News: Mechanics and Maritime Sciences Impact related to Chalmers University of TechnologyMon, 01 Jun 2020 10:12:48 +0200 saves Swedish water from oil leakage<p><b>​Some of the 30 most environmentally hazardous wrecks in Swedish water have been investigated and recovered on 360,000 litres of oil during 2017-2019. To prioritize among the wrecks and carry out oil recovery operations where they are most useful, the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (SwAM) has used the risk assessment tool VRAKA, which was developed by Chalmers.</b></p><p>​There are about 17 000 shipwrecks along the coasts of Sweden and the Swedish Maritime Administration, in collaboration with among others Chalmers and SwAM classified 300 of them as hazardous for the environment. About 30 of the shipwrecks pose an acute environmental threat. They contain large amounts of oil that may leak. Shipwrecks leaking oil pose risk to marine life in Swedish waters. Organisms living in the vicinity of the shipwreck are mainly affected but the oil can also spread to other areas with the water currents. </p> <p><br /></p> <p>SwAM has since 2016 had the responsibility to coordinate the investigations and the recovery of oil and ghost nets (old fishing gear that has remained in the sea and lakes that can continue to fish and catch birds, and other marine animals) from shipwrecks. With the help of Chalmers model, they have been able to prioritize among the wrecks. </p> <p><br /></p> <p>“Before we decide which shipwreck to be recovered from oil, we can use the model to estimate the probability of a leak, the volume of oil in the wreck and where the oil is likely to end up in case of an oil leakage” says Fredrik Lindgren, an analyst at SwAM who previously worked on VRAKA during his doctoral studies at Chalmers. </p> <p></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>To date, 360,000 litres of oil have been </span><span>recovered </span></h2> <p></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">Since 2017, the model has been used for investigation and oil recovery operations of the six wrecks Thetis, Skytteren, Sandön, Hoheneichen, Lindesnäs and Finnbirch. They are all close to sensitive natural areas where oil leaks could have major, negative impacts on the environment, outdoor life and tourism. </span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">Sandön and Hoheneichen proved to be empty of oil but from Thetis, Lindesnäs and Finnbirch they managed to recover a total of about 360,000 litres of oil and a large amount of ghost net. From Thetis, they also manage to recover 12 tonnes of purse seine (a kind of fishing gear) and during the recovery operation of Lindesnäs, a 46-meter long ghost net was found which was stuck to the wreck. The ghost net was recovered and left ashore for recycling or destruction. </span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">The purpose of the investigation of Skytteren was, among other things, to get data to VRAKA for assessment. SwAM's assessment, however, was that an oil recovery operation is very likely to cost more than SwAM's annual budget for environmentally hazardous shipwrecks in Swedish waters. SwAM has requested funding from the government to increase the budget during a financial year, so that they can recover oil from Skytteren as well. </span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">From 2018, SwAM was granted SEK 25 million per year until 2027 for research and oil recovery operations. Starting in 2020, the budget is SEK 30 million per year. VRAKA made the funding possible. Carrying out oil recovery operations is costly, from five to hundreds of millions. It is important to make qualified assessments of which wrecks that should be prioritized for oil recovery operations. VRAKA made the prioritization possible and SwAM can now use the funds to make the greatest environmental benefit by removing the threats to the environment from the wrecks that pose the greatest risk.</span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/eulogo.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Logotypes from the EU" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /><br /></span></p> <p></p>Fri, 29 May 2020 08:00:00 +0200 approval of locomotives enables more goods by rail<p><b>​Thanks to experience and knowledge built up within the Chalmers Railway Mechanics competence center, numerical tools were able to replace expensive geotechnical investigations. This gave Green Cargo the clear sign to use stronger locomotives, with just a few restrictions from the Swedish Transport Administration.</b></p>​In the short term, it means millions of Swedish crowns in savings. In the longer term, it strengthens the competitiveness of train transport and enables the transfer of transport from road to rail. This means reduced carbon dioxide emissions for heavier transport. <div><br /></div> <div>The classification of railway vehicles affects the distances they can operate. The freight train operator Green Cargo needed to install locomotives with greater traction to get a reasonable economy in their freight transport. This meant that heavier locomotives with three-axis bogies would have to operate lanes that were normally operated by lighter, two-axis locomotives. However, the Swedish Transport Administration could not allow the heavier three-axis locomotives to traffic the lanes if the safety could not be guaranteed. The situation was so critical that it became a standing point at the meetings between the Swedish Transport Administration's Director General and Green Cargo's CEO. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The classification of Green Cargo's three-axis locomotive meant that the locomotive was in a higher class than many lanes have been classified for, which could mean low operating speeds. For bridges, calculation tools are available to analyze the impact of specific vehicles, but for geotechnics the situation was more complicated. An analysis may require expensive and cumbersome soil samples and the remaining geotechnical restrictions were numerous. <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/andersekberg.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Anders Ekberg" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Anders Ekberg is the director of the competence center Chalmers Railway Mechanics (Charmec). He says that the main challenge for Charmec was to understand the problem. But with the help of the contacts and the understanding built up between Charmec's partners, a solution was soon to be found. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>“In a few meetings with intermediate analyzes, we were able to gain insight through the experience and knowledge we have gained in previous projects. Once the solution method was identified, we could relatively easily reach a solution using our numerical tools” says Anders Ekberg. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>In-house models from Chalmers provided a solution</span><span>​</span></h2> <div>The researchers from Chalmers proposed a comparative analysis between the stress resulting from a two-axis locomotive and that of a three-axis locomotive. Using in-house models their analysis showed that the marginally lower load per axis of the locomotive actually made the resulting stress in the ground lower for the three-axis locomotive despite this loco having an additional axle. To further analyze load, the Swedish Transport Administration conducted a dynamic analysis using software developed within Charmec.​</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The analysis supported the conclusion that the locomotives provided a lower load on filling material and the underlying soil. The Swedish Transport Administration was now able to reduce the number of restrictions for Green Cargo's three-axis locomotives” says Ibrahim Coric head of Maintenance Railway system Permission Construction at the Swedish Transport Administration. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Markus Gardbring is head of Green Cargo's operations and believes that it is of great importance for their operations. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Green Cargo can now use stronger locomotives and demolish a large number of circulations for a number of larger customers, which leads to more efficient freight transport and is a prerequisite for us to be able to have more goods on the railway&quot; says Markus Gardbring. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Contributes to reduced carbon dioxide emissions</span><span>​</span></h2> <div>Another benefit is that heavier locomotives with more redundant traction slip less, which reduces maintenance costs. Markus Gardbring also sees gains in the longer term. The Swedish rail network is being rebuilt to allow longer trains. The Swedish government has decided to reduce 70 percent of all carbon dioxide emissions for heavier transport by 2030. The segment that can easily be transferred to rail is intermodal goods. Longer trains are more cost-effective and a prerequisite for enabling competition with trucks in an extremely competitive market. The traction force of the locomotive will be decisive as the weight rather than the length becomes limiting for the number of wagons per train.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Read more about Charmec</h2> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Railway-researchers-awarded-for-societal-impact.aspx">Railway researchers awarded for societal impact​</a><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/European-railway-harmony-better-for-the-climate.aspx">European railway harmony is better for the climate​</a><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Prediction-of-cracking-increases-the-railway%27s-reliability.aspx">Prediction of cracking increases the railway's reliability​</a><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/CHARMEC---A-prerequisite-for-a-functioning-railway.aspx">CHARMEC - A prerequisite for a functioning railway​</a><br /></div>Wed, 06 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Fatal road accidents halved by year 2030<p><b>​Over 1.3 million people die in traffic accidents every year. Consequently, traffic accidents are the most common cause of death in certain age groups. The world&#39;s experts are now gathering in Stockholm to discuss new UN goals for road safety, developed under the leadership of Chalmers professor Claes Tingvall.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Transports and traffic are fundamental parts of life for most of us. From our homes, we step into a traffic system that takes us to work, school, business, health care or to our loved ones.</span><div>But at the same time, 1.3 million people are killed in road accidents and 50 million people are injured – every year. Most accidents, as much as 93 per cent, occur in low- and middle-income countries, where the resources and technical solutions for road safety are lacking to a larger extent.<br /><br /></div> <div>“The problem of road accidents has not diminished the way we hoped. The recommendations proposed by our expert group are effective actions – it is now a matter if it gets done or not”, says Claes Tingvall, adjunct professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers and chair of the academic expert group that has developed new UN targets for world road safety.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_bilder-utan-fast-format/Claes%20Tingvall_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">he overall goal is to reduce the number of deaths and serious injuries as a result of traffic accidents by fifty per cent over the next ten years. To achieve this goal by the year 2030, Claes Tingvall is certain about the way forward:</span><br /></div> <div>“We must constantly point to science as the solution to societal problems. Then stick to it and act accordingly!”<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">A public health issue</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">On February 19–20, 2020, the world's leading road safety experts will convene together with decision-makers and ministers in Stockholm for the third global conference on road safety within the UN. There, the expert group's opinion will be indicative for the global cooperation for safer traffic.</span></div> <div>The academic expert group, chaired by Claes Tingvall, is composed of 13 experts from around the world and has been tasked with developing complementary methods, processes and tools for the new decade's global traffic safety. The fundament has been the global goals for sustainable development and Agenda 2030.<br /><br /></div> <div>“The lack of road safety is a public health issue. More than 100,000 children die each year in traffic accidents, making it the most common cause of death for in certain age groups. But it is possible to solve the problem, provided that scientifically developed methods are used”, says Claes Tingvall.<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Collaboration is the key</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">oday broad research is being conducted in vehicle and road safety at Chalmers. The focus is, among other things, on understanding why accidents occur and how they can be prevented, as well as minimizing injuries to the human body when it is exposed to the extreme stresses that often occur in traffic accidents. Historically, vehicle and traffic safety has been a strong research area at Chalmers and the development of modern seat belts, child safety seats and airbags originated at the university.<br /><br /></span></div> <div>Research within road safety will be even more significant in the future as the volume of traffic is constantly increasing. According to the UN, the world's cities will grow by over 50 per cent in the next 30 years. It is important to have knowledge of how to develop roads and infrastructures in the best possible way as it is being built, while scientific solutions are applied and developed in already existing traffic systems.<br /><br /></div> <div>Magnus Granström is the director of the Safer competence centre at Chalmers, where multidisciplinary research is conducted in road safety. At Safer, various research areas – such as systems for accident prevention, road user behaviour, human body protection and safety performance evaluations – connect. Magnus Granström believes that there are many sub-areas to focus on in road safety, and unprotected road users will be a special challenge as we see an increasing number of cyclists, electric scooters and pedestrians.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_puffbilder/Magnus_Granstrom_350_cropped.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">Universities need to continue to invest in a breadth of research, as there is no single answer to the question of how traffic should continue to become safer. Above all, understanding the complexity of future traffic systems with different types of road users will be necessary”, says Magnus Granström.<br /></span><br /></div> <div>To reach the goal of cutting the number of deaths and injuries by half, Magnus Granström believes that the research community needs to gain further insight into existing obstacles. For example, he points to an over-reliance in automated vehicles and their contribution to increased safety, as well as a lack of system thinking among researchers and financiers, who instead focus too much on individual areas and personas.</div> <div>“The main key to achieving this goal is collaboration between the various players – industry, academia and politics”, says Magnus Granström.<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Recommendations with a clear vision</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">he academic group of experts has presented a total of nine scientifically based recommendations. If the recommendations are followed, the expert group believes that the goal of reducing the number of deaths by half is likely to be achieved by 2030. The recommendations are interconnected and will guide the work on road safety as part of the Global Sustainable Development Goals. And for the first time, road safety is now included in international objectives through agenda 2030.</span></div> <div>“With the global goals, which point out who should do what, we have access to both the private and the public sector, and thus can benefit from the synergies that exist between climate, health and justice. For example, speed connects to clean air, climate and security”, says Claes Tingvall.<br /><br /></div> <div>At the same time, he emphasizes the fact that the most powerful tools will also make the greatest impact. Those tools are mainly about sustainability reporting and public procurement. If the work on road safety is integrated with these tools, large effects can be achieved. The report that the expert group recently released highlights collaborations between politics, academia, business and other organizations on a global scale.</div> <div>“To solve the problems in low-income countries, where the problems are greatest, you need to apply the simple and cheap solutions that already exist. In high-income countries, all known methods must be applied – it's as simple as that”, says Claes Tingvall.<br /><br /></div> <div>Text: Anders Ryttarson Törneholm and Mia Malmstedt<br />Photos: Rune Borgström, Emmy Jonsson and Pixabay</div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: The Sustainable Development Goals</h3> <div>The Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Road safety is directly connected to two of the 17 global goals:</div> <div> </div> <div>Goal 3: Good health and well-being</div> <div> </div> <div>Target 3.6:  Halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents.</div> <div> </div> <div>Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities</div> <div> </div> <div>Target 11.2: Provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Road safety also affects many of the other global goals indirectly.</div></div> <div><div><a href="">​Read more about the UN Sustainable Development Goals here!</a></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: Nine recommendations for safer traffic</h3> <div>The expert group's recommendations is divided into:<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>1. Modal Shift</div> <div> </div> <div>2. Sustainable Practices and Reporting</div> <div> </div> <div>3. Safe Vehicles across the Globe</div> <div> </div> <div>4. Childrens Health</div> <div> </div> <div>5. Public Procurement</div> <div> </div> <div>6. Speed limit of 30 kph</div> <div> </div> <div>7. Upgrade Infrastructure</div> <div> </div> <div>8. Zero Speeding</div> <div> </div> <div>9. Technology</div></div> <div><div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Watch film clips with Claes Tingvall explaining each recommendation!</a></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Read the full report from the expert group here.</a></div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: Safer</h3> <div> </div> <div>Safer is a centre of excellence for vehicle and traffic safety which conducts collaborative, interdisciplinary research and knowledge transfer to eliminate fatalities and serious injuries in traffic. Chalmers is the host for the center, which has in total 35 partners from academia, industry and society.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Read more about Safer.</a></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"> </h3> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: A pre-event on the night before the UN conference arranged by Safer</h3> <div> </div> <div><span></span> <span style="background-color:initial">On the evening of February 18, the day before the UN conference, Safer organizes a pre-event in Stockholm. The focus will be, among other things, on collaborations and new research. Participants include Fredrik Hörstedt, Chalmers Vice President of Utilisation, and speakers from the European Commission and Volvo. About 200 guests are expected, including EU commissioners, decision-makers and Swedish parliament politicians. Most of the guests come from countries with many fatal road accidents, including Uganda, Liberia, India and Nigeria.</span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“We hope to spread the message about our way of collaborating to the international actors participating it our event, and at the same time create even better communication between both partners and research areas”, says Magnus Granström, Director at Safer.<br /><br /><a href="">Read more about the pre-event!</a><br /><br />Previous news article about Claes Tingvall: <a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Will-develop-new-global-goals-for-road-safety-in-the-UN.aspx">Will develop new global goals for road safety​</a></div></div> Wed, 12 Feb 2020 19:00:00 +0100 railway harmony is better for the climate<p><b>​Transporting goods by train instead of by truck is one of the keys to more sustainable transports within Europe. But the transition to rail is difficult, and one major problem is that alarm limit values for wheel loads are not coordinated between European countries. But thanks to researchers at Chalmers, new European rules have been introduced that will make it easier to transport goods by train.</b></p><p>“Our research was the scientific basis that convinced the rest of Europe to adapt to our Swedish proposal for alarm limit levels. The alternative for us in Sweden would have been the continuing lack of clarity on the matter. This would most likely have diminished our competitiveness for goods by rail”, says Anders Ekberg, professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences and director of Charmec*.</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More environmentally friendly transports</h2> <p>To achieve the overall climate targets, one of Sweden’s milestones is to double the share of goods transported by train by the year 2030. If that amplification is to become a reality, three important measures are needed – to increase both the operational safety as well as the capacity of the railway and to promote cross-border freight traffic ¬– something that today is difficult because alarm limit values for rail loads vary widely between countries in Europe.</p> <p>About half of the freight traffic in Europe is already crossing borders and that trend is expected to increase as the European freight corridors are gradually put into operation. This measure is necessary to enable railway freight to compete with freight on the road.</p> <p>The lack of coordinated alarm limits means that a damaged wheel can produce wheel load magnitudes that are allowed in one country, but not in another. For example, a Swedish train can travel through Europe just to have to turn around at the border of Switzerland, which today has the lowest permissible level, something that has occurred. This type of inefficient management of alarm levels also has consequences for passenger traffic as operational disruptions spread in the rail system – which leads to high costs for both railway managers and train operators in addition to the nuisance it causes to passengers.</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Sensitive system</h2> <p>The railroad is an interlinked system where the “weakest link” often dictates how the system can be used to transport goods. Other modes of freight transport can operate at higher levels of interference. It is easier to quickly redirect a truck when there are obstacles on the road than to redirect a train that often only has one way to go. For this reason rail traffic needs to put more efforts into avoiding interferences. Having the same alarm limits in all European countries is a step towards avoiding disturbances.</p> <p>“To be able to agree on common alarm limits, a solid, scientific basis is required. At the heart of the now common alarm limits is our research of forces from out-of-round wheels and how these affect the risk of rail breaks and disruptions​. The work has now also been accepted and established internationally in a so-called International Railway Solution (IRS) which the International Railway Union (UIC) has approved. Of course, we are very pleased with that”, says Anders Ekberg.</p> <div><br /></div> <p>* <em>Charmec (Chalmers Railway Mechanics) is a national centre in the field of railway mechanics with twelve business and administration stakeholders. The research is based on the interaction between vehicles/track and related phenomena (noise, material degradation, brake damage, etc.), which causes more than half of the maintenance costs of the track and freight trains.</em></p> <div><a href="">Read more about Charmec</a></div> <div><br /></div> <p>Text: Anders Ryttarson Törneholm</p>Tue, 20 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0200's-reliability.aspx's-reliability.aspxPrediction of cracking increases the railway&#39;s reliability<p><b>​​Cracking in rails and wheels is one of the largest maintenance costs for railway traffic. It is also the reason for many delays and stops that can lead to considerable costs for both train companies and track managers. But through methods developed at Chalmers, which predict cracking in rails and wheels, train traffic is now more reliable and environmentally friendly.</b></p>​More than half of the maintenance costs for tracks and freight wagons are due to wear. Cracks in wheels and rails account for most of that wear. Together with organizations who are connected to railway traffic, <em>Chalmers Railway Mechanics </em>(Charmec*) has developed criteria for assessing the risk of cracking in wheels and rail. Anders Ekberg is an assistant professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences and director of Charmec:<div>“More and more railway traffic goes on the same network, which leads to smaller windows for maintenance. But by being able to predict cracking, the risk of operational disturbances, unplanned maintenance and environmental impact is reduced. Then the costs can also be kept down. And that is a necessity for a functioning and efficient railway”, he says. <div><br /></div> <div>The basis for the criteria lies in research done by Charmec. There, research on cracking in the contact between wheels and rails has been linked to research in railway dynamics. Results are the criteria that today are the standard tool for engineers who design wheels and boggies for trains. In addition, they are implemented in most commercial programs used to analyze how trains load the track. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Catches risks at the design stage</h2> <div>The criteria developed at Chalmers are also an important ingredient in design, virtual testing and product approval. This means that engineers, already at the design stage, can ensure that the design of rails, gears, wheels and boggies has properties that give an acceptable low risk of cracking. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“I see the development of these criteria as an important part of what I consider to be the core of the railway's digitization: Having such accurate numerical simulations that only validation is needed in fields when new products are introduced or extensive maintenance is carried out”, says Anders Ekberg.​</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>Examples, where the criteria saved a lot of money, are the design of new gear geometries that reduced the maintenance costs for the gears by in the order of 20 per cent. They have also been used to optimize wheel profiles on the ore rail, which is a contributing reason why the traffic is now starting to be upgraded from 30 to 32.5 tons of axle load.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>*Charmec is a national centre in railway mechanics. Read more about <a href="">Charmec​</a>.</div> ​</div> <div>Text: Anders Ryttarson Törneholm</div>Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0200 dummy shoulder saves lives<p><b>​Although standardized crash tests have made car journeys considerably safer over the past 30 years, they have not been totally comprehensive – especially not for oblique frontal collisions. Researchers at Chalmers have developed a crash test dummy that now sets a new, life-saving standard for safety in passenger cars.</b></p>​​Having the misfortune to be in a car accident in a new and modern car is considerably safer compared to 30 years ago. The main driving force behind the increased safety has been the so-called<em> New Car Assessment Programs </em>(NCAP), which set a new standard for crash safety throughout the world. When the tests were launched in the early 1990s, they received a lot of media attention, which lead to more and more investments in safety by car manufacturers. For car manufacturers performing well in the tests became, and continues to be, one of the most important marketing arguments. <div><br /></div> <div>For some time, crash safety improved mainly for the types of collisions that were represented in the official crash tests, especially for car companies that previously had a low level of ambition in their safety work. However, the risk of injury was still high in accidents where the body was thrown forward in oblique positions, such as in frontal collisions with oblique force direction. “We wanted to contribute to a new test standard for oblique collisions. The dummy used previously turned out to be too rigid and did not give a fair representation of how an actual person reacts to a crash that throws the body forward obliquely”, says Mats Svensson, professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences.</div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>An impo</span><span>rtant research tool</span><span> </span></h2></div> <div>To find out how a person moves and is affected by the safety belt in a collision, researchers from Chalmers compiled results from earlier studies and supplemented it with own mobility tests of the shoulder part of test subjects. In this way, the researchers could see how a human shoulder moves and compare it with the standard dummy, which was used for crash tests. It then became evident that the greatest shortcoming of the crash dummy was the difference in the more extensive and complex motion range of the human shoulder.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> With the support of Volvo Cars and Autoliv, the Chalmers researchers developed an artificial shoulder for the crash dummy that could better mimic the human shoulder’s mobility in interaction with the three-point belt in oblique collisions. The design of the dummy is a key factor in the development and evaluation of new safety belts and airbags. “The new type of artificial shoulder was an important research tool for us at Volvo Cars, which makes it possible for us to gain a better understanding of the human body's movement and the car's protective function in collisions with oblique forward movements. Our accident follow-up shows that oblique collisions are common in traffic and have significance for the damage outcome”, says Lotta Jakobsson, Senior Technical Leader Safety at Volvo Cars and adjunct professor at mechanics and maritime sciences. </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>NCAP next step </span></h2></div> <div>Chalmers has participated in the further development of the artificial shoulder and the new crash test dummy, which has resulted in that now both Euro NCAP and US NCAP has the ambition to use the new dummy in future standardized collision tests of new cars. Johan Davidsson is an associate professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences has been Chalmers spokesperson in the international forums that evaluated and recommended the new more advanced crash dummy with the new shoulder. “It is now possible to fine-tune and evaluate airbags and seat belts that use the latest sensor technology to tailor the protection in real-time in the event of a collision. We are convinced that we have contributed to a significant future reduction of injuries and deaths in car collisions”, says Johan Davidsson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/202003-IVA-R2B-Mailbadge-English-2020.png" alt="Picture about IVA projects." style="margin:5px;width:600px;height:300px" /><br /><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Anders Ryttarson Törneholm</div>Wed, 10 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0200 researcher helps the wave power industry forward<p><b>​With the ocean covering approximately 72% of the earth’s surface, wave energy is thereby holding great potential to satisfy a significant percentage of the worldwide energy supply. The challenge is to reduce costs and improve the performance of wave energy systems. In that case, the Chalmers researcher Shun-Han Yang has helped the industry to boost their positions.</b></p><div>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/shunhanyang.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Shun-Han Yang is a researcher at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at the Division of Marine Technology. She has developed a numerical analysis procedure that can be used for assessing the long-term structural service life of the components used in wave energy systems. </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“The procedure allows the industry to assess the damage the waves impose mooring devices and power cables, etc., while calculating the wave power system’s power performance and energy cost” says Shun-Han Yang. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The developed methodology has supported the industry and taken them from a stage of concept design validation to a full-scale prototype testing at sea. In technical terms from at TRL-level* of 3-4 to a TRL-level of 6-7. By using the numerical method, the potential structural failure or operation obstacles are identified, which would otherwise be devastating if the situation was encountered in reality. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Jonas Kamf is CEO of Waves4Power, one of the industrial partners that Chalmers cooperates with. He explains that Waves4Power is a company under development with limited resources and therefore a strong partner network becomes a key resource. He sees Chalmers as an extra important partner for their business. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“It's a lot of idea development but also verification of results from our test activities. Real results are set against theoretical calculations and in this way, we can link theory and reality in order to get even closer to reality in our forward-looking work” says Jonas Kamf. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The collaboration with Chalmers in various fields also opens up for Waves4Power to be able to apply for extra financial support for technical development that would otherwise have been difficult to take part in. The connection between academia and industry is very important for this part of their development financing, he says, but perhaps even more importantly he sees Chalmers as a partner who can make them more realistic. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“As a research resource, Chalmers is trustworthy and gives us as a collaborative partner an honest image, not a glorified picture of our reality. It’s easy to become blind in a development company and just see advantages. In this way, Chalmers is good at taking us down to earth and show us the reality as it is. It has laid a good foundation for good work in research and development.” </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>For Chalmers, collaboration is a prerequisite for research. Shun-Han Yang believes that the close cooperation between academia and industry is what made her research possible. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“To ensure the practicality of the numerical method, constant feedback given by the industry which highlights that challenges are necessary” says Shun-Han Yang. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Waves4Power expects that within the next two years they will be fully commercial with a couple of installed wave power parks based on their latest technology, but it will continue to be a technology in development and Chalmers is a key resource.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><em>*TRL, Technology readiness levels are a method of estimating technology maturity of critical technology elements of a program during the acquisition process. They are determined during a technology readiness assessment that examines program concepts, technology requirements, and demonstrated technology capabilities.</em></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Read more</span></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><a href="/en/departments/m2/research/marinetechnology/Pages/default.aspx">Division of Marine Technology</a></span></p> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"> </h3>Fri, 26 Apr 2019 08:00:00 +0200 develop new global goals for road safety<p><b>Claes Tingvall is best known as the man behind the Vision Zero, a strategy that revolutionized road safety in Sweden and many other countries. This adjunct professor at Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and maritime Sciences, division of Vehicle engineering and autonomous systems has now been appointed chairman of an international expert group that will propose a new global goal for road safety within the framework of Agenda 2030.</b></p>He is an internationally recognized traffic expert, a widely used lecturer and inspirer who has worked with road safety for more than 40 years. In his world of road safety, the post of chairman of the international expert group is something that tops a very successful career. <div><br /></div> <div>“I’ve been given the privilege to get responsible roles during my life, but this time it’s breathtaking. It feels like the peak. At the same time, it’s a completely crucial opportunity to be able to make an effort for the world's population together with other experts” says Claes Tingvall. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Claes Tingvall will gather the expert group consisting of 14 researchers and experts from all over the world. A mix of epidemiologists, engineers, medical professionals and social scientists at the highest possible level. Together, they will develop a renewed global goal for road safety within the framework of Agenda 2030, the UN's 17 global goals for the world's development. They should also present a number of recommendations on how states, organizations and companies can make a change. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Claes Tingvall believes that it’s not a coincidence that Chalmers got the chairmanship. Sweden is one of the most successful countries in the world in terms of road safety. The vision zero was born in Sweden but is now a world standard. It’s based on research and applications of effective methods that have been proven. This means that one must understand the connection between man and machine, in a social system. Engineering is an important part of this. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Chalmers has a very long successful history with worthies such as Bertil Aldman and Per Lövsund who led Chalmers' work on road safety. I’ve been involved in building up a research group, specialists in system safety in traffic, and this is the one that forms the very basis for the global overall work that the UN and the World Health Organization need. At Chalmers there is also what is known as the Vision Zero Academy with a number of researchers linked to the future work on road safety.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>He sees the chairmanship as an acknowledgment that interdisciplinary research belongs at Chalmers and that it is possible to build up extremely successful environments with researchers from different scientific disciplines. This means that Chalmers is a global player in welfare and health issues, which in this case affects all people on earth. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We actually have solutions that can eliminate the risk of dying in traffic and that is something we should be proud to share with others in the world.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The result of the expert group's work is presented at the UN's third, global high-level conference on road safety in 2020. Sweden is the host for the conference.<br /></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">More information</span><br /></div> <div><div><a href="">Resolution adopted by the General Assembly - Improving global road safety </a></div> <div><a href="">Decision to integrate road safety in the Sustainable Development Goals </a></div> <div><a href="">Sweden to host UN conference on road safety in 2020 ​</a><br /></div> <div><a href="">The Global Goals​</a></div> <div><a href="">Vision Zero Academy </a></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/research/veas/Pages/default.aspx">Research division Vehicle engineering and autonomous systems​</a></div></div>Thu, 14 Feb 2019 14:00:00 +0100 help LFV to reduce environmental impact from aviation<p><b>​During next year, the Chalmers researcher Olivier Petit will be lent out to the Swedish air transport agency LFV. At LFV he will analyze how aeroplanes fly today. A change in how they fly will save money and reduce environmental impact.</b></p>​Olivier Petit is a researcher in the field of fluid dynamics at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences. His research area for five years back is the development of future aircraft engines. But there is more to do than to improve the aircraft engine itself. It's also important to analyze how the aircraft is flying, he believes. <div><br /></div> <div>There is currently a lot of ongoing research that deals with how aeroplanes fly in and out from airports, tells Olivier Petit. One example is smarter start and landing procedures. Another example is the so-called curved approach landing, which means that the aircraft can land in a shorter distance. It could provide a number of advantages that reduces both noise and environmental impact. At LFV Olivier Petit will work as a performance specialist. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;There is a lot of things you can do if you only optimize how to fly today. I will analyze the radar data that the aircraft sends to LFV. The goal is to improve air traffic from a logistical perspective and thereby reduce environmental impact&quot; says Olivier Petit. </div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">If research could prove better in- and outflows, landing procedures and more, why are the changes not implemented? </h5> <div>Olivier Petit believes that a number of actors must cooperate. The biggest challenge is to convince all parties in the aviation industry that it is important to look at how to fly today from an environmental perspective. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;LFV, airline companies, aircraft manufacturers, airports and more must cooperate and agree with each other. Sometimes there is a reluctance to make changes before you are completely sure that it really works. Therefore, more research is important&quot; says Olivier Petit. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The interaction between Chalmers and LFV brings great benefits to both parties. For Chalmers, cooperation with LFV involves more industrial contacts in air traffic management. A valuable network that can be used for future research projects, which in turn may benefit LFV by bringing them closer to the research community. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;It feels very exciting to start working at LFV. It will give me a more applied view of the aviation industry and I will, as a performance specialist, be able to contribute with an educational dimension that is very relevant for presenting data analysis in a good way&quot; says Olivier Petit.</div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More information</h5> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/research/fluiddynamics">Research on Fluid dynamics​</a></div> <div><a href=";query=Olivier+Petit">Olivier Petit's publications​</a></div>Wed, 28 Nov 2018 12:00:00 +0100 Piston Design Lowers Fuel-consumption<p><b>​Volvo’s new Heavy-Duty diesel-engines are more fuel efficient due to a new, smart, wave-shaped, piston design. The new design reduces fuel-consumption by two percent and halves the quantity of particulates. The idea of the piston shape came from Volvo AB. In collaboration with Chalmers, the idea could be refined and realized.</b></p>​Ten years ago, diesel-engineer Jan Eismark was struggling with a problem of reducing emissions from Volvo's engines. The permitted limit values for soot particles and nitrogen oxide emissions were constantly lowered. One big challenge is that the particle and soot emission formation in the combustion chamber is just like a rocking board. The methods limiting soot particles increase nitrogen oxides and the methods that lower nitrogen oxides increase soot particles. The challenge was to lower both. <div><br /></div> <div>Jan Eismark conducted a variety of engine experiments with different pistons and fuel injectors and saw that the soot emissions were very different. The conclusion was that the shape of the combustion chamber, which is completely shaped by the piston top, ought to be very important. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the case of a standard piston, the injector is located in the centre of the piston bowl (combustion chamber) and the fuel is sprayed towards the sides of the bowl through a number of orifices in the injector. The combination of heat and pressure causes the fuel to ignite before it reaches the combustion-chamber walls. The flame hits the wall at a speed of up to 50 meters per second, it then spreads along the piston bowl wall at an angle of 180 degrees where-after it collides with the adjacent flames. When the flames collide, they compete for the available oxygen. At the same time, the oxygen in the centre of the combustion chamber is never fully used. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;We wanted to find a way to lead the flames more inwardly into the combustion chamber to better utilise the available oxygen there&quot;, says Jan Eismark. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Jan Eismark became an industrial PhD student at Chalmers, to develop the idea together with Chalmers’ researchers through studying fundamental mixing and spray phenomena and combustion mechanisms. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;The research work in the project has been very extensive and includes, in addition to Volvo's engine experiments, advanced computerised combustion calculation and high-speed recording of the combustion inside the cylinder&quot;, says Ingemar Denbratt, director of the <a href="/en/centres/cerc">Combustion Engine Research Centre</a>, where the research at Chalmers was conducted. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research was used to improve the combustion system and resulted in the unique wave design in the piston bowl. The injector position in the centre of the piston bowl has six holes allowing the fuel to be injected in between the waves helping the flames to be directed towards the centre of the piston bowl. The available oxygen could therefore be consumed more efficiently. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Artiklar/lastbilartikel.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:300px;height:200px" /><br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">After that, industrialisation has been taken over by AB Volvo and in 2017 the new piston “arrived” in the first</span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>trucks in the United States. Fuel consumption has been reduced by two percent and particulate emissions have been halved. According to AB Volvo, the concept give big fuel savings on Volvo's products and reduction in carbon-dioxide emissions of 5 megaton per year. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>(For comparison, a return flight between Sweden and Thailand corresponds to approximately 2.5 tonnes of carbon-dioxide emissions per person, hence 5 megaton of carbon-dioxide emissions corresponds to approximately two million Thailand voyages.)</em></div>Tue, 05 Jun 2018 07:50:00 +0200 wants to stop dangerous vibrations<p><b>Industrial PhD student Hans Lindell from Swerea IVF has worked to reduce and investigate how vibrations affect humans for almost 30 years. Recently, he was elected chairman of an international standardization committee working with vibrations. In the committee, he wants to try to influence the standard so that dangerous vibrations can be stopped.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Vibration damage is the most common occupational disease in Sweden. Every day, 400,000 people work for more than two hours a day with vibrating machines. This causes a large number of chronic damage to the nerves, vessels, muscles and skeletal system. But it doesn’t have to be like this.</span><div><br /></div> <div> - Machines don't need to vibrate and hurt people! There is no physical law that confirms that” says Hans Lindell, who has shown that machines with significantly lower vibrations can be developed.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>With help from research results, it has been possible to rebuild existing machines, such as chisel hammers and nutrunners, to show that it is possible to greatly reduce vibration levels. Two types of vibrations that are attempted to counteract are rotating and translating that goes back and forth. One of the techniques used is called ATVA (Auto Tuning Vibration Absorber) and is based on vibration reductions by counteracting the forces that cause the vibrations. Prototypes are currently being tested in the field with satisfactory results. Recently, the project was also awarded additional funds from Vinnova to scale up the project and introduce prototypes in vibration-free, industrial demonstration environments in full production.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Hans Lindell thinks that his extensive experience in the field was the reason for him being elected as chairman of the International Standardization Committee named ISO/TC108/SC4/WG3. One of the standards under the group's responsibility is ISO 5349, which states how to measure and assess the risks of vibrations on handheld tools. Hans Lindell thinks that it feels both nervous and at the same time very fun to get the presidency.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>- There is a great need for an adjustment of the current standard so that it also takes into account machines with impacts and shocks that give high frequency vibration which we suspect cause a large part of the damage. As a chairman, you will be able to drive a change&quot; says Hans Lindell.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A lot of things are already about to happen thanks to Hans Lindell's research. Machines, where the high-frequency vibration is remedied, will be released on the market within one year. As far as ATVA technology is concerned, it probably takes a few years, but future users will get fewer injuries, machine manufacturers get an opportunity to increase their competitiveness and society earns on reduced costs for a disease. However, there is much more to be found in the vibration area. The ATVA technology is applicable to considerably more uses than handheld machines. There is a lot of applications where vibrations need to be reduced.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> - What's so funny is that the deeper you get into a problem, the more unanswered questions are found&quot; says Hans Lindell</div> <div><br /></div> Thu, 23 Nov 2017 14:00:00 +0100 car projects create coveted engineers<p><b>​Derek Crabb is the motorsport manager and responsible for Volvo&#39;s drive line. He is very positive to the training that Chalmers is involved in, with the various student car projects, where Chalmers Formula Student is the most famous. &quot;It gives us an opportunity to meet future engineers, a good base for picking up future talents&quot;, says Derek Crabb.</b></p><p>​Chalmers Formula Student is run as a course. The final goal is the world's largest student engineer competition where the students will present and sell a concept for a small formula car. The students themselves, supported by teachers, can construct and build a race car from scratch. ECO Marathon is another project aimed at building a small vehicle that will transport one person as far as possible to one liter of gasoline. Sven Andersson knows very much about Chalmers various car projects. He is Professor in the areas internal combustion engines and automotive engineering. He was involved early in various CDIO activities and one of those who launched Formula Student and ECO Marathon at Chalmers.</p> <p><br />CDIO is an abbreviation of Conceive, Design, Implement and Operate, which means that students in a CDIO project can plan, develop, manufacture and operate complex technical products and systems, in teams with modern IT tools.</p> <p><br />&quot;Many people think it's just about building a car, but it's a project that includes all parts of manufacturing a product, any product. Students involved in this kind of project will be able to test what they really can”, says Sven Andersson.</p> <p><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/TM/Nyheter/Bilder/fsmeckar.jpg" alt="" style="height:199px;width:300px;margin:5px" /><br />He also explains that in the car projects there are complex challenges that create better engineers because they have the opportunity already in their education, to work in industrial-like projects. What they are designing they must also build and test. The students work in multicultural teams and that is an important experience, he believes. The education entails that the students who are later employed in industry start to produce directly at the start of the employment. Derek Crabb on Volvo agrees on the same thing.</p> <p><br />“Formula Student is an excellent program that provides a great opportunity for a positive exchange between the students and Volvo. They get their academic education through Formula Student, where they also learn to work in projects, together”, says Derek Crabb.</p> <p><br />In addition to Volvo, Chalmers Formula Student also collaborates with a number of other companies that are involved in the course in one way or another. The support is needed purely financially, but the contacts are also important in order to increase the professional relevance. Students are well prepared for the professional life they meet later.</p> <p><br />One of the more than 300 students who passed through Chalmers car projects is Fredrik Dunert. He studied both the Formula Student course and attended the ECO Marathon. After the education, he got a job at AVL where he has been working with engine calibration for several years. Today, he is working to help clients with organization and methodology related to testing. He sees the experiences of the car projects as very valuable. To realize his ideas and theoretical knowledge in practice is invaluable, he believes.</p> <p><br />&quot;To first put the nose in the theory book and then grasp the wrench and solve the problem is always appreciated by an employer,&quot; says Fredrik Dunert.</p> <p><a href=""><br />Read more about Chalmers Formula Student</a><br /></p>Tue, 18 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0200 rescue on the agenda<p><b>It is a crowded hall that we arrive to on the morning of Wednesday, June 14. There are course participants from China, Australia, Canada, Finland and Brussels, to name a few countries. A big map adorns the table in the middle of the hall. The map represents a miniature city with water, boats, houses and roads. There is high expectation on the course among the participants and they are curious about each other. ​</b></p>​<span>The course begins and participants get the opportunity to present themselves to each other, see who else is sitting around their table and to ask about their background. Now they have three days to exchange experiences with each other.</span><div><br /></div> <div>The course is called IMRF maritime mass rescue operations subject-matter expert course programme and is held in the building Kuggen at Lindholmen, with participants from approximately 17 different countries.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/fredrikfprof.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Lars Axvi and Fredrik Forsman from the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences together with the Swedish Rescue Society (<span>Sjöräddningssällskapet) </span><span>will host the course. The aim of the course is to create international cooperation in maritime safety, as well as to make the mass rescue operations more effective.</span></div> <span></span><div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>- The course is brand new. In these days, we are hoping to establish contacts and create new collaborations within maritime rescue. With so many different nationalities it is exciting to see how other countries work and how we can learn from each other's knowledge, explains Fredrik Forsman, Head of the Unit for Maritime Human Factors at M2.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>- To make the course as educational as possible, there are several different elements in the course. The big map on the <img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/larsaprof.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />table in the middle of the hall, representing a miniature city, is helpful in visualizing a fictional accident situation. The idea is that theoretical solutions should be applied on a more visual and measurable level, where participants can participate and act, Fredrik continues.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Later in the week, there will also be an opportunity for participants to test the simulators in the Chalmers simulator center. This will be another way of putting the knowledge into practice.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Rustam Mammadov, Emergency Advicer at Caspian Marine Services Limited in Azerbaijan is one of the participants in the course. He has traveled a long way and looked forward to taking the course. <img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/mroooP1010303.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /></div> <div>- Throughout the course, I hope to share my knowledge and to exchange knowledge with other participants, from other parts of the world, says Rustam.</div></div> <div>​<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>On the pictures</strong></div> <div>To the left, <span>Fredrik Forsman, picture taken by</span><span> Johan Mårtensson. </span></div> <div>Above to the right, Lars Axvi.</div> <div>Down to the right, <span>Rustam Mammadov.</span></div> <div>Text: Lisa Naess</div>Thu, 15 Jun 2017 07:00:00 +0200 - A prerequisite for a functioning railway<p><b>​For more than 20 years, the Chalmers Railway Mechanics (CHARMEC) competence center has combined excellent research with industrial relevance. The competence center has had a positive impact on participating companies of about 1.2 billion Swedish Kronor, producing more than 1 000 publications and 40 Doctors. In short, the center has been a prerequisite for a functioning railway.</b></p>CHARMEC's research is about mechanical phenomena and material behavior associated with the contact between the train wheel and rail. In addition, research on brakes, noise, bogies, sleepers, ballast and more. Anders Ekberg is the director of CHARMEC and believes that research is extremely important for rail traffic as it contributes to major environmental and economic savings. In addition, the need for efficient, reliable and environmentally friendly transport systems increases as cities grow.<div><br />&quot;For example, if we can save a percentage of the cost of the high-speed railways planned between Sweden's big cities because CHARMEC delivers a smart solution, then that makes huge savings of a couple of billion,&quot; says Anders Ekberg.</div> <div><br />CHARMEC has delivered many smart solutions for train traffic over the years. Among other things, Malmbanan's capacity has increased and Sweden's rail network has improved gear and rail.</div> <div><br />In 2013, Vinnova released an impact analysis that shows that CHARMEC, from its start in 1995 to 2011, had a positive financial impact on the companies involved in the center, corresponding to approximately SEK 1.2 billion. SJ and Abetong are two of several examples of companies that benefited greatly from collaboration with CHARMEC.<img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/TM/Nyheter/Bilder/charmecbild.jpg" alt="" style="height:242px;width:372px;margin:5px" /><br /><br />&quot;We have had help with, among other things, technical solutions that improve punctuality, customer comfort, safety and reduce costs,&quot; says Susanne Rymell, responsible for SJ's Vehicle Division Technology.</div> <div><br />Rikard Bolmsvik is responsible for the development work at the plant at Abetong. He says that CHARMEC's research helped them to develop new products, such as a wooden replacement slipper, but also provided them with great knowledge about the entire track structure and interactions between vehicles and track, which is highly valued by the industry representatives that Abetong meet around the world.</div> <div><br />&quot;This means that we can stand well prepared for discussions about changes, new developments and injury cases,&quot; says Rikard Bolmsvik.</div> <div><br />CHARMEC's analyzes, simulations and measurements have also greatly contributed to the efficiency of maintenance work. The traffic on the tracks is mixed between fast trains, freight trains and regional trains that make many stops. Therefore, maintenance must be planned and performed smartly. Thanks to CHARMEC, today many more trains can be run on Sweden's train lines than would otherwise have been possible. Ingemar Frej, Technical Director of Maintenance at the Swedish Transport Administration, says that CHARMEC, with its excellence, has been a valuable cooperation partner, which enabled the Swedish Transport Administration to make better decisions.</div> <div><br />&quot;Without CHARMEC, we had only been relying on procurement and the proposals that come in. The development can take place faster when the Swedish Transport Administration also takes part in modern research”, says Ingemar Frej.</div> <div><br />In the future, a lot of work within CHARMEC will be put on Shift2Rail, a major European cooperation project. It will partly contribute to the realization of the EU's ambitions for the transfer of road to rail traffic, and to support the competitiveness of the European rail industry and the realization of a common European rail system. CHARMEC's role is to formulate, coordinate and conduct research in Sweden for reduced life cycle costs for rail transport by 50 percent, doubling capacity and increased reliability and punctuality by 50 percent.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Facts:</strong><br />Number of publications: 1033<br />Number of research projects completed: 117<br />Number of Doctoral Students: 41</div> <div> </div> <div><div><strong>More information:</strong></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="">CHARMEC – Triennial Report 1 July 2012 – 30 June 2015</a></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="" target="_blank">Vinnovarapport - Long Term Industrial Impacts of the Swedish Competence Centres</a></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="">CHARMECs hemsida</a></p></div>Sun, 07 May 2017 00:00:00 +0200 model flexes for the Swedish automotive industry<p><b>​The research results have resulted in a world-wide mathematical human model that can predict human movement before crash. For example, how a person, when the car is braking, counteracts throwing forward in the car by tightening the muscles. Such a model is gaining importance now that more car manufacturers seem to go more and more towards autonomous cars. Autonomous cars and features are designed by an engineer who needs an answer if the car responds in a good or bad way based on how the driver acts. The model is called SAFER A-HBM.</b></p>​&quot;It can be about how much the car should turn and brake when the airbag is to be released and more. If you do not have any tools to evaluate if a protection system is good or bad, it simply becomes very difficult to design. Therefore, our model is an important tool”, says Karin Brolin. Karin Brolin is Professor at Chalmers and one of the researchers who worked in the research team that developed the model. She was recruited to Chalmers 2009 to drive and develop human modeling at Chalmers and SAFER. Recruitment was based on a need that the industry saw. One of the projects she started working with was A-HBM, an abbreviation of Active Human Models.<br /><br />&quot;The project would have the human models that existed for crash simulations to simulate muscle activity in living people. This to use them to simulate what happens to the human body and muscles before a crash&quot;, says Karin Brolin.<br /><br />Bengt Pipkorn is the Director of Simulation and Active Structures at Autoliv Research and confirms that the model is an important tool with great benefit to Autoliv.<br /><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/TM/Nyheter/Bilder/krockdocka.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br />&quot;Through the model, we have had new collaborative projects with both new and old customers. New ideas for improvements to existing products have been presented, we have been able to hire more people who will help the development of new products with the help of the tool. In addition, the Swedish automotive industry with its subcontractors is alone in having this unique tool, which gives competitive advantages to competitors in Europe and the rest of the world”, says Bengt Pipkorn.<br /><br />Lotta Jakobsson, senior technical leader in Injury prevention, part of the Volvo Cars Safety Center says that it meant that the different parties could focus on what each one is best at.<br /><br />&quot;For us, it has meant that we can focus on our business's primary objective of developing safe cars. This is thanks to the great support we have received through Chalmers strong commitment&quot;, says Lotta Jakobsson.<br />The project has also required the development of numerical methods to be combined with experimental activities to create validation data for SAFER A-HBM. Therefore, several experiments to measure muscle activity of drivers and passengers in cars that have been braked and pivoted have been carried out by the project's PhD Students led by Associate Professor Johan Davidsson in close cooperation with the industrial partners.<br /><br />Collaboration with industry has been very important for the success of the project, says Karin Brolin. From the start, Chalmers has had meetings with industry once a month. During these work meetings, participants have discussed problems and possible solutions and given feedback on each other's activities in the project, which has continually pushed the project forward.<br /><br />&quot;With the feedback we received from industry, we have known what works and what does not work. It has not only enabled us to quickly get the model to the industry where it makes practical use, we have also gained new research ideas and made us the first in the world with this type of model&quot;, says Karin Brolin.<br /><br />The A-HBM project has been completed in several stages and is a SAFER project funded by Vinnova and FFI.<br /><br /><br />Fri, 03 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0100