News: Industrial and Materials Science related to Chalmers University of TechnologySat, 04 Jul 2020 11:47:43 +0200 design experiments develop next generation aircraft engine<p><b>​Open Rotor is a new type of aircraft engine delivering up to 20 percent reduced fuel burn than today&#39;s turbofan engines. Chalmers, together with the University of Cambridge and Fraunhofer FCC, is leading a project that studies aspects of manufacturing during the design phase.</b></p><p></p> <div>The next generation of aircraft engines is being developed in the large European Joint Undertaking <a href="">Clean Sky 2</a>. Open Rotor is one of the concepts that has shown promising results when it comes to reducing both CO<sub>2</sub> emissions and noise. Open rotor is a new engine type with two, counterrotating, propellers that radically improve propulsive efficiency. This type of technology radically changes how the engines are designed and integrated with the aircraft. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/Open%20Rotor%203%20-®%20Eric%20Drouin%20Safran_400px.jpg" alt="Open Rotor 3 -® Eric Drouin Safran" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px 15px;width:170px;height:259px" />Within Clean Sky 2, Chalmers, together with Cambridge University and Fraunhofer FCC, is now leading a project called Development of Interdisciplinary Assessment for Manufacturing and Design (DIAS).<br /><br />DIAS is a targeted support project, where the goal is to develop support for integrating manufacturability aspects already in the design phase, where advanced decision support models are developed. For example, it is critical that robots get to weld the components properly. In the DIAS project, Chalmers latest research results are used in modeling alternative concepts enabling digital experimentation of alternative product architecture, with Fraunhofer's expertise in simulating robotic paths, and Cambridge's expertise in interactive decision-making and modeling-based risk analysis.<br /><br /></div> <div><br /><em>–    We have a unique opportunity to combine the latest achievements from Chalmers, Fraunhofer FCC and Cambridge, into a new and powerful way to support GKN Aerospace in their integration of next generation technologies already in the concept phase, says Ola Isaksson, researcher at Chalmers and leader of the consortium.</em><br /><br />GKN Aerospace Sweden AB in Trollhättan is responsible for critical engine components of Open Rotor engines. Ultimately, the goal is to enable the methods developed in the DIAS project to enable GKN Aerospace to offer the technologies demonstrated in Clean Sky in future business.<br /> <br /><em>–    We are very happy that this Chalmers led consortium won this Call for Partners. The competition was indeed very tough and this shows that Chalmers is a leading University in this important area in Europe, says Robert Lundberg (Director EU Programmes) at GKN Aerospace Sweden.</em><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More information about DIAS and Clean Sky</h2> <div><a href="" title="Link to the DIAS project"><br /></a></div> <div><span>This project has received funding from the Clean Sky 2 Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 887174. The JU receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and the Clean Sky 2 JU members other than the Union. The information on this web page reflects only the author's view and that the JU is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/EU_logo.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px 20px;width:258px;height:179px" /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/JU_logo.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 25px;width:330px;height:186px" /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><br /></h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Contact</h2> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/iola.aspx">Ola Isaksson</a>, professor Department of Industrial and Materials Science at Chalmers University of Technology<br /></div> <div></div> <div><span style="float:none;font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;letter-spacing:normal;text-align:center;text-decoration:none;text-indent:0px;text-transform:none;white-space:normal;word-spacing:0px;display:inline !important">+46 31 7728202</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Robert Lundberg<em>, </em><span>Director EU Programmes GKN Aerospace</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:calibri, sans-serif"></span>+46 700 872371 </div> <div><a href=""></a></div></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p></p> <br /><p></p>Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Swedish and mastering microstructures<p><b>Fiona Schulz is new Postdoctoral Researcher at the division of Materials and Manufacture. She started her work at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science this year and will be assisting CAM2&#39;s director Eduard Hryha.</b></p><p><span lang="EN-US"><b>Field of research</b></span><span lang="EN-US"><b>:</b> Additive manufacturing of nickel-based superalloys focusing on the relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties, mainly related to Centre for Additive Manufacture – Metal (CAM2).</span></p> <p><br /></p> <p><b>Give us a short info about you. How did your career start?</b></p> <p>“I grew up in the west of Germany. To explore more corners of the country, I took my BSc in the north, in <a href="">Bremen</a>, and did my course internship at <a href="">ZF Friedrichshafen</a> in the very south at Lake Constance. After that I moved to the point furthest away from any coast on the UK 'island' – as I was welcomed in my first lecture in Birmingham. Here, I discovered that both road cycling and rowing were excellent distractions from doing a PhD.&quot;​<br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p><b>What attracted you to Chalmers?</b></p> <p>&quot;As a University of Technology, Chalmers offers so much potential for research and learning, both in materials science and cross-collaborations. I specifically applied because working at <a href="/en/centres/cam2/Pages/default.aspx" title="link to CAM2 centre" target="_blank">CAM2​</a> is a great opportunity for me to explore metal additive manufacturing (AM), and the role basically described what I wanted to do – applied research!”</p> <p><br /></p> <p><b>What did you do before coming to Chalmers?</b></p> <p>“I did my PhD at the metallurgy and materials department at the <a href="">University of Birmingham</a>. My focus was on the relationship of microstructure and mechanical properties in a nickel superalloy in collaboration with Rolls Royce – not the cars but the aero engines! </p> <p>After that I joined <a href="">Materials Solutions</a> – a Siemens business where I discovered metal AM in an industrial and production environment. There I had the chance to gain experience across the entire manufacturing chain for an AM component. And while it certainly was a very challenging environment, I missed the research a little bit too much…and that’s how I landed here.”</p> <p><br /></p> <p><b>What type of challenges do you find most interesting / what kind of challenges do you foresee?</b></p> <p>“On a research level, one of the big challenges is to understand the microstructure and what it means for the material and component use. </p> <p>On a personal level, I find having multiple research projects going on at the same time both exciting and challenging – as was starting to learn Swedish…where do all those consonants go?!”</p> <p><br /></p> <p><b>How do you see your role as a key player in CAM2?</b></p> <p>“For one, I like being part of a team – and research is really a form of team sport! And considering that nickel superalloys are increasingly important for metal AM and will be a fixed part of its future, my background in these materials will be complementary to the research topics that are already being investigated at the centre. Having gained two years of industry experience also helps navigating the many collaborations between companies and CAM2 and I can offer a perspective on the industrial applications and expectations for metal AM.”</p> <p><br /></p> <p><b>What are you most passionate about in your research?</b></p> <p>“I am fascinated by the fact that the different aspects of microstructure can have such a huge effect on how you can use the material later. And additive manufacturing adds another level of complexity as  we’re still understanding how the processing parameters and post-processing procedures influence the material – AM microstructures can look completely different to what we’re used to from other manufacturing processes.”</p> <p></p> <p> </p> <p><b style="background-color:initial">AM is often mentioned together with sustainability. Can you see some extraordinary possibilities with the method?</b></p> <p>“I see the complete re-thinking of design (component design but also material dependent design)  as a possility. To make systems, like gas turbines for power generation more sustainable, they have to run more efficiently. Reducing weight through clever re-design, improving flowability through surface feature design, and producing near-net-shape parts made of difficult to manufacture high temperature materials are some of the many opportunities available through AM to achieve that.</p> <p><br /></p> <p><br /></p> <p>Read more about <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/sfion.aspx">Fiona Schulz</a></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" title="link to film on youtube"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Film about her research at University of Birmingham </a></p> <p><br /></p> <p><span lang="EN-US"></span></p> <p>​​<br /></p>Thu, 25 Jun 2020 11:00:00 +0200 User Studies from Distance<p><b>​Due to the pandemic this spring, Chalmers Production Area of Advance are financing a couple of projects with the purpose to be better equipped for similar changes in the future. Later this autumn we will go deeper into ​another resilience projects within production. First out is a student project for facilitating user studies from distance​.</b></p><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span><br /></span></h2> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Production/Pontus_Wallgren_350x305.jpg" alt="Portrait Pontus Wallgren" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px 15px;width:285px;height:253px" /><span style="background-color:initial">In the early stages of product development, it is important to investigate and understand the needs and requirements of future customers through various methods. These studies are usually done through physical meetings with customers, which is not possible in these times of social isolation. </span><b style="background-color:initial"><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/pontus-engelbrektsson.aspx">Pontus Wallgren</a></b><span style="background-color:initial">, senior lecturer at the Division of Design &amp; Human Factors, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, leads the project and provides the background:</span></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“We want to do research on what possibilities to perform remotely advanced user studies. Which methods can be transferred to digital platforms? Can you develop completely new methods? Is it possible to conduct advanced user studies remotely and could there even be benefits to gain, also after the pandemic has faded out?”</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>A group of 40 students, divided into smaller groups, conducted a series of experiments of various types of advanced user studies. The methods used were e.g. Co-creation, Enactment, Wizard of Oz, Cultural probes, etc., combined with traditional methods such as interviews, focus groups and observations. These methods normally require physical meetings with the participants, but they are now being implemented remotely. </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“In total, we have 25 hours of recorded discussions and in addition to these, written documentation from a number of sub-studies that we will analyze and compile. Afterwards, we will share the lessons learned on how to do user studies without physical meetings. In times of more globalization and unforeseen events, this knowledge will be important, not least considering that you may avoid doing studies in a foreign place and therefore miss important needs and requirements,&quot; Pontus Wallgren sums up.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>If you want to learn more about the project, contact <a href="">Pontus Wallgren</a>.</div> <div> </div> <div>​<br /></div> <div> </div> ​Mon, 22 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0200 quality of recycled plastic needs to be improved<p><b>​​Plastic is a resource that has both environmental and economic reasons to recycle, but today&#39;s recycling system is less developed in some respects. A major problem is that recycled plastic can be unpredictable and of varying quality. Researchers at Chalmers will therefore study how to develop a more reliable and qualitative raw material from the recycled plastic.</b></p><div>The basic and first step in plastic recycling is the initial sorting. The more pollution and indigestible material that goes to the next step, the more expensive and more complicated it becomes to produce a raw material that can be used for new products. It is then necessary to make greater use of purification measures as well as new additives.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The Chalmers project Recycling of collected plastic from packaging will study both how to develop the sorting step and how the plastic can be upgraded through modifications in the later stages of the recycling process. Based on the results, there is an expectation to be able to develop guidelines for the formation of new products, for example adapted process parameters for extrusion and injection molding.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Technical capability will give the industry confidence in the use of recycled plastic</h2> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/plastatervinning_2_340px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 15px;width:265px;height:239px" />When it comes to the sorting process there is an interest in studying the purity of the plastic. Initially, the focus will be on so-called near-infra-red (NIR) technology, which is a technique where you can determinate which polymers the collected products consist of. The plan is to collaborate with Swedish Plastic Recycling in Motala, which is one of Europe's largest and most modern sorting plants. Other supplementary sorting techniques, in addition to NIR technology, may also be included in the study.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>After the plastic is sorted, there will also be studies on the continued treatment in order to further improve the quality and predictability. Based on detailed studies, guidelines will be drawn up for suitable processes and process parameters for the production of suitable granules that can be used as raw material by industry.</div> <div> </div> <div><em>– </em><em>By reducing the uncertainty about the technical ability of recyclable materials, our expectation is that this project will lead to greater confidence in recycled plastic materials,&quot; says project manager Professor Antal Boldizar.</em></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The project also includes production of some selected products in so-called demonstrators. The work with demonstrators will include detailed process studies, mainly of advantageous process parameters in both extrusion and injection molding with regard to microstructure and functional properties of the products. Examples of interesting functional properties are mechanical and thermal properties, shape accuracy, tolerances, surface character and durability.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Materiallabbet_AntalBoldizar_EzgiNoyan_750x340px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:884px;height:440px" /><br /><em>Antal Boldizar and Ezgi Ceren in the </em><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/production/society-industry/laboratories/mpl/Pages/default.aspx"><em>Materials Processing Laboratory</em></a><em> at Chalmers</em><br /> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">By 2030, in Sweden, all plastic packaging shall consist of renewable or recycled material<br /></h2> <div>As the collection and sorting of plastic packaging increases in society, it is becoming increasingly important to develop the market for recycled plastic. The organization Swedish food retailer federation recently presented a roadmap where plastic packaging will be produced from renewable or recycled raw material before the end of 2030. Therefore, setting standards and quality standards for both sorted plastic waste and recycled plastic are important industrial issues.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Project members</h2> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <p class="MsoNormal">Project leader professor <a href="/en/staff/Pages/antal-boldizar.aspx">Antal Boldizar</a></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="MsoNormal">PhD student <a href="/en/staff/Pages/ezgic.aspx">Ezgi Ceren</a></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="MsoNormal">Docent <a href="/en/staff/Pages/giadal.aspx">Giada Lo Re</a></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="MsoNormal">Professor <a href="/en/staff/Pages/christer-persson.aspx">Christer Persson</a></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="MsoNormal"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Financier</h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> </h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:11.5pt;line-height:107%">Plastkretsen AB:s Stiftelse för forskning</span></p> <div> </div> <div>  </div></div>Thu, 28 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200​Successful review for additive manufacturing project MANUELA<p><b>​After 18 months of work, the European Commission recently concluded the first review meeting with the Manuela team. The feedback was very positive, and the project is on track.</b></p><div><br /></div> <div>The project comprises 20 partners across Europe with the aim to realize a pan-European pilot line for metal additive manufacturing. The scope includes a digital dashboard for the full manufacturing chain as well as the development of processing and application of hardware demonstrated for a number of use cases from different sectors. </div> <div>&quot;The <a href="">review meeting</a> demonstrated the commitment from the whole consortium with evidence of achievements with respect to new digital solutions, new materials, optimized processing, concepts for automation as well as development of use case design for advanced applications. As co-ordinator I am really impressed by the achievements and I look forward with confidence for the coming work towards the final goal of one-stop facility for metal additive manufacturing across Europe&quot;, says project coordinator Lars Nyborg.</div> <div>Manuela (Additive Manufacturing using Metal Pilot Line) is one of the biggest projects in additive manufacturing in Europe, with a budget of 175 MSEK. It started in 2018 and Chalmers was entrusted to manage the project.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><b>Useful handbook</b></div> <div>One of the project’s main deliverables is a project handbook and will be the key material for liaison with future customers. The first version is available to download and will be updated regularly to reflect the developments within the project. </div> <div>The handbook gives crucial information about the service offering of the pilot line, and what it is, Unique Selling Points and what benefits it brings to its customers. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank" title="link to website Manuela"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icpdf.png" alt="" />Project handbook</a> </div> <div><a href="" target="_blank" title="link to webpage Manuela"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Learn more about Manela </a></div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/production/news/Pages/Manuela-creats-a-pilot-line-for-additive-manufacturing-in-Eurpoe.aspx" target="_blank" title="link to old article about the project"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Start for large European test bed project in additive manufacturing​​</a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><b>FACTS ABOUT MANUELA</b></div> <div>The project aims to provide the European industry with world class, reliable pilot line manufacturing service leveraging metal Additive Manufacturing products. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the period of 4 years, MANUELA aims at deploying an open-access pilot line facility, covering the whole production sequence, to show full potential of metal AM for industrial AM production.</div> <div>Manuela consists of a consortium of industrial end user’s, suppliers, (material/powder, AM hardware, quality monitoring system, software, automation and post-AM treatment) as well as top research institutes in powderbed metal-AM, covering full range of AM technology chain for pilot line deployment. </div> <div>The deployed pilot line will be validated with use cases, covering wide span of applications including automotive, aerospace, energy and medical.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><b>Contact</b></div> <div><a href="">Lars Nyborg, Project Coordinator</a></div> <div><a href="">Terpsithea Ketegeni, Project Manager </a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><b style="background-color:initial">Project time</b><br /></div> <div>4 years (Oct 2018-Sep 2022)</div> <div><br /></div>Wed, 20 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 bottlenecks in manufacturing with machine learning<p><b>​​Can the machine learning (ML) algorithms that are used to analyze stock prices of the companies also be used to analyze bottlenecks in manufacturing? Instead of finding companies that show a unique stock price over time compared to other stocks, the target is to identify machines that exhibit unique behavior as compared to other machines on the shop floor.</b></p><div>The unique behavior of those machines is a key indicator that they are bottlenecks. Curious to know how? Then check out our article! We explain the methodology based on unsupervised ML techniques, demonstrate it on two real production systems, and explain how the algorithmic insights can be consumed by engineers to augment their decisions on bottlenecks. Identifying the right bottlenecks help engineers make correct and more confident decisions to improve shop-floor productivity!</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The advancements in machine learning (ML) techniques open new opportunities for analysing production system dynamics and augmenting the domain expert's decision-making. A common problem for domain experts on the shop floor is detecting throughput bottlenecks, as they constrain the system throughput. Detecting throughput bottlenecks is necessary to prioritise maintenance and improvement actions and obtain greater system throughput. The existing literature provides many ways to detect bottlenecks from machine data, using statistical-based approaches. These statistical-based approaches can be best applied in environments where the statistical descriptors of machine data (such as the distribution of machine data, correlations, and stationarity) are known beforehand. Computing statistical descriptors involve statistical assumptions. When the machine data doesn't comply with these assumptions, there is a risk of the results being disconnected from actual production system dynamics. An alternative approach to detecting throughput bottlenecks is to use ML-based techniques. These techniques, particularly unsupervised ML techniques, require no prior statistical information on machine data. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>This paper proposes a generic, unsupervised ML-based hierarchical clustering approach to detect throughput bottlenecks. The proposed approach is the outcome of a systematic and careful selection of ML techniques. It begins by generating a time series of the chosen bottleneck detection metric and then clustering the time series using a dynamic time-wrapping measure and a complete-linkage agglomerative hierarchical clustering technique. The results are clusters of machines with similar production dynamic profiles, revealed from the historical data and enabling the detection of bottlenecks. The proposed approach is demonstrated in two real-world production systems. The approach integrates the concept of humans in-loop by using the domain expert's knowledge.</div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Link to scientific article</h2> <div> <a href=""></a><br /><br /></div>Fri, 08 May 2020 15:00:00 +0200 Analysis of Engineering Change Request Data<p><b>Ívar Örn Arnarsson​, Doctoral student at Product Development IMS, defends his doctoral thesis &quot;Systematic Analysis of Engineering Change Request Data - Applying Data Mining Tools to Gain New Fact-Based Insights​&quot;.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Övriga/div%20nyheter%20o%20kalender/Ívar%20Örn%20Arnarsson%20200x218.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br />Ívar will defend the thesis (online) on May 29, 13:00. A popular science summary is given below. For more information, see the links at the bottom of the page.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">O​​</span><span style="background-color:initial">pponent: Christopher McMahon, Technical University of Denmark​</span><br /></div> <div><span></span></div> <span style="background-color:initial">Examiner: Johan Malmqvist, IMS</span>​<div><br /><div><br /></div> <div><br /><div><br /></div> <div><div><div><span style="font-weight:700">Systematic Analysis of Engineering Change Request Data - </span><span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700">Applying Data Mining Tools to Gain New Fact-Based Insights</span></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Engineering changes are common in industry as they are opportunities to improve, enhance, or adapt a product. They driver for a change can be e.g. related to quality, safety, changes in external circumstances or regulation. These engineering changes often referred as Engineering Change Requests (ECRs) are largely generated through product development projects and are often stored in database while worked and later for some form of knowledge management purpose. </div> <div>Despite ECR being captured and stored it is often cumbersome for product developers to identify historical ECRs due to the vast amount of them. Historical ECRs might contain valuable knowledge relevant to a current design and it is often wondered if the ECR content might be analyzed in a new way insightful way. The content of ECR data must contain information permitting identification of the types of errors and changes made, including part title, part name, part number, problem description, root cause, solution and test results. </div> <div>This thesis primarily focuses on ECR data in combination with three components necessary to perform data mining and data analytics: exploring and collecting ECR data, collecting domain knowledge about ECR information needs, and applying mathematical tools for solution design and testing. </div> <div>Results show a list of engineering information needs related to ECRs, examples of visualizations based on unstructured data, industrial case study where complex product development processes are modeled using the Markov chain Design Structure Matrix, and studies that investigate how advanced searches based on natural language processing techniques and clustering within engineering databases.</div> <div><br /></div> <a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="" target="_blank">Read more</a><br /><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />​Ívar Örn Arnarsson on Linkedin​</a></div></div></div></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Zoom link​</a></div>Fri, 08 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 modeling of liquid composite molding processes<p><b>Da W​u, Doctoral Student at Material and Computational Mechanics​ IMS, defends his doctoral thesis.  Whenever you decide to buy a new pair of skis,  have you asked why they are so expensive? When you ride your fantastic carbon road bike, are you curious to know how the bike is made? To answer these questions, we need to explore the topic of the manufacturing of polymer composite materials.</b></p><span></span>Da Wu will defend the thesis (online) on May 12. A popular science summary is given below. For more information, see the links at the bottom of the page.​<div><br /></div> <div><strong>Process modeling of liquid composite molding processes</strong></div> <div><b></b><span style="font-size:14px"><span style="background-color:initial">Composite materials are the most advanced and adaptable engineering materials known to man. They are only a few decades old, but the evolution of composites and manufacturing process is rapid. All manufacturing techniques aim to bind fiber reinforcements together with polymer matrices. The matrix gives the composite shape, appearance, and durability. At the same time, the fiber reinforcement carries the structural loads to provide stiffness and strength.  Any successful composite manufacturing process boils down to how to control temperatures and pressures throughout the process. Sufficient pressure can force the matrix to fill out the entire fiber bed, and the right temperature held for a suitable period will stabilize the dimensions of composites. Due to the flexible combinations of pressures and temperatures, it is very difficult to tell if one process is good. The balance between high properties and low costs challenges all manufacturers. The trial-and-error approach is avoided, but the virtual numerical experiment is emerging. To develop a good numerical solution, we need to understand the physical mechanism and build mathematical models for the selected process.</span></span><span></span><div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">In this thesis, we define the problem of the liquid composite molding process and formulate the problem as mathematical equations through fundamental continuum mechanics. We also made assumptions to simplify the problem. Once the model is developed,  we verify and validate the model. By using the proposed model, we can run simulations on computers to mimic the real manufacturing process of polymer composites. Now, you may answer the questions asked at the beginning by yourself, if you run our model with some settings and clicks.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more</a></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Zoom link</a></div> <div><br /></div> <strong></strong><div><br /></div></div>Wed, 06 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 do we develop the sustainable transport systems of the future?<p><b>​Göran Smith, industrial doctoral candidate at the division Design &amp; Human Factors, has analyzed what the public sector can do to push the development of digital services that make it easier to combine several travel modes and contribute to making transport systems more sustainable. He now presents his findings and conclusions in the thesis Making Mobility-as-a-Service.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px">Göran will defend the thesis (online) on June 11. A popular science summary is given below. For more information, see the links at the bottom of the page.</span><div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>Making Mobility-as-a-Service: Towards governance principles and pathways</strong></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Mobi</span><span style="background-color:initial">lity-as-a-Service (MaaS) is a service concept that helps users plan, book, and pay for multiple mobility services (such as public transport, car sharing, and bicycle rental). Ultimately, by making it simpler and more appealing for users to combine mobility services, the vision is that MaaS will offer a competitive alternative to private car ownership and use. However, the MaaS concept has proven difficult to realize in practice. To understand what public sector actors can do to promote the realization of MaaS and steer its development trajectory towards addressing transport’s most pressing sustainability problems, this thesis analyzes empirical evidence gathered from recent MaaS developments in Sweden, Finland, and Australia.</span><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The thesis explores how involved actors expect MaaS to affect transport, identifies institutional factors that drive and hinder MaaS developments, and examines how public sector activities influence the development processes. Based on these findings, the thesis proposes a set of principle activities for public sector actors that want to promote and steer MaaS developments. Broadly, to pave the way for MaaS, the public sector must directly assist MaaS developments in multiple ways, as well as address the webs of tangible and intangible factors that favor private cars and disfavor mobility services, cycling, and walking. The thesis moreover outlines four roles that public sector actors can take in relation to MaaS developments: MaaS Promoter, MaaS Partner, MaaS Enabler, and Laissez-Faire. The principles and roles can thereby support policymakers in drafting and analyzing MaaS governance strategies.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the thesis</a></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Göran Smith, linkedin</a></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Defense via zoom on 2020-06-11 at 13:15</a></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><span></span><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Be part of testing the future of work travel</a></span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> ​Text: Göran Smith/Kate Larsson<div><br /></div> ​Tue, 05 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200 powder bed fusion of 316L stainless steel - Microstructure and mechanical properties as a function of process parameters, design and productivity<p><b>​Alexander Leicht, Doctoral Student at Materials and manufacture​ IMS, defends his doctoral thesis May 8.  Digital presentation via zoom.</b></p><strong>​​Popular description</strong><div><span style="background-color:initial">Constant efforts are being made to improve product performance across all sectors of industry, </span><span style="background-color:initial">ranging from consumer goods to space applications. To achieve this, innovative components </span><span style="background-color:initial">are required that can provide better functionality through improved material properties and </span><span style="background-color:initial">design. Additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, is a technique that offers a solution to some of </span><span style="background-color:initial">these demands. The process supports the realization of advanced geometrical designs without </span><span style="background-color:initial">the need for extensive machining in addition to the possibility of producing designs that would </span><span style="background-color:initial">be impossible with other manufacturing methods.</span><br /></div> <span></span><div><div><br /></div> <div>Additive manufacturing covers many different technologies for a wide range of materials, from <span style="background-color:initial">thermoplastics to metals, ceramics and composites. The process has existed for almost four </span><span style="background-color:initial">decades and has primarily been used for rapid prototyping due to poor quality. Today, additive </span><span style="background-color:initial">manufacturing has matured and can be used for the fabrication of high-end, fully functional </span><span style="background-color:initial">parts with properties comparable to or better than those obtained through conventional </span><span style="background-color:initial">manufacturing methods. Powder-based metal additive manufacturing is the sector of additive </span><span style="background-color:initial">manufacturing technologies that has demonstrated the largest growth in the past decade. Laser </span><span style="background-color:initial">powder bed fusion is one of most common powder-based metal additive manufacturing </span><span style="background-color:initial">technologies. The process utilizes a high-power focused laser beam to selectively fuse metal </span><span style="background-color:initial">powder particles and create compiles of 3D-shaped components.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>This thesis focuses on the design possibilities and resulting material properties of the laser <span style="background-color:initial">powder bed fusion processed components in relation to the process parameters. Focus is placed </span><span style="background-color:initial">on stainless steel parts, and the thesis investigates the correlation between the microstructure </span><span style="background-color:initial">and the properties, component quality and productivity. It is demonstrated that complex-shaped </span><span style="background-color:initial">high-quality parts with properties as good as or better than materials produced via conventional </span><span style="background-color:initial">technologies can easily be achieved at the current state of the art. The good mechanical </span><span style="background-color:initial">properties are connected to a hierarchical microstructure, with features that span from </span><span style="background-color:initial">millimeters to as small as nanometers, such as large elongated grains, melt pool boundaries, </span><span style="background-color:initial">cells and precipitates. This thesis demonstrates a strong effect of the part design and build</span></div> <div>orientation on both the microstructure and properties. Furthermore, by adjusting the process <span style="background-color:initial">parameters, a four-fold increase in productivity was achieved without a significant change in </span><span style="background-color:initial">the part quality. Such improved productivity increases the competitiveness of the process and </span><span style="background-color:initial">allows for expansion into new, more price-sensitive sectors.</span></div></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the thesis</a></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Alexander-Leicht.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Contact Alexander Leicht</a></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Link to online presentation</a></div> <div><br /></div> ​Wed, 29 Apr 2020 00:00:00 +0200 enables a more robust electrical system<p><b>​​The use of more renewable energy sources in Europe will rely on the smart electric grids, able to distribute and store energy matching production and demand. Circuit breakers are safety-critical components of electric grids, associated with very high and recurring maintenance costs. By adding graphene to the circuit breakers, the electrical system will become more robust and reduce the costs of maintenance drastically.</b></p><div>Low voltage circuit breakers, common in domestic and industrial applications, need grease to function properly. The grease is applied to all circuit breakers during manufacturing. The problem is that the grease stiffens and dries out with age and has a narrow temperature range. This leads to a metal-to-metal wear that must be serviced at high maintenance costs, and to an increased risk of circuit breaker failure. Lack of lubrication is the number one problem that test technicians find when servicing circuit breakers in the field. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Self-lubrication properties enables maintenance free operation</h2></div> <div> </div> <div>Graphene is a material with self-lubricating properties; the Swedish company ABB, partner of the Graphene Flagship research program, has recently demonstrated that multifunctional graphene-metal composite coatings could improve the tribological (interactive surfaces in relative motion) performance of metal contacts. ABB will thus lead a new project, starting in April 2020, with the aim to take such graphene-based composites to commercial applications.</div> <div> </div> <div>The project, named “Circuitbreakers” is one of eleven selected Spearhead projects funded by the Graphene Flagship, Europe’s biggest initiative on graphene research, involving more than 140 universities and industries located in 21 countries. Chalmers University of Technology is the coordinator of the Graphene Flagship. </div> <div> </div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Prototype for industrial use</h3></div> <div> </div> <div>All spearheads will start in April 2020, building on previous scientific work performed in the Graphene Flagship in last years. The aim of the Circuitbreakers project is to develop a fully functional and tested prototype ready for industrial implementation in just three years. This new generation of circuit breakers will be self-lubricant and have a wider temperature range than existing circuit breaker options. This will enable maintenance-free operation, which will save business huge costs and reduce the risk on any undesired outage of the electrical system due to circuit breaker failure.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Extensive experience of graphene- and graphene-based composites</h2></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/VincenzoPalermo.png" alt="Vincezo Palermo" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px 15px;width:141px;height:155px" />Prof. Vincenzo Palermo and Dr. Jinhua Sun from the Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology will support ABB in the spearhead project providing new solutions to process graphene in coatings, to fabricate graphene-enhanced circuit breaker prototypes for practical application in the industrial scale. The research group has more than ten years of research experience in graphene and graphene-based composites. Their knowledge on characterization and processing of graphene-based materials will help industrial partners to select the appropriate graphene raw materials. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/JinhuaSunChalmers.jpg" alt="Jinhua Sun" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px 10px;width:235px;height:178px" />Prof. Palermo and Dr. Sun will help work on developing new chemical procedures and industrial applicable processing methods to coat graphene on the major component of circuit breakers. In addition, the advanced characterization techniques available at Chalmers Materials Analysis Laboratory (CMAL) will be important to evaluate the added value of graphene on the performance of circuit breaker.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More information: </h2> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">About the Graphene Flagship</h3></div> <div> <a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Partners</h3> <div> The Circuitbreakers Spearhead project is a multidisciplinary project that consists of both academic and industrial partners. The industrial partners are ABB (Sweden), Nanesa (Italy) and Graphmatech AB (Sweden). </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Funding</h3> <div>The Graphene Flagship is one of the largest research projects funded by the European Commission. With a budget of €1 billion over 10 years, it represents a new form of joint, coordinated research, forming Europe's biggest ever research initiative. The Flagship is tasked with bringing together academic and industrial researchers to take graphene from academic laboratories into European society, thus generating economic growth, new jobs and new opportunities.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span>Chalmers University of Technology as a core partner will receive 481,000 Euro to work in the Circuitbreakers Spearhead project, which will formally start from April 2020 with a total period of 3 years.<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /></div>Thu, 23 Apr 2020 09:00:00 +0200 nanoplatelets prevent infections<p><b>​Graphite nanoplatelets integrated into plastic medical surfaces can prevent infections, killing 99.99 per cent of bacteria which try to attach – a cheap and viable potential solution to a problem which affects millions, costs huge amounts of time and money, and accelerates antibiotic resistance. This is according to research from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, in the journal Small.​</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span>Every year, over four million people in Europe are affected by infections contracted during health-care procedures, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Many of these are bacterial infections which develop around medical devices and implants within the body, such as catheters, hip and knee prostheses or dental implants. In worst cases implants need to be removed.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Bacterial infections like this can cause great suffering for patients, and cost healthcare services huge amounts of time and money. Additionally, large amounts of antibiotics are currently used to treat and prevent such infections, costing more money, and accelerating the development of antibiotic resistance.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“The purpose of our research is to develop antibacterial surfaces which can reduce the number of infections and subsequent need for antibiotics, and to which bacteria cannot develop resistance. We have now shown that tailored surfaces formed of a mixture of polyethylene and graphite nanoplatelets can kill 99.99 per cent of bacteria which try to attach to the surface,” says Santosh Pandit, postdoctoral researcher in the research group of Professor Ivan Mijakovic at the Division of Systems Biology, Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Chalmers University of Technology. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​&quot;Outstanding antibacterial effects&quot;</h2> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Infections on implants are caused by bacteria that travel around in the body in fluids such as blood, in search of a surface to attach to. When they land on a suitable surface, they start to multiply and form a biofilm – a bacterial coating.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Previous studies from the Chalmers researchers showed how vertical flakes of graphene, placed on the surface of an implant, could form a protective coating, making it impossible for bacteria to attach – like spikes on buildings designed to prevent birds from nesting. The graphene flakes damage the cell membrane, killing the bacteria. But producing these graphene flakes is expensive, and currently not feasible for large-scale production.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“But now, we have achieved the same outstanding antibacterial effects, but using relatively inexpensive graphite nanoplatelets, mixed with a very versatile polymer. The polymer, or plastic, is not inherently compatible with the graphite nanoplatelets, but with standard plastic manufacturing techniques, we succeeded in tailoring the microstructure of the material, with rather high filler loadings , to achieve the desired effect. And now it has great potential for a number of biomedical applications,” says Roland Kádár, Associate Professor at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science at Chalmers.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​No damage to human cells</h2> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The nanoplatelets on the surface of the implants prevent bacterial infection but, crucially, without damaging healthy human cells. Human cells are around 25 times larger than bacteria, so while the graphite nanoplatelets slice apart and kill bacteria, they barely scratch a human cell. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“In addition to reducing patients’ suffering and the need for antibiotics, implants like these could lead to less requirement for subsequent work, since they could remain in the body for much longer than those used today,” says Santosh Pandit. “Our research could also contribute to reducing the enormous costs that such infections cause health care services worldwide .”</p> <p></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​Correct orientation is the decisive factor</h2> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">In the study, the researchers experimented with different concentrations of graphite nanoplatelets and the plastic material. A composition of around 15-20 per cent graphite nanoplatelets had the greatest antibacterial effect – providing that the morphology is highly structured.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“As in the previous study, the decisive factor is orienting and distributing the graphite nanoplatelets correctly. They have to be very precisely ordered to achieve maximum effect,” says Roland Kádár.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The study was a collaboration between the Division of Systems and Synthetic Biology at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, and the Division of Engineering Materials at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science at Chalmers, and the medical company Wellspect Healthcare, who manufacture catheters, among other things. The antibacterial surfaces were developed by Karolina Gaska when she was a postdoctoral researcher in the group of Associate Professor Roland Kádár. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The researchers’ future efforts will now be focused on unleashing the full potential of the antibacterial surfaces for specific biomedical applications.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Read the scientific article in the scientific journal Small</strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><span style="background-color:initial"><font color="#333333"><a href="">Precontrolled Alignment of Graphite Nanoplatelets in Polymeric Composites Prevents Bacterial Attachment​</a></font></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Read the previous news text, from April 2018</strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspx">Spikes of graphene can kill bacteria on implants​</a></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Text:</strong> Susanne Nilsson Lindh and Joshua Worth<br /><strong>Ilustration:</strong> Yen Strandqvist</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p>Mon, 23 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0100​Graphene cleans water more effectively<p><b>​Billions of cubic meters of water are consumed each year. However, lots of the water resources such as rivers, lakes and groundwater are continuously contaminated by discharges of chemicals from industries and urban area. It’s an expensive and demanding process to remove all the increasingly present contaminants, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, perfluorinated compounds, heavy metals and pathogens. Graphil is a project that aims to create a market prototype for a new and improved way to purify water, using graphene.</b></p><div>Graphene enhanced filters for water purification (GRAPHIL) is one of eleven selected spearhead projects funded by The Graphene Flagship, Europe’s biggest initiative on graphene research, involving more than 140 universities and industries located in 21 countries. Chalmers is the coordinator of the Graphene Flagship. </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The purpose of the spearhead projects which will start in April 2020, building on previous scientific work, is to take graphene-enabled prototypes to commercial applications. Planned to end in 2023, the project aims to produce a compact filter that can be connected directly onto a household sink or used as a portable water purifying device, to ensure all households have access to safe drinking water.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/VincenzoPalermo.png" alt="Vincenzo Palermo" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:10px;width:196px;height:216px" /><br />&quot;This is a brand-new research line for Chalmers in the Graphene flagship, and it will be a strategic one. The purification of water is a key societal challenge for both rich and poor countries and will become more and more important in the next future. In Graphil, hopefully we will use our knowledge of graphene chemistry to produce a new generation of water purification system via interface engineering of graphene-polysulfone nanocomposites,&quot; says Vincenzo Palermo, professor at the Department of industrial and materials science. </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Graphene enhanced filters outperforms other water purification techniques</h2> <div>Most of the water purification processes today are based on several different techniques. These are adsorption on granular activated carbon that removes organic contaminants, membrane filtration that removes for example, bacteria or large pollutants, and reverse osmosis. Reverse osmosis is the only technique today that can remove organic or inorganic emerging concern contaminants with high efficiency. Reverse osmosis has however high electrical and chemical costs both from the operation and the maintenance of the system. </div> <div> </div> <div>Many existing contaminants present in Europe’s water sources, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and surfactants, are also resistant to conventional purification technologies. Consequently, the number of cases of contamination of ground and even drinking water is rapidly increasing throughout the world, and it is matter of great environmental concern due to their potential effect on the human health and ecosystem.</div> <div> </div> <div>Graphil is instead proposing to use graphene related material polymer composites. Thanks to the unique properties of graphene, the composite material favours the absorption of organic molecules. Its properties also allow the material to bind ions and metals, thus reducing the number of inorganic contaminants in water. Furthermore, unlike typical reverse osmosis, granular activated carbon and microfiltration train systems, the graphene system will provide a much simpler set up for users. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Grafenprov.jpg" alt="Grafenprov" style="margin:5px;width:660px;height:309px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Graphil will not just replace all the old techniques, but significantly out-perform them both in efficiency and cost. The filter works as a simple microfiltration membrane, and this simplicity requires lower operation pressures, amounting in reduced water loss and lower maintenance costs for end users.</div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Upscaling the technique for industrial use</h2> <div>Chalmers has, in collaboration with other partners of the Graphene Flagship, investigated during the last years the fundamental structure-property relationships of graphene related material and polysulfones composition in water purification. A filter has then been successfully developed and validated in an industrial environment by the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the water filtration supplier Medica.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Now the task is to integrate the results and prove that the production can be upscaled in a complete system for commercial use.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Prof. Vincenzo Palermo and Dr. Zhenyuan Xia from the department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers will support Graphil with advanced facilities for chemical, structural and mechanical characterization and processing of graphene oriented-polymer composite on the Kg scale. Chalmers’ role in the project will be to perform chemical functionalization of the graphene oxide and of the polymer fibers used in the filters, to enhance their compatibility and their performance in capturing organic contaminants.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/ZhenyuanXia_grafenprov_600px.jpg" alt="Zhenyuan Xia" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:15px 10px;width:295px;height:207px" /><br />&quot;We are very excited to begin this new activity in collaboration with partners from United Kingdom, France and Italy, and I hope that my previous ten years’ international working experience in Italy and Sweden will help us to better fulfil this project,&quot; says Zhenyuan Xia, researcher at the Department of industrial and materials science. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Partners</h2> <div>Graphil is a multidisciplinary project that consists of both academic and industry partners. The academic partners include Chalmers, the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the University of Manchester. The industrial partners are Icon Lifesaver, Medica SpA and Polymem S.A – all European industry leaders in the water purification sector. The aim is to have a working filter prototype that can be commercialized by the industry for household water treatment and portable water purification.  </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Funding</h2> <div>The Graphene Flagship is one of the largest research projects funded by the European Commission. With a budget of €1 billion over 10 years, it represents a new form of joint, coordinated research, forming Europe's biggest ever research initiative. The Flagship is tasked with bringing together academic and industrial researchers to take graphene from academic laboratories into European society, thus generating economic growth, new jobs and new opportunities.</div> <div> </div> <div>The total budget of the spearhead project GRAPHIL will be 4.88 million EURO and it will start from April 2020 with a total period of 3 years.</div>Sun, 22 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0100 of Fe-W alloys electrodeposited from environmentally friendly electrolyte<p><b>​Antonio Mulone, Doctoral Student at Materials and manufacture​ IMS, defends his doctoral thesis on March 27, 2020.</b></p>​Examiner: Uta Klement, <span style="background-color:initial">Materials and manufacture</span><span style="background-color:initial">​ IMS</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div><span style="background-color:initial">Opponent: </span><span style="background-color:initial">Prof. Peter Leisner; Materials and Manufacturing, Jönköping University</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Grading committee: </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">Assoc. Prof. Karen Pantleon, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, DTU, Danmark </span></div> <div>Prof. Per Nylen, Dept. of Engineering Science, University West </div> <div>Prof. Bengt-Göran Rosén, School of Business, Engineering and Science, Halmstad University </div> <div>Deputy member: Assoc. Prof. Pavleta Knutsson, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Popular thesisi description</strong></div> <div><div>Nowadays, we are constantly reminded of the importance of adopting a more sustainable lifestyle. We are paying more attention on what we buy, what we eat and how we travel. We are changing our habits with the goal to lower our environmental impact and to preserve our planet.  These changes are also occurring in the industrial sector where sustainable approaches are introduced in several manufacturing processes. In fact, being able to combine technological progress with environmental and sustainability measures is one of the most important challenges of our modern society. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>To help reaching this goal, in 2015 the United Nation proposed 17 goals for a sustainable development which represent a constant reminder of what to achieve for a better and more sustainable future. Each goal is extremely important and calls for immediate actions. Among the UN goals, the goal of a Responsible consumption and production (UN Goal number 12) represents the main guideline for industrial manufacturing processes, such as electrodeposition. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Electrodeposition is a process used to deposit a layer of a desired metal from a water-based solution (electrolyte) through the application of current. Today, electrodeposition is a well-established technique used to produce coatings ranging from decorative (e.g. gold or silver for jewelry) to technological applications (e.g. chromium and nickel for anti-wear and corrosion protection). Yet, many electrodeposition processes involve the use electrolytes containing highly toxic chemicals and scarce and non-renewable resources. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The European Union has recently addressed this problem with the application of environmental regulations and restrictions for the use of toxic compounds, like in the case of hexavalent chromium (i.e. Cr+6), which is classified as strongly cancerogenic. Therefore, it is important to study and develop coatings which are produced in a sustainable way. Such new coatings would be beneficial both for the environment and the electrodeposition industrial market, whose growth is limited by environmental regulations. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>This thesis studies iron-based coatings which are electrodeposited using a sustainable electrolyte: minimally aggressive, thermodynamically stable, and without toxic compounds. The aim of this work is to understand how the composition of the iron-based coatings influences the microstructure and the properties of interest: mechanical, wear and corrosion properties. Heat treatments are performed to optimize both the mechanical performance and the wear resistance of the iron-based coatings, which are compared to the properties of chrome coatings. The promising results presented in this thesis represent an important step toward the application of competitive and sustainable alternatives for coatings produced by environmentally hazardous processes.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the thesis</a></div> <div><br /></div></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Dissertation:</span> March 27 2020, at 10.00. Digital via zoom.<br /></div> <div><br /></div>Wed, 11 Mar 2020 09:00:00 +0100 mice and men – International RSI Awareness Day<p><b>​Last day of February is the International Repetitive Strain Injury Day (RSI). The initiative started in Canada to promote awareness on strain injuries of various types and celebrates 20 years 2020. Professor Anna-Lisa Osvalder at Chalmers University of Technology is an expert in ergonomics and gives her best tips on how to avoid RSI.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Design%20and%20Human%20Factors/200x249_AL-foto-CTH.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin-right:15px;margin-left:15px" /><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Why do you get RSI?</strong></span><div>It could happen if you for some time have exerted certain muscles through low-strain tasks. Like using a computer and a computer mouse in your everyday work. You might experience a pain in the arm, neck, wrist and fingers. That pain is caused by an increased strain in the muscles and ligaments, tendons or nerves being overloaded. Also, stress can increase the risk of RSI because you often tighten your muscles.</div> <div>When working with a computer mouse, you hold your hand in an unnatural position, both holding the mouse and clicking it. The hand is bent back in an unnaturally large angle between the forearm and the hand and the muscles are constantly strained. In addition, the hand is usually slightly twisted, with a turn to the little finger. This causes a greater pressure on certain nerves and the muscles in the forearm are forced to work in an unnatural way.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What did you find in your study of so-called ergonomic computer mice?</strong></div> <div>First, I would like to point out that a so-called ergonomic computer mouse cannot have good ergonomics in itself. It is only in collaboration with the user we can study how well it can avoid incorrect use which may cause RSI.</div> <div>In our evaluation, we took a closer look at four ergonomic computer mice of different brands. We examined two aspects – usability problems and use errors – in interaction with the mice.</div> <div>In the study of the four mice, we found 75 possible ways to use the mice incorrectly! The user did not understand from the design of the mouse how it was supposed to be held or which finger to use to click. From this, we found that it was difficult for the user to guess how an ergonomic mouse should be used properly. And the wrong use causes a strain in the wrist, hand and fingers which in the long run can lead to RSI.</div> <div>The study shows the importance of informing and educating the users on how to handle an ergonomic mouse properly. We also found that it is important to develop mice that you intuitively understand how to use. The best design is the one where you can only use the product in one way – the correct way.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What are your best tips to avoid RSI?</strong></div> <div>There is no special treatment for RSI. Instead you need to find a way to prevent long-term strain. These simple tips can prevent RSI and reduce existing problems:</div> <div><ul><li>Take more breaks! Rather many short breaks than a few long ones.</li> <li>Change work posture frequently.</li> <li>Stretch your body and your wrists (see picture).</li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">Avoid using the computer mouse – learn how to use keyboard shortcuts instead.</span></li> <li>Change hands maneuvering the mouse. It is difficult at first, but practice and you will get in to it.</li> <li>Make sure the mouse and keyboard are at a proper distance from the body, the closer the better.</li> <li>Keep the wrist straight, slightly twisted towards the little finger when using the mouse, ie try to hold the wrist in a natural posture to reduce strain <em>(see picture above).</em></li> <li>Reduce work-related stress.</li></ul></div> <div><br /></div> <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/anna-lisa-osvalder.aspx"><div><strong>Anna-Lisa Osvalder </strong><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(51, 51, 51);font-weight:300">researches in ergonomics and biomechanics since 1986. She is a Professor at the Division of Design &amp; Human Factors, Chalmers University of Technology as well as Professor of Human Machine Systems at Design Sciences, Lund University </span></div></a><div><br /></div> <div>The study mentioned above is part of the doctoral thesis <a href="">&quot;Predicting mismatches in user-artefact interaction&quot; </a>by Lars-Ola Bligård <em>(search for “Appendix A PEEA: Evaluation of ergonomic error in the interaction with computer mice”).</em></div> <div><br /></div> Fri, 28 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0100