News: Mechanics and Maritime Sciences Impacthttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologySun, 19 Sep 2021 15:25:45 +0200http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Safer-ship-design-will-reduce-the-risk-of-accidents.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Safer-ship-design-will-reduce-the-risk-of-accidents.aspxSafer ship design will reduce the risk of accidents<p><b>​The Chalmers researcher Jonas Ringsberg has together with colleagues in South Korea contributed to design and software for the industry on how ships can be designed to reduce the risk of accidents at arctic and cryogenic temperatures.​</b></p>​Shipping is constantly looking for new fuels that have as low environmental impact as possible. A fuel that has become increasingly popular is liquefied natural gas, known as LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas). It’s already used today in cruise ships, passenger ships and container ships. <div><br /></div> <div>In the risk analysis for the ships' panel structures that have an important structural function, one has in the design assumed that LNG leakage will very rarely occur and to some extent taken various measures to ensure that LNG does not come into contact with the panels. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>There is currently a lack of knowledge about how an LNG leakage would affect the properties of the metallic material if it occurs at the same time as the ship is out in severe weather where it’s exposed to difficult wind and wave conditions. The purpose of the project has been to compare physical model experiments and results from computer-based simulations. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“With the right knowledge, models and numerical analysis technology, we can ensure that the design of panel structures in ships that are exposed to arctic or cryogenic temperatures meets the expectations and requirements they have concerning the loads that may occur” says Jonas Ringsberg. </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">The results applied with commercial software </h3> <div>The project's simulation models and results regarding buckling strength at arctic and cryogenic temperatures have already been applied with commercial software to help the industry develop revised guidelines for the design of ship structures exposed to these low temperatures. This in turn will lead to that ships that are now being developed having higher safety in the event of LNG leakage. </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Tests in ICASS - unique research infrastructure </h3> <div>The physical tests were performed in a unique test facility in South Korea called The International Center for Advanced Safety Studies (ICASS) and are operated by the Korea Ship and Offshore Research Institute (KOSORI) located at Pusan National University in South Korea. With the collaboration, Chalmers has been included as a research partner, which means access to the unique facility. Something that pleases Jonas Ringsberg. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;It's very positive. The corresponding testing is not possible in Europe&quot; says Jonas Ringsberg. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Swedish Research Council project has the name &quot;Fundamental research on the ultimate compressive strength of ship stiffened plate structures at Arctic and cryogenic temperatures&quot; and received funding from the Swedish Research Council’s bilateral cooperation between Sweden and South Korea.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Read more</h3> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=8736">Fundamental research on the ultimate compressive strength of ship stiffened plate structures at Arctic and cryogenic temperatures</a><br /></div> <div><a href="https://www.lrfoundation.org.uk/en/impact-stories/kosori-test-facilities/">Impact Story from Lloyd's Register Foundation: Opening the doors of large-scale testing facilities​</a><br /></div>Thu, 25 Feb 2021 09:15:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/They’re-developing-an-AI-based-ship-support-system.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/They%E2%80%99re-developing-an-AI-based-ship-support-system.aspxThey’re developing an AI-based ship support system<p><b>​A group of Swedish technology entrepreneurs and researchers from Chalmers have joined forces to develop an AI-based system for executing the most energy-efficient sea voyages.</b></p>​Swedish ship propulsion optimization experts, Lean Marine and AI-application developers Molflow have been collaborating with academics from the Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg to develop a new AI-powered, semi-autonomous system for planning and executing more energy-efficient sea voyages since the project commenced in August 2020. The project goes by the name Via Kaizen and is funded by the Swedish Transport Administration. <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">AI systems give the captain advice on how the voyage should be carried out </h3> <div>The technology available in the companies enables a high degree of digitization and automation in vessel operations. The systems optimize the propulsion line dynamically, in real-time, based on orders given by the AI system that has been developed. Data collected from the AI system and other signals on-board are then fed into a cloud-based performance management platform which shares information with other systems. With &quot;Deep Learning&quot; technologies, the systems will then be able to determine, given the constraints of the route and the ship, the most energy-efficient voyage and calculate the commands that need to be set to reach the destination with the least possible amount of fuel consumed. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Linus Ideskog, development manager at Lean Marine, says that when the perfect simulated journey is determined, their system steps in and creates an interface between the captain and the AI-based solution for travel planning. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;This gives human and machine the opportunity to collaborate and carry out the journey in an optimal way. The system can automatically and directly optimize the propulsion machinery based on commands given by the captain or received directly from the AI-solution&quot; says Linus Ideskog. </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>Reduces emissions from shipping </span></h3> <div><span style="background-color:initial">From an academic perspective, naval architect researchers at the Chalmers University of Technology are working in close collaboration with Lean Marine and Molflow on the development of new methods, models, and algorithms. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>“In this project, we at Chalmers will develop dynamic ship speed-power performance models by combining theoretical naval architecture knowledge with AI to predict the dynamic time series of a ship’s propulsive power when the ship is encountering different wind and wave conditions” says Wengang Mao, professor at the Division of Marine Technology at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Researchers from social anthropology and human factors at Gothenburg University and Linnaeus University are conducting research on what happens to practices onboard and ashore as the new technology is implemented. The Swedish Shipowners’ Association is also participating in the project, providing vital insights and input from the Swedish shipping industry and by contributing to the dissemination of research findings and development information to the Swedish maritime industry. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In addition to the project partners, a trio of ship owners and operators are involved in the project, including chemical/product tanker owner and operator, Rederiet Stenersen and pure car and truck carrier (PCTC) owner and operator, UECC. By offering their vessels for technology and product validations, they will enable onboard testing, and the results will be directly evaluated within the scope of the project. Mikael Laurin, CEO of Lean Marine, says: </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We believe this project will contribute considerably to the reduction of emissions both from international and domestic transportation, importantly making Swedish shipping more sustainable and competitive in the long-term.”<br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Read more</h3> <div><a href="https://leanmarine.com/2020/12/09/ai-powered-ship-operation-support-system-developed-by-swedish-consortium/">Press release from Lean Marine</a><br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/wengang-mao.aspx">Wengang Mao​</a></div> <div></div>Fri, 11 Dec 2020 08:30:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Maritime-informatics---An-area-on-the-rise.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Maritime-informatics---An-area-on-the-rise.aspxMaritime informatics - An area on the rise<p><b>​During the autumn, Chalmers started a Tracks course in Transport Informatics. At the same time, one of the first books on the subject with a focus on Maritime Informatics was released. A key person in the development of the book is Mikael Lind, visiting researcher at Mechanics and Maritime Sciences.</b></p>​Mikael Lind is a senior strategic research advisor at the Swedish Research Institute, RISE, focusing on digital innovation in sustainable transport. Since 2018, he is also a visiting researcher at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences. He has been highly involved in shedding light upon the area of Maritime Informatics.<div> <div>It's about using digitalisation to support decision-makers in the maritime industry. This emerging field unites practitioners and researchers in helping to improve the efficiency, safety, sustainability and resilience of shipping. Digitization is an opportunity to ensure maritime supply chains being conducted with higher predictability and transparency. </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>Decision support for a self-organizing ecosystem</span></h3> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The maritime industry is unique because it is a self-organizing ecosystem, without any operational coordination body, constituted by many autonomous actors acting in competition. Therefore, it's important to address maritime informatics as an independent part, but a subset, of informatics according to Mikael Lind. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/Mikael%20Lind.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Mikael Lind" style="margin:5px" />“By an applied science, both engaging researchers and practitioners joining forces in providing insights, experiences and opportunities for something that is a big concern for everyone; to secure value-added service to the clients of the sector” says Mikael Lind. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The applications of the research within maritime informatics are many. Mikael Lind exemplifies some of them through enhanced supply chain visibility for the clients of maritime transport chains, enhanced resource optimization for actors across the supply chain, conduction of maritime transports with high capital productivity and energy efficiency, protection of the planet and supporting reliable humanitarian deliveries such as food and medicines. It also means new markets and open innovation as well as third-party initiatives associated with supporting the above. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">With the recently released book Maritime Informatics, Mikael Lind, who acts as editor and co-author of 12 of the book's 23 chapters, wants to offer maritime industry leaders an understanding of the potential of maritime informatics so that they can improve their capital productivity and energy efficiency. The book can also be a support for improving decision-making and provides data analysis staff in the maritime industry with tools for learning to handle, report and analyze spatial time data. It will also be a suitable textbook for students studying maritime informatics. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The book is co-written by 81 people, out of 47 practitioners and 34 applied researchers, from 20 nations. From Chalmers, Fredrik Olindersson from the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences and Carl Sjöberger from the Department of Technology Management and Economics participates. </span></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>Tracks course in Transport Informatics </span></h3> <div><span style="background-color:initial">At the same time as the book was released, Chalmers started a new tracks course in Transport Informatics. An initiative that Mikael Lind applauds. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“I think it is fantastic that Chalmers has taken a prime move to deliver capabilities of digitalization to tomorrow’s needed competencies in transport informatics. This is something that will be required by people that are working within or improving maritime transport operations. As we also know is that 90 percent of the products that we see has been in some transport chain leg been transported by the sea why the enhanced improvement of shipping is something that is of great concern for the many people in the world.” </span></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>Read more: </span></h3></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://bit.ly/2KFcj5X">The book – Maritime Informatics </a></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://student.portal.chalmers.se/sv/chalmersstudier/tracks/Documents/Transport%20informatics_poster.pdf">Tracks course – Transport informatics </a></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://maritimeinformatics.org/">www.maritimeinformatics.org</a></span><br /></div> <div></div></div>Fri, 04 Dec 2020 11:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/The-shuttlecock---A-science-in-itself.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/The-shuttlecock---A-science-in-itself.aspxSynthetic shuttlecock on its way to the world cup<p><b>​The Badminton World Federation (BWF) uses test methods developed at Chalmers to show that synthetic balls can replace shuttlecocks. Chalmers' test method is currently being used to produce balls for the World Cup.</b></p>​Shuttlecocks used in major competitions such as the Olympics and the World Cup have long been made of goose feathers. The aerodynamic properties have been considered superior to those shuttles made of synthetic material, especially in smash and net games, but that is changing. <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Challenges with traditional shuttlecocks </h2> <div>Shuttles made of goose feathers require a large amount of needlework and are made in Asia, often under doubtful working conditions. The feathers are harvested, cleaned and sorted according to length and angle, then they are fixed in a shuttlecock which is tested with many manual operations during all manufacturing steps. The shuttlecocks also require careful handling. They must be stored in regulated humidity and temperature to maintain their performance. Another problem is that they have a relatively short life in games. Manufacturers are now looking for alternatives with shuttles made of synthetic material. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Manufacturers in need of scientific tests </h2> <div>The test methods used for shuttlecocks uses professional players who have smashed the shuttlecocks a certain number of times and they have also tested games by the net to assess ball paths. The method works acceptably for shuttlecocks, but when synthetic balls were to be tested, one began to realize that the methods were too subjective. A more scientific approach was desired. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Christer Forsgren" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/Christer_Forsgren_170x220.jpg" style="margin:5px" />BWF started looking for solutions and talked to the company that tests shuttlecocks for them, Polyfor AB. It’s run by former elite player Christer Forsgren. He studied chemical engineering at Chalmers and has been active for seven years as an adjunct professor of industrial materials recycling at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering. Through his company, he has tested and approved balls for BWF for about 35 years. For Christer Forsgren, the contact with Chalmers was his first choice. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div>“Research in fluid dynamics and Chalmers' investment in sports technology is a good combination for developing test methods&quot; says Christer Forsgren. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div>The contact with Chalmers resulted in a research project that BWF decided to fund. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Tests in Chalmers’ Laboratory of Fluids and Thermal Sciences </h2> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Valery Chernoray" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/Valery%20Chernoray_I0A5484_170x170px.jpg" style="margin:5px" />Valery Chernoray is a research professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences and led the project with testing, that was performed by Satheesh Kaviladhikarakunnathu Puthanveeti, a former masters student at Chalmers. Valery says that they figured out and tested many different variants of test methods. They summarized everything in a report that BWF now uses to show that Chalmers' methods work, are objective and based on science and research. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div>“We have developed reliable methods for testing two performance characteristics that interest BWF. One is smash resistance or shot resistance which can be described as durability during repeated smashes and tumbling which is about performance in net games” says Valery Chernoray. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div>The rig built at Chalmers can simulate smashes up to 200 km / h. A professional racket is mounted on a carbon fibre arm that is driven by springs that are pulled up with a winch. The shuttles are held in place using a thin plastic tube and vacuum. The smashes are then filmed with a high-speed camera.</div> <div> </div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="​Shuttlecock and racket" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/badminton%20test.jpg" style="margin:5px;width:304px;height:231px" />&quot;With help from the films, we first check that the shuttle is smashed in a correct way and then we calculate the smashing speed. After each smash, we photograph the ball and measure how far the ball has flown to see if the damage to the ball has affected the performance. After ten smashes, the shuttles are packed and sent to RISE, Sweden’s research institute​, for material testing&quot; says Valery Chernoray. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div>For tumbling, they use a stationary ball and an angled racket that moves along an angled path. The test shuttles are filmed with a high-speed camera and the images are processed to calculate how many times the balls tumble. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">The manufacturers work in the direction of synthetic shuttlecocks </h2> <div>All major manufacturers such as Yonex and Mizuno are now working intensively towards synthetic shuttles and the synthetic shuttles produced today are much better than a few years ago and are considered very good by both professional players and test teams. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div>“They are still a bit too fragile and can only handle two to four powerful smashes from the strongest elite players. But they could already be approved for, for example, Junior World Cup games” says Valery Chernoray. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div>Christer Forsgren explains the two shortcomings in today's synthetic shuttles. One is smash resistance. The shuttle becomes soft and does not return to its original shape fast enough, which is why it does not brake enough in the air for the smash to be returned. The second limitation is tumbling at nets. If the player hits the impact part, the cork, with the racket a little crooked, the shuttle can start to tumble, which makes it difficult to hit the shuttle towards the baseline with a controlled hit. But Christer Forsgren is hopeful that the synthetic shuttlecocks will be used. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div>“I'm a little doubtful about if there will be synthetic shuttles for the Olympics in Paris 2024, but I think there will be synthetic shuttles in the Olympics in Los Angeles 2028” says Christer Forsgren.​</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Read more</h2> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/The-world%27s-fastest-ball-game-to-become-synthetic.aspx">The world's fastest ball game to become synthetic​</a></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/The-world%27s-fastest-ball-game-to-become-synthetic.aspx"></a><a href="/en/departments/m2/simulator-labs/labs/chalmerswindtunnels/Pages/default.aspx">Chalmers Laboratory of Fluids and Thermal Science​</a><br /><a href="/en/centres/sportstechnology/Pages/default.aspx">Chalmers Sports &amp; Technology​</a><br /></div>Tue, 13 Oct 2020 14:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Scrubber-discharge-water---.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Scrubber-discharge-water---.aspxScrubber discharge water – A toxic cocktail<p><b>​​The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea recommends avoidance of discharge of wash water from scrubbers. This recommendation is based on a background report produced by a group led by Ida-Maja Hassellöv, professor at Chalmers.</b></p>​On September 24, the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES) publish a so-called Viewpoint. A report that aims to provide impartial evidence-based analyses of marine science topics of potentially high importance to managers and society. This year's Viewpoint is about effects on the marine environment as a result of wide-scale scrubber use. The r​ecommendation is clear: do not discharge scrubber water. <div><br /></div> <div>A scrubber is used to clean ship exhaust gases, especially regarding sulfur oxides. By washing the exhaust gases in a fine spray of seawater, the emission of acidifying sulfur oxides to the atmosphere is reduced. However, the scrubber discharge water is very acidic and may contain other pollutants such as heavy metals and organic substances. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>A fossil fuel 'lock-in' </span></h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The Chalmers researcher Ida-Maja Hassellöv, a professor in maritime environmental science, has led the work, coordinating a group of 17 researchers from different countries to produce a background report on the effects of scrubber discharge water on the marine environment. She describes the discharge water from scrubbers as a toxic cocktail of various substances. The emissions from scrubber use are also extensive regarding metals and organic pollutants, compared with the content of other types of wastewater generated on board ships. Of the more than 8,000 vessels that operated in the Baltic Sea in 2018, less than 2% were equipped with scrubbers. Despite this, the scrubber water from these ships is estimated to have released ten to a hundred times more metals and organic pollutants to the marine environment, compared to what was released in total from all other wastewater generated on board on all 8,000 ships. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“It is really negative for the marine environment; beyond pollutants, the scrubber discharge water is often heavily acidic and sometimes contains high levels of nutrients. The use of scrubbers also means a continued opportunity for ships to burn heavy fuel oil, which means a lock-in in the use of fossil fuels. In addition, there are indications that ships’ use of heavy fuel oil can also be used to get rid of toxic waste” says Ida-Maja Hassellöv. </span></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>The consequences are difficult to survey </span></h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">There are major commercial interests in scrubbers, both from manufacturers and the oil industry. Ida-Maja Hassellöv hopes that ICES' scientific analysis and recommendation on discharges of scrubbing water from a marine environment perspective will be an important signal to, for example, the UN International Maritime Organization, IMO and governments around the world that this is something that needs to be better regulated. The consequences of the discharge of scrubber water are today difficult to assess. They include both acidifying effects, ecotoxicological effects and sometimes eutrophication. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“The effects of chemical mixtures are something that we know very little about. Last year, Christina Rudén, a professor in regulatory toxicology at Stockholm University, suggested in a government’s official investigation that all limits for toxic chemicals should be lowered to one-tenth of today's levels because we don’t know enough about what the safe levels should be when it comes to chemical mixtures” says Ida-Maja Hassellöv. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">In several ports around the world, discharges of scrubber water have been banned and in Sweden, two ports have chosen to ban discharges, but there is no national regulation in place. However, the issue is under investigation and together with her Chalmers colleagues Erik Ytreberg and Anna Lunde Hermansson, Ida-Maja Hassellöv has submitted a background report to the Swedish Transport Agency and the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management, which will propose a national strategy for the Government Offices this autumn.</span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span><br /></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>Read more</span></h3></div> <div><a href="http://ices.dk/news-and-events/news-archive/news/Pages/ViewpointSSDW.aspx"><span>Viewpoint - </span><span style="background-color:initial">ICES highlights risks associated with ships' scrubber discharge water</span>​</a><span style="background-color:initial"></span></div> <div><span><a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/The-fumes-of-concern-are-sent-below-the-surface-.aspx">The fumes of concern are sent below the surface​</a><br /><a href="/en/staff/Pages/idamaja.aspx">Ida-Maja Hassellöv</a></span></div> <div></div>Thu, 24 Sep 2020 08:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Safety-system-that-understands-human-behavior-will-save-cyclists.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Safety-system-that-understands-human-behavior-will-save-cyclists.aspxSafety system that understands human behavior will save cyclists<p><b>​In the project MICA, sponsored by FFI, researchers from Chalmers have investigated the interaction among cyclists and vehicles. They have developed a smart safety system that could reduce the number of fatal accidents in traffic with cyclists involved by up to 96 percent.</b></p><p>​The smart safety system continuously predicts what a driver should do to overtake a cyclist safely. The system acts when it sees a mismatch between what the driver does and what she or he should be doing. By collecting data from a test track, researchers have investigated how different factors affect behaviour in overtaking manoeuvres with oncoming traffic. Based on the data, the researchers have modelled how vehicles approach cyclists and integrated the models in frontal collision warnings and automatic emergency braking systems. The safety benefits from the systems have been evaluated through virtual simulation. </p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">“The smart collision warning alone promises a reduction of cyclists fatalities by 53-96 percent and a reduction of cyclists serious injuries by 43-93 percent” says Marco Dozza, professor at the Division of Vehicle Safety. </span></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Supports the Swedish car industry</span></h2> <p>The research results support the Swedish car industry in maintaining its world-leading role in designing advanced solutions for active safety. The models developed in the project can predict the driver's intention when approaching a cyclist from behind to perform an overtaking. These models can be integrated with existing systems and provide input on how an automated vehicle should safely and comfortably overtake a cyclist. </p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;Our research supports the development of safety systems that can help a driver or an automated vehicle interact with cyclists safely. We have taken the driver models from a TRL level of 1-2 to a TRL level of 5 for this scenario&quot; says Marco Dozza. </span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">TRL, Technology Readiness Level is a designation for a technology's maturity and associated technological risk. In research-intensive activities, technology maturity levels are used to confirm what activities are needed to implement the research results in new products/processes. TRL 5 means that the system is validated in a relevant environment. </span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">The research results may also affect test scenarios for Euro NCAP that provide consumer information on the safety of new cars. The goal of the Euro NCAP is a safer traffic environment, as well as fewer injuries in connection with accidents. </span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">The MICA2 project has already been granted and will expand MICA, developing new active and passive safety systems that can support a driver during all phases of an overtaking manoeuvre. </span></p> <p><a href="https://www.saferresearch.com/events/welcome-safer-seminar-mica-1-modelling-interaction-between-cyclists-and-automobile">On June 17, the research results will be presented at a seminar via Zoom​</a><span style="background-color:initial">. </span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600"><br /></span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600">Videos from data collection in the project</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="https://youtu.be/AixQ189hMi4">Flying overtaking with oncoming traffic (inside view)​ </a></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="https://youtu.be/GSVPrXSHLSI">Accelerative overtaking with oncoming traffic (outside view)​​</a><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="https://youtu.be/W1O2E0vYhCY">Flying overtaking with oncoming traffic (outside view)​</a><br /></p> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>Project webite</span></h3> <div><span><span></span><a href="/en/projects/Pages/MICA---Modelling-Interaction-between-Cyclists-and-Automobiles.aspx">MICA - Modelling Interaction between Cyclists and Automobiles</a><br /></span></div>Fri, 12 Jun 2020 09:30:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Vraka-saves-Swedish-water-from-oil-leakage.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Vraka-saves-Swedish-water-from-oil-leakage.aspxVraka saves Swedish water from oil leakage<p><b>​Some of the 30 most environmentally hazardous wrecks in Swedish water have been investigated and recovered on 360,000 litres of oil during 2017-2019. To prioritize among the wrecks and carry out oil recovery operations where they are most useful, the Swedish Agency for Marine and Water Management (SwAM) has used the risk assessment tool VRAKA, which was developed by Chalmers.</b></p><p>​There are about 17 000 shipwrecks along the coasts of Sweden and the Swedish Maritime Administration, in collaboration with among others Chalmers and SwAM classified 300 of them as hazardous for the environment. About 30 of the shipwrecks pose an acute environmental threat. They contain large amounts of oil that may leak. Shipwrecks leaking oil pose risk to marine life in Swedish waters. Organisms living in the vicinity of the shipwreck are mainly affected but the oil can also spread to other areas with the water currents. </p> <p><br /></p> <p>SwAM has since 2016 had the responsibility to coordinate the investigations and the recovery of oil and ghost nets (old fishing gear that has remained in the sea and lakes that can continue to fish and catch birds, and other marine animals) from shipwrecks. With the help of Chalmers model, they have been able to prioritize among the wrecks. </p> <p><br /></p> <p>“Before we decide which shipwreck to be recovered from oil, we can use the model to estimate the probability of a leak, the volume of oil in the wreck and where the oil is likely to end up in case of an oil leakage” says Fredrik Lindgren, an analyst at SwAM who previously worked on VRAKA during his doctoral studies at Chalmers. </p> <p></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>To date, 360,000 litres of oil have been </span><span>recovered </span></h2> <p></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">Since 2017, the model has been used for investigation and oil recovery operations of the six wrecks Thetis, Skytteren, Sandön, Hoheneichen, Lindesnäs and Finnbirch. They are all close to sensitive natural areas where oil leaks could have major, negative impacts on the environment, outdoor life and tourism. </span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">Sandön and Hoheneichen proved to be empty of oil but from Thetis, Lindesnäs and Finnbirch they managed to recover a total of about 360,000 litres of oil and a large amount of ghost net. From Thetis, they also manage to recover 12 tonnes of purse seine (a kind of fishing gear) and during the recovery operation of Lindesnäs, a 46-meter long ghost net was found which was stuck to the wreck. The ghost net was recovered and left ashore for recycling or destruction. </span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">The purpose of the investigation of Skytteren was, among other things, to get data to VRAKA for assessment. SwAM's assessment, however, was that an oil recovery operation is very likely to cost more than SwAM's annual budget for environmentally hazardous shipwrecks in Swedish waters. SwAM has requested funding from the government to increase the budget during a financial year, so that they can recover oil from Skytteren as well. </span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial">From 2018, SwAM was granted SEK 25 million per year until 2027 for research and oil recovery operations. Starting in 2020, the budget is SEK 30 million per year. VRAKA made the funding possible. Carrying out oil recovery operations is costly, from five to hundreds of millions. It is important to make qualified assessments of which wrecks that should be prioritized for oil recovery operations. VRAKA made the prioritization possible and SwAM can now use the funds to make the greatest environmental benefit by removing the threats to the environment from the wrecks that pose the greatest risk.</span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></p> <p><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/eulogo.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Logotypes from the EU" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /><br /></span></p> <p></p>Fri, 29 May 2020 08:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Virtual-approval-of-locomotives-enables-more-goods-by-rail.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Virtual-approval-of-locomotives-enables-more-goods-by-rail.aspxVirtual approval of locomotives enables more goods by rail<p><b>​Thanks to experience and knowledge built up within the Chalmers Railway Mechanics competence center, numerical tools were able to replace expensive geotechnical investigations. This gave Green Cargo the clear sign to use stronger locomotives, with just a few restrictions from the Swedish Transport Administration.</b></p>​In the short term, it means millions of Swedish crowns in savings. In the longer term, it strengthens the competitiveness of train transport and enables the transfer of transport from road to rail. This means reduced carbon dioxide emissions for heavier transport. <div><br /></div> <div>The classification of railway vehicles affects the distances they can operate. The freight train operator Green Cargo needed to install locomotives with greater traction to get a reasonable economy in their freight transport. This meant that heavier locomotives with three-axis bogies would have to operate lanes that were normally operated by lighter, two-axis locomotives. However, the Swedish Transport Administration could not allow the heavier three-axis locomotives to traffic the lanes if the safety could not be guaranteed. The situation was so critical that it became a standing point at the meetings between the Swedish Transport Administration's Director General and Green Cargo's CEO. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The classification of Green Cargo's three-axis locomotive meant that the locomotive was in a higher class than many lanes have been classified for, which could mean low operating speeds. For bridges, calculation tools are available to analyze the impact of specific vehicles, but for geotechnics the situation was more complicated. An analysis may require expensive and cumbersome soil samples and the remaining geotechnical restrictions were numerous. <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/andersekberg.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Anders Ekberg" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Anders Ekberg is the director of the competence center Chalmers Railway Mechanics (Charmec). He says that the main challenge for Charmec was to understand the problem. But with the help of the contacts and the understanding built up between Charmec's partners, a solution was soon to be found. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>“In a few meetings with intermediate analyzes, we were able to gain insight through the experience and knowledge we have gained in previous projects. Once the solution method was identified, we could relatively easily reach a solution using our numerical tools” says Anders Ekberg. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>In-house models from Chalmers provided a solution</span><span>​</span></h2> <div>The researchers from Chalmers proposed a comparative analysis between the stress resulting from a two-axis locomotive and that of a three-axis locomotive. Using in-house models their analysis showed that the marginally lower load per axis of the locomotive actually made the resulting stress in the ground lower for the three-axis locomotive despite this loco having an additional axle. To further analyze load, the Swedish Transport Administration conducted a dynamic analysis using software developed within Charmec.​</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The analysis supported the conclusion that the locomotives provided a lower load on filling material and the underlying soil. The Swedish Transport Administration was now able to reduce the number of restrictions for Green Cargo's three-axis locomotives” says Ibrahim Coric head of Maintenance Railway system Permission Construction at the Swedish Transport Administration. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Markus Gardbring is head of Green Cargo's operations and believes that it is of great importance for their operations. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Green Cargo can now use stronger locomotives and demolish a large number of circulations for a number of larger customers, which leads to more efficient freight transport and is a prerequisite for us to be able to have more goods on the railway&quot; says Markus Gardbring. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Contributes to reduced carbon dioxide emissions</span><span>​</span></h2> <div>Another benefit is that heavier locomotives with more redundant traction slip less, which reduces maintenance costs. Markus Gardbring also sees gains in the longer term. The Swedish rail network is being rebuilt to allow longer trains. The Swedish government has decided to reduce 70 percent of all carbon dioxide emissions for heavier transport by 2030. The segment that can easily be transferred to rail is intermodal goods. Longer trains are more cost-effective and a prerequisite for enabling competition with trucks in an extremely competitive market. The traction force of the locomotive will be decisive as the weight rather than the length becomes limiting for the number of wagons per train.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Read more about Charmec</h2> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Railway-researchers-awarded-for-societal-impact.aspx">Railway researchers awarded for societal impact​</a><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/European-railway-harmony-better-for-the-climate.aspx">European railway harmony is better for the climate​</a><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Prediction-of-cracking-increases-the-railway%27s-reliability.aspx">Prediction of cracking increases the railway's reliability​</a><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/CHARMEC---A-prerequisite-for-a-functioning-railway.aspx">CHARMEC - A prerequisite for a functioning railway​</a><br /></div>Wed, 06 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/Experts-Traffic-deaths-halved-by-2030.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/Experts-Traffic-deaths-halved-by-2030.aspxExperts: Fatal road accidents halved by year 2030<p><b>​Over 1.3 million people die in traffic accidents every year. Consequently, traffic accidents are the most common cause of death in certain age groups. The world's experts are now gathering in Stockholm to discuss new UN goals for road safety, developed under the leadership of Chalmers professor Claes Tingvall.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Transports and traffic are fundamental parts of life for most of us. From our homes, we step into a traffic system that takes us to work, school, business, health care or to our loved ones.</span><div>But at the same time, 1.3 million people are killed in road accidents and 50 million people are injured – every year. Most accidents, as much as 93 per cent, occur in low- and middle-income countries, where the resources and technical solutions for road safety are lacking to a larger extent.<br /><br /></div> <div>“The problem of road accidents has not diminished the way we hoped. The recommendations proposed by our expert group are effective actions – it is now a matter if it gets done or not”, says Claes Tingvall, adjunct professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers and chair of the academic expert group that has developed new UN targets for world road safety.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_bilder-utan-fast-format/Claes%20Tingvall_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">he overall goal is to reduce the number of deaths and serious injuries as a result of traffic accidents by fifty per cent over the next ten years. To achieve this goal by the year 2030, Claes Tingvall is certain about the way forward:</span><br /></div> <div>“We must constantly point to science as the solution to societal problems. Then stick to it and act accordingly!”<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">A public health issue</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">On February 19–20, 2020, the world's leading road safety experts will convene together with decision-makers and ministers in Stockholm for the third global conference on road safety within the UN. There, the expert group's opinion will be indicative for the global cooperation for safer traffic.</span></div> <div>The academic expert group, chaired by Claes Tingvall, is composed of 13 experts from around the world and has been tasked with developing complementary methods, processes and tools for the new decade's global traffic safety. The fundament has been the global goals for sustainable development and Agenda 2030.<br /><br /></div> <div>“The lack of road safety is a public health issue. More than 100,000 children die each year in traffic accidents, making it the most common cause of death for in certain age groups. But it is possible to solve the problem, provided that scientifically developed methods are used”, says Claes Tingvall.<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Collaboration is the key</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">oday broad research is being conducted in vehicle and road safety at Chalmers. The focus is, among other things, on understanding why accidents occur and how they can be prevented, as well as minimizing injuries to the human body when it is exposed to the extreme stresses that often occur in traffic accidents. Historically, vehicle and traffic safety has been a strong research area at Chalmers and the development of modern seat belts, child safety seats and airbags originated at the university.<br /><br /></span></div> <div>Research within road safety will be even more significant in the future as the volume of traffic is constantly increasing. According to the UN, the world's cities will grow by over 50 per cent in the next 30 years. It is important to have knowledge of how to develop roads and infrastructures in the best possible way as it is being built, while scientific solutions are applied and developed in already existing traffic systems.<br /><br /></div> <div>Magnus Granström is the director of the Safer competence centre at Chalmers, where multidisciplinary research is conducted in road safety. At Safer, various research areas – such as systems for accident prevention, road user behaviour, human body protection and safety performance evaluations – connect. Magnus Granström believes that there are many sub-areas to focus on in road safety, and unprotected road users will be a special challenge as we see an increasing number of cyclists, electric scooters and pedestrians.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_puffbilder/Magnus_Granstrom_350_cropped.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">Universities need to continue to invest in a breadth of research, as there is no single answer to the question of how traffic should continue to become safer. Above all, understanding the complexity of future traffic systems with different types of road users will be necessary”, says Magnus Granström.<br /></span><br /></div> <div>To reach the goal of cutting the number of deaths and injuries by half, Magnus Granström believes that the research community needs to gain further insight into existing obstacles. For example, he points to an over-reliance in automated vehicles and their contribution to increased safety, as well as a lack of system thinking among researchers and financiers, who instead focus too much on individual areas and personas.</div> <div>“The main key to achieving this goal is collaboration between the various players – industry, academia and politics”, says Magnus Granström.<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Recommendations with a clear vision</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">he academic group of experts has presented a total of nine scientifically based recommendations. If the recommendations are followed, the expert group believes that the goal of reducing the number of deaths by half is likely to be achieved by 2030. The recommendations are interconnected and will guide the work on road safety as part of the Global Sustainable Development Goals. And for the first time, road safety is now included in international objectives through agenda 2030.</span></div> <div>“With the global goals, which point out who should do what, we have access to both the private and the public sector, and thus can benefit from the synergies that exist between climate, health and justice. For example, speed connects to clean air, climate and security”, says Claes Tingvall.<br /><br /></div> <div>At the same time, he emphasizes the fact that the most powerful tools will also make the greatest impact. Those tools are mainly about sustainability reporting and public procurement. If the work on road safety is integrated with these tools, large effects can be achieved. The report that the expert group recently released highlights collaborations between politics, academia, business and other organizations on a global scale.</div> <div>“To solve the problems in low-income countries, where the problems are greatest, you need to apply the simple and cheap solutions that already exist. In high-income countries, all known methods must be applied – it's as simple as that”, says Claes Tingvall.<br /><br /></div> <div>Text: Anders Ryttarson Törneholm and Mia Malmstedt<br />Photos: Rune Borgström, Emmy Jonsson and Pixabay</div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: The Sustainable Development Goals</h3> <div>The Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Road safety is directly connected to two of the 17 global goals:</div> <div> </div> <div>Goal 3: Good health and well-being</div> <div> </div> <div>Target 3.6:  Halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents.</div> <div> </div> <div>Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities</div> <div> </div> <div>Target 11.2: Provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Road safety also affects many of the other global goals indirectly.</div></div> <div><div><a href="https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgs">​Read more about the UN Sustainable Development Goals here!</a></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: Nine recommendations for safer traffic</h3> <div>The expert group's recommendations is divided into:<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>1. Modal Shift</div> <div> </div> <div>2. Sustainable Practices and Reporting</div> <div> </div> <div>3. Safe Vehicles across the Globe</div> <div> </div> <div>4. Childrens Health</div> <div> </div> <div>5. Public Procurement</div> <div> </div> <div>6. Speed limit of 30 kph</div> <div> </div> <div>7. Upgrade Infrastructure</div> <div> </div> <div>8. Zero Speeding</div> <div> </div> <div>9. Technology</div></div> <div><div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="https://www.roadsafetysweden.com/about-the-conference/recommendations-from-academic-expert-group/">Watch film clips with Claes Tingvall explaining each recommendation!</a></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="https://www.roadsafetysweden.com/contentassets/c65bb9192abb44d5b26b633e70e0be2c/200113_final-report-single.pdf">Read the full report from the expert group here.</a></div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: Safer</h3> <div> </div> <div>Safer is a centre of excellence for vehicle and traffic safety which conducts collaborative, interdisciplinary research and knowledge transfer to eliminate fatalities and serious injuries in traffic. Chalmers is the host for the center, which has in total 35 partners from academia, industry and society.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="https://www.saferresearch.com/">Read more about Safer.</a></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"> </h3> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: A pre-event on the night before the UN conference arranged by Safer</h3> <div> </div> <div><span></span> <span style="background-color:initial">On the evening of February 18, the day before the UN conference, Safer organizes a pre-event in Stockholm. The focus will be, among other things, on collaborations and new research. Participants include Fredrik Hörstedt, Chalmers Vice President of Utilisation, and speakers from the European Commission and Volvo. About 200 guests are expected, including EU commissioners, decision-makers and Swedish parliament politicians. Most of the guests come from countries with many fatal road accidents, including Uganda, Liberia, India and Nigeria.</span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“We hope to spread the message about our way of collaborating to the international actors participating it our event, and at the same time create even better communication between both partners and research areas”, says Magnus Granström, Director at Safer.<br /><br /><a href="https://www.saferresearch.com/events/borderless-research-save-lives-dinner-event-how-vision-zero-can-be-addressed-collaboration">Read more about the pre-event!</a><br /><br />Previous news article about Claes Tingvall: <a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Will-develop-new-global-goals-for-road-safety-in-the-UN.aspx">Will develop new global goals for road safety​</a></div></div> Wed, 12 Feb 2020 19:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/European-railway-harmony-better-for-the-climate.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/European-railway-harmony-better-for-the-climate.aspxEuropean railway harmony is better for the climate<p><b>​Transporting goods by train instead of by truck is one of the keys to more sustainable transports within Europe. But the transition to rail is difficult, and one major problem is that alarm limit values for wheel loads are not coordinated between European countries. But thanks to researchers at Chalmers, new European rules have been introduced that will make it easier to transport goods by train.</b></p><p>“Our research was the scientific basis that convinced the rest of Europe to adapt to our Swedish proposal for alarm limit levels. The alternative for us in Sweden would have been the continuing lack of clarity on the matter. This would most likely have diminished our competitiveness for goods by rail”, says Anders Ekberg, professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences and director of Charmec*.</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More environmentally friendly transports</h2> <p>To achieve the overall climate targets, one of Sweden’s milestones is to double the share of goods transported by train by the year 2030. If that amplification is to become a reality, three important measures are needed – to increase both the operational safety as well as the capacity of the railway and to promote cross-border freight traffic ¬– something that today is difficult because alarm limit values for rail loads vary widely between countries in Europe.</p> <p>About half of the freight traffic in Europe is already crossing borders and that trend is expected to increase as the European freight corridors are gradually put into operation. This measure is necessary to enable railway freight to compete with freight on the road.</p> <p>The lack of coordinated alarm limits means that a damaged wheel can produce wheel load magnitudes that are allowed in one country, but not in another. For example, a Swedish train can travel through Europe just to have to turn around at the border of Switzerland, which today has the lowest permissible level, something that has occurred. This type of inefficient management of alarm levels also has consequences for passenger traffic as operational disruptions spread in the rail system – which leads to high costs for both railway managers and train operators in addition to the nuisance it causes to passengers.</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Sensitive system</h2> <p>The railroad is an interlinked system where the “weakest link” often dictates how the system can be used to transport goods. Other modes of freight transport can operate at higher levels of interference. It is easier to quickly redirect a truck when there are obstacles on the road than to redirect a train that often only has one way to go. For this reason rail traffic needs to put more efforts into avoiding interferences. Having the same alarm limits in all European countries is a step towards avoiding disturbances.</p> <p>“To be able to agree on common alarm limits, a solid, scientific basis is required. At the heart of the now common alarm limits is our research of forces from out-of-round wheels and how these affect the risk of rail breaks and disruptions​. The work has now also been accepted and established internationally in a so-called International Railway Solution (IRS) which the International Railway Union (UIC) has approved. Of course, we are very pleased with that”, says Anders Ekberg.</p> <div><br /></div> <p>* <em>Charmec (Chalmers Railway Mechanics) is a national centre in the field of railway mechanics with twelve business and administration stakeholders. The research is based on the interaction between vehicles/track and related phenomena (noise, material degradation, brake damage, etc.), which causes more than half of the maintenance costs of the track and freight trains.</em></p> <div><a href="http://www.charmec.chalmers.se/">Read more about Charmec</a></div> <div><br /></div> <p>Text: Anders Ryttarson Törneholm</p>Tue, 20 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Prediction-of-cracking-increases-the-railway's-reliability.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Prediction-of-cracking-increases-the-railway's-reliability.aspxPrediction of cracking increases the railway's reliability<p><b>​​Cracking in rails and wheels is one of the largest maintenance costs for railway traffic. It is also the reason for many delays and stops that can lead to considerable costs for both train companies and track managers. But through methods developed at Chalmers, which predict cracking in rails and wheels, train traffic is now more reliable and environmentally friendly.</b></p>​More than half of the maintenance costs for tracks and freight wagons are due to wear. Cracks in wheels and rails account for most of that wear. Together with organizations who are connected to railway traffic, <em>Chalmers Railway Mechanics </em>(Charmec*) has developed criteria for assessing the risk of cracking in wheels and rail. Anders Ekberg is an assistant professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences and director of Charmec:<div>“More and more railway traffic goes on the same network, which leads to smaller windows for maintenance. But by being able to predict cracking, the risk of operational disturbances, unplanned maintenance and environmental impact is reduced. Then the costs can also be kept down. And that is a necessity for a functioning and efficient railway”, he says. <div><br /></div> <div>The basis for the criteria lies in research done by Charmec. There, research on cracking in the contact between wheels and rails has been linked to research in railway dynamics. Results are the criteria that today are the standard tool for engineers who design wheels and boggies for trains. In addition, they are implemented in most commercial programs used to analyze how trains load the track. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Catches risks at the design stage</h2> <div>The criteria developed at Chalmers are also an important ingredient in design, virtual testing and product approval. This means that engineers, already at the design stage, can ensure that the design of rails, gears, wheels and boggies has properties that give an acceptable low risk of cracking. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“I see the development of these criteria as an important part of what I consider to be the core of the railway's digitization: Having such accurate numerical simulations that only validation is needed in fields when new products are introduced or extensive maintenance is carried out”, says Anders Ekberg.​</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>Examples, where the criteria saved a lot of money, are the design of new gear geometries that reduced the maintenance costs for the gears by in the order of 20 per cent. They have also been used to optimize wheel profiles on the ore rail, which is a contributing reason why the traffic is now starting to be upgraded from 30 to 32.5 tons of axle load.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>*Charmec is a national centre in railway mechanics. Read more about <a href="http://www.charmec.chalmers.se/">Charmec​</a>.</div> ​</div> <div>Text: Anders Ryttarson Törneholm</div>Thu, 01 Aug 2019 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Artificial-dummy-shoulder-saves-lives.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Artificial-dummy-shoulder-saves-lives.aspxArtificial dummy shoulder saves lives<p><b>​Although standardized crash tests have made car journeys considerably safer over the past 30 years, they have not been totally comprehensive – especially not for oblique frontal collisions. Researchers at Chalmers have developed a crash test dummy that now sets a new, life-saving standard for safety in passenger cars.</b></p>​​Having the misfortune to be in a car accident in a new and modern car is considerably safer compared to 30 years ago. The main driving force behind the increased safety has been the so-called<em> New Car Assessment Programs </em>(NCAP), which set a new standard for crash safety throughout the world. When the tests were launched in the early 1990s, they received a lot of media attention, which lead to more and more investments in safety by car manufacturers. For car manufacturers performing well in the tests became, and continues to be, one of the most important marketing arguments. <div><br /></div> <div>For some time, crash safety improved mainly for the types of collisions that were represented in the official crash tests, especially for car companies that previously had a low level of ambition in their safety work. However, the risk of injury was still high in accidents where the body was thrown forward in oblique positions, such as in frontal collisions with oblique force direction. “We wanted to contribute to a new test standard for oblique collisions. The dummy used previously turned out to be too rigid and did not give a fair representation of how an actual person reacts to a crash that throws the body forward obliquely”, says Mats Svensson, professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences.</div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>An impo</span><span>rtant research tool</span><span> </span></h2></div> <div>To find out how a person moves and is affected by the safety belt in a collision, researchers from Chalmers compiled results from earlier studies and supplemented it with own mobility tests of the shoulder part of test subjects. In this way, the researchers could see how a human shoulder moves and compare it with the standard dummy, which was used for crash tests. It then became evident that the greatest shortcoming of the crash dummy was the difference in the more extensive and complex motion range of the human shoulder.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> With the support of Volvo Cars and Autoliv, the Chalmers researchers developed an artificial shoulder for the crash dummy that could better mimic the human shoulder’s mobility in interaction with the three-point belt in oblique collisions. The design of the dummy is a key factor in the development and evaluation of new safety belts and airbags. “The new type of artificial shoulder was an important research tool for us at Volvo Cars, which makes it possible for us to gain a better understanding of the human body's movement and the car's protective function in collisions with oblique forward movements. Our accident follow-up shows that oblique collisions are common in traffic and have significance for the damage outcome”, says Lotta Jakobsson, Senior Technical Leader Safety at Volvo Cars and adjunct professor at mechanics and maritime sciences. </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>NCAP next step </span></h2></div> <div>Chalmers has participated in the further development of the artificial shoulder and the new crash test dummy, which has resulted in that now both Euro NCAP and US NCAP has the ambition to use the new dummy in future standardized collision tests of new cars. Johan Davidsson is an associate professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences has been Chalmers spokesperson in the international forums that evaluated and recommended the new more advanced crash dummy with the new shoulder. “It is now possible to fine-tune and evaluate airbags and seat belts that use the latest sensor technology to tailor the protection in real-time in the event of a collision. We are convinced that we have contributed to a significant future reduction of injuries and deaths in car collisions”, says Johan Davidsson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/202003-IVA-R2B-Mailbadge-English-2020.png" alt="Picture about IVA projects." style="margin:5px;width:600px;height:300px" /><br /><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Anders Ryttarson Törneholm</div>Wed, 10 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/The-researcher-helps-the-wave-power-industry-forward.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/The-researcher-helps-the-wave-power-industry-forward.aspxThe researcher helps the wave power industry forward<p><b>​With the ocean covering approximately 72% of the earth’s surface, wave energy is thereby holding great potential to satisfy a significant percentage of the worldwide energy supply. The challenge is to reduce costs and improve the performance of wave energy systems. In that case, the Chalmers researcher Shun-Han Yang has helped the industry to boost their positions.</b></p><div>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/M2/Nyheter/shunhanyang.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Shun-Han Yang is a researcher at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at the Division of Marine Technology. She has developed a numerical analysis procedure that can be used for assessing the long-term structural service life of the components used in wave energy systems. </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“The procedure allows the industry to assess the damage the waves impose mooring devices and power cables, etc., while calculating the wave power system’s power performance and energy cost” says Shun-Han Yang. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The developed methodology has supported the industry and taken them from a stage of concept design validation to a full-scale prototype testing at sea. In technical terms from at TRL-level* of 3-4 to a TRL-level of 6-7. By using the numerical method, the potential structural failure or operation obstacles are identified, which would otherwise be devastating if the situation was encountered in reality. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Jonas Kamf is CEO of Waves4Power, one of the industrial partners that Chalmers cooperates with. He explains that Waves4Power is a company under development with limited resources and therefore a strong partner network becomes a key resource. He sees Chalmers as an extra important partner for their business. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“It's a lot of idea development but also verification of results from our test activities. Real results are set against theoretical calculations and in this way, we can link theory and reality in order to get even closer to reality in our forward-looking work” says Jonas Kamf. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The collaboration with Chalmers in various fields also opens up for Waves4Power to be able to apply for extra financial support for technical development that would otherwise have been difficult to take part in. The connection between academia and industry is very important for this part of their development financing, he says, but perhaps even more importantly he sees Chalmers as a partner who can make them more realistic. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“As a research resource, Chalmers is trustworthy and gives us as a collaborative partner an honest image, not a glorified picture of our reality. It’s easy to become blind in a development company and just see advantages. In this way, Chalmers is good at taking us down to earth and show us the reality as it is. It has laid a good foundation for good work in research and development.” </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>For Chalmers, collaboration is a prerequisite for research. Shun-Han Yang believes that the close cooperation between academia and industry is what made her research possible. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“To ensure the practicality of the numerical method, constant feedback given by the industry which highlights that challenges are necessary” says Shun-Han Yang. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Waves4Power expects that within the next two years they will be fully commercial with a couple of installed wave power parks based on their latest technology, but it will continue to be a technology in development and Chalmers is a key resource.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><em>*TRL, Technology readiness levels are a method of estimating technology maturity of critical technology elements of a program during the acquisition process. They are determined during a technology readiness assessment that examines program concepts, technology requirements, and demonstrated technology capabilities.</em></div> <div> </div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Read more</span></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><a href="/en/departments/m2/research/marinetechnology/Pages/default.aspx">Division of Marine Technology</a></span></p> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"> </h3>Fri, 26 Apr 2019 08:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Will-develop-new-global-goals-for-road-safety-in-the-UN.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Will-develop-new-global-goals-for-road-safety-in-the-UN.aspxWill develop new global goals for road safety<p><b>Claes Tingvall is best known as the man behind the Vision Zero, a strategy that revolutionized road safety in Sweden and many other countries. This adjunct professor at Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and maritime Sciences, division of Vehicle engineering and autonomous systems has now been appointed chairman of an international expert group that will propose a new global goal for road safety within the framework of Agenda 2030.</b></p>He is an internationally recognized traffic expert, a widely used lecturer and inspirer who has worked with road safety for more than 40 years. In his world of road safety, the post of chairman of the international expert group is something that tops a very successful career. <div><br /></div> <div>“I’ve been given the privilege to get responsible roles during my life, but this time it’s breathtaking. It feels like the peak. At the same time, it’s a completely crucial opportunity to be able to make an effort for the world's population together with other experts” says Claes Tingvall. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Claes Tingvall will gather the expert group consisting of 14 researchers and experts from all over the world. A mix of epidemiologists, engineers, medical professionals and social scientists at the highest possible level. Together, they will develop a renewed global goal for road safety within the framework of Agenda 2030, the UN's 17 global goals for the world's development. They should also present a number of recommendations on how states, organizations and companies can make a change. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Claes Tingvall believes that it’s not a coincidence that Chalmers got the chairmanship. Sweden is one of the most successful countries in the world in terms of road safety. The vision zero was born in Sweden but is now a world standard. It’s based on research and applications of effective methods that have been proven. This means that one must understand the connection between man and machine, in a social system. Engineering is an important part of this. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Chalmers has a very long successful history with worthies such as Bertil Aldman and Per Lövsund who led Chalmers' work on road safety. I’ve been involved in building up a research group, specialists in system safety in traffic, and this is the one that forms the very basis for the global overall work that the UN and the World Health Organization need. At Chalmers there is also what is known as the Vision Zero Academy with a number of researchers linked to the future work on road safety.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>He sees the chairmanship as an acknowledgment that interdisciplinary research belongs at Chalmers and that it is possible to build up extremely successful environments with researchers from different scientific disciplines. This means that Chalmers is a global player in welfare and health issues, which in this case affects all people on earth. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We actually have solutions that can eliminate the risk of dying in traffic and that is something we should be proud to share with others in the world.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The result of the expert group's work is presented at the UN's third, global high-level conference on road safety in 2020. Sweden is the host for the conference.<br /></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">More information</span><br /></div> <div><div><a href="https://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/road_Safety/Documents/UN_Road_Safety_Trust_Fund_launch_event_April_2018/GA_resolution_A_RES_72_271_N1810643.pdf">Resolution adopted by the General Assembly - Improving global road safety </a></div> <div><a href="https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld">Decision to integrate road safety in the Sustainable Development Goals </a></div> <div><a href="https://www.government.se/press-releases/2018/04/sweden-to-host-un-conference-on-road-safety-in-2020/">Sweden to host UN conference on road safety in 2020 ​</a><br /></div> <div><a href="https://www.globalgoals.org/">The Global Goals​</a></div> <div><a href="https://www.trafikverket.se/en/startpage/operations/Operations-road/vision-zero-academy/">Vision Zero Academy </a></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/research/veas/Pages/default.aspx">Research division Vehicle engineering and autonomous systems​</a></div></div>Thu, 14 Feb 2019 14:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Will-help-LFV-to-reduce-environmental-impact-from-aviation.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Will-help-LFV-to-reduce-environmental-impact-from-aviation.aspxWill help LFV to reduce environmental impact from aviation<p><b>​During next year, the Chalmers researcher Olivier Petit will be lent out to the Swedish air transport agency LFV. At LFV he will analyze how aeroplanes fly today. A change in how they fly will save money and reduce environmental impact.</b></p>​Olivier Petit is a researcher in the field of fluid dynamics at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences. His research area for five years back is the development of future aircraft engines. But there is more to do than to improve the aircraft engine itself. It's also important to analyze how the aircraft is flying, he believes. <div><br /></div> <div>There is currently a lot of ongoing research that deals with how aeroplanes fly in and out from airports, tells Olivier Petit. One example is smarter start and landing procedures. Another example is the so-called curved approach landing, which means that the aircraft can land in a shorter distance. It could provide a number of advantages that reduces both noise and environmental impact. At LFV Olivier Petit will work as a performance specialist. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;There is a lot of things you can do if you only optimize how to fly today. I will analyze the radar data that the aircraft sends to LFV. The goal is to improve air traffic from a logistical perspective and thereby reduce environmental impact&quot; says Olivier Petit. </div> <div><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">If research could prove better in- and outflows, landing procedures and more, why are the changes not implemented? </h5> <div>Olivier Petit believes that a number of actors must cooperate. The biggest challenge is to convince all parties in the aviation industry that it is important to look at how to fly today from an environmental perspective. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;LFV, airline companies, aircraft manufacturers, airports and more must cooperate and agree with each other. Sometimes there is a reluctance to make changes before you are completely sure that it really works. Therefore, more research is important&quot; says Olivier Petit. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The interaction between Chalmers and LFV brings great benefits to both parties. For Chalmers, cooperation with LFV involves more industrial contacts in air traffic management. A valuable network that can be used for future research projects, which in turn may benefit LFV by bringing them closer to the research community. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;It feels very exciting to start working at LFV. It will give me a more applied view of the aviation industry and I will, as a performance specialist, be able to contribute with an educational dimension that is very relevant for presenting data analysis in a good way&quot; says Olivier Petit.</div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More information</h5> <div><a href="/en/departments/m2/research/fluiddynamics">Research on Fluid dynamics​</a></div> <div><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/organization/?tab=publications&amp;query=Olivier+Petit">Olivier Petit's publications​</a></div>Wed, 28 Nov 2018 12:00:00 +0100