanol back into hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The hydrogen is used in the internal combustion engine to propel the ship, while the carbon dioxide is stored in liquid form and pumped ashore when the ship is in port. The carbon dioxide can then be used to produce new electromethanol or be stored underground. This is the idea behind the project HyMethShip.</div> <div> </div> <div>The need to store carbon dioxide on board and to leave it in port means that this is not a solution that will work for all types of ships.</div> <div> </div> <div>“It will probably work best for ships that go on a certain route, and not for those who go the longest distances,” says Selma Brynolf. “For coastal and inland waterways, it may sometimes be possible to go ahead of the regulations. Perhaps electromethanol may first be used in these cases.”</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">International regulations most important for change</h4> <div>Electromethanol is far from the only solution for shipping. What else is being done to achieve the tough environmental goals for the shipping industry?</div> <div> </div> <div>“Tests with fossil methanol, biofuels and electric propulsion are being made by different shipping companies,” says Selma Brynolf. “Liquid natural gas is an emerging option that that meets the sulfur and nitrogen oxide regulations. However, since the gas is a fossil energy source, the potential for reduced climate impact is limited.”</div> <div> </div> <div>The Swedish shipping industry has adopted its own vision zero. But to achieve a far-reaching change, international rules and regulations by IMO is necessary. These need to be implemented at national level and combined with additional incentives, according to Selma Brynolf.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Shipping is an international and highly competitive industry. It's hard for any individual companies or countries to take the lead by themselves.”</div> <div> </div> <div><em>Selma Brynolf talked about new fuels for shipping at the Chalmers initiative seminar &quot;Marine challenges - Blue solutions&quot; 6-7 November 2018.<br /></em></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Emilia Lundgren</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FURTHER READING</strong><br /><em></em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />EU project HyMethShip</a> <br /><br /><strong>Selected related scientific publications</strong><br /><a href="">Energy efficiency and fuel changes to reduce environmental impacts</a>, Selma Brynolf, Francesco Baldi, Hannes Johnson, Shipping and the Environment: Improving Environmental Performance in Marine Transportation, p. 295-339 <br /><br /><a href="">Electrofuels for the transport sector: A review of production costs</a>, Selma Brynolf, Maria Taljegård, Maria Grahn et al, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Vol. 81 (2), p. 1887-1905 <br /><br /><a href="">Environmental assessment of marine fuels: liquefied natural gas, liquefied biogas, methanol and bio-methanol</a>, Selma Brynolf, Erik Fridell, Karin Andersson, Journal of Cleaner Production. Vol. 74, p. 86-95 <br /></div>Wed, 14 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0100 cashew boat wins sailing competition in Italy<p><b>​When Chalmers Formula Sailing participated in the student sailing competition in Italy for the first time, they really delivered. With the boat Linnea, built with a balsa wood core with flax and a cashew nut-based epoxy, the team won the entire competition in Palermo, Sicily.</b></p><div dir="ltr"><div dir="ltr"><p style="text-align:left">​Since August last year, masters students from the Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering program have not only designed and built the sailing dinghy Linnea, but also made all the analyses and calculations that underlie the boat. The Chalmers Formula Sailing team has built the boat of 70 % organic material, and at the end of September, the students went to Palermo, Sicily to participate in the sailing competition. Their participation was possible thanks to funding from the Chalmers University of Technology Foundation.</p> <p style="text-align:left">Besides the team from Chalmers, the competition consisted of student teams from seven Italian universities and one German, all of which have built boats with the same restrictions regarding material. During six races, two elite level sailors in the Olympic 49er class, Fritiof Hedström and Otto Hamel, who are students at Chalmers, sailed the unique boat. </p></div></div> <p>“It is an extreme boat”, says Lars Larsson, Professor of Marine Technology and supervisor of Chalmers Formula Sailing. “It has a large sail plan for its size, and most people who would try to sail it would capsize immediately. The boat would probably overturn from just lying unmanned in the water.”</p> <p></p> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Dramatic competition</h4> <p></p> <p>The Chalmers Formula Sailing team managed to hold top positions throughout the competition. One of the races suddenly became quite dramatic when the boat’s tiller broke. Lars explains that it did not withstand a hit from above and that it was due to a construction flaw. </p> <p>“To sail without a tiller is virtually impossible, but Fritiof laid down across the aft and steered the rudder – which is very heavy and hard to turn – using only his hands. The sailors still managed to score third in the race. You could really tell that they are elite sailors!”</p> <p>Fortunately, the team managed to fix the tiller over the night, just in time for the next race and all in all they won the entire competition. Adam Persson, PhD student, has been the group's supervisor throughout the project, from creating the design to completing the boat. He explains how they won first place.</p> <p>“The boat is built to be as adapted as possible to the wind conditions where we were going to sail. Together with talented sailors, we were faster than the other teams.” </p> <p></p> <p></p> <p></p> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">The team is looking forward</h4> <div>The win, he says, was celebrated traditionally by throwing the crew in the pool. Adam continues to say that the competition feels very successful and that the point of a contest like this is getting to compare with other universities and to continuously raise the bar.</div> <p></p> <p>“The win is really a testament to the hard work we put into this project. It shows that with an engineering approach you can make a very good boat. We are of course very pleased with the sailing and we can’t wait for next year’s competition.”</p> <p><br /></p> <p>Read more: <a href="/en/news/Pages/Organic-boat-building.aspx">&quot;Organic boat building in a nutshell&quot;</a>. </p> <p>Learn more about the <a href="/en/centres/sportstechnology/research/sailing/Pages/Formula-Sailing.aspx">project Chalmers Formula Sailing</a>.</p> <p>Learn more about Chalmers investment in sports technology, <a href="/en/centres/sportstechnology/Pages/default.aspx">Chalmers Sports &amp; Technology</a>.<br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p><strong>Text:</strong> Sophia Kristensson<br /></p>Tue, 25 Sep 2018 14:00:00 +0200 Design as a Flexible toolbox<p><b>​The complexity of the maritime domain calls for a holistic view that captures the impacts of new technology on all functions of the transport system. That’s one of the main take-aways of Nicole Almeida Costa’s research.</b></p>​On September 6 Nicole Almeida Costa defended her PhD thesis titled Human-Centred Design for Maritime Technology and Organizational Change. The implementation of new technological capability is expected to aid the mariners and shore-based operators to perform their work and communicate with each other, and therefore it is essential in a safety-critical environment that these operators are not expected to simply adapt to the new technology but rather that the technology is created with them and their current operations, tasks and goals in mind to begin with. <br /><br />“This is what we refer to as taking a human-centred design approach to maritime systems and services. My PhD thesis presents human-centred design as a flexible and adaptable toolbox and mindset for design, to democratize the design process by engaging end-users, their expertise and input” says Nicole Almeida Costa.<br /><br />One of the main take-aways of this 5 year research is, though, that the complexity of the maritime transport system calls not only for improved human-machine interfaces but also for a systems, holistic, approach in mitigating risks, capturing stakeholder attitudes towards novel technology, and planning and preparing proactively for the future impacts of this technology on the maritime structures. There is a set of technical elements and stakeholders that may affect and be affected by new technology.<br /><br />“Human-centred design and a systems approach is a mindset that must be adopted not only at product and service design level, but adopted by regulators, educators and other decision makers with the support of human factors specialists to manage the whole technological transition” says Nicole Almeida Costa.Tue, 11 Sep 2018 18:00:00 +0200 mariners as test participants wanted<p><b></b></p><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">​​SAR – Search and Rescue Simulations in the <br />EMSN October 23-26, 2018​</h3> <div>Introducing STM services in SAR operations will greatly improve MRCC’s overview and provides the possibility to direct and monitor SAR-units and vessel of opportunities in search and rescue operations. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>By receiving S-124 Areas depicting the search area and having suggested routes and/or search patterns displayed on the ECDIS on board, ships will be able to perform far more efficiently in situations where time is critical. The addition of the Chat service to the available communication channels is expected to improve the exchange of safety critical information and reduce the number of mis-understandings. </div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Scenarios </h3> <div>Up to 30 ships with manned bridges are expected to participate in SAR scenarios in the Strait of Gibraltar, including a simulated Tarifa MRCC. The area is not only known for its dense traffic but also unfortunately for its daily intense SAR activities. Different scenarios with and without STM services are planned to evaluate the effect of several STM SAR services on the safety and efficiency of the operation. </div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Qualifications for test persons </h3> <div>We particularly welcome test participants from organizations and authorities involved in SAR such as the Coast Guard, Maritime Administration and Sea Rescue Societies. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The simulator bridges are to be manned by two deck officers forming a navigator/co-navigator team. One of the officers is required to have experience in a senior position on board and preferably have a Master Mariner CoC. The other officer may be a junior officer with a 3rd Mate’s license, or a senior student of the Master Mariner program, or any person with professional or semi-professional experience of SAR operations on-board a SAR unit. Language prerequisite is English as several nationalities are a part of the EMSN. </div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Register for the October simulations here: </h3> <div><a href=""></a><br /></div> ​Tue, 11 Sep 2018 10:00:00 +0200 methodology for reliable wave energy technology<p><b>​To reduce emissions and fossil fuel consumption, there is a great need for renewable sources of energy. Shun-Han Yang has in her PhD thesis addressed the application of wave energy, which has a large potential to contribute to the world’s renewable emission-free energy supply.</b></p>​Shun-Han Yang’s PhD thesis project is about developing a numerical analysis procedure which can be used to assess the performance of mooring lines and power cables connected to floating wave energy harvesting devices. The mooring lines are used for anchoring while the power cables are for energy transmission.<br /><br />“With the numerical analysis procedure developed in the project, we will be able to provide design solution for moorings and cables with long service lives” says Shun-Han Yang. <br /><br />Such design will improve the durability and reliability of the wave energy technology, an essential step toward the full commercialisation of wave energy. The industry is already showing interest.<br /><br />“There are a few developers from the industry already benefited from the results from the current research project. We believe that the numerical analysis procedure presented in the project will be able to support different wave energy companies in their concept development” says Shun-Han Yang.<span id="ms-rterangepaste-end"><br /></span>Thu, 06 Sep 2018 12:00:00 +0200 vehicles a game changer for cities and transport<p><b>​The rapid development of electric vehicles affects all types of traffic, but also brings new challenges. How do we design our cities with even more types of vehicles in motion? Electric aircraft, when will it become reality? At the initiative seminar “Electromobility – Back to the Future”, on 13 September, these questions will be raised.</b></p><div>​Electric vehicles are nothing new. They have been around for more than a hundred years. Back then however, the battery technology was immature, with short range and big batteries.</div> <div> </div> <div>“At first, electric vehicles were overtaken by cheaper vehicles with combustion engines. Today, we see that very efficient batteries are emerging. The climate question also accelerates the development. There is a will among politicians, industry and the public, which probably will lead to the replacement of conventional combustion engine vehicles in the long term”, says Sinisa Krajnovic, leader of Transport Area of Advance at Chalmers.</div> <div> </div> <div>By looking into the rear view mirror at electric vehicles’ century long history, the Transport and Energy Areas of Advance want to highlight the fact that understanding and knowledge now has caught up with technology – along with environmental problems such as greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impact from for e.g. battery production.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">From electric aircraft to urban planning</h4> <div> “The seminar is a great opportunity for knowledge sharing, mingling and networking for all participants. For my part, I look forward to the many different presentations”, says Maria Grahn, leader of Energy Area of Advance.</div> <div> </div> <div>The day offers several interesting sessions, including visions for the future such as electric aircraft, technology development and security aspects, strategic decision making and urban planning for electromobility. We will also learn more about what to expect from the national test lab for electromobility (SEEL) and why Norway has the highest number of electric cars per capita.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Prospects good for the 2030 goals</h4> <div>In media, the debate on climate issues has been high since the heat wave this summer, linking to aircraft and other highly energy consuming types of transportation. What, then, is required for Sweden to reach the target and have a fossil-independent fleet by 2030. </div> <div> </div> <div>“The combination of the two policy instruments introduced this year, Reduction Obligation and Bonus Malus, provides very good conditions for success”, says Maria Grahn.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Reduction obligation means that fuel sold in Sweden must contain a certain amount of fuel from renewable sources to reduce fossil carbon dioxide emissions. Bonus Malus gives incentives for car buyers to choose a more energy-efficient car.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Most researchers agree that electrification of vehicles is not enough”, says Sinisa Krajnovic. “You have to combine several different propulsion technologies. But above all, we need to change our behaviour.”</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">An overall picture of electromobility</h4> <div>“Electromobility – Back to the Future” is aimed primarily at research and development professionals in academia and industry, as well as authorities, municipalities, regions, business organizations and special interest groups. </div> <div> </div> <div>“We welcome everyone, but the programme is planned for those who want to grasp the overall picture of electromobility,” says Maria Grahn.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><em>Text: Ann-Christine Nordin, Emilia Lundgren</em></div> <em> </em><div><em>Photo: Emilia Lundgren</em></div> <div> </div> <div>The initiative seminar “Electromobility – Back to the Future” will be held 13 September in RunAn, Chalmersplatsen 1, Gothenburg. Sign up at the latest 3 September.</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/calendar/Initiative-seminar-2018/Pages/default.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Programme and registration</a><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>FURTHER READING</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/news/Pages/Sweden-invests-1-billion-SEK-in-testbed-for-electromobility.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Sweden invests 1 billion SEK in testbed for electromobility<br /></a></div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/Electric-freight-transport-grows-despite-extreme-competition.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Electric freight transport grows despite extreme competition</a><br /></div>Thu, 30 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Eu-Grant to Reduce Environmental Impact from Aviation<p><b>​The EU is investing 800 000 Euro to improve the aero engine efficiency in the 30 months “EATEEM project”, short for “Experimental Aero- and Thermal investigation for a next generation Engine Exit Module”. The project will be coordinated by Chalmers University via M2, division of Fluid Dynamics and Valery Chernoray.</b></p>​The EATEEM project is a part of the European Clean Sky 2 programme which aims to improve the aero engine efficiency and fuel burn to meet the Advisory Council for Aeronautics Research in Europe (ACARE) goals for the year 2035 and 2050. The year 2050 targets aim for a 75% reduction in CO2 emissions, a 90% reduction in NOx emissions and a 65% reduction of the perceived noise relative to engine and aircraft performance of year 2000. The research in the project will be done in Fluid Dynamics’ new turbine-rig.<br /><br /> “This gives Chalmers an excellent visibility at the international aerospace research arena. As well, getting this project means that the enormous amount of work which was spent to build the rig starts to bear its fruits” says Valery Chernoray, coordinator and research professoar at Fluid Dynamics. <br /><br />The project will deal with geared turbofans which provide a game-changing improvement in aero-engine efficiency by allowing the fan and turbine to rotate at different speeds. This allows for a higher by-pass ratio and a larger fan running at a lower rotational speed than traditional turbofans. <br /><br />“The overall concept of our project is to mature expansion system technologies so that they become key enablers for reducing CO2 emissions and engine mass for the upcoming Advanced Geared Engine and Very High Bypass Ratio Turbofan configurations” says Valery Chernoray. <br /><br />The fact that the application was granted is a good grade but it also received high marks 14.5 of 15. <br /><br />“Feels great to get an evaluation score of 14.5 av 15. Never had such high score before. At the same time very grateful to all the people who worked together with me on the proposal: Isak Jonsson, Carlos Xisto and Tomas Grönstedt.” says Valery ChernorayThu, 14 Jun 2018 14:00:00 +0200 Piston Design Lowers Fuel-consumption<p><b>​Volvo’s new Heavy-Duty diesel-engines are more fuel efficient due to a new, smart, wave-shaped, piston design. The new design reduces fuel-consumption by two percent and halves the quantity of particulates. The idea of the piston shape came from Volvo AB. In collaboration with Chalmers, the idea could be refined and realized.</b></p>​Ten years ago, diesel-engineer Jan Eismark was struggling with a problem of reducing emissions from Volvo's engines. The permitted limit values for soot particles and nitrogen oxide emissions were constantly lowered. One big challenge is that the particle and soot emission formation in the combustion chamber is just like a rocking board. The methods limiting soot particles increase nitrogen oxides and the methods that lower nitrogen oxides increase soot particles. The challenge was to lower both. <div><br /></div> <div>Jan Eismark conducted a variety of engine experiments with different pistons and fuel injectors and saw that the soot emissions were very different. The conclusion was that the shape of the combustion chamber, which is completely shaped by the piston top, ought to be very important. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the case of a standard piston, the injector is located in the centre of the piston bowl (combustion chamber) and the fuel is sprayed towards the sides of the bowl through a number of orifices in the injector. The combination of heat and pressure causes the fuel to ignite before it reaches the combustion-chamber walls. The flame hits the wall at a speed of up to 50 meters per second, it then spreads along the piston bowl wall at an angle of 180 degrees where-after it collides with the adjacent flames. When the flames collide, they compete for the available oxygen. At the same time, the oxygen in the centre of the combustion chamber is never fully used. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;We wanted to find a way to lead the flames more inwardly into the combustion chamber to better utilise the available oxygen there&quot;, says Jan Eismark. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Jan Eismark became an industrial PhD student at Chalmers, to develop the idea together with Chalmers’ researchers through studying fundamental mixing and spray phenomena and combustion mechanisms. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;The research work in the project has been very extensive and includes, in addition to Volvo's engine experiments, advanced computerised combustion calculation and high-speed recording of the combustion inside the cylinder&quot;, says Ingemar Denbratt, director of the <a href="/en/centres/cerc">Combustion Engine Research Centre</a>, where the research at Chalmers was conducted. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research was used to improve the combustion system and resulted in the unique wave design in the piston bowl. The injector position in the centre of the piston bowl has six holes allowing the fuel to be injected in between the waves helping the flames to be directed towards the centre of the piston bowl. The available oxygen could therefore be consumed more efficiently. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Artiklar/lastbilartikel.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:300px;height:200px" /><br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">After that, industrialisation has been taken over by AB Volvo and in 2017 the new piston “arrived” in the first</span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>trucks in the United States. Fuel consumption has been reduced by two percent and particulate emissions have been halved. According to AB Volvo, the concept give big fuel savings on Volvo's products and reduction in carbon-dioxide emissions of 5 megaton per year. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>(For comparison, a return flight between Sweden and Thailand corresponds to approximately 2.5 tonnes of carbon-dioxide emissions per person, hence 5 megaton of carbon-dioxide emissions corresponds to approximately two million Thailand voyages.)</em></div>Tue, 05 Jun 2018 07:50:00 +0200 thesis gives the aircraft industry new methods to reduce emissions<p><b>​By utilising the design framework developed as part of Marcus Lejon’s PhD thesis, highly efficiency compressors can be designed which would contribute to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from aviation.</b></p>​Aircraft engine manufacturers strive to improve current state of the art designs through continuous development efforts. By improving existing designs and exploring new alternatives, the goal is to reduce the fuel consumption. <div><br /></div> <div>To achieve a low fuel consumption, turbofan engines should operate at a high overall pressure ratio which is commonly achieved by an axial compressor. An axial compressor consists of a set of consecutive stages, each consisting of a rotating and stationary blade row. While a compressor should operate with a high-pressure ratio, it should not operate too close to its stability limit where surge can occur. Care must be taken when designing a compressor so that it can operate safely and with high efficiency. If the pressure increase across the compressor is high, it may be operating close to its stability limit. Beyond this point, surge can occur, a dangerous phenomenon where the performance drops and the flow through the compressor may even reverse direction. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>”My work has focused on a framework for designing the low-pressure system of an aircraft engine. To determine an appropriate degree of complexity to include in the computational model, and to determine an appropriate measure to quantify stability of a compressor.” says Marcus Lejon. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Furthermore, aspects which may be detrimental to performance have been investigated, namely the impact of geometric variations which occur from the manufacturing process of a compressor blade and surface degradation from in-service use. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>As a part of his work, he has determined an appropriate measure for stability and applied it in the design of a three-stage compressor with high efficiency and stability. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“This exercise showed the versatility of the method by designing different stages, and demonstrated that the proposed stability measure worked well in the design phase” says Marcus Lejon </div> <div><br /></div> <div>By utilising the design framework developed, highly efficiency compressors can be designed which would contribute to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases from aviation. The design framework and the method used to analyse manufacturing variations will be used at GKN Aerospace, the collaborative partner in his project. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Marcus Lejon will present and defend his PhD thesis Aerodynamic design framework for low-pressure compression systems June 8 at 10.00 in lecture hall HA2.</div>Mon, 04 Jun 2018 11:00:00 +0200 build self-driving race car<p><b>​As the first and only Swedish team, Chalmers has qualified for the prestigious Formula Student Driverless competition in Germany. With a unique software in their car, the team hopes to wipe the floor with their competitors.</b></p><div>Already available was a whole lab dedicated to the development of self-driving vehicles, a proprietary software platform, and a ready-made electric racing car from last year's Formula Student competition.</div> <div><br />&quot;From there, it was quite a small step, to start a student team to rebuild the car for self-driving and compete in the race class for driverless cars,&quot; says the initiator and supervisor Ola Benderius, assistant professor at the Vehicle Engineering and Autonomous Systems Division.<br /><br /></div> <div>Since last autumn, twelve students from five different master programs have worked to make the car self-driving as part of their master’s thesis.</div> <div><br />&quot;It's extremely fun and educational. It's a brand-new project and we have had a lot of freedom to achieve our goals,&quot; says team manager Emil Rylén, who studies Automotive Engineering.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">A dedicated and multifaceted team</h3> <div>The team is divided into three groups, who work with each of the three main elements of self-driving: to perceive and interpret the surroundings, driving planning and control, and mechanical and electronic hardware to execute the control signals. Two of the team members were also in the team that built the car last year.</div> <div><br />&quot;We couldn’t have done it without them. They know and understand how the car works,&quot; says Rylén.</div> <div>He describes the team as a very mixed group, both in terms of nationality, education and skills.</div> <div><br />&quot;Everyone is really dedicated. You definitely do not have to be a racing fan, but rather a technology fan and someone interested in cutting-edge technology.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Equipment for half a million SEK</h3> <div>To make the car self-driving, they have equipped the car with sensors like GPS, laser radar, dual-lens camera for deep vision, computers, and extra electronics and mechanisms to actuate the brakes, wheel, and accelerator. In total, the equipment cost about half a million SEK, but much of it will be reusable in coming years.</div> <div><br />Financing is already ready for another three years. Interest among the students is very high, as is the industry's interest in recruiting those who participated in the team. Ola Benderius and his two supervisor colleagues – Christian Berger and Björnborg Nguyen – are already gathering next year's team.</div> <div><br />It is also advantageous for the Chalmers lab for self-driving vehicles, <a href="/en/researchinfrastructure/revere/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Revere</a>, to have a team in Formula Student Driverless.</div> <div><br />&quot;We get a chance to showcase Reveres’ abilities and skills, and the team attracts really good students. Hopefully, some of them hope to stay on as PhD students. In addition, the team is developing stuff that we can use in research,&quot; says Benderius.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Tests and competition in sight</h3> <div>In addition to the team being able to use Reveres’ premises, vehicles and skills, they also get time on the test track Astazero. At the moment, they can drive the racing car using a handheld remote control, but there is still a few weeks work before they can go over to self-driving tests.</div> <div><br />&quot;It will be very fun to test and go to the competition. Then we can reap the benefits of all the work we put down during the year,&quot; says Rylén.</div> <div><br />While the other teams qualifying for the competition all chose the same well-established but somewhat obsolete software, the Chalmers team uses Chalmers’ proprietary software platform for driverless vehicles, OpenDLV.</div> <div><br />“It makes us unique. A stable software is really important to succeed in the competition, and with experience from research, we know how to design it,&quot; says Benderius.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">About the Formula Student Driverless competition</h3> <div>The competition will take place 6–12 August in Hockenheim, Germany, and includes a number of different challenges: braking, acceleration, skidpad testing and a track drive. The team will also have to present and explain their software and hardware design, as well as a business model. Read more about the competition at <a href="" target="_blank">Formula Student Germany</a>.</div> <div><strong><br />Read more:</strong></div> <div>Chalmers also has student teams that build and compete with driver-controlled electric race cars and sailboats. Read more on the <a href="" target="_blank">Chalmers Formula Student website</a> and in the article <a href="/en/news/Pages/Organic-boat-building.aspx">Organic boat building in a nutshell</a>.</div> <div><br />Text: Ingela Roos</div> <div>Photo: Johan Bodell</div> Fri, 25 May 2018 17:00:00 +0200 cars may avoid whiplash injuries<p><b>​Every day between 30 and 300 people get whiplash injuries. A common cause is when the vehicle has been hit in the rear. Many of these accidents could be avoided by driving an electric car. How this could be done is shown in Adithya Arikere’s PhD thesis.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">“In my project, we tried to find novel active safety applications for electrified drivetrains that cannot be achieved or at least performed as well with traditional internal combustion engines” says Adithya Arikere.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Electric drives have a lot of advantages over internal combustion engines. They have fast and reliable response, precise and accurate control, max torque from standstill and more. Some of these can be exploited to achieve novel or improved active safety functionality. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;A simple example is if you can detect that you are about to be hit from behind and you have the free space in front to accelerate and get out the way, you can do so with an electrified drivetrain&quot; says Adithya Arikere. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>This cannot be done reliably with an internal combustion engine since they have poor low-end torque, large response times and the transmission can be in the wrong gear. But with electric drives which deliver their peak torque at low speeds, have short response times and typically don’t need a transmission, this can be easily and reliably achieved. Adithya Arikere has investigated three scenarios in detail: the rear-end collision, obstacle avoidance with oncoming traffic and intersection accidents. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;We have found that in each case, the quick and reliable response of electric drives can be used to perform interventions that can avoid or mitigate accidents and yield a significant safety benefit&quot; says Adithya Arikere</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Since his project deals with finding novel active safety applications for electrified drivetrains he believes it can make electrified vehicles of the future safer and consequently, also make them more attractive to consumers since these safety functions cannot be achieved with traditional internal combustion engine based vehicles. This in turn could help drive electrified vehicle sales and therefore help mitigate climate change and local emissions.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Adithya Arikere presents his PhD thesis<a href=""> Vehicle Dynamics Control for Active Safety Functions using Electrified Drivelines​</a> at April 10, 10 AM in KB lecture hall. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> Wed, 04 Apr 2018 08:00:00 +0200 mariners as test participants wanted<p><b>​​First time ever: STM tools and functions to be evaluated in the European Maritime Simulator Network (EMSN) in March 13-16 2018! Chalmers and SMA are looking for test participants.​​</b></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-US">The Sea Traffic Management Validation Project has developed and created a network of interconnected simulator centers in several EU countries – the European Maritime Simulator Network (EMSN) consisting of both ship handling bridges and VTS/Shore Centers. This network enables testing of Sea Traffic Management in complex traffic situations, port approaches, confined waters as well as other functions, like Search and Rescue, as a safer alternative to live testing. Several new services such as improved ship to ship route exchange, Port Call synchronization, enhanced monitoring and navigational assistance, etc. have been or will be implemented in the simulation testbed and need to be validated and tested by professional mariners.</span></p> <h2><span lang="EN-US">Scenarios</span></h2> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-US">Up to 30 ships with manned bridges are expected to participate in scenarios in the southern Baltic and English Channel with a limited amount of target vessels reflecting normal conditions for the area in question. The bridge teams are to navigate their ships according a pre-planned route and schedule.</span></p> <h2><span lang="EN-US">Qualifications for test persons</span></h2> <p class="MsoNormal" style="text-align:justify"><span lang="EN-US">The simulator bridges are to be manned by two deck officers forming a navigator/co-navigator team. One of the officers is required to have experience in a senior position on board and preferably have a Master Mariner CoC. The other officer may be a junior officer with a 3<sup>rd</sup> Mate’s license or a senior student of the Master Mariner program. Language prerequisite is English as several nationalities are forming part of the EMSN.</span></p> <h2><span lang="EN-US">Register for the simulations in March here:</span></h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> <span style="font-size:11pt;line-height:115%;font-family:calibri, sans-serif"><a href=""><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:14pt;line-height:115%"></span></a></span><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span lang="EN-US"></span></p> <div> </div>Fri, 23 Feb 2018 10:00:00 +0100