News: Industrial and Materials Science related to Chalmers University of TechnologyFri, 14 Dec 2018 16:49:21 +0100 fibres can store energy – listed as breakthrough of the year<p><b>​We have previously reported about a study, led by Chalmers University of Technology, that has shown that carbon fibres can work as battery electrodes, storing energy directly. This research has now been listed by the regarded Physics World Magazine as one of this year’s ten biggest breakthroughs.</b></p><div>​It is a team of expert editors at <a href="">Physics World</a> that each year lists what they regard as the top ten biggest breakthroughs of the year. One out of these ten is then awarded Breakthrough of the Year and the other nine highly commended breakthroughs are listed in no particular order. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Physics World 2018 Breakthrough of the Year went to Pablo Jarillo-Herrero of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in the US and colleagues for their discoveries in the area of graphene. In 2012 the title went to the discovery of a Higgs-like particle, which the following year was awarded with the Nobel Prize.</div> <br /><div>&quot;I’m very happy that our research on materials here at Chalmers University of Technology gain attention in this context. It is a big thing&quot;, says Leif Asp.</div> <br /><div>Asp headed up a multidisciplinary group of researchers who recently published a study on how the microstructure of carbon fibres affects their electrochemical properties – that is, their ability to operate as electrodes in a lithium-ion battery. So far this has been an unexplored research field.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Kolfiber%20kan%20laga%20energi_webb_EN.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><em>Increased energy efficiency with multi-functional carbon fibre in a structural battery</em><br /><em>Illustration: Yen Strandqvist</em><br /><br /></div> <div>What the researchers have shown is that carbon fibres can perform more tasks than simply act as a reinforcing material. They can store energy, for example. This opens up new opportunities for structural batteries, where the carbon fibre becomes part of the energy system. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The use of this type of multifunctional material can contribute to a significant weight-reduction in the aircraft and vehicles of the future – a key challenge for electrification.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Has gained world-wide attention</h2></div> <div>The discovery has also attracted a lot of international interest with over 170 articles in more than 30 countries.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Yes, I have been contacted by a lot of journalists. Among other BBC called me and wanted a live radio interview, which was quite exciting&quot;, says Leif Asp.</div> <br /><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/EFANX_340x305_viewpoint-2-HD_BSJ_20180201.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The industry has also shown great interest and Airbus has entered an agreement with Chalmers University of Technology, since it chimes with one of Airbus’ own strategic research fields: integrated energy storage. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Peter Linde from Airbus says that one absolutely crucial reason for the collaboration is the cutting-edge research being conducted by Leif Asp’s research team, together with colleagues at KTH Royal Institute of Technology within the field of multifunctional composites for energy storage.
 </div> <br /><div><br /></div> <div><div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5"><br /></h5> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More information</h2> <div>The research has been funded by <em>Vinnova, the Swedish Energy Agency, the Swedish Research Council </em>and <em>Alistore European Research Institute.</em><br /></div></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Read the scientific article</h5></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a title="Länk till den vetenskapliga artikeln" href="">Graphitic microstructure and performance of carbon fibre Li-ion structural battery electrodes</a> published in the journal Multifunctional Materials.</p> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Read more about how carbon fibre can store energy<br /></h5> <div><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspx">Carbon fibre that can store energy in the body of a vehicle<br /></a></div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More information about the Airbus collaboration</h5></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Airbus-collaboration-on-multifunctional-materials.aspx">Airbus collaboration on multifunctional materials</a><br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">For additional information, contact:</h5> <span style="display:inline !important;float:none;background-color:transparent;font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;font-weight:300;letter-spacing:normal;line-height:22px;text-align:left;text-decoration:none;text-indent:0px;text-transform:none;white-space:normal;word-spacing:0px">Leif Asp, Professor of Material and Computational Mechanics at Chalmers University of Technology</span>, 031-772 15 43, <a href=""></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div>Fri, 14 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100,-Early-Stage-Modeling-and-Assessment-Support.aspx,-Early-Stage-Modeling-and-Assessment-Support.aspxPlatform Design for Producibility, Early-Stage Modeling and Assessment Support<p><b>Jonas Landahl, PhD student at the division of Product Development IMS, defends his doctoral thesis on December 11.  Below the popular science description. For more information, please see links below.</b></p><strong> </strong><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Platform Design for Producibility</strong></span><div><strong>Early-Stage Modeling and Assessment Support</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the near future, a variety* of products can be designed and prepared for production more efficiently than today. Such a future state is possible by creating a backup structure of neatly packaged design and production information in which future product ideas can be included to be quickly compared for their value. Perhaps you’ve once identified a problem that you’ve used your imagination to solve by outlining a design solution? It’s quite demanding to go from idea to physical solution. Even professional engineers struggle to include every imaginable aspect of a design. Luckily, design engineers have plenty of tools that can help them detail the ideal performance of a product. The problem is that designing the performance of a product is not enough to make the physical product behave as intended. Good performance on paper is quite often achieved at the expense of bad production, poor product quality and dissatisfied customers. So the design must be modified when the product is near its final completion, which often results in mediocre performance, mediocre production and mediocre product quality, as well as a broken budget. Shouldn’t engineers know better and include production aspects earlier so that they can carry out both good design and production? Well, to be fair, engineers today don’t have the supportive tools necessary to include production aspects early on while simultaneously designing a variety of product concepts. This research has therefore focused on the interplay of products and production systems to present new knowledge in the form of theoretical models, engineering methods and a practical tool that enables the creation of a backup structure of neatly packaged design and production information to be reused in and adapted for new design problems. Some future challenges are identified and need to be addressed before a variety of products can be designed and prepared for production more efficiently than in current industrial practice. To know more about this, you are more than welcome to acquaint yourself with the content of this thesis.</div> <div> </div> <div>* Why variety? Well, because the likelihood that a product variant among a variety can meet the needs of any given customer is higher than for a single product, manufacturers can increase market share and become more profitable by offering variety.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the thesis​</a></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/jonas-landahl.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />More about Jonas Landahl​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>Public defence</strong></div> <div>2018-12-11 10:00</div> <div>Virtual Development Laboratory</div> <div>Opponent: Prof. Niels Henrik Mortensen, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark​</div></div> <div><br /></div>Fri, 30 Nov 2018 12:00:00 +0100 start for Autumn School<p><b>​The first edition of the Autumn School got a successful start. 30 participants from academia and industry gathered for a week at Chalmers with a combination of lectures, industrial tours and project.  ​</b></p>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/CAM2/People/porträtt-sofia-abdul-mattias.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 15px" /><br /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">- </span><span style="background-color:initial">The idea behind the CAM<sup>2</sup> Autumn School is to provide possibilities for participants for hands-on experience<br />of different powder, says <strong>Eduard Hryha</strong>, director of Centre for Additive Manufacture – Metal, </span>CAM<span style="font-size:10.5px;line-height:0;position:relative;vertical-align:baseline;top:-0.5em">2</span><span style="background-color:initial">.</span><div><br /></div> <div>The main focus lays on powder bed metal additive manufacturing technologies, covering hardware design, powder properties, material properties and post-processing. At Chalmers the participants tried Laser Power Bed Fusion (LPBF), which is focused on design, manufacturing and evaluating an AM-part. They also got to test Direct Energy Deposition, Electron Beam Melting (EBM) and Binder Jetting during the visits at Arcam Academy, Digital Metal/Höganäs and Production Technology Center at University West.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Sofia Petterson</strong>, Volvo Group, was very pleased with the Autumn School.</div> <div>-<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>It was a good mixture between different lectures and company visits, for example Arcam where they showed their products and gave us a introduction of Electron Beam Melting. Going through all of these technologies, I got a better understanding of the pros and cons of them and where to use them, Sofia Petterson concludes.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The course also included guest lectures. <strong>Abdul Shaafi Shaikh</strong>, EOS Finland, talked about Direct Metal Laser Sintering:</div> <div>-<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>I hope to leave the participants with a better understanding of the growing possibilities of using metallic materials for additive manufacturing.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Mattias Fager</strong>, Arcam, also guest lecturer, stressed the fact on how mature the EBM process is and a commodity concerning titanium inplants. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>-<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>We will continue with this approach during the coming five years, looking at the whole manufacturing chain through different themes each year, says Eduard Hryha.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/CAM2/People/eduard-hryha_750x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:680px;height:294px" /><br /><br /></div> <div>Director Eduard Hryha, <span style="background-color:initial">CAM</span><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:10.5px;line-height:0;position:relative;vertical-align:baseline;top:-0.5em">2</span><span style="background-color:initial">. Pictures above, top-down: Sofia Petterson,Volvo Group,  Abdul Shaafi Shaihk, EOS Finland Oy and Mattias Fager, Arcam.</span></div> <div><br /><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/centres/cam2/education/Pages/Autumn-School-2018.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the course</a> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Interviews with director, participant and guest lecturers</strong></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Eduard Hryha</a> </div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Sofia Petterson</a></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Abdul Shaafi Shaikh</a></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Mattias Fager</a></span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text, photo and film: Carina Schultz</em></div> <div><br /></div> Fri, 23 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0100 characterisation for crash modelling of composites<p><b>​​Thomas Bru, industrial PhD student (RISE SICOMP) at the division of Material and Computational Mechanics IMS, defends his doctoral thesis on November 30. Below the popular science description. For more information, please see links below.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial"><span style="font-weight:700">Popular science description</span></span><div><br /></div> <div>In 2015, the transport sector contributed to nearly 30% of the total EU-28 greenhouse gas emissions. The figure decreases to 21% if international aviation and maritime emissions are excluded. The transport industry must therefore find solutions to reduce its impact on climate change.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A promising method to reduce the weight of vehicles and therefore to their CO2 emissions is to introduce components made of lightweight composite materials, in particular carbon fibre reinforced plastics. On medium size cars, weight savings as high as 35% can be achieved by replacing steel structures with structures made of composite materials, and so without any loss in mechanical performances (strength and stiffness). In addition, it has been shown that composites structures can potentially absorb more energy than metallic structures in crash situations. Higher energy absorption in crash yields higher safety of the occupants thanks to reduced deceleration loads.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Unfortunately, reliable simulation of the crash behaviour of composite structure has been identified as one the bottle necks for the introduction of composite materials in cars. With the aim of increasing the level of confidence in crash simulations, physical tests must be carried out in order to 1) extract relevant material properties to input to the simulation tools and to 2) validate the predictions of the numerical crash simulations.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In this work, a simple test method is developed to experimentally characterise the crushing behaviour of composites. The experimental results are compared the simulation results obtained from a project conducted in parallel to this thesis. The aim of the simulations is to pre-emptively predict the crushing behaviour of composite structures in order to optimise their design in terms of energy absorption and to reduce the number of physical tests which are associated with high costs. In addition, experimental methods are developed with the aim of extracting material parameters required as input to material models in simulation codes. It is important to carefully measure the mechanical response of composite materials under shear forces (shear forces are pairs of equal and opposing forces acting on opposite sides of an object, like the forces created when using a pair of scissors). Therefore, a methodology is proposed to characterise the shear response of composite materials and to calibrate crash models for composites from the measured shear response.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Links:</span></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><a href=""><span>R</span>ead the thesis </a></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />LinkedIn Thomas Bru</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>Dissertation</strong></div> <div>2018-11-30 10:00</div> <div>VDL, Tvärgata 4C, Chalmers</div> <div>Opponent: Prof. Ivana Partridge, University of Bristol, UK</div></div> <div><br /></div> ​Tue, 20 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0100 collaboration on multifunctional materials<p><b>​Chalmers has received a substantial boost in the field of multifunctional materials and technologies focusing on the aviation industry. Dr. Peter Linde, Research Engineer at Airbus, one of the world’s largest aircraft manufacturers, has taken up the position of Adjunct Professor in the Department of Industrial and Materials Science. A collaboration that started with a long walk to a remote hotel in Toulouse in 2008.</b></p>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Peter-Linde_02_500x750_foto%20Carina%20Schultz.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Portrait Peter Linde" style="margin:5px 20px;width:225px;height:312px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">During their long walk to the hotel, Peter Linde and <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/leifas.aspx">Leif Asp</a>, Professor of <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mocm/Pages/Lightweight-materials-and-structures.aspx">Lightweight Composite Materials and Structures</a>, realised that they shared many questions regarding research into lightweight materials. After nearly 10 years of working together on a number of projects, Asp’s wish for more in-depth collaboration with Airbus has now been realised as Linde took up the part-time (20%) position of Adjunct Professor at Chalmers in September. He is based in the Division of Material and Computational Mechanics.  </span><div><span style="background-color:initial">
At <a href="">Airbus Operations GmbH in Hamburg </a>Linde is currently working as an Airframe Architecture and Integration Research Engineer. His long experience of research into materials and composites has made him particularly familiar with the many challenges of this field within the Airbus group – which will be a major asset for Chalmers.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Picture above: Peter Linde, who has recently taken up the position of Adjunct Professor in the Department of Industrial and Materials Science. His impressive CV includes studies at ETH Zurich, Stanford, the University of California, Los Angeles (focusing on industrial collaboration in aviation), and the University of California, Berkeley (pioneers in finite element methods). </em></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div><strong>
World-leading research into structural batteries</strong> 
</div> <div>The agreement has taken time to prepare because the professorship must be relevant to Chalmers while also adding value to Airbus. Linde says that one absolutely crucial reason for the collaboration is the cutting-edge research being conducted by Leif Asp’s research team together with colleagues at KTH Royal Institute of Technology within the field of multifunctional composites for energy storage.
</div> <div>“Yes, it’s true that we’re world-leading in the area of <a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspx">structural batteries​</a>. In preparation for the agreement, Airbus conducted a Technology Watch in which the potential in our research was identified. It chimes with one of Airbus’ own strategic research fields: integrated energy storage. Airbus saw the potential and has therefore chosen to enter into an agreement with us,” Asp says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>
Request for broader collaboration with Chalmers
</strong></div> <div>Now that this agreement has been secured, Leif Asp hopes that Chalmers will gain a much broader interface with Airbus. Asp believes that there will be more joint projects on composites in future, but he would also like to see the research collaboration broadened. There are many research fields at Chalmers that are of interest to Airbus. 
</div> <div>“One of Peter Linde’s key talents is his ability to see possible collaborations and create networks that drive innovation in industry. In short, he is skilled at technology, politics and making things happen,” Asp explains.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/EFANX_viewpoint-2-HD_BSJ_20180201.jpeg" alt="Environmentally Friendly Aircraft E-Fan-X " style="margin:5px;width:680px;height:471px" /><br /><br /></div> <div><em>The title of his installation lecture was “Emerging Materials and Technologies for Multifunctional Application in Environmentally Friendly Aircraft”. E-Fan-X (depicted) is the second-generation of research aircraft within the Airbus group in which electric propulsion is being tested. E-Fan-X is a modified BAE 146 with four engines, one of which is electric. The energy for the propulsion is a hybrid-based system with a gas turbine and battery. Its maiden flight is planned for 2019. Its predecessor, the E-Fan, was a two-seater with two electric engines and energy storage in batteries. Its maiden flight took place in 2014. Photo: Airbus</em><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>
Lighter planes achieve environmental gains
</strong></div> <div>Peter Linde devotes most of his time to his work as Topic Manager of the EU project <a href="/en/projects/Pages/Structural-pOweR-CompositEs-foR-futurE-civil-aiRcraft-QSORCERERQ.aspx">SORCERER,</a> in which Chalmers is one of four partners.
</div> <div>“The project aims to develop a lightweight composite with intrinsic electrical energy storage capability, intended for future electric and hybrid-electric aircraft. The background to the project is the need for more environmentally friendly lightweight aircraft, of which the weight can be reduced by integrating batteries in structures, cabins and systems.
</div> <div>“Via Airbus’ involvement in the Clean Sky​ project, I will also gain the opportunity to meet new collaboration partners for Chalmers and Airbus,” says Linde, who hopes that he will have time for this on the 3–4 occasions per year that he will be on site in Gothenburg.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>

Degree projects focusing on thin layers</strong></div> <div>Other interesting and closely related research fields mentioned by Linde are graphene and additive manufacturing for weight reduction and multifunctionality for components. Initially, however, he wants to dig deeper into the field of composites made of thin layers. Linde continues, </div> <div>“Together with Leif Asp and <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/martin-fagerstrom.aspx">Martin Fagerström</a>, I will prepare a number of degree projects. We have also started to supervise a doctoral student together, and we might lecture for the Master’s students in the latter part of their programmes.<span style="background-color:initial">”

</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong><br /></strong></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>​Always a st</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>udent
</strong></span></div> <div>When the news of the professorship was made public, many people in Peter Linde’s extensive contact network got in touch. One person who has already congratulated him is Professor <a href="">Stephen W. Tsai </a>at Stanford, a living legend in the field of composite materials, with whom Linde has had an innovative exchange in recent years.</div> <div>
“I have also heard from my old Professor <a href="">Hugo Bachmann​</a> at ETH Zurich, who congratulated me on gaining such a fine position at such a reputable seat of learning,” Linde laughs and continues, 
</div> <div>“This feels great! Above all as Adjunct Professor, I will be able to devote myself to my major interests: building networks and satisfying my curiosity. I regard myself as always being a student,” Linde concludes.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Installation-adj-prof-Peter-Linde_20180904_13_750x477.png" alt="Peter Linde lecturing" style="margin:5px;width:679px;height:424px" /><br /><em><br /></em></div> <div><em>In his installation lecture, Dr. Peter Linde provided a short recap of Airbus’ history and technological successes. One example was the sales success of the Airbus A320, which vastly surpassed its sales target of around 300 planes and reached a total of 8,000. To conclude, he presented his thoughts on the future development of new materials, such as multifunctional composites for energy storage. Photo: Carina Schultz</em></div> <div><i><br /></i></div> <div><em></em><p style="margin-bottom:10px"><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />See more pictures from the event</a></p> <p style="margin-bottom:10px"><a href="/sv/institutioner/ims/kalendarium/Sidor/Peter-Linde.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the lecture</a></p> <p style="margin-bottom:10px"></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/carbon-fibre-can-store-energy.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Carbon fibre can store energy in the body of a vehicle</a>​</p> <p style="margin-bottom:10px"><br /></p> <i></i></div></div></div> ​Thu, 15 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0100 future of research in design processes - Cambrigde report<p><b>The MMEP SIG workshop on modelling and management of engineering processes gathered participants from universities across Europe, working with research on design processes. Professor Ola Isaksson and Massimo Panarotto (senior researcher) from Systems Engineering Design Research Group​, Chalmers University of Technology were on site and here is their report:</b></p>​“Industry see the value of improving the design process […] we see the same trend in production and software development, where industry is measuring the quality of the process to assess the quality of the outcome”.<div></div> <div>This is one of the reflections made by him and other participants of the <a href="">MMEP SIG workshop ​</a>held at the Engineering Design Centre at University of <span style="background-color:initial">Cambridge</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">the 5-6 November 2018 and </span><span style="background-color:initial">organized by the <a href="">Design Society​</a>.</span><span style="background-color:initial"> Chalmers was present with the </span><a href="/en/departments/ims/research/product-development/Pages/systems-engineering-design.aspx">Systems Engineering Design Research Group</a><span style="background-color:initial">. ​</span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><span></span><div><div><span style="background-color:initial">There is a growing industrial interest to reduce development lead times and making better decisions - in a business environment that is bringing in new digital, electrical and autonomous technologies at a rapid pace. There is an increased interest on improving the design process to ensure the ability of making better products. </span></div> <div>Despite this interest, the introduction of new methods and tools into industrial design practice is traditionally slow despite them being demonstrated as having a good impact when used. This, and other challenges facing research into management of engineering design processes was discussed.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Wingquist%20laboratory/notes-on-the-wall_700x598.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:680px;height:562px" /><br /><br /></strong><em>(Picture above) Issues and reflections were identified and clustered</em></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><em></em><strong>What is the future (and the role) of academic research in design processes?</strong></div> <div></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The MMEP workshop focused on these issues, with the purpose of promoting a bi-directional interest from universities and industry to develop and introduce together new design methods and tools. As input to the workshop was the results from a workshop at Chalmers in September, where industrialists met academics to discuss the needs of the future. </span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Issues were listed and clustered in order to make some preliminary observations, which will be further refined and published in a report.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Some of the preliminary takeaways from the workshop are:</strong></div> <div>1.<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>The impact of the methods developed at universities is often as &quot;eye opener&quot;, rather than something directly implementable in an industrial environment.</div> <div>2.<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>In cases where implementation works, it is often the result of very long and close collaboration between a research team and a specific company and/or in close association with, for example, a spin-off company. </div> <div>3.<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>It is dangerous to expect doctoral students to produce scientific quality and at the same time to make an immediate industrial impact. This is difficult for PhD students who are at the same time learning on how to become independent researchers.   </div> <div>4.<span style="white-space:pre"> </span>Universities can use their more free role (compared to industry) to focus on longer-term issues, and to develop methods with better scalability and durability, driven by stronger theoretical foundations - where industry must inevitably take shortcuts in their daily business instead</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Outside work, there was also time for some sightseeing. </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Wingquist%20laboratory/700x910_Christs-college.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:25px 5px;width:680px;height:777px" /><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><em>(Picture above) Professor Ola Isaksson in front of Christ’s college, where Charles Darwin studied.</em></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>For more info, contact:</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/iola.aspx">Ola Isaksson</a></div> <div>Professor, Systems Engineering Design Research Group</div> <div>Dept. Industrial and Materials Science</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/">Massimo Panarotto</a></div> <div>Senior Researcher, Systems Engineering Design Research Group</div> <div>Dept. Industrial and Materials Science</div> <div><br /></div></div></div> ​Fri, 09 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0100 we miss the opportunity to reuse past knowledge and does it really matter<p><b>In his doctoral thesis,  Daniel Stenholm PhD student at the division of Production Development discusses different approaches to reuse of engineering knowledge.</b></p><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> <span>Reuse of Engineering Knowledge</span></h2> <div><em>Perspectives on Experience-Based Codified Knowledge in Incremental Product Development</em></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Do we miss the opportunity to reuse past knowledge and does it really matter?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Do any of the following situations sound familiar? </div> <div><ol><li>You have been hearing about the baby boomer retirement for years and now it is on your doorstep or already going on. Senior managers and experts are retiring and it is challenging to fill their places. A lot of projects will be delayed or cancelled for lack of experienced employees. Some of what they know may perhaps be obsolete. But how much? And what parts? What knowledge can and should be passed along and reused by less experienced colleagues? <br /></li> <li>You have been hiring talented young engineers over the past few years, but they are… different. These Gen-Y individuals, or Millennials, are impatient to move up the organizational ladder and do not expect to spend twenty years in the same organization. They have some great new ideas, such as using social media to interact with colleagues. But how do you integrate them efficiently into the organizational culture while making sure that they apply existing organizational knowledge? <br /></li> <li>Your product development teams are scattered around the globe. It is great that someone in East Asia or the U.S. is working while your team members in Europe are asleep – and your electronic communication systems allow you to get really quick responses to a given specific problem. But how do you advance and promote individuals and teams from competence to expertise given that experts are so dispersed?<br /></li></ol></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>All these scenarios have a common challenge: How can business-critical, experience-based knowledge of experts become valuable for an organization through efficient reuse of this knowledge over time? </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>This thesis primarily focuses on dynamically capturing and reusing the knowledge that is the most critical for an organization and presents a practical approach to improve domain-specific knowledge flow over time. </div> <div>Moreover, the focus is about a particular subset of knowledge that has been built up from corporate-specific and mostly undocumented experience normally contained inside the heads of senior workers.  </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Not only capturing what you might call Know-what but also what the most valuable practitioners have learned about Know-how, along with the reason behind – Know-why. This expertise includes such skills as the ability to diagnose and anticipate problems and making swift and wise decisions and actions. Such knowledge has a major benefit to an organization and will become invaluable into the future, hence the need to transfer it to the next generation of engineers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the thesis </a></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Daniel Stenholm, LinkedIn </a></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/ims/research/product-development/Pages/default.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />More about the division of Production Development at IMS </a></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> Text: Daniel Stenholm/Kate Larsson​​<div>Photo: <a href="">Robin Lundin​</a></div>Wed, 07 Nov 2018 00:00:00 +0100 from the EPIC workshop on space electric propulsion<p><b>​​ With focus on Electric Propulsion Technologies, the 2018 EPIC Workshop took place in Westminster, London this October. The workshop, now on its third year, gathered around 80 delegates from across Europe, mostly from companies and European space organizations, such as ESA. Massimo Panarotto, senior researcher from Systems Engineering Design Research Group​, Chalmers University of Technology was on site and here is his report:</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Wingquist%20laboratory/Massimo_Panarotti_IMS_DSC02501_250x374.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 10px;width:170px;height:255px" />“<a href="">Electric propulsion</a> is a game changer”, this was the opening by Jose Gonzalez del Amo (European Space </span><span style="background-color:initial"><br />Agency – ESA) at the third <a href=""><span>EPIC</span> workshop</a>, held in London from the 15th to the 17th of October 2018. </span><div><br /></div> <div>For going to mars and beyond, we need more efficient means of transportation in space. For example, chemical propulsion (used to propel the space shuttle in 1969) is too costly and has the big disadvantage to consume a lot of propellant to reach long distances. Electric propulsion represents a promising alternative, since we can use much less propellant. Furthermore, we can make use of the only energy source available in the solar system: the sun.    </div> <div><br /></div> <div>At the same time, the space industry is in the middle of a transition. New actors such as <a href="">OneWeb</a> are planning to launch thousands of satellites around the earth to provide low cost - yet fast - internet to the whole world. Electric propulsion is appealing for these business markets as well, since it can reduce costs tremendously.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Despite these good premises, electric propulsion still needs innovation and development to clearly become a competitive option for the space industry. EPIC (Electric Propulsion Innovation and Competitiveness) has the objective to foster such innovations.   </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The EPIC Workshop started by giving updates from the projects funded by the European Commission through the <a href="">Horizon 2020 Space Strategic Research Cluster</a>. One of these is the <a href="">CHEOPS project</a>, where the <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/product-development/Pages/systems-engineering-design.aspx">Systems Engineering Design Research Group</a> at Chalmers is actively involved, supporting nine industrial partners to analyze the cost and value of alternative architectures and technologies for electric propulsion.   </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Wingquist%20laboratory/cheops_slied_750x340.png" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:680px;height:312px" /><br /><br /></div> <div><a href="">Idris Habbassi</a> (photo above), <a href="">Safran Aircraft Engines</a> and project leader in CHEOPS, presenting the results of the project</div> <div>The workshop followed by very interesting panel discussions, focused on two recurring ‘hot topics’ for the electric propulsion community: </div> <div>1) electric propulsion technologies for small satellites and new markets and </div> <div>2) new strategies for electric propulsion qualification. </div> <div>The last day of the workshop focused on a number of exiting technical presentations.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The next EPIC workshop will be in 2019 in Noordwijk (The Netherlands), one of the ‘homes’ of the <a href="">European Space Agency (ESA)​</a>. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">FACTS CHEOPS</span></div> <div>The <em><strong>CHEOPS (Consortium for Hall Effect Orbital Propulsion System) </strong></em>project proposes to develop three different Hall Effect Thruster (HET) Electric Propulsion Systems (EPS), each with specific requirements leading to specific improvements at system and subsystem levels, in order to serve different application fields or orbits.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span></span><span></span><div><span style="font-weight:700">Chalmers role in CHEOPS:</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers is involved in Cheops in Work Package 2 (WP2- “Strategies for value creation and cost reduction”) and targets objectives #5 and #6 of CHEOPS </span><br /></div> <div><ul><li>Such objectives state the target to reduce cost of solutions by at least 30% compared to existing solution. <br /></li> <li>However, all technologies and concepts to be demonstrated in CHEOPS are also intended to provide performance enhancements, and in several cases also new functionalities. <br /></li> <li>The comparison with existing concepts is therefore not straightforward, since CHEOPS is not only a cost reduction initiative. <br /></li> <li>The need for a cost and value modelling strategy that acknowledges the enhancements and changes of the produ<span style="background-color:initial">ct compared to current generation technologies is therefore clear.​</span></li></ul></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />More about the CHEOPS project</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">For more info, contact:</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/massimo-panarotto.aspx">Massimo Panarotto</a></span><br /></div> <div><a href="">​</a><br /></div> <div>Senior Researcher, Systems Engineering Design Research Group</div> <div><span>Dept. Industrial and Materials Science <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /></div> <div>Theme leader <a href="/en/centres/wingquist/research/research-themes/Pages/platform-based-development.aspx">Product Development 4.0</a> at Wingquist Laboratory</div> <div>​<br /></div> ​Fri, 19 Oct 2018 15:30:00 +0200 fibre can store energy in the body of a vehicle<p><b>A study led by Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, has shown that carbon fibres can work as battery electrodes, storing energy directly. This opens up new opportunities for structural batteries, where the carbon fibre becomes part of the energy system. The use of this type of multifunctional material can contribute to a significant weight-reduction in the aircraft and vehicles of the future – a key challenge for electrification.</b></p><p>Passenger aircraft need to be much lighter than they are today in order to be powered by electricity. A reduction in weight is also very important for vehicles in order to extend the driving distance per battery charge.</p> <p>Leif Asp, Professor of Material and Computational Mechanics at Chalmers University of Technology, conducts research into the ability of carbon fibres to perform more tasks than simply to act as a reinforcing material. They can store energy, for example.</p> <p>“A car body would then be not simply a load-bearing element, but also act as a battery,” he says. “It will also be possible to use the carbon fibre for other purposes such as harvesting kinetic energy, for sensors or for conductors of both energy and data. If all these functions were part of a car or aircraft body, this could reduce the weight by up to 50 percent.” </p> <p>Asp headed up a multidisciplinary group of researchers who recently published a study on how the microstructure of carbon fibres affects their electrochemical properties – that is, their ability to operate as electrodes in a lithium-ion battery. So far this has been an unexplored research field.</p> <p><img alt="Leif Asp carbon fibre" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Leif%20Asp%20kolfiber%20webb.jpg" style="margin:10px 5px" /><br /><em>Leif Asp with a bobbin of carbon fibre yarn. The electrodes in a structural lithium ion battery consist of carbon fibre yarn arranged in a grid in a polymer (see illustration). Every length of yarn consists of 24,000 individual carbon fibres.</em> <br /><br /></p> <p>The researchers studied the microstructure of different types of commercially available carbon fibres. They discovered that carbon fibres with small and poorly oriented crystals have good electrochemical properties but a lower stiffness in relative terms. If you compare this with carbon fibres that have large, highly oriented crystals, they have greater stiffness, but the electrochemical properties are too low for use in structural batteries.</p> <p><br /><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Kolfiberrulle_webb.jpg" width="298" height="447" alt="" style="margin:5px 10px" />We now know how multifunctional carbon fibres should be manufactured to attain a high energy storage capacity, while also ensuring sufficient stiffness,” Asp says. “A slight reduction in stiffness is not a problem for many applications such as cars. The market is currently dominated by expensive carbon fibre composites whose stiffness is tailored to aircraft use. There is therefore some potential here for carbon fibre manufacturers to extend their utilisation.”</p> <p>In the study the types of carbon fibre with good electrochemical properties had a slightly higher stiffness than steel, whereas the types whose electrochemical properties were poor are just over twice as rigid as steel.</p> <p>The researchers are collaborating with both the automotive and aviation industries. Leif Asp explains that for the aviation industry, it may be necessary to increase the thickness of carbon fibre composites, to compensate for the reduced stiffness of structural batteries. This would, in turn, also increase their energy storage capacity.</p> <p><br /> </p> <p><br />“The key is to optimise vehicles at system level – based on the weight, strength, stiffness and electrochemical properties. That is something of a new way of thinking for the automotive sector, which is more used to optimising individual components. Structural batteries may perhaps not become as efficient as traditional batteries, but since they have a structural load-bearing capability, very large gains can be made at system level.”</p> <p></p> <div> </div> <div>He continues, “In addition, the lower energy density of structural batteries would make them safer than standard batteries, especially as they would also not contain any volatile substances.”</div> <div><br /> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Read the article </h3> <p></p> <p></p> <div><a href="">Graphitic microstructure and performance of carbon fibre Li-ion structural battery electrodes</a> in the journal Multifunctional Materials.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For more information, contact:</h3> <div>Leif Asp, Professor of Material and Computational Mechanics, Chalmers, +46 31 772 15, <a href=""><br /></a></div> <div><br /> </div> <div><em>Text: Johanna Wilde &amp; Marcus Folino</em></div> <div><em>Photo: Johan Bodell</em><br /></div> <p></p>Thu, 18 Oct 2018 07:00:00 +0200,-IMS.aspx,-IMS.aspxInternational award to Johan Malmqvist, IMS<p><b>Four questions to Johan Malmqvist, professor at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science, who recently received the Leonardo da Vinci Medal, awarded by the European Society for Engineering Education (SEFI).</b></p><strong> </strong><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Congratulations Johan, this is a very honourable award, you must be proud?</strong></span><div> </div> <div>&quot;Yes, the Leonardo da Vinci medal is the highest award of SEFI. It is awarded once a year to a now living person who has contributed significantly to the development of engineering education at university level and made a difference internationally. So, of course, I am very proud!&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Did you get the medal for your efforts for the development of engineering education in general and your work in CDIO?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;My background is in design research,  specifically methodology and IT support for product development. Thus, I am passionate about highlighting product development in engineering education. As part of this, I took part in starting the CDIO initiative, Conceive, Design, Implement, Operate (CDIO). CDIO is an international initiative aimed at developing a framework for the improvement and development of engineering education worldwide.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;Together with Ed Crawley (2000-2012) and Ron Hugo (2012-2017), I was one of two co-directors from the establishment of the CDIO Initiative from 2000 to 2017. During this period, the CDIO initiative grew from a project with universities as four founding partners to a global organization with over 140 cooperating institutions (see, for example, Malmqvist, Hugo &amp; Kjellberg, 2015). The annual international CDIO conference, which has run annually since 2005, usually attracts about 300 participants.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Tell us more about CDIO</strong></div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;CDIO stands for &quot;Conceive, Design, Implement, Operate&quot; and it is actually a description of the product lifecycle. From identifying the needs of a product, planning what is going to be developed, creating the design, testing, manufacturing, using, maintaining and eventually recycling or retiring the product. Most engineers have a specialised role in one part of that process. You work as a designer, a production planner, a programmer, etc. But to be a good engineer you must be able to work with people throughout the product lifecycle. Having the understanding that the decisions I take can have consequences for others and how to best help others is essential. A CDIO education takes place in close collaboration with companies and society with the aim of preparing the students for their future engineering role, where they will in future be able to act as a driving force for a sustainable development.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;We started the CDIO initiative together with three other universities: Chalmers University of Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Linköping University, and MIT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the United States. The starting point was that engineering education had become increasingly distant from practical engineering work. The vision for the CDIO initiative was to train students who combine a deep understanding of the technical fundamentals with the ability to be able to take a leading role in the design, implementation, operation and maintenance of new products and processes.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What is your focus in the future?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;I have recently stepped down as a dean of education for Chalmers MATS (Mechanical Engineering, Mechatronics and Automation, Industrial Design, and Maritime Engineering) education area. Now I have taken over as Head of the Product Development master programme and, of course, continue to work within the CDIO Initiative.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Kate Larsson/Johan Malmqvist</div> <div><br /></div> <div>More about:</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/johan-malmqvist.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Johan Malmqvist​</a></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Leonardo Da Vinci medal to Johan Malmqvist </a></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />SEFI, European Society for Engineering Education </a></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a></div> <div><a href="/en/education/programmes/masters-info/Pages/Product-Development.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Product Development, Master program</a></div></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Chalmers Master program​</a> </div></div> <div><br /></div> ​Thu, 18 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200 interest when the Nobel Laureate visited Chalmers<p><b>​The Nobel Laureate Konstantin Novoselov attracted a large audience when visiting the initiative seminar &quot;2D materials beyond graphene&quot; at Chalmers on 2 October. Many came to Palmstedtsalen in the student union building to see and hear him talk about his work with graphene, often mentioned as a super-material.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Ermin Malic, associate professor at the Department of Physics and director of the organizing Graphene Centre at Chalmers (GCC), introduced Novoselov shortly:</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;It is a great pleasure to welcome such a prominent guest. I am sure you all know Konstantin and are very familiar with his work,&quot; he said.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/KonstantinNovoselov_181002_03_665x330.jpg" alt="Picture of Konstantin Novoselov." style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">Konstantin Novoselov, professor at the University of Manchester, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2010 for his achievements with the novel material graphene. He has visited Chalmers before, not least in conjunction with the large inaugauration of the major Graphene Flagship a few years ago. On 2 October, he opened the intitative seminar &quot;2D materials beyond graphene&quot; with a lecture entitled &quot;van der Waals heterostructures&quot;.</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;A lot of work has already been done with Chalmers, but what I am going to talk about today is more the story beyond graphene, where we are heading now towards other 2D materials and even towards the heterostructures. The reason for why we pay so much attention to graphene is because it has a number of characteristics which each of them makes this material very interesting. That's why we have the Graphene Flagship&quot;, said Konstantin Novoselov.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/KonstantinNovoselov_181002_02_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Picture of Konstantin Novoselov." style="margin:5px" />In his lecture, Konstantin Novoselov provided a history of the graphene subject and an update of the current situation and future of the material.</div> <div>&quot;The most active direction during the last years has been the research in so-called 2d ferromagnetic materials. This is important because we need to distinguish the difference between space dimensionality and spin dimensionality&quot;, said Konstantin Novoselov.</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The Nobel Laureate saw a bright future where the development pushes for new experiments that are not feasible today, something he called as science fiction. Among other things he talked about new crystallines and naturally occurring heterostructures:</span><br /></div> <div>&quot;It sounds like science fiction that we can do it and that's why it's really surprising to see what kind of quality it will be of the stacks and what infrastructures we can achieve. But it just don't come for free, you just don't stack those crystals and they give you nice interfaces. Behind this is a quite specific process&quot;, said Konstantin Novoselov.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/vpalermo_IMG_20181002_095503_300x180.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Picture of Vincenzo Palermo." style="margin:5px" />Vincenzo Palermo (to the left), Professor of graphene composite materials at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science, and Vice Director of the Graphene Flagship, was very distinct with the future possibilities for graphene and spoke warmly about commercial products containing the material and already are available on the market. In his lecture, &quot;Applications of 2D materials in a 3-dimensional world&quot;, he mentioned everything from tennis rackets and lightweight clothing, to headphones with amazing jaw-dropping sound and – lasagna! However, it was somewhat unclear how close to realization in time the latter is.</div> <div>&quot;It has gone unusually fast. Research began as early as 2004, and by 2010, the first commercial products were developed,&quot; said Vincenzo Palermo.</div> <div>At the same time, he raised a warning finger for fake products riding the graphene wave, claiming to be graphene-based without sufficient coverage for it:</div> <div>&quot;It does not mean the products are bad, but they need to be carefully analyzed to know if they are serious,&quot; said Vincenzo Palermo.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/yury_gogotski_IMG_20181002_103633_300x180.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Picture of Yury Gogotsi." style="margin:5px" />Among the speakers were also the Nobel Prize tipped Russian material researcher Yury Gogotsi (to the right), Professor at Drexel University in Philadelphia, USA. He participated with a lecture on his groundbreaking battery research, entitled &quot;Metallically Conducting Carbides and Nitrides (MXenes) Enable New Technologies&quot;.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Over 100 participants were registered for the seminar; an obvious sign that the subject still has the potential to attract interest. A broad audience sat down in Palmstedtsalen; from students to researchers, public and entrepreneurs.</div> <div>We met a visitor in the crowd and asked for a review. In particular, hen had come to listen to the lecture of Konstantin Novoselov:</div> <div>&quot;Novoselov was a great speaker with an unusual ability to popularize his research and make it interesting. Grapehene is clearly a vivid research topic under constant development&quot;, hen said.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The seminar provided an intense program with a total of 18 invited speakers from Europe and USA; among them Frank Koppens, Instituto de Ciencias Fotónicas (ICFO), Spain, Paulina Plochocka and Bernhard Urbaszek, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), France, Thomas Müller, Vienna University, Austria, Kristian Thygesen, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet (DTU), Danmark, and Miriam Vitiello, National Research Council, Italy. Chalmers was represented by Timur Shegai, Department of Physics, Saroj Dash, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2 – and Vincenzo Palermo, Department of  Industrial and Materials Science.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>There was also a poster session, which many participants took the opportunity to watch.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Every year, the Excellence Initiative Nano has a topical event under the title Initiative Seminar. This year, the seminar was organized by the Graphene Center, which is an umbrella for all research at Chalmers on atomically thin 2D materials. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The centre director Ermin Malic were very satisfied with the seminar:</div> <div>&quot;It provided a fantastic overview of the outstanding characteristics and the promising technological potential of 2D materials. I hope that this could give a push at Chalmers to investigate 2D materials beyond graphene&quot;, he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The seminar was organized by an ambitious quartet consisting of Ermin Malic, Cristina Andersson, Susannah Carlsson and Debora Perlheden.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo: Johan Bodell</div> <div>Photo of Yury Gogotsi and Vincenzo Palermo: Michael Nystås</div>Mon, 08 Oct 2018 09:00:00 +0200 User Experience<p><b>​Experience-rich input in early phases of a design process can offer valuable information and inspiration to designers. However, there are methodological challenges linked with efforts to understand future user experiences.  This was presented by Ingrid Pettersson defending her PhD thesis.</b></p>Experience encompasses multi-layered and tacit data, such as emotions and value, that are important for commercial success but are difficult to elicit from users for existing products, and even more so for concepts in early design phases.  <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Design%20and%20Human%20Factors/Ingrid_bild_webb.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" width="251" height="262" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br />At early design phases, the inevitably incomplete representations of product and use context influences the outcomes.  It is typically easier to elicit usability-related aspects, meaning that other aspects of experience may be insufficiently addressed. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P" style="text-align:left"><strong>The contribution of this thesis is an approach for eliciting rich user</strong><strong> experience (UX) data in early design phases, building on six studies.</strong><br /> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>This thesis employs in-vehicle user experience as a study case, but results are however presented on a methodological level that can also be of use to other interactive products. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Read the full thesis</h4> <div><a href="">Eliciting User Experience Information in Early Design Phases. The CARE Approach to In-Vehicle UX <br /></a></div></div> <div><br /></div> <a href="/sv/institutioner/ims/forskning/design-human-factors/Sidor/default.aspx">Division of Design &amp; Human Factors</a><br /> <div> </div> <div> </div>Fri, 05 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200 in on gear teeth<p><b>​Congratulations to our new doctor Dinesh Mallipeddi who today successfully held his doctoral defence with the title: Surface Integrity of Gear Materials.</b></p><div>Gears are an integral part of modern life, necessary for both production and transport. The <span style="background-color:initial">compact and efficient transmission offered by gears made their usage predominant compared </span><span style="background-color:initial">to other drives. Recent development have increased both the efficiency and durability of gears, </span><span style="background-color:initial">especially in the automotive industry. Still, enhanced performance is required due to global </span><span style="background-color:initial">demands on sustainability and energy consumption. Actually, one billion cars are rolling on the </span><span style="background-color:initial">streets around the globe, without counting trucks and busses. This means even small increase </span><span style="background-color:initial">in efficiency could significantly reduce the energy usage.​</span><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">A gearbox with gears of different sizes is part of a vehicle transmission system and plays an important part in transmitting the engine power to the wheels. The efficient energy transmission highly relies on the performance of gears. Together, the mesh efficiency and durability determines the performance of gears.</span><div><br /></div> <div>The hard finishing of gear surfaces can be done by different methods; grinding, honing and superfinishing etc., and produces unique characteristics in terms of surface roughness, microstructure and residual stresses. These characteristics of the teeth affect the gear performance. A running-in process is known to alter them along with the surface chemistry and it pre-sets the gear for service. By understanding the initial running-in it is possible to improve the performance of gears. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– My study addressed the influence of running-in on the evolution of surface characteristics generated by the mentioned methods, and how they developed further during initial usage, represented by efficiency test. The <span style="background-color:initial">surface roughness was found to be the most influential factor among all the </span><span style="background-color:initial">characteristics. </span><span style="background-color:initial">The findings that I have presented are expected to contribute to the technical and industrial aims for optimized gear preparation.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research was conducted together with AB Volvo under the supervision of <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/mats-norell.aspx" target="_blank" title="Link to profile page of Mats Norell">Senior Lecturer​ Mats Norell</a> and <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/lars-nyborg.aspx" target="_blank" title="Link to profile page of Lars Nyborg">Professor Lars Nyborg </a>at Chalmers department of Industrial and Materials Science.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank" title="Link to doctoral thesis"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the full publication here.</a></div></div>Thu, 04 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200 welding methods reduces CO2 emissions of airplanes<p><b>​Aviation accounts for around 2 % of the world&#39;s total CO2 emissions, but the proportion is expected to rise. In pursuit of reducing emissions, researchers from Chalmers cooperate with GKN Aerospace and University West to find new manufacturing solutions for engines. A new doctoral dissertation presents results from studies of titanium alloys and mechanical properties of various welding processes.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The aviation industry is looking for solutions that reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and reducing the weight of the aircraft is essential for success. An airplane engine weighs a lot, but through new manufacturing methods it can decrease.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>One way to reduce weight is to weld several small subcomponents into a larger component instead of casting it into one whole piece. In a new doctoral thesis by Sakari Tolvanen, he presents studies that have compared the mechanical properties of welds produced with different welding processes. The aim is to gain a better understanding of how and why occasional defects occur and how the defects influence the mechanical properties of the welds.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>One might imagine that welding is an old technique that has left the lab stage for a long time, but as the requirements change, manufacturing technologies need to keep up with the change. Manufacturing technologies of large aeroengine components are developed to improve material utilization, reduce cost and allow design flexibility. Welding has an important role in the development as it allows joining multiple subcomponents to produce one large structure. This approach produces less scrap material and enables design of lighter and more functional components, which in turn, results in reduced environmental impact in both production phase and the use phase of the engine.  </div> <div><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Welding-processes-comparison.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><em>Titanium alloys are readily joined with several common fusion welding processes such as tungsten inert gas welding (TIG), plasma arc welding (PAW), electron beam welding (EBW), and laser beam welding (EBW). Fusion welding processes can be characterized generally by the heat-source intensity. This figure illustrates the different characteristics of the aforementioned welding processes and how they affect the penetration. </em></div> <div><br /><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Sakari Tolvanen has studied what happens when two metal components made of titanium alloys are welded together. Titanium alloys are widely used in aviation industry mainly because of their superior combination of high strength and low weight. Sakari has among other things analyzed how the chemical composition of the alloy affects the result of welding.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The results from my studies give a better understanding of the factors that affect the microstructure and what in it leads to defects. This makes it possible to choose and optimize not only the welding process but also the base material”, says Sakari Tolvanen. “The combination of which process and material you use determines how good the result is.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Fracture%20surface%20of%20a%20fatigue%20specimen_400pxl.jpg" alt="Fracture surface of a fatigue specimen" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span></span><em>In aeroplanes, you do not want the welds to crack. By characterizing the topography of the fracture surface, information about the cause of crack initiation and fracture mechanisms can be revealed. Fatigue failure can be divided into different stages, i.e. crack initiation, crack propagation and final fracture. This figure shows a crack initiation at a pore, a relatively flat crack propagation area around the initiation and the final fracture surface. By learning the behaviour of cracks, they can be avoided.</em><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>In airplanes, titanium alloys can be found on parts for landing gear, internal components of wings, and engine components like the fan and compressor sections.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS</strong></div> <div>Read more about the transport sector's CO2 emissions in the <a href="" title="Link to IPCC web page" target="_blank">IPCC climate assessment report from 2014</a>.</div> <div>The studies carried out by Sakari Tolvanen have taken place within the framework of a research project conducted by GKN Aerospace:</div> <div><a href="" title="Link to research project" target="_blank">Defect formation during welding and their effect on mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-2Sn-4Zr-2Mo </a></div> <div>Read the full thesis here:</div> <div><a href="">Welding of Ti-6Al-4V: Influence of welding process and alloy composition on microstructure and properties</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Supervisors were <a href="/en/staff/Pages/uta-klement.aspx">Professor Uta Klement</a> from Chalmers University of Technology and Professor Robert Pederson from University West.</div> <div><br /></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text: Nina Silow</em></div> <div><em>Images within the article: Sakari Tolvanen</em></div> ​Mon, 01 Oct 2018 00:00:00 +0200 behaviour of composites<p><b>​The increase of composite materials in future vehicles will lead to lighter and more efficient ways of transportation. However, these new structures will also have an impact on vehicle behaviour in crashes. This was the topic discussed by participants from both academia and industry during a two-day workshop at Chalmers University of Technology.</b></p>​<br />Kaj Fredin from Volvo Cars explained that the potential to reduce the weight of a car using current metallic materials is very limited. All premium original equipment manufacturers are therefore working with carbon fibre reinforced polymers in different ways. Even though there are still industrial challenges connected to cost and competence in this new and less developed area. The challenge will be to find the optimal mix of material usage to have a cost-efficient product. David Moncayo from Daimler AG, who talked about German design experiences for composites in cars, said that the beauty lies in using the correct material in the correct place.<br /><br /><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">New crash prediction models and Mantis shrimps</h2> <div>Since crash simulations and testing currently are focused on a metallic car structure there is an urgent need for new predictive numerical models for future lightweight vehicles. A major challenge that was addressed repeatedly during the workshop is the need to develop models which are both accurate and computationally efficient in predicting the failure process of structural composite components in crash. Martin Fagerström and Robin Olsson, organizers of the workshop, are currently involved in several projects with the hopes of having a full-scale crash analysis method in place by 2020.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/Mantis%20shrimp%2016_9_750pxl.jpg" width="688" height="387" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><em><span>Silvestre Pinho from the Imperial College</span></em><br /><br /></div> By having composites as part of the impact structure it also follows that there will be a greater need for composite microstructures that can absorb high energy impact. Silvestre Pinho from the Imperial College talked about finding inspiration in nature’s own designs. The studies ranged from bamboo and bone structures to different shells and interlocking nacre. But the most spectacular may perhaps be the Mantis Shrimps super hard hitting dactyle clubs with a Bouligand -type microstructure. The question still to be answered, can the structure of the high impact absorbing club be transferred into human engineered vehicles?<br /><br /><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Reoccurring series of events?</h2> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/crash%20composites%20mingle_327pxl.jpg" alt="Mingle image" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" width="244" height="283" style="margin:5px" />The organizers Martin Fagerström and Robin Olsson were very pleased with the outcome of the workshop and would like to thank all the participants and sponsors for making this a very interesting event, and especially the invited speakers, Brian Falzon; Johan Jergeus; Reza Vaziri; Yi Wan; David Moncayo; Kaj Fredin; Silvestre Pinho and Hannes Körber.</div> <br /><div>Martin hopes that this was the beginning of a reoccurring series of events. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>- I am already looking forward to the next one!</div> <div><br /></div> <div><h4 class="chalmersElement-H4"><br /></h4> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More information</h3></div> <div><span class="text-normal ingress"><span></span></span>The purpose of the workshop, jointly organised by Chalmers University of Technology and Swerea SICOMP, was to gather international experts in academia and industry to discuss current state-of-the-art in the area of modelling and characterisation of composites in crash. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">The event was sponsored by:</h4> <div><table class="chalmersTable-default " width="100%" cellspacing="0" style="font-size:1em"><tbody><tr class="chalmersTableHeaderRow-default"><th class="chalmersTableHeaderFirstCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1">​<span><span><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/BETA_logo_web_300%20pxl%20width.jpg" alt="beta logo" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /></span></span></span><span></span></th> <th class="chalmersTableHeaderLastCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1">​<span></span></th></tr></tbody></table> <span><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/DYNAMore%20Nordic_logo_4c_width300pxl.png" alt="dynamore logo" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span><br /><br /> <br /></div> <br /><div><br /></div> <span><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/Documents/Styrke_material_RGB_EN.png" alt="Styrke_material_RGB_EN.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /></span><br /><div><br /></div> <br /><div><h4 class="chalmersElement-H4"><br /></h4> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Worksshop talks</h4> <div><table class="chalmersTable-default" cellspacing="0" style="font-size:1em;width:100%"><tbody><tr class="chalmersTableHeaderRow-default"><th class="chalmersTableHeaderEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Title​</th> <th class="chalmersTableHeaderOddCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1">​Speaker</th></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">Crash modelling at QUB and the ICONIC resea​rch network<br /></td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Brian Falzon (Queens Univ. Belfast)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Crash modelling and experiments at Swerea SICOMP</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Robin Olsson (SICOMP)​</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​North American work on crash behaviour of composites</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Reza Vaziri (Univ British Columbia)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Crash modelling at Chalmers and in Swedish crash projects</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Martin Fagerström (Chalmers Univ Techn.)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Japanese studies of composites in crash</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Jun Takahashi and Yi Wan (Univ. Tokyo)​</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Novel composite microstructures for increased energy absorption</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Silvestre Pinho (Imperial College)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Strain rate behaviour of composite materials</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Hannes Körber (TU Munich)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​German design experience for composites in cars</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​David Moncayo (Daimler AG)</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Composite materials for cars – demands and cost issues</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default">​Kaj Fredin (Volvo Cars)​</td></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableEvenRow-default"><td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="width:423px">​Current methods for crash simulation and testing</td> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default" rowspan="1">​Johan Jergeus (Volvo Cars)</td></tr></tbody></table>  <br /></div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Workshop topical discussion sessions</h4> <div>Realism of models and industrial demands</div> <div>Efficient structural models for composites in crash</div> <div>Strain rate behaviour of composites</div> <div>Cost and manufacturing considerations and their implication on crash</div> <div><br /></div> <div><h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Organizing committee</h4> <strong>​<br />Martin Fagerström</strong>​<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Övriga/AvancezChalmersU_black_right.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /> ​<strong></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong>Robin Olsson</strong> ​<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/MoB/SICOMP%20LOGO.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /></div> <br /></div>Fri, 21 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0200