News: Mechanics and Maritime Sciences Impact related to Chalmers University of TechnologyMon, 16 May 2022 23:18:11 +0200 quiet fans can improve our health<p><b>​We spend more of our time indoors than ever. But the noise levels we are exposed to at home, in workplaces and schools have been shown to increase the risk of high blood pressure, mental illness and hearing damage – and may even have a detrimental effect on children's cognitive development. Now, a unique new study from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, has identified and eliminated the harmful noise that occurs in ventilation system fans – something that could significantly improve our physical and mental health.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Today, we spend as much as 87% of our lives indoors, according to <a href="">an American study​</a>. The quality of indoor environments has therefore become an increasingly important factor for health and well-being. Temperature, carbon dioxide levels and humidity are just some of the factors known to influence our indoor environments, but lately, studies have also shown how indoor noise can have a significant negative impact. <br /><br /></span><div>One contributing factor to the constant noise in indoor environments is the fans used in ventilation systems in homes, workplaces, and schools. The core of the problem – and what irritates the human ear – occurs when the fan blades rotate, generating a sound with a consistent and predictable frequency, known as a ‘tonal’ noise. Identifying exactly how this sound occurs, and how to remove it, has been a long-standing quest that researchers and fan manufacturers have not been able to find an answer to. <br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/Martin%20Ottersten_02.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 15px;width:200px;height:300px" /><br /></div> <div>“The source of the tonal sound has never before been identified on this type of fan. When you can reduce this tone, the fans become extremely quiet and, in that respect, unique. This is the first time someone has succeeded in both identifying and eliminating the source of the noise,” says Martin Ottersten, industrial PhD student in Fluid Dynamics at Chalmers University of Technology and Research and Innovation Engineer at Swegon, and lead author of the study.<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Increased risks of physical and mental illness</h2> <div>According to a report from the WHO, tonal noise of the kind that occurs in ventilation systems can negatively affect human health. The study shows that long-term exposure to this kind of sound increases the risk of high blood pressure, cardiac arrest, tinnitus, hearing damage, sleeping problems and stress. Children's cognitive development can also be negatively affected by the noise levels stemming from ventilation systems.</div> <div>Finding the source of what causes the tonal sound has therefore been of great interest to researchers and fan manufacturers for many years. <br /><br /></div> <div>“I am sensitive to sound and sometimes have difficulty concentrating and sleeping with disturbing sounds. And I know that tonal sound can disturb our brain. When I read the WHO's reports on how tonal sound can also lead to diseases such as high blood pressure and even cardiac arrest, the work took on a whole new dimension,” says Martin Ottersten, who has worked with the project for four years.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Lower energy usage another benefit</h2> <div>With the help of advanced computer calculations, sometimes lasting weeks at a time, Martin Ottersten was able to study how air flows through the fan during rotation and where turbulence occurs. The calculations also provided audio data for the fan, which was used to locate the source of the tones.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>After several variations, he managed to design a fan in such a way that the tonal sound decreased drastically, an improvement which could allow for much quieter and healthier indoor environments.<br /><br /></div> <div>“By trying out different modifications to the fans and measuring the sound levels using very complex calculations on hundreds of computers, over several weeks, we could determine exactly where in the fan's construction the tonal sound originated and how to eliminate it. And what is more, we also observed that the efficiency of the fan increases as the tonal sound decreases,” says Martin Ottersten.<br /><br /></div> <div>He believes that this research now has great potential to be put into practice, and that extremely quiet fans which do not produce tonal noise could soon be commercially available. <br /><br /></div> <div>“We are currently seeking a patent for this technology and implementing it into our fans. After that we want to get them out to market, so that we can contribute to creating healthier indoor environments – as well as helping reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions.<br /><br /></div> <div>The results of the study <a href="">&quot;A numerical method to predict and minimize fan tonal noise&quot; </a>have been published in the scientific journal Physics of Fluids.</div> <div>The study was carried out at the Division of Fluid Dynamics at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology and was financed by Swegon AB.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>More about the different types of sound generated by fans</strong></div> <div>Sound from fans consists of two types of sound: broadband and tonal sound. The broadband sound is heavier, but it’s the tonal sound – which is regular and reoccurring – that irritates and affects us humans the most. To reduce noise levels in workplaces, homes and schools, silencers are therefore installed so that people can stay in the premises for a longer period of time. These mufflers remove much of the broadband sound but are not as good at absorbing the more harmful tonal sound. In addition, the mufflers contribute to increased energy consumption and higher carbon dioxide emissions.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>For more information, contact:</strong></div> <div>Martin Ottersten</div> <div>Industrial PhD Student</div> <div></div> <div>+46-73-1502818</div> <div><br />Text: Lovisa Håkansson and Joshua Worth </div>Thu, 21 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0200 e-scooters can safely operate in a city <p><b>​E-scooters have become a familiar sight in cities worldwide in recent years, with many new companies renting them for use. But their arrival has also brought new safety concerns. Now, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, present a framework for comparing how different micromobility vehicles, such as e-scooters, and bicycles move in cities, a methodology that can benefit companies and local authorities alike, and - most importantly - contribute to improving traffic safety.​​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">In recent years, e-scooters have proliferated in cities worldwide, offering citizens a novel and convenient way to get around. However, their swift arrival has often left local authorities unprepared for the challenges that such a new technology inevitably brings to the transport system. Commonly voiced concerns are that e-scooter riders break traffic rules, ride too fast, and park inappropriately. Perhaps of most concern is that crash databases, as well as insurance claims, show a clear and disproportionate rise in crashes as the number of e-scooters rises. </span><div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Local authorities have sought to </strong>address these concerns through measures such as speed restrictions, requiring users to wear helmets, designated parking areas, and limiting the number of scooters or operators allowed in the city - or even outright bans.<br /></span><span style="background-color:initial"><br />“E-Scooters are not necessarily more danger</span><span style="background-color:initial">ous than bicycles, but they are often perceived as such, possibly because of their unfamiliarity and the behavior of their riders,” explains Marco Dozza, Professor in Active Safety and Road-User Behaviour at Chalmers University of Technology, and lead author of the new study.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/Marco%20Dozza%20180x180.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 15px;width:180px;height:180px" /><br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">While bicycling benefits from established social norms, regulations, and infrastructure, the same is not true for newer micromobility vehicles, such as e-scooters, Segways, monowheels, electric skateboards and so on. The spread and usage of these vehicles is only likely to increase in the near future; so, finding ways to safely integrate them in the transport system is a vital and urgent challenge.”</span><p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><strong>To understand what makes</strong> riding new micromobility vehicles unsafe and how that compares to riding a more traditional bicycle, extensive data is needed. Scooter companies already have access to huge amounts of data, because they track every ride using GPS, but the quality of the data tends to only be useful for logistics and mapping services, while providing insufficient information about safety. Hospital admissions data and police reports may help appreciate the size of the safety problem - but cannot explain <i>why</i> crashes happen.</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">What is missing is a framework for collecting and analysing data to understand what makes rider behavior unsafe and causes the crashes. Now, Marco Dozza and colleagues present a framework for exactly this.<br /></span></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Two different strategies: braking or steering away</h2> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">The researchers have outlined a process for data-collection in the field and analysis, that is intended to be repeatable and adaptable for different vehicles from identifying useful test-maneuvers, to measuring and analysing the results of subsequent experiments. In their pilot study, the researchers compared bikes and e-scooters directly, equipping them with measuring instruments and testing the riders on various maneuvers, involving combinations of braking - both planned, and in reaction to a random signal - and steering at different speeds.<br /><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><a href="">Watch a video of the research tests here ​</a><br /> <br /> <strong>One of the most relevant findings</strong> of the new research was the fact that the braking performance of a bicycle proved consistently superior to the one of an e-scooter - offering faster deceleration and up to two times shorter stopping distance. In contrast, the e-scooter performed better during the steering maneuvers, involving a slalom through traffic cones - likely due to its shorter wheelbase and no need to pedal. The participants were also questioned about their experience and confirmed that braking felt more comfortable on the bicycle and steering more so on the e-scooter.<br /><span style="background-color:initial"><br />“The t</span><span style="background-color:initial">wo vehicles showed distinct advantages and disadvantages through the different scenarios,” explains Marco Dozza. “We can say that the best strategy for a cyclist and an e-scooterist to avoid the same crash may be different - either braking or steering away.”</span><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"><br /><strong>The results from these experiments</strong> may inform how the infrastructure might be designed to benefit all riders - for example, a winding path might be easier for e-scooterists than for cyclists, whereas a cyclist might find a narrower path, with low light less challenging than an e-scooterist.<br /><span style="background-color:initial"><br />“Of cours</span><span style="background-color:initial">e, this experiment was small, and the data far from conclusive. However, this pilot experiment demonstrates the potential for field data to describe rider behavior and help understand the causes of crashes. With more data from a larger sample of riders, we may reach a comprehensive picture of the rider behaviors that makes riding an e-scooter safe. This information may help the authorities to devise innovative safety measures and motivate their decisions to the public with objective data” explains Marco Dozza.</span><br /></span></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Potential application in smart future cities</h2> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">The researchers will now, in collaboration with Scandinavian scooter company Voi, collect more field data to account for differences between riders and scenarios. Eventually, findings such as the one presented here could teach future automated vehicles and intelligent-transport-systems how to best interact with scooterists and cyclists by anticipating their behavior. Other safety measures that could be based on results from field-data analyses include dynamic geofencing - limiting the scooters’ speed depending on how crowded an area is, or the time of the day or week. <br /><span style="background-color:initial">Voi were not involved in the research project outlined here in any form.</span><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US"> <br /> The article <a href="">&quot;<i>A data-driven framework for the safe integration of micro-mobility into the transport system: Comparing bicycles and e-scooters in field trial&quot;</i> ​</a>was published in the Journal of Safety Research and was written by Marco Dozza, Alessio Violin, and Alexander Rasch. <br /></span></p> <br /> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">The research was supported by several students from the Master Programme in Automotive Engineering, for instance via the Automotive Engineering Project which will be part of the new Master programme in Mobility Engineering at Chalmers. The Area of Advance Transport and Trafikverket sponsored this work.<br /><br /><b></b></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><b>For more information on scooters and micromobility vehicles in cities, contact: </b><br /></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-US">Marco Dozza<br /> Professor at Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Division of Vehicle Safety<br /> </span><a href=""></a><span lang="EN-US"><br /> +46 31 772 3621</span></p> <span style="background-color:initial"> ​</span><div><span style="background-color:initial">Text: Lovisa Håkansson ​and Joshua Worth </span></div></div> ​Thu, 31 Mar 2022 07:00:00 +0200"Today will probably define whether I choose technology in the future"<p><b>​“Yes! I love six-cylinder engines!” The quote belongs to high school student Chloé as she, along with 20 other young girls, faced the task of disassembling a car engine during the IGE-day 2022, which took place at the division for Combustion and propulsion system at Chalmers last week.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">On March 25, the 2022 edition of the &quot;IGE-day&quot; kicked off as 75 companies in Sweden - including Chalmers - welcomed girls aged 13 - 19 under the slogan “Introduce a Girl to Engineering.” The purpose? To give young girls the chance to meet role models in technology and explore what it would be like to study and eventually work as an engineer.<br /><br /></span><div>The venue for the day at Chalmers was the Division of Combustion and Propulsion Systems at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Studies. Around 20 high school and secondary school students entered the division’s laboratories to get a glimpse of what it might look like when the university students and researchers try to develop internal combustion engines powered by renewable fuels - and thereby contribute to a more sustainable transport system.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>Lisa Hedlund, a second-year studen</strong>t in the Master of Engineering program Automation and Mechatronics, was there to inspire and kick-start the day. During her training, she’s learning to develop transport solutions that are cheaper, more energy-efficient and environmentally friendly than today. By no means an obvious study choice for Lisa, looking back:  <br /><br /></div> <div>“I honestly didn’t think this was something for me. But now I love it! There’s so much exciting to study in this field. I’m considering going into AI and data science once I’ve finished my studies. It would be really cool to work with self-driving cars,” she says.<br /><br /></div> <div>After some introductory coffee and cake, it's time to take a closer look at the research conducted in the labs. Responsible for the tour are Head of Division Lucien Koopmans, professor of combustion and propulsion systems, and Lena Lang, Tekniksprånget trainee, who’s not only conducting lab work during her trainee semester, but also is a keen collector of social media content from the research work carried out at the division. <br /><br /></div> <div><strong>One of the girls taking part</strong> in the IGE-day is Iman, a 9th grader from Kviberg's high school in Gothenburg. For <span style="background-color:initial">her, today's visit will probably play a crucial role in her future study choices.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>“I’ve actually chosen a program in social science in high school. But I'm interested in programming and considering if I might go on to a technical education later. This day will probably define whether I choose technology in the future,” she explains.<br /><br /></div> <div>The first stop on the tour is the spray lab. Here, laser diagnostics are used to see how hydrogen, for example, is mixed with air in an internal combustion engine. When liquid fuel is injected into an engine, it’s done under high pressure which creates a cloud of fuel droplets. The effect is almost spray-like, hence the name. The researchers are studying what the injection process looks like and what emissions are produced. A relatively unexplored but highly interesting topic in the search for sustainable fuels.<br /><br /></div> <div>“Our job is to contribute with knowledge that does not yet exist. That’s what we call research. And that happens here in the lab,” Lucien explains to the group.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>The next stop takes place</strong> at the engine lab, where the researchers try to measure what the fuel consumption looks like in an internal combustion engine and what emissions come out. Right now, it’s hydrogen gas that is being tested. And what about hydrogen - will there be any harmful emissions? Lucien throws out a question:<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/Lucien%20visar%20motor%20600x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:20px 40px" /><br /></div> <div>“What happens when hydrogen meets air?”</div> <div>The answer is immediate: </div> <div>“It becomes water,” the group agrees.</div> <div>“Yes, that’s right. But will there be any carbon dioxide? Well, actually, there will. But just a little. And not from the hydrogen gas itself, but from the oil in the engine. We learned that here in the lab,” Lucien explains.<br /><br /></div> <div>The group continues to explore the premises. After another quick stop among oily pistons and all sorts of tools, the group has approached the final destination on the lab trip. Scattered in a large room are four huge car engines. A modern Volvo petrol engine, an old six-cylinder engine, a diesel engine and a special Mitsubishi engine. Because now, it’s time to walk the talk. <br /><br /></div> <div><strong>“So, now you can start unscrewing</strong> these engines and see what is hidden underneath! I want you to remove the cylinder head so that you get down to the pistons,” Lucien instructs.<br /><br /></div> <div>After a quick demonstration of the box's most useful tools and an equally quick division into four groups, the students equip themselves with coats, gloves and tools and immediately start working. <br /><br /></div> <div>By the six-cylinder engine, the high school girls Fatima, Matilda and Chloé have already come a long way.</div> <div><br /><strong>“Yes! I love six-cylinder engines</strong>, says Chloé, a Natural Science Program student at Franklins High school in Gothenburg. In school, math and programming are her favorites, and she really likes watching You tube videos on people disassembling engines.<br /><br /></div> <div>“It’s fun to understand how things in our everyday life work,” she continues. “I usually sit at the kitchen table mending and picking stuff apart.”<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/Chloe%20kollar%20verktygslåda%20200x200.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 15px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">Her group members Matilda and Fatima, students in Urban planning and Environment at Lindholmens Technical high school, may not be as keen on the topic of car engines, but still want to explore what a future in the field of technology might look like.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>“I’ve always wanted to be an architect, ever since I was little. But then when I started high school, I became interested in becoming an engineer. Above all, it is programming that I like, but so far, I’ve only learned the basics,” says Fatima.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>And when asked what </strong>she thinks about today’s assignment to unscrew a car engine?</div> <div>“Yes, well, I believe everything is fun if you know what you’re doing.”<br /><br /></div> <div>Her group member Matilda is more into car design. And architecture. Her technical interest comes from home, more specifically from her mom who is Matilda’s biggest source of inspiration.<br /><br /></div> <div>“Mom is building bridges and roads at the Swedish Transport Administration. In that sense she takes part in changing the city and that’s inspiring,” says Matilda.<br /><br /></div> <div>Following the tour, although from the back seat, is Mitra Sarchami, teacher of math, physics, chemistry, biology and programming at Kviberg's Secondary school. By visiting Chalmers, she wants to inspire her students, especially the girls, to choose a career path in technology in the future. <br /><br /></div> <div><b>“I want to make these subjects feel</b> more like everyday matters and less distant from my students. 20 years ago, teaching consisted only of theories and what was in the textbook. But today when we get out and make visits like this, the students understand that this is actually about real matters like the environment and health. These topics become more tied to their everyday lives. This will be a real eye-opener to many students,” Mitra explains.<br /><br /></div> <div>And for motor enthusiast Chloé, it’s already a done deal. </div> <div>“Most likely, I’ll be a Chalmers student in a couple of years,” she concludes and returns to the six cylinders.<br /><br /></div> <div>Text: Lovisa Håkansson​<span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div>Wed, 30 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0200 Covid research: Face masks play a crucial role<p><b>​An international research team from universities including Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, the University of Padua and the University of Udine in Italy, and the University of Vienna, Austria, has developed a new theoretical model to better assess the risks of spreading viruses such as Covid-19 – with and without a face mask. The results show how the standard ‘safe’ distance of two meters does not always apply but varies greatly depending on a range of environmental factors, and that face masks can indeed play a crucial role. ​</b></p><span style="background-color:initial">The current recommendations and understanding around the transmission of respiratory infectious diseases are often based on a diagram developed by the American scientist William Firth Wells in 1934.. But this model is very simplified and does not account for the true complexity of transmission. <br /><br /></span><div>Now, in the new study <a href="">“Modelling the direct virus exposure risk associated with respiratory events”</a>, the researchers developed a more advanced model to show that it is possible to more efficiently calculate the direct risk of spreading Covid infection by including a number of factors, such as interpersonal distance, temperature, humidity levels, viral load and type of exhalation. They also managed to demonstrate how these risks change with and without a face mask.<br /><br /></div> <div>The study revealed, for example, that a person talking without a face mask can spread infected droplets one meter away. Should the same person cough, the drops can be spread up to three meters and if the person sneezes, the spread distance can be up to seven meters. But using a face mask, the risk of spreading the infection decreases significantly.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/gaetanosardina_jpg.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:200px" /><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“If you wear a surgical mask or an FFP2 mask*, the risk of infection is reduced to such an extent that it is </span><span style="background-color:initial">practically negligible – even if you’re only standing one meter away from an infected person,” explains Gaetano Sardina, Associate Professor of Fluid Mechanics at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers University of Technology, who is one of the researchers behind the study.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the study, published in the &quot;Journal of the Royal Society Interface&quot;, the researchers tested the new model using data from recent numerical experiments on droplet emissions. This allowed them to take several factors into account and quantify the risk of infection, with and without a face mask.<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Size a factor in droplet behavior </h2> <div>Viruses, such as SARS-COV-2, are spread from an infected individual to other susceptible individuals through virus-filled droplets that are released when talking, coughing, or sneezing. Droplets emitted from the salivary glands are sprayed out through the exhaled air. Once out of the mouth, these drops can either evaporate, settle or remain floating. Larger and heavier droplets tend to fall in a ballistic motion before evaporating, while smaller droplets behave like aerosols that spray and remain airborne. <br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/Droplet%20behaviour.png" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:400px;height:279px" /><br /><br /><br /></div> <div>The results show that a surgical face mask and, to an even greater extent, an FFP2 mask provide excellent protection that significantly reduces the risk of infection. Provided that the face mask is worn correctly, the risk of infection is negligible even at distances as short as one meter, regardless of environmental conditions and if the person is talking, coughing or sneezing. <br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Next step – a study on airborne spread </h2> <div>With this study complete, the research team is now already working on a new study aiming to explore the airborne spread of the disease. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The published study addresses direct droplet transmission of Covid – another important transmission path is the indirect and airborne route in poorly ventilated rooms. We are currently working on this aspect and our preliminary results show the effectiveness of face masks is also preventing the airborne spread of the disease”, says Gaetano Sardina.<br /><br /></div> <div>The international study was led by the University of Padua, Italy, and conducted in collaboration with Chalmers University of Technology, the University of Udine, Italy, and the University of Vienna, Austria.<br /><br /></div> <div>Read the study <a href="">Modelling the direct virus exposure risk associated with respiratory events ​</a>published in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface.<br /><br /></div> <div>*​FFP stands for “filtering face piece” and is a European standard for mask efficiency, ranging from 1, the lowest grade, to 3, the highest. These disposable masks have several layers of different fabrics, including a polypropylene filter, that can trap the even the smallest airborne particles. ​<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>For more information, contact: </strong></div> <div>Gaetano Sardina<span style="white-space:pre"> </span></div> <div>Associate Professor, Division of Fluid Dynamics, Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden</div> <div></div> <div>+46 31 772 1417</div> ​<div>Text: Lovisa Håkansson and Mia Halleröd Palmgren</div>Fri, 04 Mar 2022 07:00:00 +0100"I want to make as many people as possible interested in engineering"<p><b>​She’s searching for a career in which you get to solve problems using technique and where you’re only limited by your own imagination. Her internship at Combustion and Propulsion Systems at the Department of Mechanics  and Maritime Sciences and  has only been running for a few weeks, but to &quot;Tekniksprångaren&quot; Lena Lang it's already obvious that she’s on the right track. Now, she wants to showcase her working day life on Instagram as a way to make others interested in the engineering profession and in research that makes a difference for real.  </b></p><strong>​</strong><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Hi Lena! And welcome to the department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences! Would you mind giving us a brief resumé of your background?<br /></strong></span><div>&quot;I studied natural science in high school and have always been interested in mathematics and problem solving! Becoming an engineer was never a clear choice to me. I went through phases where I wanted to study medicine, law, pharmacy etc. Things that were “normal” to dream of. I eventually fell for the engineering profession and realized that this was precisely what I was looking for. A profession where I get to solve problems with technology and where my fantasy is the only thing that limits me.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>How come you applied for Tekniksprånget? And more specifically to Combustion and Propulsion Systems at Mechanics and Maritime Sciences?</strong></div> <div>&quot;I applied for the Tech leap (Tekniksprånget), because I wanted to learn new things and get out of my comfort zone. I had zero knowledge of combustion engines before I came here. I think it’s very good to try something completely new because then you can only learn about new things and see other perspectives. On the first week a whole new world opened up for me. Also, I believed that the job-description matched me well because I love to do things where I’m allowed to be creative and do the things I love, educate people!&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What’s it been like so far? What have you been up to?</strong></div> <div>&quot;So far, I’ve been in the lab with the researchers when they do their experiments. I also got the chance to attend a class where we had to disassemble an engine and rebuild it. Already in the first week I got to watch a doctoral thesis defense (Congratulations Jayesh!) which was super interesting and impressive. Otherwise, I’ve mostly been working with social media, tried to create a social media presence for CaPS, especially on Instagram, follow it to see what I’ve been doing in detail! @caps.chalmers.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>I know that you’re really into graphic design and social media – in what ways will that become apparent to the rest of us?</strong></div> <div>&quot;Some of the people I’ve been talking to a lot have probably already noticed. I record and take pictures of almost everything I see! Some already follow the Instagram account that I made the first week. There I design all the posts and do some planning to make it look good whenever a new post comes up. I’ve always been pretty aesthetic, from things like having a good Instagram feed, my assignments, notes and all the presentations that I have had all the way throughout middle school and high school I have actually put time and effort into for it to look good. It’s my hobby! So if anyone needs help with anything relevant I will gladly help! It can be a presentation, a post or a video! Anything! If you instead just want something said or be part of a short video and present yourself and your research, just tell me and I’ll be on my way!&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What are you looking forward to most during your internship here at Chalmers?</strong></div> <div>&quot;I mostly look forward to try and learn new things, meet new people, but above all, to make as many people as possible interested in engineering and research that make a difference. I haven’t seen a lot of experiments in the spray lab yet because it takes a while to prepare, but I would love to see it when it happens and of course I will share it with everybody! Lasers are incredibly cool. As I said, I love problem solving. When I have time I would gladly sit down and try MATLAB for example, a tool that a lot of people use for their projects here.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>And how about future prospect? Any plans?</strong></div> <div>&quot;I want to keep studying! It will probably be Computer Science or Engineering Mathematics here at Chalmers. No matter how my path looks like, my dream is to have a job where I can wake up, go to and feel like: “Wow, I love this, and I’m making a difference.” I don’t want to stop learning or educating people. As long as it goes well, I’m going to do everything to give back to the people that need help.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial"><span></span><strong>Thank you, Lena! Hope you'll have a great internship here with us! ​<br /><br /></strong></span>Text: Lovisa Håkansson<span style="background-color:initial"><strong><br /></strong></span>Mon, 21 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0100 a sustainable hydrogen economy of tomorrow<p><b>​“Getting a node for vehicle research and hydrogen with its main focus in the western part of Sweden is fantastic. And it’s of course also great that we’ll now get a center that focuses on collaboration between different modes of transport,” says Tomas Grönstedt, coordinator of the competence center TechforH2, which now receives almost SEK 54 million from the Swedish Energy Agency in order to develop new technology in hydrogen propulsion as a step towards conversion to fossil freedom.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">It was just before Christmas that the Swedish Energy Agency announced their large investments in centers that research sustainable energy systems. A total of SEK 600 million is to be distributed in grants to eleven different competence centers, of which more than half are based at Chalmers - as the main applicant in four cases and co-applicants in two. The centers’ overall purpose is to build knowledge and competence that accelerates the transition away from the fossil society and strengthens Sweden's competitiveness.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>One of the competence centers that receives grants from the Swedish Energy Agency is TechForH2 at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Studies, which receives almost SEK 54 million to develop new technology and innovations for the integration of hydrogen propulsion focused on heavier transports. The center's total budget, including funding from the industry and Chalmers, amounts to almost SEK 162 million over a five-year period in a first stage, with the possibility of extension for another five years.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Getting a node for vehicle research and hydrogen with its main focus in the western part of Sweden is fantastic. And it’s of course also great that we’ll now get a center that focuses on collaboration between different modes of transport. Personally, I’ve always enjoyed networking and seeking collaborations within the academy, it will be fun to be able to do this wholeheartedly,” says Tomas Grönstedt, professor of fluid dynamics at the Department of Mechanic and Maritime Studies and coordinator for TechForH2.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Hydrogen - for a fossil-free Sweden</h2> <div>To achieve Sweden's goal of zero net greenhouse gas emissions by 2045, a fossil-free transport system and renewable fuels are an absolute must. The focus so far has been mainly on the importance of electrification, especially in the automotive industry. But for heavier vehicles and trucks, which account for 30% of the transport system's total carbon dioxide emissions, electrification is somewhat trickier as it would entail a very large number of batteries to drive such heavy vehicles, which in turn comes with consequences in terms of weight, space and costs.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Subsequently, there has been a need for research that develops new technical solutions that reduce greenhouse gases and harmful emissions, that aren’t dependent on fossil energy sources, and that, at the same time, answers to the needs of the truck industry and other industries that depend on heavy transport, such as aviation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>With the Swedish Energy Agency's major investment in TechForH2, the hope is now to be able to contribute to knowledge building and education in the area, accelerate the introduction of new technology and thereby contribute to the transition to fossil freedom. More specifically, TechForH2's focus areas will include composites and lightweight structures for vehicle-integrated hydrogen storage and the manufacture and post treatment of metallic materials for, among other things, hydrogen use and sensors. Additionally, the center will further research on fuel cells and vehicle integration and technology/instruments and innovations in a future hydrogen society.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">New recruitments on the way</h2> <div>TechForH2 is coordinated and led by Chalmers, which owns the center together with RISE. A number of industry partners are also involved in the centre's activities; Volvo, Scania, PowerCell, JohnsonMatthey, Oxeon, GKN Aerospace, Insplorion, Siemens Energy and Stena.<span style="background-color:initial">The</span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"> Swedish Energy Agency's investment in TechForH2 means that it's now facing a staff expansion. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div> “With this funding, we’ll be able to recruit nine new PhD students. In addition, the Transport Area of Advance is contributing with a number of post-docs specialized in hydrogen use to co-finance Chalmers' operations, while partners from the industry contribute with their own operations to the same extent,” says Tomas Grönstedt.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>For more info about TechForH2, please contact <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/tomas-gronstedt.aspx">Tomas Grönstedt​</a>, coordinator of TechForH2</div> ​<br />Text: Lovisa Håkansson</div>Wed, 26 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0100 major investment in marine research<p><b>​Chalmers, University of Gothenburg, IVL Swedish Environmental Institute, KTH and RISE have joined forces to invest in and operate the Kristineberg marine research station under the name Kristineberg Center for Marine Research and Innovation. The goal of the new agreement is for Kristineberg Center to become one of Europe's leading marine research and innovation environments.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">“Kristineberg is an important infrastructure for Chalmers. Together with our partners, we ensure that Kristineberg Center continues to be a leading infrastructure for research linked to the global challenge of sustainable seas and coasts. Chalmers research can make a big difference and benefit through technology development in marine application areas,” says the President of Chalmers, Stefan Bengtsson.<br /><br /></span><div>At Kristineberg, a range of projects are already being conducted in a number of marine areas. Some of them include developing new materials and foods from the sea. Others relate to the impact of the climate on marine life and include both underwater robots and digital technology.<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Strengthened resources for marine research and innovation</h2> <div>Through the new agreement, the parties will together develop the research and innovation environment based on the needs of society and in harmony with other environments.</div> <div>Kristineberg Center will offer research infrastructure, test and demonstration facilities and laboratories as well as opportunities for meetings, training and workplaces. The center will be an open and inclusive marine research and innovation environment for academia, education, companies, authorities, organizations and individuals. The idea is that the mutual influence breeds ideas, new knowledge and new collaborations.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Erik Ytreberg is a senior researcher in Maritime Environmental Sciences at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences. Over the years, his and his research colleagues' involvement at Kristineberg's center has mainly focused on studying the effects of boat bottom paints and so-called scrubber water, ie water from washing ship exhaust fumes, on the marine environment. And Erik was more than pleased as he received the news about the increased investment in the center. <br /><br /></div> <div>“Kristineberg and its infrastructure have been central to our work and have enabled unique long-term studies on, for example, the effectiveness and environmental impact of antifouling paints, as well as ecotoxicological studies on the effects of scrubber water on the marine environment. The new agreement is important to our work and will facilitate continued research projects and collaborations,” says Erik Ytreberg.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>At Kristineberg there are also research projects, which involve researchers at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering at Chalmers. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“Kristineberg Center for marine</span><span style="background-color:initial"> research and innovation  is a very important node for the marine research carried out at the Division of Food and Nutrition Science. Kristineberg may become part of a future test bed to scale up various bioprocesses to pilot scale, but also, the network​ in itself is very valuable to us,” says Professor Ingrid Undeland.</span></div></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">To become a leader in Europe</h2> <div>The agreement between the parties runs for five years and the University of Gothenburg will host Kristineberg Center. The center is organized as a national research infrastructure where several parties collaborate on governance and planning - something that also enables the involvement of more public actors.<br /><br /></div> <div>“I have high hopes. The goal is for Kristineberg Center to become one of Europe's leading marine research and innovation environments,” says Eva Wiberg, the Vice Chancellor of the University of Gothenburg.<br /><br /></div> <div>The center will also contribute to strengthening the development of a sustainable blue economy and increase Swedish attractiveness and competitiveness.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Contact</h3> <div>Bo Norrman, Innovation Advisor at Chalmers Innovation Office, +46 70 3710949</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">About Kristineberg</h3> <div>Kristineberg is located in Fiskebäckskil in Lysekil municipality and is one of the world's oldest marine research stations founded in 1877 under the name Kristineberg's zoo station on the initiative of Sven Lovén. Previously, the station was run by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences and has for the past ten years been part of the University of Gothenburg's marine infrastructure. Since its inception, the station has been an international hub for marine research.​</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Karin Wik and Lovisa Håkansson</div> Wed, 19 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0100 from the Swedish Energy Agency to Chalmers centers<p><b>​When the Swedish Energy Agency distributes SEK 600 million to eleven different competence centers for sustainable energy systems, Chalmers is behind more than half of the centers that are granted funding. The centers will build knowledge and competence that accelerate the transition away from the fossil dependance and strengthen Sweden's competitiveness.</b></p><p>The grants go to a wide range of energy research: biogas, electromobility, electrical energy storage and balancing, hydrogen, sustainable hydropower, nuclear technology, sustainable turbine fuels, deciduous forest, resilient energy systems, catalytic and solar electricity. In addition, researchers in information and communication technology are also affected.</p> <p><br />By 2045, Sweden will have no net emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. As part of being able to implement the change, the Swedish Energy Agency announced research funds in 2020 and 2021 to finance the best competence center formations in Sweden in the energy area. The aim was to find competence centers that can create a long-term collaboration between business, the public sector and academia, and to conduct high-quality and needs-driven research. The interest was great and attracted 29 applications which, after examination and assessment, resulted in eleven centers that share SEK 600 million in grants.<br />Of those who were granted funding, Chalmers was the main applicant behind four, and the co-applicant for two. The direct grants to Chalmers amount to a total of SEK 239,355,500.</p> <p><br />The competence centers are long-term investments where demand-driven research will be conducted on electricity systems and bioenergy as well as transport, industrial processes and energy systems. They cover five years in a first stage, with the possibility of extension for another five years.</p> <p><br />The competence centers are a joint initiative where the Swedish Energy Agency's support of a total of almost SEK 600 million is met by corresponding thirds from higher education institutions and research institutes, and business and public organizations respectively. In total, the competence center investment means that approximately 150 doctoral students and junior researchers are trained in current issues, while at the same time almost 230 companies and other organizations increase their knowledge and competence.<br /><br />The centers led by Chalmers are:<br />Swedish Electromobility Center (E2)<br />Granted support: SEK 92,250,000<br />Coordinator: Linda Olofsson<br /><br />Swedish Center for Electricity Energy Storage and Balancing (E2)<br />Granted support: SEK 54,230,500<br />Coordinator: Massimo Bongiorno<br /><br />Technologies and innovations for future sustainable hydrogen economy (M2)<br />Amount granted: SEK 53,875,000<br />Coordinator: Tomas Grönstedt</p> <p>Read more about <a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/TechForH2---for-a-sustainable-hydrogen-economy-of-tomorrow.aspx">TechForH2 - for a sustainable hydrogen economy of tomorrow</a><br /><br />Competence Center Catalyst (K)<br />Amount granted: SEK 39,000,000<br />Coordinator: Magnus Skoglundh</p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">Read more about the <a href="/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Competence-centers-in-Catalysis-and-Nuclear-technology-receive-support.aspx" target="_blank">Competence centers in Catalyst and Nuclear technology​</a></span><br /></p> <p><br />In addition, Chalmers is a co-applicant to:<br />Swedish center for sustainable hydropower<br />Academic-Industrial nuclear initiative for future sustainable energy supply<br /><br /></p>Tue, 21 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 masks prevent the spreading of particles<p><b>​How do face masks prevent the spreading of liquid particles when we breathe and talk with and without face masks? The corona pandemic has made the question of how well mouth protection prevents the spread of infection highly topical. Now, new research is presented by a group of researchers in fluid dynamics from Chalmers University of Technology, Luleå University of Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Lund University, Faculty of Engineering LTH. The results are presented to the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Research Council during a press conference on Wednesday. </b></p><div>​<span style="background-color:initial">&quot;Face masks hinder the spreading of liquid droplets. Our experiments show that the large particles are well captured by face masks, while fewer numbers of smaller droplets leak out on the sides of face masks. Ventilation design is therefore of highest importance in public environments&quot;, says Staffan Lundström, Professor of Fluid Mechanics at Luleå University of Technology and project leader.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">The research started at the beginning of the covid-19 outbreak in Sweden</h2> <div> </div> <div>Since the beginning of 2020, this issue has been in focus for a group of researchers in the field of Fluid Mechanics in Sweden. Under the leadership of Luleå University of Technology in collaboration with Chalmers University of Technology, KTH, the Royal Institute of Technology, and Lund University of Technology, the effectiveness of face masks has been studied from various aspects within fluid dynamics.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The focus has been how well particles in our exhaled air are captured by the type face masks we use, in for example public transport and public environments, in order to prevent the spreading of covid-19. By compiling what is known from previous studies and carrying out new experiments and simulations, the researchers have aimed to improve knowledge about face masks and the spread of exhaled particles.</div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Paving the way for more efficient face masks</h2></div> <div> </div> <div>The new research results also enable the development of future face masks that have improved filtering qualities and that, at the same time, are easier to breathe through. <br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20210701-20211231/Srdjan%20Sasic%20NY.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:220px;height:194px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;O</span><span style="background-color:initial">ur modelling and simulations provide design guidelines to producers of face masks on how to make a balance between having a high degree of mask efficiency and comfort for users, i.e. breathability&quot;, says Srdjan Sasic, professor of Fluid Dynamics at Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers University of Technology. </span><br /></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Significantly reducing the social distancing </h2> <div> </div> <div>As part of the study, simulations have been carried out that show that without face masks, the social distancing of 1 meter is not safe, while a distance of 1.5 meter is more justified. Face masks can not only filter out a majority of the droplets, but they can significantly reduce the safe social distancing.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;There is no doubt that face masks can significantly reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 vrius. Our CFD simulations indicate that the safe social distance can be significantly reduced to one third of that without a face mask&quot;, says Xue-Song Bai, professor in fluid mechanics at LTH, Lund University, Faculty of Engineering. </div> <div> </div> <div><br />The research is based on close collaboration between the research groups in the field. Some results are scientifically published, others are not yet published.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Brief description of research results presented to the Public Health Agency of Sweden and the Swedish Research Council: </h3> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"> </h3> <div><strong>Chalmers University of Technology, (Srdjan Sasic, Professor of Fluid Mechanics) </strong></div> <div> </div> <div>The mechanisms for filtering liquid droplets (10-50 micrometers) in fibrous microstructures of face masks have been investigated using the so-called LBM method. Dynamics, collection and coalescence of droplets of sizes comparable to the fiber and pore sizes relevant to mask materials are studied during a range of respiratory events (breathing, coughing). A non-Newtonian behavior of saliva is also taken into account. <br /><strong>The results:</strong> A novel model is formulated for droplet penetration length and permeability in face mask microstructures, given the fiber size and porosity. Based on this, face masks can be developed so that they filter even better and become easier to breathe through.<br /><br /></div> <div><strong> </strong></div> <div><strong>Luleå University of Technology (Staffan Lundström, professor of fluid mechanics, Mikael Sjödahl, professor of experimental mechanics)<br /></strong>Model experiments have been carried out to quantify the number of particles transmitted with the flow, with and without face masks. Each mask is tested with and without side leakage. The tested masks include both homemade fabrics and masks that you can purchase at a pharmacy. <br /><strong>The results: </strong>The results show that the filtration efficiency is, in general, good for the tested masks in the fully sealed case. Unsurprisingly, the masks from the pharmacy performed better than the homemade fabrics. In the presence of leakage, the larger particles are removed from the flow due to inertia. However, as particle size decreases, the filtration efficiency rapidly decreases.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>KTH, Royal Institute of Technology (Ramis Örlü, Associate Professor of Fluid Mechanics) </strong></div> <div> </div> <div>We investigate experimentally the fluid dynamics of outward protection from face masks by analysing qualitatively and quantitatively the leakage and throughflow jets at the interface of mask and face. The investigation is performed by high-speed imaging and Schlieren shadowgraphy under pulsed conditions aiming at simulating speaking and sneezing conditions. The test liquids are water and artificial saliva. <br /><strong>The results:</strong> Surgical masks are found to be excellent for frontal filtration in agreement with previous studies. Cotton based masks should be discouraged. Strong leakage and through-flow jets are escaping at the interface of face and mask at the top/nose and side/cheeks. Saturated masks had negligible effect on performance. Further studies are needed to assess whether masks should be (re)used for ecological/economical/environmental reasons.<br /></div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;Our experiments with artificial saliva under pulsed conditions simulating speech and sneezing conditions show that face masks are – as known – excellent for frontal filtration of flow and particles. However, the leakage flow makes the usage a complex ventilation problem when considering masks in a societal context&quot;, says Ramis Örlü. <br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Lund University, Faculty of Engineering LTH (Xue-Song Bai, professor of fluid mechanics). </strong></div> <div> </div> <div>Advanced numerical simulations have been performed to study the spread of large droplets and aerosol flow using so-called large eddy simulations. The turbulent flow is described using Navier-Stokes equations and the droplet motion is simulated using a particle tracking equation.The droplets break up and evaporate during the spreading process and they are affected by gravity. <br /><strong>The results: </strong>A face mask model for numerical simulation of transport of droplets/aerosol particles through face masks has been developed based on the experiments performed. The model has been used to predict the transport of droplets/aerosol particles in different environments. The simulations show that without face masks, the social distancing of 1 m is not safe, while a distance of 1.5 m is more justified. Face masks can not only filter out a majority of the droplets but they can significantly reduce the safe social distancing. The leak through the slit between the mask and the face is the main source of droplet discharge when coughing with face masks.</div> <div> </div> <div>Transport of liquid droplets and aerosol particles in an elevator is studied under different air ventilation conditions. It turns out that the transport of small droplets and aerosol particles is significantly affected by the ventilation. It is noted that large droplets tend to fall to the ground within 1.5 m whereas small droplets and aerosol particles can spread throughout the elevator depending on the ventilation conditions.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Katarina Karlsson, Luleå University of Technology and Lovisa Håkansson, Chalmers </div>Wed, 15 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0100 between Volvo Group and Chalmers has been renewed<p><b>​Chalmers and Volvo Group have renewed their partner agreement for another three years. Electrification and hydrogen, automation, digitalization, traffic safety and circularity are areas that will be in focus during the period.</b></p><div>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/350x305/Signering_Volvo_211129_350x305px.jpg" alt="Photo of Lars Stenqvist and Stefan Bengtsson" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />The agreement was signed on 29th November by Lars Stenqvist, Executive Vice President at Volvo Group Trucks Technology, and Stefan Bengtsson, President and CEO at Chalmers.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Volvo Group is one of Chalmers’ most important partners”, says Stefan Bengtsson. “The agreement means a continuation of our extensive collaboration, which has been including both research, education and utilisation for a long time. This strategic partnership provides contact with relevant issues, contributes to our utilisation and makes Chalmers better in many ways.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Rapid transformation within the transport industry</h2> <div>The transport industry is in the middle of a very rapid transformation, where electrification, automation and digitization are important parts.</div> <div> </div> <div>“To manage this, we need more research, more trained engineers within these areas and a constant competence development among our employees” says Lars Stenqvist. “The collaboration with Chalmers is therefore more important than ever within all these areas.”</div> <div> </div> <div>The first strategic partnership agreement between Volvo Group and Chalmers started in 2009. Since then, it has been renewed periodically.</div> <div> </div> <div>“For us, the partnership means, among other things, that we have greater access to researchers”, says Lars Stenqvist. “It also means that we can actively take part in the design of education, to ensure the supply of competence in the form of both new recruitments and further learning.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">From student projects to major international research initiatives</h2> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_puffbilder/SinisaKrajnovic_350x305.jpg" alt="Photo of Sinisa Krajnovic" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />Like before, the Transport Area of Advance is hosting the partnership.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Chalmers and Volvo Group have a long history of successful collaboration, including everything from student projects and doctoral projects to major national and international research initiatives”, says Sinisa Krajnovic, Director of Transport Area of Advance.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>”One example is the student projects that Chalmers, Volvo Group and prominent universities abroad have carried out together for several years. Another example is the research collaborations that we and other Swedish actors have with partners in India and China.”</div> <div> </div> <div>“We will now continue to strengthen our collaboration within competence centers, use of our joint research infrastructure and research projects, within Horizon Europe for example. There is great common potential in areas such as traffic safety, electrification, research on hydrogen vehicles and circularity”, says Sinisa Krajnovic.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Johanna Wilde</div> <div><strong>Photo of the signing:</strong> Mikael Terfors</div> Mon, 06 Dec 2021 17:00:00 +0100 part of unique automated driving test<p><b>​How do we make sure that the human is a reliable fallback and can promptly, safely, and efficiently take back the driving task from automated driving? That’s the key question as Chalmers, together with over 30 stakeholders from academia and industry, now present their findings from Europe’s first comprehensive pilot test of automated driving on public roads. The result is believed to help speed up and harmonize the development of automated driving systems in the future. ​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The European research project <strong>L3Pilot,</strong> led by Volkswagen and co-funded by the European Commission, has run from 2017 to 2021 with stakeholders from the whole value chain: car manufacturers, suppliers, academia, research institutes, infrastructure and governmental agencies, user groups and the insurance sector. The four-year project will now come to its successful end with performing its Final Event in conjunction with the ITS World Congress in Hamburg 2021 on October 11-15. <br /><br /></span><div>Present at the ITS World Congress are Chalmers researchers from Vehicle Safety at the department of Mechanics and Maritime Studies – <strong>Marco Dozza, Linda Pipkorn, Pierluigi Olleja, along with SAFER representative Erik Svanberg </strong>- to show-case their research findings, which once started with the quest to find out how to optimize safety in automated driving: </div> <div><br /><strong>“We all want full automation, </strong>that is, a vehicle that pick us up and takes us places without us having to think<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20210701-20211231/Marco%20Dozza.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 10px" /><br />about driving. But tech is not there yet and there will be a transition phase with partial automation. That means humans and vehicles need to help each other and take turns in the driving task. The most relevant scenario is when a vehicle needs help from the human to sort out a critical situation that may lead to a crash. In such case, the research question is “how do we make sure that the human is a reliable fallback and can promptly, safely, and efficiently take back the driving task?” <span style="background-color:initial">In our research, we tackled this question by exposing drivers to critical situations, where they need to take over control, and see how they do it. In this way, we can design vehicles that help the driver to efficiently coming back to the driving task rather than setting unreasonable expectations on human beings,” says Marco Dozza, professor at Vehicle Safety at the department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers. <br /></span><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br />Europe’s first comprehensive pilot test on public roads </span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>The project is the first comprehensive pilot test of automated driving on public roads in Europe, which makes it unique in its kind. Fourteen partners focused on testing automated driving functions in normal motorway driving, traffic jams, urban driving and parking. The pilots, running from April 2019 until February 2021, involved six countries besides Sweden: Belgium, Germany, France, Italy, Luxemburg and the United Kingdom and included two cross-border activities between Germany and Luxemburg as well as Germany, Belgium and the United Kingdom. <br /><br /></div> <div><strong>The project equipped 70 vehicles</strong> and the test fleet comprised 13 different vehicle brands, from a passenger car to a SUV. More than 400,000 kilometers were driven on motorways including 200,000 kilometers in an automated mode and 200,000 km in a manual mode as a baseline for comparison of the user experience and evaluation of the impacts. More than 24,000 km were travelled in the automated mode in urban traffic. With the aim to put the focus on the user experience of automated driving functions, over 1,000 persons participated in piloting and complementary virtual environment tests. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We’re proud about the high number of advanced studies, with a real vehicle on test track and public roads, that we managed to perform within this project, especially given the pandemic. All of these studies advanced our understanding of how drivers behave - how they act and where they look - when transitioning from automated driving to manual in response to take-over requests,” says Linda Pipkorn, PhD student at Vehicle Safety at the department of Mechanics and Maritime Studies at Chalmers. </div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Unique data collection to enhance safety in automated driving</h3></div> <div>One of the major achievements of L3Pilot is establishing a Code of Practice for the development of Automated Driving Functions (CoP-ADF). It provides comprehensive guidelines for supporting the design, development, verification and validation of automated driving technologies.<br /> </div> <div>The four-year project has also involved a considerable collection of valuable data based on the research findings on how pilot participants reacted when going from automated to manual driving in real traffic scenarios. The data will in the next step enable virtual testing to further enhance safety in automated driving. </div> <div><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20210701-20211231/lindapipkorn.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px 10px" /><strong>“We found out that, in real traffic,</strong> drivers are able to transition control from automation to manual in response to a take-over request. The transition should be considered as a process of actions - look to instrument cluster, putting hands on wheel, look forward, deactivate automation - that requires a certain amount of time: up to 10 s in real traffic. Our research also showed that, in real traffic, drivers’ visual attention towards the forward road return to similar levels as in manual driving 15 s after a take-over request. In response to take-over requests, drivers may look away from the road towards the instrument cluster rather than to the road. This means that, designing safe automated driving functions requires take-over requests to be issued in all situations that require driver input. In addition, it is important for the automated driving function to be responsible for safe driving at least up to the moment of the automation deactivation but preferably also some time after,” says Linda Pipkorn.  <br /><br /></div> <div>As a part of the L3 pilot project, PhD student Linda Pipkorn carried out a study on a public road in Gothenburg (E6) together with Volvo Cars, in Gothenburg (E6) aiming to find out how the drivers’ gaze behavior changed when going from driving with automation to driving manually again. </div> <div><br />“It turned out that, paradoxically, a take-over request, i.e., the signal from the car that the driver needs to take control can contribute to the drivers looking away from the road rather than looking at the road, which from a traffic safety point of view is not optimal,” Linda explains. </div> <div><br />Her work received <strong>the Honda Outstanding Student Paper Award</strong> <strong>at the 2021 Driving Assessment Conference</strong>, an achievement that Linda herself believes can be explained by the project’s unique design: <br /><br /></div> <div>“I believe that an important factor is that our results are based on data collected on public roads, with a real car and a realistic human-machine interface, which is relatively rare in our research area as tests in a simulated environment are more common. Data collected in a realistic environment is important to be able to draw conclusions that are in line with how the systems will be used in real scenarios in the future,” says Linda Pipkorn. </div> <div><br /><strong>L3Pilot is now believed to pave the way</strong> for scaled-up driving tests with automated series vehicles in real-life traffic. Together with 40 partners – OEM:s, automotive suppliers, research institutes, traffic engineering and deployment companies – Chalmers researchers have already started working on the project <a href="">Hi-Drive</a> with the main objective to extend the data collection across EU borders in variable traffic, weather and visibility conditions. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Lovisa Håkansson<br /><br /></div> <div><strong>L3Pilot facts:  </strong></div> <div>L3Pilot is an Innovation Action, co-funded by the European Union under the Horizon 2020 programme with the contract number 723051.<br /></div> <div>34 organizations have committed to scientifically test and assess the impact of automated driving systems on driver comfort, safety and traffic efficiency as part of the project.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Twitter:</strong> _L3Pilot_</div> <div><strong>LinkedIn:</strong> L3Pilot </div> <div><strong>Duration: </strong>50 months, 1 September 2017 – 31 October 2021 </div> <div><strong>Total cost:</strong> €68 million</div> <div><strong>EC contribution:</strong> €36 million </div> <div><strong>Coordinator:</strong> Volkswagen AG</div> <div><strong>Partners: </strong></div> <div><strong>Automotive manufacturers:</strong> Volkswagen AG, AUDI AG, BMW Group, Stellantis | Centro Ricerche Fiat SCPA, Ford, Honda R&amp;D Europe, Jaguar Land Rover, Mercedes-Benz AG, Adam Opel AG, Stellantis, Renault, Toyota Motor Europe, Volvo Car Corporation </div> <div><strong>Suppliers:</strong> Aptiv, FEV GmbH, Veoneer Sweden </div> <div><strong>Research:</strong> German Aerospace Center DLR; ika RWTH Aachen University; VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland; Chalmers University of Technology; SNF – Centre for Applied Research at NHH; University of Leeds; Institute of Communication and Computer Systems ICCS; Würzburg Institute for Traffic Sciences WIVW; University of Genoa; TNO – Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research; WMG, University of Warwick; European Center for Information and Communication Technologies – EICT GmbH </div> <div><strong>Authorities:</strong> Federal Highway Research Institute BASt; The Netherlands Vehicle Authority RDW User </div> <div><strong>Groups:</strong> Federation Internationale de l’Automobile FIA Insurers: AZT Automotive GmbH, Swiss Reinsurance Company SMEs: ADAS Management Consulting</div>Thu, 14 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200’m-learning-1000-new-things-every-day.aspx"I’m learning 1000 new things every day"<p><b>​She went into her internship at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences with an ambition to try to see and learn as much as possible. A plan that soon would pay off. “I’m learning computer programming, I’ve built a computer and I get to sit in on meetings about research projects that my supervisor is working with,” says Tekniksprångaren Millie Skoglund who’s doing her internship at Vehicle Technology and Autonomous systems this fall.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Last one in line in our interview series with this fall’s “Tekniksprångare” is Millie Skoglund. She started her internship at Vehicle Technology and Autonomous Systems ​at the end of August after having graduated from the science program specialized in nature at Elof Lindälvs gymnasiet in Kungsbacka. The paid internship has been made possible through Tekniksprånget, an initiative launched by the government and Sweden's employers in order to secure the future supply of skills by attracting more young people to higher technical education.</span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>Hi Millie! How come you wanted to apply to “Tekniksprånget?”</strong></div> <div>“It felt right considering that I chose the science program in high school and definitely think that I’m on the right track academically, even though there are so many different things you can do within this field. So, when I heard about “Tekniksprånget,” it felt like a fantastic opportunity to actually get to try out at least one of the paths that I could potentially go for later on, in order to see if it’s my cup of tea, and if not, at least it would be a fun and exciting experience.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>So, how has it been so far? What have you been up to?</strong></div> <div>“So far, everything has been great and so incredibly exciting! I’m learning so many incredible things every day. You usually say that you learn something new every day, but right now I’m learning about 1000 new things every day, which is great fun. So far, I’ve been introduced to the division and to lots of the people working here. And I’ve gotten to do lots of other things, for example, right now I’m learning computer programming, and I’ve built a computer, and I’ve taken part as students have programmed “Kiwi cars”. I also get to sit in on meetings about research projects that my supervisor Ola is working with. Right now, I’m still partly involved with the introduction to programming, but I’m also getting more and more involved in the various research projects that I’ve previously only listened to, which is great fun.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What’s the one thing you’re mostly looking forward to do here at Chalmers?</strong></div> <div>“I’m actually looking forward to participate and test as many different things as possible and get to meet lots of new people, in order to get a bigger picture of what I could do in the future. I think the most fun thing about being here is that you get to see and learn about so many incredible new things every day and that is what I look forward to most, to be able to continue to do just that throughout this fall. And perhaps even more so, I look forward to participating in more tests/experiments/demos that are carried out in the various research projects.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong> What are your future prospects? What do you want to do next?</strong></div> <div>“All I know at the moment is that I’d like to start studying next fall, but I don’t know what and where. I think this will help me decide what I want to study in the future.”</div> <div><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial"><span></span><strong>Thank you, Millie, hope you'll have a great internship at M2!<br /><br /></strong></span>Text: Lovisa Håkansson<span style="background-color:initial"><strong><br /></strong></span>Thu, 30 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200"Tekniksprånget was a way to figure out what I want to work with in the future"<p><b>​With a love for computer programming, Sandra Carlsson sees great opportunities to thrive during her internship at M2. “During my IT studies, I got really interested in programming and computers, which makes this internship perfect for me. That way, I get to learn a lot about neighboring fields as well as what it is like to work as an engineer and researcher,” says Tekniksprångaren Sandra Carlsson, who’s doing her internship at Revere and VEAS this fall.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Next in line in the interview series with this autumn's “Tekniksprångare” at M2 is Sandra Carlsson. After graduating from the technology program specialized in IT at Ålebergsgymnasiet in Falköping, she started her internship at Revere and Vehicle Engineering and Autonomous Systems at the department of Mechanics and Maritime Studies in mid-August. The paid internship has been made possible through Tekniksprånget, an initiative launched by the government and employers in Sweden to secure the future supply of skills by attracting more young people to higher technical education.</span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>Hi Sandra! How come you wanted to apply for “Tekniksprånget”?</strong></div> <div>“When the time came to start thinking about what I would do after high school, I didn’t know at all what I wanted to do. I knew I wanted to study, but I still didn’t know exactly what. So, I chose to apply for Tekniksprånget as something to do during a sabbatical year, but also as a way to find out what I want to work with in the future. And luckily, I got this opportunity and started my internship on August 16th.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>How has it been &quot;so far&quot;? What have you been up to?</strong></div> <div>“Being at Revere and VEAS has been really interesting and educational so far. We’ve had the opportunity to take part in the work there and, in some cases, even had the chance to get involved in various courses and projects. The project we’ll be involved in the most is about a boat called Seacat, and I’m really looking forward to learning so much more about how it works and be part of the development process.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What are you most looking forward to doing here at Chalmers?</strong></div> <div>“During my IT studies, I got really interested in programming and computers, which makes this internship perfect for me. That way, I get to learn a lot about neighboring fields as well as what it is like to work as an engineer and researcher.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>So, what are your future prospects in the long run?</strong></div> <div>“As I said, I’ve known for a long time that I want to keep on studying, but I don’t know what. So hopefully, with the help of this internship, I’ll get some clarity on what I want to study and what to do next fall.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span></span><strong>Thanks Sandra! Hope you’ll have a fun and inspiring internship at M2!  <br /><br /></strong>Text: Lovisa Håkansson<strong><br /></strong></div> Thu, 23 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200's-largest-open-dataset-for-the-development-of-self-driving-vehicles-launched-.aspx's-largest-open-dataset-for-the-development-of-self-driving-vehicles-launched-.aspxWorld-unique dataset for self-driving vehicles <p><b>​Self-driving vehicles such as cars, ships and drones offer the potential for reduced costs, lower environmental impacts and fewer accidents. Now, a new open dataset from researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, sets a new standard for evaluating the algorithms of such vehicles, and the development of autonomous transport systems on roads, water and in the air.</b></p><div>​For self-driving vehicles to work, they need to interpret and understand their surroundings. To achieve this, they use cameras, sensors, radar and other equipment, to ‘see’ their environment. This form of artificial perception allows them to adapt their speed and steering, in a way similar to how human drivers react to changing conditions in their surroundings. In recent years, researchers and companies around the world have competed over which software algorithms provide the best artificial perception. To help, they use huge datasets which contain recorded sequences from traffic environments and other situations. These datasets are used to verify that the algorithms work as well as possible and that they are interpreting situations correctly.<br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Open data for researchers and specialists</h3> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Now, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, is launching a new open dataset called Reeds, in collaboration with the University of Gothenburg, RISE (Research Institutes of Sweden), and the Swedish Maritime Administration, which is now available to researchers and industry worldwide.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="">The Reeds dataset and more information can be found here.</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The dataset provides recorded surroundings of the test vehicle of the highest quality and accuracy. In order to create the most challenging conditions possible – and thus increase the complexity of the software algorithms – the researchers chose to use a boat, where movements relative to the surroundings are more complex than for vehicles on land. This means that Reeds is the first marine dataset of this type.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Ola Benderius, Associate Professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers University of Technology, is leading the project. He hopes the dataset will represent a breakthrough for more accurate verification to increase the quality of artificial perception.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;The goal is to set a standard for development and evaluation of tomorrow's fully autonomous systems. With Reeds, we are creating a dataset of the highest possible quality, that offers great social benefit and safer systems.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The dataset has been developed using an advanced research boat that travels predetermined routes around western Sweden, under different weather and light conditions. The tours will continue for another three years and the dataset will thus grow over time. The boat is equipped with highly advanced cameras, laser scanners, radar, motion sensors and positioning systems, to create a comprehensive picture of the environment around the craft.<br /><br /><img src="/en/departments/m2/news/Documents/GNSS%20antennas%20(2).jpg" alt="GNSS antennas (2).jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px 10px;width:280px;height:297px" /><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">The highest technical standards to open doors to advanced AI </span> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The camera system on the boat contains the latest in camera technology, generating 6 gigabytes of image data per second. A 1.5-hour trip thus provides 16 terabytes of image data – significantly more than what has been presented so far in competing datasets. It also provides far better conditions for verification of artificial perception in the future. </span><br /></div> <div>“Our system is of a very high technical standard. It allows for a more detailed verification and comparison between different software algorithms for artificial perception – a crucial foundation for AI,” says Ola Benderius. </div> <div>During the project, Reeds has been tested and further developed by other researchers at Chalmers, as well as</div> <div>specially invited international researchers. They have worked with automatic recognition and classification of other vessels, measuring their own ship's movements based on camera data, 3D modeling of the environment and AI-based removal of water droplets from camera lenses. <br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Reeds contributes to both cooperation and competition</h3> <div>Reeds also provides the conditions for fair comparisons between different researchers' software algorithms. The researcher uploads their software to Reeds’ cloud service, where the evaluation of data and comparison with other groups’ software takes place completely automatically. The results of the comparisons are published openly, so anyone can see which researchers around the world have developed the best methods of artificial perception in different areas. This means that large amounts of raw data will gradually accumulate and the data will be analysed continuously and automatically in the cloud service. Reeds’ cloud service thus provides the conditions for both collaboration and competition between research groups,  meaning that over time artificial perception will increase in complexity for all types of self-driving systems.<br /><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about the research project</h3> <div>The project began in 2020 and has been run by Chalmers University of Technology in collaboration with the University of Gothenburg, Rise and the Swedish Maritime Administration. The Swedish Transport Administration is funding the project.</div> <div>In 2019, the researchers in the <a href="">Reeds project published an article describing how a high-quality dataset and a platform for evaluating algorithms could be realised.</a></div> <div> </div> <div>Read a <a href="">preprint of a forthcoming scientific article describing the technical logging platform and how data from Reeds can be used.​</a><br /><br />Listen to Reeds' project leader Ola Benderius talk about autonomous cars, boats, planes and drones and the need for a common dataset in the<a href=""> podcast The Peggy Smedley Show​</a>.<span style="background-color:initial">​ </span></div></div></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Text: Lovisa Håkansson</span></div>Mon, 20 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200’m-mostly-looking-forward-to-learning-more-about-the-transport-of-the-future.aspx"I’m mostly looking forward to learning more about the transport of the future"<p><b>​Meet “Tekniksprångaren” Jennifer Wassberg. With eyes set on a life within the academy, an internship at M2 felt like an excellent way to go. “I applied to Chalmers as I want to become a researcher and thought it would be cool to work with researchers - which it is,” says Jennifer who in addition to her efforts at Combustion and Propulsion Systems also works diligently to spread the department's research on social media.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">First in line in the interview series about this fall's “Tekniksprångare” at M2 is Jennifer Wassberg. She graduated last spring from the science program at Klara Teoretiska Gymnasium in Gothenburg, and in mid-August she started her internship at Combustion and Propulsion Systems with Lucien Koopmans as supervisor. The paid internship has been made possible through Tekniksprånget, an initiative launched by the government and employers in Sweden to secure the future supply of skills by attracting more young people to higher technical education.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Welcome to M2, Jennifer! Tell me, how come you chose to do your internship right here?</strong></div> <div>&quot;Thanks! In the months before graduation, there was a lot of talk about Tekniksprånget in my circle of friends and there was a lot of publicity about it at our school. Since I didn’t want to start studying at the university immediately, but felt like taking at least one sabbatical year, Tekniksprånget suited me perfectly. I applied to Chalmers as I want to become a researcher and thought it would be cool to work with researchers - which it is!&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Now, you’ve only been here a little over a month, but how has it been so far?</strong></div> <div>&quot;So far it has been super fun and interesting! I’ve learned a lot of new things and I’ve gotten to know a lot of new people. I’ve spent most of my time learning about the research that’s carried out here at Combustion and Propulsion Systems, as well as getting to know people and settle in a bit. I get to do a mixture of things here, which I think is great. Among other things, I get to take the course &quot;Introduction to propulsion and energy systems for transport&quot; as Lucien, my supervisor, is one of the lecturers. Furthermore, I get to help the lab engineers with less complex tasks as well as networking with other “Tekniksprångare” at Chalmers and at Volvo. I also try to spread information about the research that is carried out at Combustion and Propulsion Systems and at the department on social media. This week, I host Göteborg Energi's Instagram and next week I’ll be hosting Tekniksprånget's Instagram.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What are you most looking forward to do here at M2?</strong></div> <div>&quot;I’m mostly looking forward to learning more about the transport of the future and to help Lucien in an upcoming project. Also being able to assist in the technology competition is something I look forward to. What I feel most interested in is just getting to know what it is like to work as an engineer and researcher.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What are your future prospects? What do you want to do next?</strong></div> <div>&quot;In the future, I want to carry out research, preferably something in the line of genetic modification. Therefore, my plan is to study biotechnology here at Chalmers.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <span style="background-color:initial"><span></span><strong>Thanks Jennifer! Hope you'll enjoy a fun and inspiring internship!<br /><br /></strong></span>Text: Lovisa Håkansson<span style="background-color:initial"><strong><br /></strong></span>Thu, 16 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0200