News: Industrial and Materials Science related to Chalmers University of TechnologyThu, 14 Jun 2018 11:25:52 +0200 2018 jubilee professor wants more philosophy in businesses<p><b>​Professor Claudia Eckert of Open University in the UK is one of Chalmers four jubilee professors in 2018. For three months she visits the hosting department of Industrial and Materials Science. With a background in mathematics and philosophy together experience from artificial intelligence, fashion and helicopter industries, she wants to help strengthen Chalmers research in design.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Claudia Eckert has a combined background in mathematics and philosophy. Usually she is a professor of design at Open University in Great Britain, but in 2018 she spends three months in Gothenburg as one of Chalmers four jubilee professors. During her visit, her hosts are the <a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx" title="Link to department">Department of Industrial and Materials Sciences</a>, and more specifically, the research group <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/product-development/Pages/systems-engineering-design.aspx" title="Link to research group">Systems Engineering Design</a>.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>The Systems Engineering Design group studies product development processes and has platform-based development as a special interest. This orientation fits well with Claudia Eckert's research. Her research aims at understanding how design processes work and she likes to compare different design areas, from the production of knitted garments in the fashion industry to production of helicopters or trucks. How is it possible to compare such different product areas?<br /><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">– Looking at the design processes, the similarities are greater than you might think,&quot; says Claudia Eckert. Here you are used to vehicle development, but in the fashion industry you also start with an idea, create a concept and go on producing prototypes and test series before running production. I also believe that the fashion industry has a platform approach where design elements and fabrics are reused in different garments to create a brand recognition and to save money. However, the term platform is not used.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The big difference between the fashion design and product development processes in engineering is the time frame.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– The process is much faster. Instead of taking several years to develop a new product, a new garment can be made in a week.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Claudia Eckert looks at processes as a system, or as multiple systems connected with each other. The systems approach is also in line with the research done at Chalmers. She says that the holistic view is necessary to be able to develop products in a sustainable way. Life cycle analysis is a relatively common approach to sustainability aspects of product development, but Claudia does not think that the method is sufficient. </div> <div>“It is a bit too narrow. There may be effects in the environment, at a higher system level, that are omitted. “</div> <div>She gives an example from a German children's program on asparagus cultivation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– The Germans love their asparagus in the spring. In one asparagus field they warm up the ground to get an earlier harvest. This sounds devastating from an environmental point of view – if you focus on the heating alone. But in this case the heat came from hot water waste that a nearby factory needed to get rid of and the waste became a resource instead.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>As a help to see the overall picture and act more responsibly, Claudia encourages more philosophy in the corporate world.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– Yes, I think companies should hire philosophers to get more ethics into the business. It may sound strange, but I think it would help them to make carefully prepared decisions. If there was more philosophical thinking, I think we could avoid scandals like Volkswagen's diesel engines, for example.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Claudia Eckert has divided her stay at Chalmers into two visits. During the first month she has had a couple of open lectures, participated in the daily research activities and made a number of study visits, both at Chalmers and at collaborating industrial partners. But above all, she has prioritized to talk with PhD students at the department about their research.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– I am astonished about how open and close cooperation the department has with industrial companies. From this perspective, I think Chalmers is one of the world's leading universities.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Since the industrial collaboration is so strong, academic positioning is the area where she thinks there is room for growth. By offering the PhD students an academic outside perspective, she hopes to strengthen the quality of their research. She would like to see researchers focusing on issues that create academic debate and more clearly pushes the field of research forward.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/iola.aspx">Ola Isaksson</a>, research group leader of Systems Engineering Design at Chalmers, was the one who nominated Claudia Eckert as a jubilee professor.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>–​ Claudia Eckert is a well-known researcher who contributes with both deep knowledge in product development and a slightly different perspective which is a positive contribution to the dialogue with researchers and PhD students here. We can challenge ourselves in how we look at the research. Not least the philosophical aspect is important. One example is when society and companies are actively looking at Artificial Intelligence in their product development, an area in which Claudia also has worked.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Now Claudia Eckert has left Gothenburg and Chalmers for the first visit but in August she returns and stays for two months. For those who want to take the opportunity to meet her, please contact her host <a href="/en/staff/Pages/iola.aspx">Ola Isaksson</a>.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS</strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong>Chalmers jubilee professors</strong></div> <div>When Chalmers in 1979 celebrated 150 years, the government gave a Jubilee Professorship at Chalmers as a gift. The criteria to be met is that the holders will add Chalmers new skills and that the university's international relations will be strengthened. The chair is usually divided into three or four time intervals during the year and held by different professors. They are designated by the University President of Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Chalmers all jubilee professors for 2018:</strong></div> <div><ul><li>Claudia Eckert (The Open University, UK), Industrial and Materials Sciences<br /></li> <li>Hilary Bradbury (Oregon Health Sciences University, USA), Technology Economics and Organization<span style="background-color:initial">​</span><br /></li> <li>Paula Caselli (Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Germany), Space Geo and Environmental Science<br /></li> <li>Keith Hampson (Curtin University, Australia), Architecture and Civil Engineering<br /></li></ul></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/research/our-scientists/Pages/Jubilee-Professors.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Holders of Chalmers Jubilee Professorship since 1991</a></div> <div><br /></div> ​</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Nina Silow</div>Thu, 14 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200 problem solving from Product Development master students<p><b>​Solving real problems, with companies as clients and also working together in a team with people you didn’t know before the project started - that is a challenge. The master programme students at Product Development handled the challenge well and presented their projects at the annual presentation and exhibition days, 16-17 May, 2018.</b></p> <style> p, , {margin:0cm;margin-bottom:.0001pt;font-size:11.0pt;font-family:"Calibri",sans-serif;} span.E-postmall15 {font-family:"Calibri",t;} t-edited {;} div.WordSection1 {page:WordSection1;} </style>Here is a brief report from one of the projects.<br /><p>The group &quot;The Synergy Project&quot; got a project assignment from Essity, a company developing products e.g. for people with urinary incontinence. The challenge was to combine washable and discrete panties with an absorbent disposable part that could reduce leakage. <br />-I t is tricky to handle the comfort and leakage, but we have developed both a material and a tool for the product.<br />The Synergy group consisted of 8 students, of which one man. Something that actually reflects the incontinence problem.<br />- Men can also encounter incontinence. Occasionally, 1 in 4 women and 1 in 8 men suffer from urinary incontinence. It feels good to have been working with an important and lifechanging product, the students says.<span lang="EN-US"> <br /></span></p> <p><span lang="EN-US">- We managed to find a working solution. The liquid is sucked into an absorbent that prevents leakage by </span><span><span lang="EN-US">going from liquid to solid</span></span><span lang="EN-US"> in the loose part, they concludes.</span><br /><span lang="EN-US"></span></p> <br /><strong>Facts 2018 projects:</strong><br />The Product Development Project (MPP126) is the main activity of the Product Development master’s program. It is carried out in close collaboration with industrial partners or organisations, addressing real problems. <br />The partners will each provide the course with a specific project connected to their own business. It landed in eleven projects:<br /><ul><li>Volvo Cars ‐ load retention eyes for modern cars</li> <li>Essity ‐ synergy project</li> <li>Modul‐system ‐ tool box system for pickups </li> <li>Visionists ‐ robust camera </li> <li>Autoliv ‐ future seatbelt </li> <li>Volvo GTT ‐ creation of virtual or actual interior zones</li> <li>Lamera ‐ compact &amp; light‐weight refugee shelter solution </li> <li>GKN ‐ Manufacturing Options of a Compressor Mid Frame </li> <li>SSRS ‐ defibrillator drone lander</li> <li>Asko ‐ a blowing challenge</li> <li>Assa Abloy ‐ hidden sensor cable for swing doors</li> <li>I3tex ‐ water waste collector</li></ul> Each project is conducted in a cross-functional team of 6-8 students with different backgrounds such as: Mechanical Engineering, Automation and Mechatronics, Industrial Engineering, and Industrial Design Engineering.<br /><br /><em>Text and photo: Carina Schultz</em><br /><br /><em><strong>Note: </strong>This page will be updated with more interviews and projects. Stay tuned!</em><br /><br /><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />See more pictures at Flickr</a><br />Thu, 31 May 2018 14:00:00 +0200 sustainable composities - the cellulose challenge<p><b>Finding more sustainable materials is one important goal for researchers at the Division of Engineering Materials. One way is to decrease the use of fossil-based materials in composites and polymers. That is where cellulose fits in, as a renewable and inexpensive material used as the composite matrix. &gt;</b></p>​Lilian Forsgren and Abhijit Venkatesh, both PhD students in the research group <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/em/polymera/Pages/default.aspx">Polymeric materials and composites</a>, are studying how to better use cellulos<span><span><span></span></span></span>e fibers in composites. <br />-    We both study <a href="">cellulose </a><span>composites<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span> but it differs in which part of the cellulose structure we examine. <span>Cellulose can be found abundantly is a very important component of plants and trees, basically providing structural integrity. <span style="display:inline-block"> It</span></span> has a hierarchical structure where each part<span><span></span></span> <span></span>has a bit different mechanical property. First, there are thin fibers, so called microfibrils. These microfibrils are in turn made up of even smaller fibers called nanofibrils. It is these cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) that we are interested in. The cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) that Lilian works with is just the crystalline part of CNF and they are obtained by using acids, says Abhijit Venkatesh and continues:<br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Ahbijit-Venkatesh_180518_01_170x220.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="PhD student Abhijit Venkatesh" style="margin:5px 10px" /><br />-    I deal with understanding the processing of cellulose nanofibrils reinforced thermoplastic composites, and how the processing parameters affect the final properties, continues Abhijit Venkatesh. The benefit of using cellulose as reinforcement is that it could help to replace or complement the currently used reinforcements like glass- and carbon fibers. It could also strengthen polymers, which are inherently rather weak, to be used as structural materials.<br /><br />-    My focus is on cellulose nanocrystals. We are trying to customize cellulose to better fit and work with the polymer matrix, but also to understand the challenging mechanisms of cellulose, regarding thermal degradation, moist adsorption and discoloration, says Lilian Forsgren. <br /><br /><strong>Sustainability is a strong driving force</strong>, which go for them both. They give an example of possible new biodegradable product: Consider a milk carton cap made out of plastic. If this plastic were replaced with CNF instead, we could reduce the amount of plastic used to produce the cap. Or even totally degradable if starch or corn could be in the matrix. <br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Lilian-Forsgren_180518_01_170x220.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="PhD student Lilian Forsgren" style="margin:5px 10px" /><br />-    I like to be part of the development towards a more sustainable future, no matter how big impact my project will have, every small contribution will make a difference all together, says Lilian and continues:<br />-    I did my bachelor at the Industrial Design Engineering programme at Chalmers but found materials to be very interesting and hence did my master in Materials Engineering. I enjoy challenges and are eager to gain more knowledge. I really enjoy working with cellulose since it is a fantastic material and it’s a more sustainable alternative compared to many materials used today.<br /><br />-    My background differs since I come from Bangalore, India, where I took my Bachelor in the field of Mechanical Engineering. After coming to Sweden 2013, completing my master thesis in Materials Engineering, I found the environment to be calm and productive which pursued me to stay and do my PhD here at Chalmers, says Abhijit. And I like to be part of the move towards a more sustainable society. I think the usage of CNF, which is biodegradable, renewable, abundantly available (in all plant sources) and light weight, in itself is the sustainable perspective. Since the source of cellulose is from Sweden this makes it much more sustainable as Sweden has one of the most sustainable forest industries on the world.<br /><br /><strong>Another interesting fact</strong> – they are both top athletes within in their sports. Lilian Forsgren is running in the <a href="">Swedish national team in Orienteering </a>and  Abhijit Venkatesh play for <a href="">Swedish National Cricket team.</a> Can the competitive spirit be of help in the daily work as a researcher?<br />-    Being determent and setting up a personal goal is a similarity, that might be same the mindset as when I compete in my sport. I set up goals and can be very effective, Lilian says.<br />-    I like to think of research as a team game. I am very good to talking and teambuilding, which is something I learned as a coach in my sport. And to have will power, to have a fixed goal, pushing yourself – that helps, says Abhijit.<br /><br />They agree upon the “never give up&quot;-thing, especially after many failed experiments, you still need to go on.<br />-    Well, there is a competitive downside also, says Lilian. When I had a series of bad turnouts on my experiments, I was really frustrated. But since there is no physical competitor in this case, you must let it go and get back on track.<br /><br /><strong>They are both halfway through </strong>their research and will present their licentiate thesis in September. What are the results so far?<br />-    We have been able to graft side chains onto the molecule of cellulose Nano crystals, performing an increased thermal stability and interesting mechanical properties of the composites produced with these grafted Cellulose Nanocrystals adding them into a polymer matrix, says Lilian. This means we have found a possible way to overcome some of the main challenges such as avoiding degradation at low temperatures and increased strength and thermal stability. <br />-    There are some good results soon to be published, where we managed to make crystal clear, transparent composites that can be used as reinforcement. That is cool, Lilian finishes.<br /><br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Dihexyl_polymer_foto_Marcus-Folino_300x300.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Transparent composite with cellulose nanocrystals" style="margin:5px" /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Polymerer_cracks_3_foto_Marcus-Folino_300x300.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Mixed and dried material, flaky shards." style="margin:5px" /><br /><em><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br />Pictures, to the </em><em>left: This is a composite with 10% surface grafted CNC (cellulose nanocrystals) and EAA polymer. As you can see, the composite is transparent (the Chalmers logo is on a printed paper below). 3 out of 4 variants of composites with CNC in the study are transparent. (Photo: Marcus Folino)</em><br /><em>Pictures to the right: Mixed and dried composite material. The plastic and cellulose are mixed in aqueous solution, and when air dried these shards of material are formed. Afterwards, they are moulded into composites, as the one in the first picture. </em><span><em> (Photo: Marcus Folino)<span style="display:inline-block"></span></em></span><br /><br />-    The big challenge is that cellulose likes water and polymers usually don’t. When you put them together they tend to separate and makes the composite more fragile. The main results of my research so far lie in the fact that wet processing techniques is successful in producing excellent composites. It also helps us to achieve high CNF loading contents while not sacrificing mechanical properties. The problem is to upscale the process for industry because it is still too expensive but we will hopefully solve that, says Abhijit.<br /><br /><span>Learn more about the research: <a href="">Surface treatment of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC): effects on dispersion rheology.</a> <br />You can also follow Lilian and Abhijit when they are hosting the <a href="">Chalmers Production</a> instagram account 28-30 May, reporting from <a href="">Nordic Polymer Days 2018, Copenhagen. </a></span>A closely related research within polymer science is presented May 24th at the docent lecture where <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/roland-kadar.aspx">Roland Kádár </a>talks about <a href="/sv/institutioner/ims/kalendarium/Sidor/Docentföreläsning-Roland-Kádár---IMS.aspx">“Polymer Rheology and Processing”</a>. <br /><br /><br /><strong>Quick facts Lilian Forsgren</strong><br /><strong>Living in: </strong>Gothenburg<br /><strong>Family:</strong> Boyfriend and family with two brothers and two lovely nieces.<br /><strong>Interests: </strong>Love running and nature, especially high mountains.<br /><span><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Lilian-Forsgren.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about Lilian Forsgren</a><br /><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Lilian-Forsgren.aspx"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a></span><br /><strong>Quick facts Ahbijit Venkatesh</strong><br /><strong>Living in:</strong> <span><strong><span></span></strong>Gothenburg<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /><strong>Family: </strong>Parents, two siblings (who are twins – boy and a girl) and my lovely wife.<br /><strong>Interests:</strong> Love being out in the nature and coaching cricket.<br /><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/abhven.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about Abhijit Venkatesh</a> <br /><br /><a href="/en/departments/ims/research/em/Pages/default.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Division Engineering Materials </a><br /><br /><em>Text and photo: Carina Schultz<br /><br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Lilian-Forsgren-Ahbijit-Venkatesh_180518_16_750x340.png" alt="The PhD students in front of a machine" style="margin:5px" /><br />Abhijit Ventaesh and Lilian Forsgren in front of the compression moulding machine, in the Materials Processing Lab at Chalmers, where the samples of composites are moulded.<br /><br /><img src="/en/departments/ims/news/PublishingImages/Lilian-Forsgren-Ahbijit-Venkatesh_180518_13_750x501.png" alt="Samples of composites" style="margin:5px" /><br />Samples of moulded cellulose composites.<br /><br /><br /></em><br />Tue, 22 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200 twins ensure quality and lower costs<p><b>​No one can have escaped the digitalization wave currently under way. There are high expectations in the industry to become more streamlined using big data and data analysis. In a new Vinnova-funded project, DigiGeo, will Professor Söderberg and his research team enhance digital twins for geometry assurance .</b></p><div>​<img src="/en/departments/ims/PublishingImages/Rikard-Söderberg_170x220.png" alt="Professor-Rikard-Soderberg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px 15px" /><span>Even the use of simulations has increased dramatically over the past 20 years. The models have become more accurate, the algorithms faster and the computers are more powerful.<span style="display:inline-block"><br /></span></span><br /><span>-    <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>We have been heavily focused on simulation and optimization for many years and are of course, very pleased with Vinnova's financing of the project “Digital Twin for Geometry Assured Production” (DigiGeo). The funding makes it possible to increase the use of simulation to mirror and control proce<span><span><span><span><span><span></span></span></span></span></span></span>sses in real t<span><span><span><span><span></span></span></span></span></span>ime, such as digital twins, says <a href="/en/staff/Pages/rikard-soderberg.aspx">Rikard Söderberg</a>, Professor of Product and Production Development, and continues:</div> <div>-    We hope to be able to use the method in early development phases to simulate and visualize the<span><span><span><span></span></span></span></span> effects of geometric variation.<br /><span><span><span></span></span></span></div> <div>A digital twin is an online virtual copy of a real product or process. It can have different purposes and is therefore supplied with various real-time data. The digital twin is connected wirelessly to databases and physical devices and is predicted to be common in future production systems.</div> <div>At the same time, the development of simulation models for geometry assurance has been going<span><span></span></span> on for many years. It has gone from simpler simulation where details have been assumed rigid, to more advanced finite element (FEM) based simulations.</div> <div>-    The work of recent years has been aimed at driving simulation models for non-rigid geometry as digital twins in the future. It could mean an ability to control both the production process and product development in a more efficient way, says Professor Söderberg.<br /></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Faster algoritms demands</h5> <p class="chalmersElement-P">However, in order to fully exploit the simulation models for geometry assurance as digital twins - both in production and in early stages of development - it is necessary to develop further. The project is therefore divided into three parts: <span></span></p> <div>The first part project focuses on better material models and finding faster algorithms for real-time use. This means refinement of the digital twin to handle more advanced material properties as multi-material solutions, i.e. solutions in which different materials are used in the same subassembly or the same component. Residual stresses, depending, for example welding details, also affects the geometrical deviation and variation and must therefore also be included in the simulations.</div> <div>-    This means more complex and demanding calculations. Therefore, we need to develop high-speed algorithms for real-time use, says Söderberg.<br /></div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Visualization necessary for decisionmaking</h5> <div>To use the digital twin as a decision tool, you need to visualize the variation as realistic as possible. Therefore, in the second part of the project, you enhance the simulation models with Raytracing, 3D scanning / point clouds and digital environments.</div></div> <div>Raytracing means increased realism when visualizing manufacturing variation and can be used to support decision-making in the early stages. Scanning results as point clouds are currently used to measure and verify components and products with great accuracy. Point clouds can be used to compare variations in batch details, but the method requires faster and more efficient algorithms due to the large amount of data.</div> <div>Finally, there is a need for models of digital environments visualizing the impact of manufacturing variations on perceived quality.<br /></div> <div>-    To effectively visualize geometric variation, models are required, as well as design and data to be combined into scenarios that then are evaluated. If we manage to automatically generate those models, we would significantly rationalize the geometry insurance process. We benefit greatly from the research on visual evaluation conducted by the department within the research area Percieved Quality, says Rikard Söderberg.</div> <div>In the third and final subproject, a preliminary study of a digital information flow, a so-called “Digital Thread”, is being planned. It will predict how the future digital geometry assurance process might look.<br /></div> <div><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Industrial co-operation and advanced mathematics</h5> <div>The DigiGeo project, which started at the beginning of the year, extends over two years and brings together academics, research centers and industry. </div></div> <div>-    We carry out this project in cooperation with Fraunhofer Chalmers Center, who has the required advanced competence in industrial mathematics for the development of algorithms, says Söderberg, and continues:</div> <div>-    The project would not be possible without collaboration with industry partners such as Volvo Cars, IKEA, GKN, VA Automotive and RD&amp;T Technology.<br /><br /><em>Text: Carina Schultz</em><br /><em>Photo: Shutterstock (large image) and Anna-Lena Lundqvist (portrait) </em></div> <div> <br /></div> <div><strong><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Digital Twin for Geometry Assured Production (DigiGeo)</a></strong></div> <div><strong>Project leader: </strong>Professor Rikard Söderberg, Department of Industrial and Materials Sciences</div> <div><strong>Project time: </strong>2018-2019</div> <div><strong>Financing: </strong>Vinnova / 5 MSEK<br /><br /><a href="/en/departments/ims/research/product-development/Pages/default.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the Division of Product Development</a><br /><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div>Mon, 21 May 2018 14:00:00 +0200 Data improves materials analysis<p><b>​By examining the structure of a metal or ceramic material at the atomic level, it is easier to understand and influence the properties of different materials. But what should you look for and where? In a new project, Professor Uta Klement combines analyses of Big Data with her expertise area of material characterization. Instead of looking for a needle in a haystack, the data is analysed to find the deviations which needs to be investigated in detail.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/staff/Pages/uta-klement.aspx" target="_blank">Professor Uta Klement</a> leads a research group called <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/ytmikro/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Surface and Microstructure Engineering</a>. She examines the properties of metals and different ceramic materials. These include nano materials, different types of coating, advanced steel or superalloys. By understanding the structure and construction of the materials, it is possible to achieve more sustainable production processes and products. Manufacturers can use less material and also use the material more efficiently and longer.</span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>One example is</strong> new thermal barrier coatings that allow for higher combustion temperatures in gas turbines such as in airplane engines, which would improve efficiency and result in lower emissions.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Profilbilder/Uta%20Klement_170x220.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Uta Klement" style="margin:5px" />In a new project, which deals with improving the grindability of recycled steel, Uta Klement collaborates with a group of researchers and combines analyses of big data with material characterization. This is the first time they try this method. She tells us what benefits it brings.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– Our material analyses are often based on an assumption, not on a theory. However, in industry a lot of data is collected in material processing. By analysing these data we can get hints on what to look for in the microstructure. Our material science knowledge helps to interpret the data, and then we can perform accurate investigations instead of looking for the &quot;needle in the haystack&quot;.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Knowing what you are looking for</strong> is particularly important in research that zooms in on a small piece of material using electron microscopy and other complementary techniques. Taking advantage of data can be a breakthrough and become a generic approach, says Uta Klement.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– New and improved characterization technology and the ability to interpret the results enable us to increase our knowledge and produce new and better products with better features and better utilization of the resources. Indirectly this is important to all of us.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS</strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Uta Klement is a professor of materials science with a focus on electron microscopy. She is Head of <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Division of Materials and Manufacture</a> at Chalmers <a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Department of Industrial and Materials Science</a>, and also heads the research group <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/ytmikro/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Surface and Microstructure Engineering</a>. She is also in the board of <a href="" target="_blank">Chalmers Ventures</a>.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read more about the project &quot;<a href="">Grindability of recycled steel: automotive crankshafts</a>&quot; in Chalmers research database [<em>in Swedish</em>]. The project is led by <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Peter-Krajnik.aspx" target="_blank">P​eter Krajnik</a>, professor of manufacturing technology and also includes <a href="/en/staff/Pages/Philipp-Hoier-.aspx" target="_blank">Philipp Hoier</a> and <a href="/en/staff/Pages/amir-malakizadi.aspx" target="_blank">Amir Malakizadi</a>.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text and photo: Nina Silow</em></div> <div><br /></div> Fri, 18 May 2018 17:00:00 +0200's-top-facility-for-new-smart-industry-jobs-opens-its-doors.aspx's-top-facility-for-new-smart-industry-jobs-opens-its-doors.aspxSweden&#39;s top facility for new smart industry jobs opens its doors<p><b>​On the 8th of May, the doors were opened to the Stena Industry Innovation Laboratory (SII-Lab) at Chalmers campus Lindholmen, Sweden – a 1000 square meter test-lab for digitalisation and future jobs in industry. Production researchers Johan Stahre and Åsa Fast-Berglund invite everyone to engage – young people, students, researchers and companies!</b></p>Sweden now has a unique environment to show how the smart factories of the future could look. The lab can be significant for the development of the digitalised industrial work of tomorrow, and for accelerating the digital transformation of industry and society.<br /><br />&quot;More and more companies are moving their manufacturing to Sweden, and the Stena Industry Innovation Lab now makes that even easier. The project sits well with what the government wants to achieve in strengthening the conditions for Swedish industry to develop, manufacture and compete in the world market,” says Mikael Damberg, Minister for Enterprise and Innovation, who opened the national test lab on the 8th May.<br /><br />With the help of funds from the Stena Foundation, an old library at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, has been transformed into a multifaceted laboratory – the Stena Industry Innovation Laboratory. Inside there is much of what is required for new industrial practices, or what is commonly called ‘Industry 4.0’.<br /><br />&quot;Digitalisation is changing industry quickly, but the job will not disappear. At the heart of the center there are still people – and with that, all the expectations we have of modern workplaces” says Professor Johan Stahre, who, together with Åsa Fast-Berglund, is responsible for Chalmers’ new focus on industrial digitalisation. <br /><br />In smart industrial production, technologies and tools are adapted to the employee. Builders, operators and production developers can utilize their creativity and perform their work better with the use of tools such as VR, 5G and collaborative robots.<br /><br />&quot;The digitalised workplace of the future has a lot in common with the world of digital gaming&quot; says Åsa Fast-Berglund, Associate Professor at Chalmers University of Technology.<br /><br />Companies both large and small, together with Chalmers researchers and students, are already implementing the ideas and technology of the future. At the unique, open environment of the SII-Lab, new innovations and business models will see the light of the day for the first time. In this environment, which is important for the training of future engineers and digitalisation experts, a large number of Master’s theses are ongoing.<br /><br />&quot;Swedish industry faces very big production challenges. We believe that many people can be inspired by this environment, thereby contributing to the digital transformation that needs to happen,&quot; says Madeleine Olsson Eriksson, chairman of the Sten A Olsson Foundation for Research and Culture, which has funded the greatly expanded business.<br /><br />For industry, the test-lab is long-awaited. Efficiency improvements in manufacturing are taking place today through innovations in digitalisation and automation, resulting in increased flexibility, improved quality, reduced costs, environmental and energy gains   all of which are relevant to being competitive, according to Alrik Danielson of SKF.<br /><br />“All of this can be done anywhere in the world. So this type of lab activity allows Sweden to get back to leadership in areas where we have lost it, and to maintain and further strengthen the areas where we are already leading. This is our chance as an industrial nation,&quot; says Alrik Danielson, CEO of SKF.<br /><br />Chalmers President Stefan Bengtsson is pleased by the Stena Foundation’s desire to make such a big investment in the important area of production.<br /><br />&quot;We work closely with Swedish industry to open up great opportunities for research, innovation and education. An important piece of the puzzle is for Chalmers to remain an internationally leading environment in the area of production. Now we can contribute even more strongly to increasing the speed of Swedish industry’s digitalisation, &quot;says Stefan Bengtsson, President and CEO of Chalmers.<br /><br /><strong>For more information contact:</strong><br /><br />Professor Johan Stahre<br />E-mail:<br />Tel: 031-772 12 88<br /><br />Associate Professor Åsa Fast-Berglund<br />E-mail:<br />Tel: 031-772 36 86Wed, 09 May 2018 12:00:00 +0200 to design for future scenarios<p><b>​Autonomous cars and smart homes will, in the near future, most likely will be a part of our daily lives. But how can we design these systems in a human centred way when they haven’t yet been fully implemented in the society? This was the topic when over 60 practitioners, within the User Experience community GotUX, showed up at the Virtual Development Laboratory at Chalmers.</b></p><div>To have a good understanding of user-centric design in future systems is important for many reasons. One is to avoid technological lock-ins that may not even be desired from a human perspective. These lock-ins can then be very hard to change at a later stage. Feelings of unsafety and mistrust can lead to distress, misuse and avoidance. Including everyday people in the making of big technological systems, influencing our daily lives, can also be argued to be a democratic issue.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Trust in future autonomous vehicles</h3> <div>Imagine yourself sitting in an autonomous car that breaks harshly every time it stops. Even though this doesn’t mean that the car is unsafe the behavior can still make us feel discomfort and mistrust. PhD students, Fredrik Ekman and Mikael Johansson, have done experimental studies about how people perceive different behaviours of autonomous cars, and concluded that defensive and predictable driving felt safer. This knowledge is important because the autonomous cars can then be designed not only to be safe, but also make us feel safe. One could think that as long as a system is safe our feelings of comfort and trust are irrelevant, but if we don’t trust a system we might not use it the way it’s intended, and the risks for accidents or failure increases. Should we distrust the system entirely we would most likely not adopt it at all. </div> <div><div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Using generative techniques in designing Smart Energy Systems</h3> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Bild på Sara Renström" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Design%20and%20Human%20Factors/Sara%20Renström%20350pxl.jpg" style="height:307px;width:346px;margin:5px 15px" />Surveys and interviews are familiar techniques when trying to understand human thoughts. However the knowledge retrieved is sometimes just too shallow.  Sara Renström, PhD student specialized in user-centred sustainable design, has been using crafting of collages and drawing as a way of reaching more tacit and latent feelings and thoughts. This in the effort of trying to understand what roles people want to play in smart energy systems, and what products, services and systems that could support these roles. Sara explains how she invited residents from the HSB living lab for a workshop including pizza, candy and crafting. <br /><br />Afterwards the collages were presented to the rest of the group members revealing interesting experiences, and was followed by thoughtful discussions, helping contextualizing smart energy technologies in participants’ lives.</div> <div> </div> <div>The discussions on design and user experience continued after the presentations when the host, Graduate school Human Technology and Design, offered everyone snacks, drinks and mingle.</div> <div> </div></div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Facts</h4> <div>GOTUX is local chapter of the Interaction Design Association, IXDA, a member-supported organization dedicated to the discipline of interaction design. <a href=""></a></div> <div><br /><a href="">The graduate school Human Technology and Design</a> is common in the two departments Industrial and Materials Science and Computer Science and Engineering. The school develops the knowledge about the relationship between humans, technology, and design in broad terms, and how this relationship can be shaped with regard to the needs of individuals as well as of the environment and society.</div> <div><br /><strong>PhD students</strong><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/johamik.aspx">Mikael Johansson</a></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/ekmanfr.aspx">Fredrick Ekman</a> </div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/sara-renstrom.aspx">Sara Renström</a></div> <div> </div> <div>   </div>Fri, 04 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200 twins enhance quality via simulation<p><b>​Industry is continuously seeking efficient solutions that save time and improve quality. A five-year project in the Wingquist Laboratory focuses on simulations using digital twins, which will lay the foundations for the self-compensating factory.</b></p>​<br />The Wingquist Laboratory at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg has focused on research in the field of digital product realisation since 2001. A key area in this laboratory is geometry assurance, which aims to minimise the impact of geometric variation in the final assembled product.<br /><br />- This area is a key one for industry and specific to mass production, where all the parts need to fit together and be interchangeable, says Professor Rikard Söderberg, Director of the Wingquist Laboratory, and continues:<br />- In industry, variation is traditionally handled by specifying tolerances, that is to say how much variation is permitted. Tight tolerances often make production expensive, since a high degree of precision is required in the production process.<br /><br />The geometry assurance software RD&amp;T, which was partially developed at Chalmers, has been used by Volvo since 1998 and also by a large number of companies globally.<br /><br />- RD&amp;T is now being further developed so that it can be used as a digital twin of the production system we would like to control. We can then regard RD&amp;T as a digital copy of the actual system, with the capability for real-time optimisation and control, Söderberg says.<br /><br />About a year ago the centre was awarded a large research project, Smart Assembly 4.0, by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF). The five-year project focuses on the geometry assurance process and has as its vision the self-compensating factory.<br /><br />- By using simulation in RD&amp;T along with new capabilities for rapidly scanning component parts, in future it will be possible to take into account geometric variation and adjust the assembly process to compensate for this, he says, and continues:<br />- This may involve matching the right bits together, adjusting fixtures and equipment and choosing the right sequence in spot welding, for example. By feeding a simulation model with real-time data, it can be used as a digital twin which will be used in practice to control the process.<br /><br />Söderberg, who has carried out research on simulation support for geometry assurance over more than 20 years, takes a confident view of the wave of digitalisation that is now washing over the industry.<br /><br />- This wave of digitalisation will increase access to data. And with more input data we will produce better simulation solutions. All companies face competition and want to benefit from smart working methods, Söderberg says, and continues:<br />- Industry as a whole is becoming more and more interlocked. The companies we work with have a number of subcontractors that manufacture components.<br /><br />- In future we may receive measurement data relating to components for a Volvo from suppliers and can use the information to make preparations before they are assembled. In the complex networks leading to a business transaction, there is a great deal of data that allows us to get the best out of the end product. If we can communicate digitally and optimise production and the production system without physical meetings and manual data processing, we can save a great deal of time.<br /><br /><span><span><em>Photo: Anna-Lena Lundqvis</em></span>t<br /><br /></span><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /><span>Smart Assembly 4.0<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></a><br /> <br />Thu, 26 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0200 doctor on heat treatment and mechanical properties of a nickel-based superalloy<p><b>In a project together with GKN Aerospace Sweden concering weldable structures, Ceena Joseph has studied the effect of heat treatment, microstructure and mechanical properties of Haynes 282, a nickel-based superalloy.</b></p>GKN produces large houses for jet engines, which are exposed to high temperatures over and over. These high temperatures require special materials that can handle the stress in such a warm environment, such as nickel-based superalloys. Among these superalloys, the Ni-base superalloy Haynes 282 has been attracting interest due to its high-temperature properties and weldability. <br />During the pre-study, Ceena Joseph and her colleagues at the division of Engineering Materials, Department of Industrial and Material Science, found a need for better understanding of the heat treatment process and how to optimize it.<br /><br /><span><img src="/en/departments/ims/PublishingImages/Ceena-Joseph_EM_lab_20180410_22_inzoom-struktur_500x500.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:20px 15px;width:250px;height:250px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>The fabrication strategy for critical applications such as aero engines was about to be changed from large cast parts into welded structures of forged multi-material goods. Something that required adapting the right heat treatment in order to get the right mechanical performance. <br /><br />The challenge is to tailor the heat treatment to suit the multi-material structures and still be able to meet the desired property requirements. <br /><br />-    This requires a profound understanding of the process-structure-property relationships for these complex alloys, says Ceena Joseph.<br /><br />Her research focusses on different heat treatments, how to optimize it and the sensitivity in the treatments. For instance, what happens in the microstructure during temperature changes? Are the mechanical properties stable? <br /><br /><span><img src="/en/departments/ims/PublishingImages/Ceena-Joseph_EM_lab_20180410_72_340x305.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 15px;width:250px;height:225px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>-    We have been able to understand the sensitivity of this alloy for different heat treatment conditions, which primarily occurs due to changes in its microstructural constituents. These microstructural changes affect the mechanical properties of the alloy, which can hence be tailored by heat treatment.<br />The research results show that, within the process variation mechanical properties are stable after the heat treatment. The method works well and provides good strength.<br /><br />-    Simply put, we can rely on the production process and fly safe, explains Christer Persson, professor and head of Division for Engineering Materials.<br /><br />Ceena Joseph recently defended her doctoral thesis “Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Haynes 282”. She has a background in Metallurgical and Materials Science engineering.<br /><br />-    One of my driving forces is the understanding of the behavior and the choice of materials within different applications and conditions. It’s always been interesting and made me pursue a career in material science, says Ceena Joseph.<br /><br />Since her dissertation in March, Ceena Joseph has already started her new carrier, as a researcher within R&amp;D for an aerospace manufacturing company.<br /><br /><p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Quick facts on Ceena Joseph </h5> <div> </div> <div><strong>Living in: </strong>Sweden </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Family: </strong>Husband &amp; 2 kids </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Interests:</strong> Travel, baking, reading </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Read more:</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Influence of heat treatment on the microstructure and tensile properties of Ni-base superalloy Haynes 282</a> <em>(article ScienceDirect)</em></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Microstructure Evolution and Mechanical Properties of Haynes 282</a> <em>(doctoral thesis)</em></div> <div> </div> <div><em><div> </div></em></div> <div> </div> <div><em>Text and photo: Carina Schultz</em></div>Mon, 16 Apr 2018 10:00:00 +0200 Chalmers Lab for Industrial Digitalisation<p><b>​Sten A Olsson Foundation for Research and Culture – Stenastiftelsen – is investing in a new Chalmers lab for industrial digitalisation – Stena Industry Innovation Lab, SII-Lab. SII-Lab provides great opportunities for Swedish industry to test industrial digitalisation in future production systems. It also gives young people possibilities to experience collaborative robots, 5G telecommunication and Virtual Reality in a work environment similar to gaming worlds. These are some effects of a large-scale installation from the Stenastiftelsen to the development of Chalmers open test bed for smart industry. ​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Sten A Olsson Foundation for Research and Culture</strong> invests 21 million SEK at Chalmers in order to increase the digitalisation and competitiveness of Swedish industry. In Stena Industry Innovation Laboratory, SII-Lab, Chalmers will triple its present activities in the area of smart industry and greatly improve Chalmers’ offer to industry and society. </span><div><br /></div> <div> - I am very pleased that Stenastiftelsen has offered to make such a big effort in the important area of production. This area is highly prioritized at Chalmers. We are working closely with Swedish industry in the field of digitalisation and the SII-Lab will open up great opportunities for research, innovation, and education&quot; says Chalmers’ President and CEO, Stefan Bengtsson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>The development takes place on the Lindholmen campus</strong>, which is in the middle of Sweden’s largest industrially focused science park, where more than 20,000 industry employees, researchers, and high-school students work and study. In Sweden, we need world-class research while at the same time demonstrating to our young people how exciting industry can be as a future workplace.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktionssystem/Madeleine_Olsson_stena_pressmaterial.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 10px" /><br /><br /><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">- We believe that this initiative is an excellent opportunity to contribute to the digital transformation of</span><br /></div> <div>industry and society. Swedish industry faces major production challenges, especially in western Sweden, says Madeleine Olsson-Eriksson, Chairperson of Sten A Olsson Foundation for Research and Culture.</div> <div> </div> <div>- Sweden needs to have world-class research and to show our younger generations how exciting industry can be as a future workplace.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><strong>Chalmers is already a leading university in industrial production and </strong><strong>digitalisation</strong>, and Production is one of Chalmers' areas of advance. As a consequence of accelerating industrial digitalisation and growing interest in Industry 4.0, the need to understand and test possibilities of the new technologies grows. The Stena Industry Innovation Lab provides a unique environment where future production systems can be developed and demonstrated. The SII-Lab, is already a national resource and it is also part of the European Commission's network of digital innovation hubs.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>- We offer an open meeting place for industry, society, and academia. Both large and small companies have the opportunity to try out new production ideas, but also to find new business models and innovation opportunities. We expect the lab itself to increase the speed of the Swedish industry's digitalisation, says Professor Johan Stahre, head of the division of Production systems at Chalmers.</div> <div> </div> <div>Industrial digitalisation is crucial for Swedish companies, but attracting young skills is just as important.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>- The SII-lab will allow us to conduct advanced research, but also show collaborative robots, 5G, and Virtual Reality for students, young people, and the public. The future, digitalised workplace has a lot in common with digital gaming worlds, says Åsa Fast-Berglund, Associate Professor in charge of the development of SII-Lab.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktionssystem/SII-Lab%20ren%20bild%20utan%20skyltar.jpg" alt="" style="margin:20px 5px" /><br /><br /><strong style="background-color:initial">Thanks to Stenastiftelsen’s donation</strong><span style="background-color:initial">, new facilities are rapidly being built. Cooperation with industry is also intensifying. The first students will be able to use the lab in January 2018 while new equipment is being installed. In May, SII-Lab will be officially inaugurated by the Swedish Minister of Enterprise and Innovation, Mikael Damberg together with Madeleine Olsson-Eriksson, Chalmers President Stefan Bengtsson, and Doris Schroecker from the European Commission.</span><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><a href=";"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Watch the movie on Youtube about Stena Industry Innovation Laboratory, SII-Lab </a></div> <div><strong> </strong></div> <strong> </strong><div><strong>About Sten A Olsson Foundation for Research and Culture</strong></div> <div><em>Sten A Olsson's Foundation for Research and Culture was founded in 1996 in connection with ship-owner Sten A Olsson's 80th anniversary. Through the foundation, the family gives support for research and cultural activities, primarily in Gothenburg and Western Sweden. The foundation promotes scientific research and development, as well as arts and culture, humanities and Christian communities. The first donation amounted to 51 million SEK, which formed the base for the foundation of Chalmers Innovation. The development of a joint center for innovation activities at Chalmers was thus possible.</em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>For more information:</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/johan-stahre.aspx">Johan Stahre </a>, Professor and head of the division of Production Systems at the Department of Industrial and Materials Sciences, Chalmers, +46 31 772 12 88</div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/asa-fasth.aspx">Åsa Fast-Berglund </a>, Associate Professor at the division of Production Systems at the Department of Industrial and Materials Sciences, Chalmers, +46 730 34 34 88</div> <div> </div> <div>Photo: Julia Sjöberg and Bilduppdraget</div> <div>Illustration: Sven Ekered, Chalmers</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> ​​​​​​​Fri, 13 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0200 to make kitchen pots harder<p><b>​New research shows that tailor-making the material used when making stainless steel is the key to optimize hardness and corrosion free properties. This new knowledge is important for oil, gas, food and nuclear industries – and for your kitchen pots.</b></p>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Giulio%20Maistro_200x250.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Giulio Maistro" style="margin:5px;width:170px;height:213px" /><span style="background-color:initial">In a recently published doctoral thesis, <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/maistro.aspx" target="_blank">Giulio Maistro</a> presents studies of methodologies to make austenitic stainless steel harder, without losing the &quot;stainless&quot; properties. The results show that it is important to consciously balance the different metals used in the steel, as well as the additives nitrogen and carbon.</span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>Austenitic stainless steel </strong>is a specific type of stainless steel alloy that is used for kitchen pots and many industrial applications. This type of material is very good to use with strong acids or salty water because it is resistant to corrosion. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Unfortunately, today’s stainless steel has the drawback of being very easy to scratch and damage. It is too soft. This is not crucial for our kitchen ware, but is a big problem for jewellery or for industrial applications. In industrial sectors like the oil, gas, food and nuclear industries, the surface has to be smooth like a mirror. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>When making stainless steel</strong>, it is the combination of the material in itself and the surface treatment that defines how good the result is. The result of a surface treatment can be radically different depending on the formula the material is composed of. Giulio Maistro says that this can be both a good and a bad thing. </div> <div><span style="color:black;font-family:calibri,sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:black;font-family:calibri,sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial">– </span>Nowadays, we have reached a stagnation in the application of surface treatments like plasma, gas nitriding or carburizing. More or less everyone in the field knows &quot;when it is worth to use them and when it is not&quot;. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>According to Giulio Maistro, companies keep their processes secret which makes process development hard and almost completely abandoned in academia. Giulio Maistro’s research is welcomed. Not much research has been done earlier on the optimization of the materials to fit the treatment. Instead of trying to change and over-optimize the treatment parameters, it could be easier and more effective to tailor-make a new material that better matches the treatment.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>This tailor-making involves</strong> <strong>Nickel and Molybdenum</strong>, two metals that typically are added into the steel to improve resistance against corrosion. </div> <div><span style="color:black;font-family:calibri,sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:black;font-family:calibri,sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial">– </span>In my research I show that by adding Nickel it is possible to decrease the unwanted formation of carbides, which are bad for corrosion. However, when too much Nickel is used, the material cannot be hardened very much. This is because carbon and nitrogen do not like Nickel and vice versa. If you use the metal Molybdenum, the opposite effect is shown. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>To harden the steel, it is common to introduce nitrogen or carbon in it. The more nitrogen or carbon you have, the harder the steel gets. This relates to Nickel and Molybdenum. Depending on how much of those metals you have in the steel, you can change how much nitrogen or carbon you can introduce in it. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>However, if you introduce too much nitrogen or carbon, chemical compounds called nitrides and carbides are formed. When they form, the stainless property of the steel gets lost. In general, Molybdenum increases the amount of nitrogen or carbon you can insert. Nickel limits the amount but also limits the formation of nitrides or carbides. </div> <div><span style="color:black;font-family:calibri,sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:black;font-family:calibri,sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial">– </span>This new knowledge shows that companies that manufacture products made of stainless steel need to find a balance between Nickel and Molybdenum to get the maximum hardness while maintaining the stainless properties, upon introducing nitrogen or carbon, says Giulio Maistro.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS:</strong></div> <div>Gas nitriding or carburizing are methods to introduce nitrogen or carbon to the steel.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/maistro.aspx" target="_blank">Giulio Maistro​</a> performed his doctoral studies at the <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/Pages/default.aspx">division of Materials and Manufacture</a> which belongs to the <span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx">department of Industrial and Materials Science</a> at <a href="/en/Pages/default.aspx">Chalmers University of Technology</a>. He </span><span style="background-color:initial">successfully defended his doctoral thesis on January 26th. The title of the thesis is: </span></div> <span></span><div><em>Low-temperature carburizing/nitriding of austenitic stainless steels - Influence of alloy composition on microstructure and properties.</em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Read more in this scientific article:</strong></div> <div><a href=""></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text: Nina Silow</em></div> <div><em>Photo in the article: Marcus Folino</em></div> ​Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0100 for future production researchers<p><b>​During 2018, the Production Area of Advance launches a new Research Associate Programme. Four students from four different master programs have been appointed as the pioneering research associates. Product development in sports, Scandinavia-Balkan industrial design comparison, sustainability in connection to digital technologies and bio-composites are their topics of interest.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The number of young educated people is decreasing around the world and in the future it will be a fierce competition regarding recruiting young engineers. This is recognized in industry but also by universities. Chalmers wants to secure a new generation of researchers but not everyone knows what it is like to work as a researcher. The Production Area of Advance now launches a new Research Associate Programme. <a href="https://en/Staff/Pages/johan-malmqvist.aspx">Professor Johan Malmqvist who is the Education Officer within the Production Area of Advance​</a> explains the purpose of the programme.</span><div><br /></div> <div>– I really like my job as a researcher and this is an opportunity to show students some of the benefits of being a researcher. With this programme, we want to enable talented students from our master programmes to obtain some experience from research activities such as developing research plans, carrying out simulations or experiments, analyzing data and presenting or publishing your results.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The programme is inspired by the “Undergraduate Research Opportunity Programs” often found at US universities. However, the structure is unique for the Production Area of Advance Research Associate Programme. It is meant to have a bottom-up approach. If interested in applying for a position in the programme, students are urged to take the initiative to make contact with a faculty member with a project idea. The idea is then put into an application and, if the application is granted, the research associate will receive a senior researcher as mentor during the project. Projects are to be reported both mid-term and in the end of the spring term. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>The pioneers of this seed-bed programme are four students from four different master programmes.</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Priska Herzog</strong> is studying <a href="/en/education/programmes/masters-info/Pages/Product-Development.aspx" target="_blank">Product Development</a> and her mentor is <a href="/en/staff/Pages/iola.aspx">Professor Ola Isaksson</a>. Priska is very active in her spare time and like adventurous sports like snowboarding, surfing, kayaking and mountain biking. She also takes her interest a step further and has e.g. developed and built an own snowboard. Her research associate project is therefore linked to her burning interest in sports. The title is “Involve R&amp;D in sports in product development”. But why is sports interesting for product development research? Priska explains her view.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– Sport athletes differs from other consumers in that they are very experimental in finding advantages that can make them win in a competition. Sports technology therefore often includes short product development cycles, rapid prototyping, and a collaborative customer that need better products to win and brings immediate feedback and a personal connection. This area is also somewhat less cost sensitivity than other consumer areas. We tend to put money on our hobbies.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>With this project Priska wants to raise awareness about sports technology in product development to improve the offering of sports projects for students and to improve the contact areas between Chalmers and sports.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Adis Imsirovic </strong>is a student in <a href="/en/education/programmes/masters-info/Pages/Industrial-Design-Engineering.aspx" target="_blank">Industrial Design Engineering</a> with <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/helena-stromberg.aspx">Senior Lecturer Helena Strömberg</a> as his mentor. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>– I am born and raised in Sweden but my family is from Bosnia and we have spent all summer holidays there. During my upbringing I have developed a curiosity about if the design thinking in the two cultures differs. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research associate programme gives Adis the opportunity to dive into this question. His project is called “Do designers from Scandinavia interpret design differently from designers in Balkan?”. Adis wants to perform a study where he meets universities and teachers as well as product development departments in companies in both Sweden and Balkan countries. Are there any differences? If yes, how would it be possible to cooperate spite the differences and what difficulties would occur? </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Hasnain Thathia</strong> is a student in <a href="/en/education/programmes/masters-info/Pages/Production-Engineering.aspx" target="_blank">Production Engineering</a> mentored by <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/melanie-despeisse.aspx">Assistant Professor Mélanie Despeisse</a>. His project focuses on the new challenges faced by the manufacturing industry as a result of the increased need for mass-customised products while improving the sustainability performance of production systems. The title of Hasnain’s project is “The influence of digital technologies towards sustainable production”.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– My aim is to review digital technologies in the manufacturing industry and assess their potential to improve performance with a specific focus on environmental sustainability. These technologies include software for modelling and simulation, virtual/digital factory, cloud computing and sensors which play a huge role in Industry 4.0. I would like to evaluate the performance of these digital technologies implemented in industries and compare them with the traditional technologies from a sustainable perspective (energy, waste, material usage, data accuracy).</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Shankar Paramasivam</strong> is a student in <a href="/en/education/programmes/masters-info/Pages/Applied-Mechanics.aspx" target="_blank">Applied Mechanics</a> with <a href="/en/staff/Pages/martin-fagerstrom.aspx">Associate Professor Martin Fagerström</a> and <a href="/en/staff/Pages/gunnar-westman.aspx">Professor Gunnar Westman​</a> as his mentors. In his project, Shankar faces a bit of a challenge since his background is from mechanical engineering and the projects includes quite a lot of chemistry. This project also differs from the others since it is initiated by the mentor and not the student. The title is “Supporting the upscaling of sustainable biocomposites from cellulose fibres for use in structural components”.</div> <div> </div> <div>– The aim of the project is to support research to find a more sustainable alternative to the commonly used composites carbon fiber composites and glass fiber composites that are non-biodegradable and takes a lot of energy to produce.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Even if the subject is new to Shankar, he finds the project very interesting.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– It combines the mechanical engineering knowledge that I already have with a new area. Even though the project includes chemical knowledge, I feel confident since I will have two mentors by my side. I look forward to learn more about biocomposites.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>We will follow these projects and report the results in the end of the spring term. Did the concept of the research associate programme turn out successful? Stay tuned to find out.</em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>For more information, please contact:</strong></div> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/johan-malmqvist.aspx">Professor Johan Malmqvist</a>, Dean of education MATS and Educational Officer of the Production Area of Advance.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Nina Silow</div>Tue, 20 Feb 2018 00:00:00 +0100 appreciate the silence in electric buses<p><b>​ElectriCity and the opportunities for cities and passengers from different user perspectives, was in focus during a workshop on Wednesday 24th Jan. Visitors from all over Europe, took part in the EBSF 2 – European Bus System of The Future 2 demo event, held by the division Design &amp; Human Factors.</b></p><p>Oskar Rexfelt and Pontus Wallgren both presented results on user experiences of indoor bus stops and results from passengers’ perceptions survey.<br /></p> <p>- We have studied what passengers and bus drivers think about the buses and bus stops from a user experience and adoption view. We found that the bus drivers appreciated the improved work environment, which they perceived as quieter, safer, smoother, and less tiring, says Pontus Wallgren.<br /></p> <p>- The passenger also appreciated the bus to be silent, smooth, well kept, environmentally better and, not the least, they appreciated the friendly bus drivers.<br /></p> <p>Another area of research is the heating (HVAC) in electric buses, where Volvo Bus presented their solution for an improved heating.<br /></p> <p>- Since we can’t have diesel heaters in an electric bus, it’s necessary to find new solutions, says Pontus Wallgren, senior lecturer at the division of Design &amp; Human Factors, Department of Industrial and Materials Science. Volvo has developed new methods of heating with an operational energy saving of around 60%.<br /></p> <p>The day ended with technical tour with bus 55, an electric bus ride to Lindholmen, with a presentation of the indoor bus stop.<br /></p> <p>- There are ideas on indoor bus stops, but this is probably the first one built and operating. So it is very interesting to see, both on how they charge the bus, the environment and thoughts how to design the bus stop, says Michele Tozzi, UITP, project manager EBSF 2.  <br /></p> <p><strong></strong> </p> <p><strong>The project ends with final presentations at TRA2018 conference in Wienna, 16-19 April.<br /></strong></p> <p> </p> <p> </p> <h4>More information</h4> <div style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt"><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:11pt"><font face="Calibri"><a href="/en/projects/Pages/European-Bus-System-of-the-Future-2.aspx">EBSF 2 – European Bus System of The Future 2 at Chalmers</a></font></span></div> <div style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><a href=""><span lang="EN-US"><font color="#0563c1" face="Calibri"></font></span></a></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:11pt"></span></div> <div style="margin:0cm 0cm 0pt"><span style="font-size:11pt"><a href=""><span lang="EN-US"><font color="#0563c1" face="Calibri"></font></span></a></span><span lang="EN-US" style="font-size:11pt"></span></div> <h4>Contact</h4> <div>MariAnne Karlsson, Professor Design &amp; Human Factors, Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div><a href=""></a></div> <br /><br />Text och foto: Carina Schultz<br /><div> </div>Tue, 06 Feb 2018 05:20:00 +0100 turned the electric bus stop into a living room<p><b>​​A living room with lots of green plants, a place to meet, study or have a cup of coffee. That was the result when Chalmers researchers asked passengers on the electric bus route 55 to design an indoor stop where people want to stay.</b></p><img src="/sv/styrkeomraden/transport/nyheter/PublishingImages/PontusWallgren_250px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />At the bus stop at Lindholmen, the bus waits indoors. The <span>quiet and emission-free<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span> electric drive of bus 55 allows the stop to be placed in the middle of a calm and clean environment.<br /><br />&quot;The original plan for the indoor bus stop back in 2015 was to create a place where you want to stay on for a while, to study or meet with friends<span>&quot;<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>, says Pontus Wallgren, researcher in industrial and material science at Chalmers. &quot;However, when we interviewed passengers it turned out that although the stop is popular, not many people stay there.&quot;<br /><br />This is why a group of passengers were asked to contribute to the further development of the indoor stop, in collaboration with the researchers and the <span>partners <span style="display:inline-block"> in the  </span></span>ElectriCity project .<br /><br /><img src="/sv/styrkeomraden/transport/nyheter/PublishingImages/workshopdeltagare_inomhushållplats.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />&quot;The participants all agreed that they wanted to make the stop more like a living room and less like a garage, and with lots of green plants&quot;, says Pontus Wallgren. Furniture and plants ordered, the passengers can soon start enjoying their new living room.<br /><br />The facelift of the bus stop is part of a study that investigates how drivers and passengers experience the electric buses and the bus stops. According to Pontus Wallgren, both buses and stops received high marks. Among other things, the buses are considered well adapted for persons with reduced mobility, and easy to drive smoothly and comfortably.<br /><br />The time required for charging at end stops is a challenge for public transport planners. Route 55 is relatively short, about 25 minutes, and the buses need to charge for three to four minutes. However, the timetable has a margin of ten minutes between the trips.<br /><br />&quot;The drivers see the break as an advantage. They say it reduces stress and back pain and makes them more alert while driving&quot;, concludes Pontus Wallgren.<br /><br />The results of the study will be presented at a seminar at Chalmers on January 24, 2018. <a href="/en/departments/ims/calendar/Pages/EBSF_2-Gothenburg-demo-showcase.aspx">Sign up here &gt;&gt;</a><br /><br /><strong>FACTS ABOUT THE STUDY</strong><br />The study is part of <a href="">European Bus System of the Future 2</a>, a project led by the <a href="">International Association of Public Transport</a> and partly financed by the EU Horizon 2020 program.<br />The study was conducted by Pontus Wallgren, Oskar Rexfelt, Victor Bergh Alvergren, MariAnne Karlsson and Erik Ohlson, Chalmers.<br /><em>Contact</em>: Pontus Wallgren, +46 31 772 13 97, <a href=""></a><br /><br /><strong>FACTS ABOUT ELECTRICITY</strong><br /><a href="">ElectriCity</a> has run in Gothenburg since 2015 and is a collaboration between industry, academia and society where the participants develop and test solutions for tomorrow's sustainable public transport. The electric and hybrid buses on route 55, on which different technology solutions are tested and developed, drive between Chalmers's two campuses.<br /><br /><em>Pictures</em>:<br />Sketch from the workshop. Photo Pontus Wallgren.<br />Pontus Wallgren. Photo Jenny Netzler.<br />Participants in the workshop. Photo Pontus Wallgren.<br /><br /><em>Text</em>: Emilia Lundgren<br />Mon, 22 Jan 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Foundation invests in new 2D super materials<p><b>​To ensure Chalmers as key player for graphene based two dimensional (2D) composite materials research, Chalmers Foundation invests SEK 15 million into a new research group. 2D materials are only one-atom-thick and have the potential to become super materials to be used for health sensors, water filters, new cool electronics or better batteries.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The discovery of graphene allowed researchers to produce and process a wide range of two dimensional (2D) materials. The next step is to combine these one-atom-thick, large and flexible nanosheets with polymers, metals or molecules in order to become new innovative nano-composites – super materials. </span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>In order to empower Chalmers</strong> as a key player for the research on graphene-based 2D composites, the <a href="/en/foundation/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Chalmers University of Technology Foundation</a> will invest SEK 15 million in the next three years to finance laboratory equipment and to part-finance a research group under the supervision of Professor Vincenzo Palermo.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /> <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Vincenzo-Palermo.aspx" target="_blank">Vincenzo Palermo</a> has for the last four years been the leader of activities on nano-composites of the <a href="" target="_blank">Graphene Flagship</a>. Since 2017 he is also the vice-director of the Graphene Flagship and professor at the <a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx">Department of Industrial and Materials Science​</a>. In his research, Vincenzo Palermo uses nanotechnology and supramolecular chemistry to create new materials with applications in mechanics, electronics and energy. In particular, he works with the production of carbon-based composite materials as graphene. </span></div> <div><br /><div><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Graphene_270x200.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Graphene is a crystalline material consisting of one layer of carbon atoms, arranged in a hexagonal pattern. The material is <em>100 times thinner </em>than a human hair but <em>20 times stronger </em>than steel. At the same time, graphene is light and flexible, and also conducts both electricity and heat very well. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>As graphene has these properties</strong>, there are many potential uses. Improved batteries and touch screens for mobiles and tablets are some examples but if graphene is combined with layers of other materials, the possibilities are even bigger.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">– Yes, the potential is enormous and now our imagination is put to a test. Graphene could be used for sensors for measuring of e.g. cholesterol, glucose or haemoglobin levels in the body, new antibiotics or cure for cancer, or perhaps for curtains that capture sunlight and heat up the house. Another thing is that graphene-based materials shall allow water to pass through it while blocking other liquids or gases. It could therefore be utilized as a filter of, for instance, drinking water. Also, because the material is so strong and weighs so little it can be used to produce new composites in aircrafts or other vehicles, in order to save weight and reduce energy consumption.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Thanks to the funding</strong> granted by Chalmers Foundation, Vincenzo Palermo will be able to expand his research team. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">– I am very happy for the opportunities this gives me. The funding will lead to the development of innovative composites of 2D materials with polymers and metals, the creation of new industrial collaboration with key partners and, last but not least, to the training of a new group of young researchers from Chalmers.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS</strong></div> <div>Vincenzo Palermo obtained his Ph.D. in physical chemistry in 2003 at the University of Bologna, after working at the University of Utrecht (the Netherlands) and at the Steacie Institute, National Research Council (Ottawa, Canada). Now Vincenzo Palermo holds a position as research professor at Chalmers <a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx">Department of Industrial and Materials Science​</a> in Gothenburg, Sweden, and is acting as vice-director of the <a href="">Graphene Flag​ship​</a>. </div> <div><ul><li><span style="background-color:initial">&gt; 130 scientific articles (&gt;4000 citations, h-index=35).</span><br /></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">In 2012 he won the Lecturer Award for Excellence of the Federation of European Materials Societies (FEMS) </span><br /></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">In 2013 he won the Research Award of the Italian Society of Chemistry (SCI). </span><br /></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">He has published two books on the life and science of Albert Einstein (Hoepli, 2015) and of Isaac Newton (Hoepli, 2016). </span><br /></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">In November 2017 he won a Research Project Grant for Engineering Sciences, assigned within the Research Grants Open call 2017 from Vetenskapsrådet.</span><br /></li></ul></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The donation from the <a href="/en/foundation/Pages/default.aspx">Chalmers University of Technology Foundation</a> comprises SEK 15 million divided over three years by SEK 5 million per year during the period of 2018-2020. The money is intended to part-finance a research group to Professor Vincenzo Palermo and to finance laboratory equipment. The research group is supposed to consist of two research assistants and two post-docs.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Nina Silow</div> <div>Photo: Graphene Flagship</div> ​</div></div> ​Tue, 05 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0100