News: Centre WACQThttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyTue, 09 Feb 2021 15:16:04 +0100http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/kvantfysiker-i-kva.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/kvantfysiker-i-kva.aspxQuantum physicist elected member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences<p><b>Göran Johansson, professor at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, has been elected member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He thus becomes the seventh Chalmers professor in the class of physics, and the third from our department.</b></p>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/Göran%20Johansson%20600_900.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:250px;height:375px" /><span style="background-color:initial">G</span><span style="background-color:initial">öran</span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"> Johansson is head of Applied Quantum Physics Laboratory and was elected at the Academy's meeting on 13 January as a member of the Class for physics.</span><div><br /></div> <div>&quot;I feel honored and actually I’m a bit shocked. I hope that I will be able to contribute with my expertise in quantum technology and my curiosity in other research areas. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is a heavy referral body in the Swedish research community and, among other things, does a very important work with the Nobel Prizes.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>According to the website, the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences is an independent organisation that aims to promote the sciences and strengthen their influence in society. The Academy also rewards outstanding research achievements through numerous prizes – the most famous are, of course, the Nobel Prizes in Chemistry and Physics. Being elected as a member of the Academy is seen as an exclusive recognition for efforts in research.</div> <div> </div> <div>An overall goal of Göran's research is to understand how quantum physics works in nature and how to take advantage of quantum physical effects in practical applications. Among other things, he studies the dynamic Casimir effect, which describes how photons are created out of vacuum when a mirror accelerates and moves close to the speed of light.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A more applied question is how to best build a quantum computer. The Quantum bit, the smallest information carrier in a quantum computer, can have both the value 0 and 1 at the same time and can therefore provide a computational capacity much larger than today's fastest supercomputers. For example, a quantum computer could study complex molecular structures in medical research and provide new drugs. It could also give us completely new opportunities to see structures in large data sets in order to find better solutions to difficult optimization problems, such as traffic planning.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><a href="http://www.kva.se/" style="background-color:rgb(255, 255, 255)"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a>Read more about the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences on <a href="http://www.kva.se/">the Academy's website</a>. </div> <div><a href="http://www.kva.se/" style="background-color:rgb(255, 255, 255)"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a>Read more about Göran in the article  <a href="/en/centres/gpc/news/Pages/Goran-wants-to-build-Swedens-first-quantum-computer.aspx">&quot;Göran wants to build Sweden's first quantum computer&quot;​</a></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Susannah Carlsson<br />Photo: Kerstin Jönsson</div> <div><div></div> <div><br /></div> </div>Wed, 20 Jan 2021 17:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Tiny-quantum-computer-solves-real-optimisation-problem.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Tiny-quantum-computer-solves-real-optimisation-problem.aspxTiny quantum computer solves real optimisation problem<p><b>Quantum computers have already managed to surpass ordinary computers in solving certain tasks – unfortunately, totally useless ones. The next milestone is to get them to do useful things. Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have now shown that they can solve a small part of a real logistics problem with their small, but well-functioning quantum computer.​</b></p><div><div><span style="font-size:14px">Interest in building quantum computers has gained considerable momentum in recent years, and feverish work is underway in many parts of the world. In 2019, Google's research team made a major breakthrough when their quantum computer managed to solve a task far more quickly than the world's best supercomputer. The downside is that the solved task had no practical use whatsoever – it was chosen because it was judged to be easy to solve for a quantum computer, yet very difficult for a conventional computer.<br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">herefore, an important task is now to find useful, relevant problems that are beyond the reach of ordinary computers, but which a relatively small quantum computer could </span><span style="background-color:initial">solve.</span><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/WACQT/PIs/GiuliaFerrini_180109_02%20kvadrat.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Giulia Ferrini" style="margin:5px;width:180px;height:180px" />“We want to be sure that the quantum com​puter we are developing can help solve relevant problems early on. Therefore, we work in close collaboration with industrial companies”, says theoretical physicist Giulia Ferrini, one of the leaders of Chalmers University of Technology’s quantum computer project, which began in 2018.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">Together with Göran Johansson, Giulia Ferrini led the theoretical work when a team of researchers at Chalmers, including an industrial doctoral student from the aviation logistics company Jeppesen, recently showed that a quantum computer can solve an instance of a real problem in the aviation industry.</span></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>The algorithm proven on two qubits</span></h2> <div><span style="font-size:14px">All airlines are faced with scheduling problems. For example, assigning individual aircraft to different routes represents an optimisation problem, one that grows very rapidly in size and complexity as the number of routes and aircraft increases.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">Researchers hope that quantum computers will eventually be better at handling such problems than today's computers. The basic building block of the quantum computer – the qubit – is based on completely different principles than the building blocks of today's computers, allowing them to handle enormous amounts of information with relatively few qubits. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">However, due to their different structure and function, quantum computers must be programmed in other ways than conventional computers. One proposed algorithm that is believed to be useful on early quantum computers is the so-called Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA).</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The Chalmers research team has now successfully executed said algorithm on their quantum computer – a processor with two qubits – and they showed that it can successfully solve the problem of assigning aircraft to routes. In this first demonstration, the result could be easily verified as the scale was very small – it involved only two airplanes.</span></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Potential to handle many aircraft</span></h2> <div><span style="font-size:14px">With this feat, the researchers were first to show that the QAOA algorithm can solve the problem of assigning aircraft to routes in practice. They also managed to run the algorithm one level further than anyone before, an achievement that requires very good hardware and accurate control.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/WACQT/PIs/JonasBylander_171101_kvadrat.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Jonas Bylander" style="margin:5px;width:180px;height:180px" /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">​“We have shown that we have the ability to map relevant problems onto our quantum processor. We still have a small number of qubits, but they work well. Our plan has been to first make everything work very well on a small scale, before scaling up,” says Jonas Bylander, senior researcher responsible for the experimental design, and one of the leaders of the project of building a quantum computer at Chalmers. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The theorists in the research team also simulated solving the same optimisation problem for up to 278 aircraft, which would require a quantum computer with 25 qubits.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“The results remained good as we scaled up. This suggests that the QAOA algorithm has the potential to solve this type of problem at even larger scales,” says Giulia Ferrini.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">Surpassing today’s best computers would, however, require much larger devices. The researchers at Chalmers have now begun scaling up and are currently working with five quantum bits. The plan is to reach at least 20 qubits by 2021 while maintaining the high quality. </span></div></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <strong>Text:</strong> Ingela Roos<br /><strong>Portrait pictures: </strong>Johan Bodell<br /><p></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="EN-GB">The research results have been published in two articles in <em>Physical Review Applied</em>:</span></p> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="sv"><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="https://journals.aps.org/prapplied/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.14.034010"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Improved Success Probability with Greater Circuit Depth for the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm</a><br /></span></span><a href="https://journals.aps.org/prapplied/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevApplied.14.034009"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /><span lang="EN-GB">Applying the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm to the Tail-Assignment Problem</span></a><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>More about: The Swedish quest for a quantum computer</span></h2> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="font-size:14px">The research is part of the Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT), a twelve-year, billion-dollar investment with two main purposes: to develop Swedish expertise in quantum technology, and to build a useful quantum computer with at least one hundred quantum bits. The research centre is mainly funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.</span><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span lang="EN-GB">Read more:</span></h2> <p class="MsoNormal"><span lang="sv"><a href="/en/news/Pages/Engineering-of-a-Swedish-quantum-computer-set-to-start.aspx"><span lang="EN-GB">Engineering of a Swedish quantum computer set to start</span></a></span><span lang="EN-GB"> (initial press release from 2017)</span><span lang="EN-GB"><br /></span><span lang="sv" style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/centres/wacqt/discover/Pages/default.aspx"><span lang="EN-GB">Discover quantum technology</span></a></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="background-color:initial"> (introduction to quantum technology)<br /></span><span lang="sv" style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/centres/wacqt/discover/Pages/Quantum-computing.aspx"><span lang="EN-GB">Quantum computing</span></a></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="background-color:initial"> (introduction to quantum computing)<br /></span><span lang="EN-GB"><a href="/en/centres/wacqt/Pages/default.aspx">Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT)</a><br /></span><span lang="sv" style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/centres/wacqt/research/Pages/Research-in-quantum-computing-and-simulation.aspx"><span lang="EN-GB">Research in quantum computing and simulation</span></a></span><span lang="EN-GB" style="background-color:initial"> (about quantum computing research within WACQT)</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span lang="EN-GB">For more information, please contact:</span></h2> <p class="MsoNormal"><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px">Giulia Ferrini, Assistant Professor in Applied Quantum Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, <a href="mailto:ferrini@chalmers.se">ferrini@chalmers.se</a>, +46 31 772 6417<br />Jonas Bylander, Associate Professor in Quantum Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, <a href="mailto:jonas.bylander@chalmers.se">jonas.bylander@chalmers.se​</a>, +46 31 772 5132</span><span style="background-color:initial">​​​</span>​ ​</p>Thu, 17 Dec 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/gpc/news/Pages/Per-Delsing-It-is-easier-to-rule-an-electron-than-raise-four-daughters.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/gpc/news/Pages/Per-Delsing-It-is-easier-to-rule-an-electron-than-raise-four-daughters.aspxPer Delsing: It is easier to rule an electron than raise four daughters<p><b>​A doctorate in 1990, Assistant Professor in 1991, Senior Lecturer in 1994, Professor in 1997, all by the age of 37. Per Delsing’s academic journey has moved swiftly. Now he’s heading up the billion SEK project the Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT), the aim of which is to build a functioning quantum computer within twelve years. “I have worked on fundamental research for a great many years, but it’s actually only now with WACQT that applications are starting to come from it, and that industry is interested”, he says.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Like many others, Delsing works mainly from home in these times. He receives me at his home in Landvetter. We sit down in front of the stove, which is not currently lit – it is the height of summer after all.</span><br /></div> <div>“I usually sit here in front of the fire in my favourite armchair when I’m reading and writing, when I’m working at home or have some free time and am taking it easy,” he says about the place he has chosen for our meeting. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Per lives here with his wife Désirée, a language teacher. His four daughters have moved out and in the past few years Per and Désirée have had the pleasure of becoming grandparents to three grandchildren.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>There is a quotation hanging in his office at Chalmers from the former US president Lyndon B Johnson: “It is easier to rule a nation than raise two daughters”.</div> <div>“I can certainly sign up to that! But I’ve changed the quotation from two to four daughters and replaced “nation” by “electron”. So on my wall it states “It is easier to rule an electron than raise four daughters”. Over time I’ve added “photon” and “phonon” too, he laughs.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/pdelsing_300x450__artikelbild.jpg" alt="Picture of Per Delsing." class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" />He is Professor of Experimental Physics and Head of the Quantum Technology Laboratory (QT) at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, at Chalmers. His research area is quantum physics with nanocomponents. <span style="background-color:initial">It started with single-electron tunnelling.</span></div> <div>“This research area has developed but still has many ‘golden threads’. As a doctoral student I worked on individual electrons. Early on things didn’t go well. I persevered for four years without getting anything to work and was almost ready to give up. But when we changed the material from tin and lead to aluminium, everything worked properly. The measuring equipment and everything else had already been prepared so a great many results came all at once. It was a ‘ketchup effect’!”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Per took a framed photograph of his father along with him to the photo shoot in Henrik Sandsjö’s studio at Röda Sten. Tore Delsing passed away in 2001 and was the person who opened Per’s eyes to technology and the natural sciences.</div> <div>“Dad was a timber logger until one of his fingers was sawn off in an accident and he received an insurance payout as a result. Thanks to that, he was able to study and become an engineer at Stockholm Technical Institute in Stockholm. It was in the 1940s and 1950s and studying wasn’t all that common at the time,” he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>We backtrack a few decades. Västerbotten. Way up in the countryside. A different Sweden. The firstborn son became a big brother when Per Delsing and his twin brother were born at the hospital in Umeå on 14 August 1959. </div> <div>“But I’ve actually never lived in Umeå. When Dad came and picked us up from the maternity ward, he took us to a new apartment in Lycksele. And after two and half years we moved to Malmö where I grew up,” he explains.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>As a qualified engineer Tore got a job at the hydroelectric power station on the banks of the Norrland rivers. After a couple of years he gained employment at the construction company Armerad Betong (later NCC) in Malmö and took his family there. They lived in the Kronprinsen district which had long housed Malmö’s highest building.</div> <div>“Yes, we had quite a long journey, but we maintained contact with our home district and spent four weeks there every summer in our holiday home, 1,500 km north. You couldn’t just nip back over a weekend,” he smiles.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>When he was five the furniture van was on the go again. The family then settled down in a residential district near Bulltofta airport. Mum Ann-Marie stayed at home when the children were small, but she was a trained tailor and gradually started working as a needlework teacher. She passed away a few years ago.</div> <div><strong>How would you describe your childhood?</strong></div> <div>“I was a bit of a street fighter when I was small. And I was interested in sport, and was involved in football and swimming. Competitive swimming too for a while,” explains Per.</div> <div>It was Dad Tore who inspired Per and his two brothers to understand that knowledge was both important and fun.  </div> <div>“Before we went to bed in the evening when we were small, he would come in to us and we’d have a quiz. All three of us thought this was great fun. It was important to take that with you into school. I remember us watching the moon landing together. I was nine years’ old. It was one of those moments, when I knew that ‘wow, I want to work on that’!” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>At secondary school Per created a chemistry box which he supplemented with ‘more advanced things’, as he expresses it with a smile. He used these to carry out various chemical experiments.</div> <div>“It was like having your own chemistry lab out in the garage. I produced gunpowder, did distillations and things like that.”</div> <div><strong>Did the garage survive?</strong></div> <div>“Yes,” laughs Per.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Per and his brother, who was two years’ older, followed one another. Both studied engineering physics at the Lund University Faculty of Engineering, and his brother even became a student guidance counsellor.</div> <div>“Two years into the course he came to me and told me about an exchange with ETH in Zürich. He said: ‘Nobody has applied, wouldn’t this be something for you?’” Per explains. </div> <div>He spontaneously answered no, he was enjoying it so much in Lund, but after a while he changed his mind and submitted an application after all. This was how Per Delsing ended up moving to Zürich after almost three years in Lund, and spent the rest of his engineering studies there.</div> <div>“I have never regretted it. ETH is a really good university.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Per’s realisation that he wanted to pursue research came early on, and after the years in Zürich he wanted to continue and take a PhD. So in 1984 he sat down and wrote three letters, one to Helsingfors, one to Copenhagen and one to Tord Claeson at Chalmers. They were the three universities where research was being undertaken into superconductivity at the time.</div> <div>“Tord called me as soon as he got the letter and thought I should come and meet him. I didn’t get much of a response from the others. I was offered a PhD student position at Chalmers.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>During his period of study in Lund, Per had met his future life partner Désirée. In 1984 Per moved to Gothenburg. Désirée followed one year later, and in 1987 the arrival of twins expanded the family.</div> <div>“Désirée actually grew up in the Kronprinsen district in Malmö where I also lived from the age of two and a half until I was five. Without knowing it, we had lived on the same estate!”</div> <div>Delsing publicly defended his doctoral thesis in 1990 with a thesis on ‘Single electron tunnelling in ultrasmall tunnel junctions’. Shortly afterwards he obtained a position as an assistant professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Gothenburg. Per stayed there for seven years before he applied to go back to Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In 2017 it was twenty years since he had become a professor of experimental physics at Chalmers, ‘specialising in tunnelling and single electronics’ as it was described at the time.</div> <div>Over the years many prizes, appointments and research grants have been bestowed upon Delsing: Wallenberg Scholar, the Swedish Research Council’s Distinguished Professor grant, the Göran Gustafsson Prize and the Gustaf Dalén Medal to name but a few. </div> <div>He is a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences (IVA), as well as the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (KVA) and the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences in Gothenburg (KVVS). Between 2007 and 2015 he was a member of the Nobel Committee for Physics. In 2014 he was also chair of the committee with all that it entails.</div> <div>“I am of course highly delighted with all these honours. But being elected to the Nobel Committee still stands out. It was a really great job, one that I’m really proud of and pleased with.</div> <div>A lot of the work on the committee is confidential, but Per explains that he was involved in and presented three Nobel prizes for Physics: Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov “for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene” (2010), David Wineland and Serge Haroche “for groundbreaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems” (2012) and Isamu Akasaki, Haroshi Amano and Shuji Nakamura “for the invention of efficient blue light-emitting diodes which has enabled bright and energy-saving white light sources” (2014).</div> <div>“The committee normally consists of eight people who are experts in different areas so that the committee covers the entire field of physics. It is a considerable amount of work that has to be divided up between the members. As chair you also present the prize at the award ceremony,” Per explains.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>As a Distinguished Professor at the VR Per Delsing has been awarded ten years’ research funding up until 2025.</div> <div>“It is extremely important that you have the courage to pursue difficult subjects that may not work at all, and that wouldn’t be possible with three years’ funding.”</div> <div>Being awarded an ERC Advanced Grant from the European Research Council against fierce competition also meant a lot:</div> <div>“It was a major grant which was also international recognition.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Wallenberg-funded quantum computer investment WACQT is, of course, one of those things that Delsing is most proud about. Chalmers had the honour of hosting the centre. WACQT has two missions: to raise the level of expertise in quantum technology and to build a quantum computer. The team are working in parallel on both assignments. Since its inception in 2018, a lot has happened:</div> <div>“I would like to emphasise that there are a lot of us working in the centre in different roles. We have put a great deal of effort into building up the operation. We have now employed 58 people and have entered a different phase. We have established a structure for our way of working and have got industry on board in various collaborations. It feels really good, I definitely think that progress is being made,” explains Per.</div> <div>“I have worked on fundamental research for a great many years, but it’s actually only now with WACQT that applications are starting to come from it, and that industry is interested. After having worked on research which is of more academic interest, it’s really great that it’s actually turning into something that is of interest to industry and the general public.”</div> <div>He also thinks that the construction of a quantum computer is going well:</div> <div>“We can run certain algorithms on small processors now. It’s looking good, and we have been able to proceed with building larger processors.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Per seems to divide his time between many different activities. Apart from being a head of division and head of the WACQT unit, he supervises eight doctoral students.</div> <div><strong>How do you manage everything?</strong></div> <div>“The simple truth is that I don’t. Nor can you run as fast when you are 60 as you did when you were 40. I’m trying to get rid of some assignments. For instance, I’m not taking on any more doctoral students.”</div> <div><strong>What do you enjoy most?</strong></div> <div>“There’s a lot that is enjoyable. I think it’s extremely enjoyable to work with really intelligent people who you can have high-level discussions with. But those eureka moments when you realise that ‘that’s how it must be’ or that we’ve found what we had sought for two years is also a wonderful feeling.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At some points in his career Per has been involved in groundbreaking scientific breakthroughs. The first one came during his time as a doctoral student.</div> <div>“I discovered single electron tunnelling oscillations. There were many others who tried to observe it, but I succeeding in being the first to do so in 1989,” he explains.</div> <div>In collaboration with Yale, an experiment was carried out in which they successfully developed an ultra-fast single electron transistor. </div> <div>“We built the circuit at Chalmers and then one of my doctoral students went to Yale and carried out the experiment. It was a very important step. A great deal of my research over the next ten years was based on this transistor. We performed many interesting experiments on it, which were also published in Science and Nature.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A research breakthrough that attracted a great deal of attention was what is popularly called creating light out of a vacuum: the Dynamical Casimir Effect.</div> <div>“It was an important discovery that we were the first to achieve at Chalmers,” says Per.</div> <div>The results, which were published in Nature, were called a ‘milestone for which researchers have waited 40 years’, and it was ranked as the fifth greatest scientific breakthrough in the world in 2011 by the journal Physics World.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Three years later Delsing’s experimental research team succeeded, in collaboration with his colleague Göran Johansson’s theoretical group, in capturing sound from an atom, and showing that this sound can communicate with an artificial atom. This made it possible to demonstrate a quantum phenomenon with sound instead of light. A door that was previously closed to the world of quantum physics now opened.</div> <div>“We could place quantum dots (artificial atoms) on a piezoelectric substrate so that it was possible to connect the atom to sound instead of light. The results were published in Science, they have been well cited and have gained many followers. There are a lot of research groups working in that direction now,” he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>How does it feel to make such a discovery? Delsing describes it as having the hairs stand up on your arms once the realisation sinks in. Like managing to do a high jump or scoring a goal from a penalty kick in football.</div> <div>“Sometimes you’re looking for something special that you either find or don’t find, but if you see it, it’s quite obvious. I remember how, as a doctoral student, late one July evening I was standing looking at a curve that was being generated on an xy printer, as it was at the time. I knew that the curve should have a little peak, and suddenly saw the printer’s stylus start to go up and then down again. ”Wow, a peak”, I thought. Within a few seconds I realised that I’d got something there.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Other times researchers stumble over something quite different from what they were looking for.</div> <div>“It can take quite a while for you to understand what it was that happened and how it took place. Sometimes you find something that you didn’t expect and that’s almost more exciting.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo: Henrik Sandsjö</div> <div>Photo of Per in his armchair: Michael Nystås</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Chalmers-scientists-create-light-from-vacuum.aspx">Read more about creating light from a vacuum</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/news/Pages/The-sound-of-an-atom-has-been-captured.aspx">Read more about capturing sound from an atom​</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><div><strong>Read a recent interview with Per Delsing by writer Ingela Roos &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong></div> <div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/research/ear-quantum-world">https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/research/ear-quantum-world</a></div></span></div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">MORE ABOUT PER</h3> <div><strong>Born:</strong> In Umeå on 14 August 1959.</div> <div><strong>Lives:</strong> In a house in Landvetter.</div> <div><strong>Family:</strong> Married to Désirée, a language teacher. Four grown-up daughters and three grandchildren, who are three months, six months and two years’ old (in June 2020). “It all goes so fast”.</div> <div><strong>Job: </strong>Professor of Experimental Physics at Chalmers.</div> <div><strong>Leisure interests: </strong>Tennis, skiing and swimming. Very interested in humanity and evolution. “A scientific sideline.”</div> <div><strong>Listening and reading:</strong> “Mostly non-fiction, but I’ve read most of the books written by Henning Mankell and Jan Guillou. I don’t listen to as much music as I used to, I appreciate silence more. In Zürich I could play loud music and study at the same time. I can’t do that any more. I need silence around me when I have to try and understand something. My old favourites are Genesis, Supertramp and Elton John. My taste in music has stagnated over the years.” </div> <div><strong>Favourite place for inspiration:</strong> “My mother-in-law was born on Käringön island and we have a small holiday home there. We spend most summers on the island. I find inspiration from going out into the hills.”</div> <div><strong>Most proud about:</strong> “Apart from my children? In the scientific field, I’m most proud of having been elected to the Nobel committee. You are appointed to it because you are considered to really understand physics. It was recognition. It’s not just an appointment but it’s also highly stimulating work.”</div> <div><strong>Motivation:</strong> “An inquisitive desire to understand the natural world. On the one hand to understand why something happens in the natural world and on the other to be able to turn it round and use it in some way.”</div> <div><strong>First memory of engineering:</strong> “The moon landing.”</div> <div><strong>First memory of physics:</strong> “When I learnt what superconductivity was. For once my Dad couldn’t answer the question, but I had to find it out for myself. It was then I realised that I thought it was a really interesting and exciting subject.”</div> <div><strong>Best thing about being a researcher:</strong> “Being able to work on something that is so interesting and that you are passionate about, together with incredibly talented doctoral students and colleagues. To be entrusted with the task of developing knowledge during working hours.”</div> <div><strong>Challenges of the job: </strong>“Managing to do everything you would like to do.”</div> <div><strong>Dream for the future:</strong> “A great many of my dreams have been fulfilled. Of course, I had a dream of becoming a professor. I have also been able to achieve many of the discoveries I dreamt about. I dreamt of having grandchildren.”</div> <div><strong>Hidden talent:</strong> “I think I’m quite handy. I do quite a lot of practical work at home: carpentry, laying floors, electrical work.”</div>Wed, 25 Nov 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/gpc/news/Pages/Goran-wants-to-build-Swedens-first-quantum-computer.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/gpc/news/Pages/Goran-wants-to-build-Swedens-first-quantum-computer.aspxGöran wants to build Sweden&#39;s first quantum computer<p><b>​Physicist, researcher and TedX speaker. It is important to Göran Johansson to talk to others about his research. He is also one of the driving forces behind the construction of Sweden&#39;s first quantum computer. “The dream is to be able to solve a real problem with a quantum computer,” he says.​​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Quantum physics has followed Göran Johansson like a golden thread throughout his academic career. He is Professor of Applied Quantum Physics and Head of the Applied Quantum Physics Laboratory (AQP) at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, MC2, at Chalmers. </span><br /></div> <div>“Traditional mechanics felt comprehensible, but I didn’t feel the same about quantum physics. I thought it was strange. Which is why I have spent much of my life thinking about quantum physics in various contexts,” he says. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/gjohansson_300x450_listbild_artikelbild.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Picture of G Johansson" style="margin:5px" />Göran divides his time between a number of activities. As well as being Head of AQP, he is Deputy Head of the Excellence Initiative Nano (EI Nano), and one of the principal researchers in the billion SEK project the Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT), the aim of which is to build a functioning quantum computer within twelve years. </div> <div>“We want to find the real problems that are best suited to a quantum computer. It would be fascinating to be able to use quantum physics to solve difficult problems like flying more efficiently, perhaps with fewer planes and fewer flights. We want to see whether a quantum computer can do the job better and we’ve carried out an initial theoretical calculation that shows that it works,” says Göran.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>WACQT has initiated partnerships with a number of companies such as Jeppesen and Volvo. Göran Wendin is the driving force behind a partnership with Astra Zeneca which may eventually lead to new medicines. Another project is in progress with researchers at Sahlgrenska University Hospital and concerns calculations for DNA sequencing.</div> <div>“These are all extremely difficult calculation problems with which a quantum computer could help,” explains Göran Johansson.</div> <div>At WACQT he also manages a graduate school with around thirty doctoral students.</div> <div><strong>How do you manage everything?</strong></div> <div>“Well, I don’t really. WACQT is a huge project in which I coordinate the theoretical work. And the core of operations is now up and running with a number of excellent corporate partnerships,” says Göran. </div> <div>What do you enjoy most?</div> <div>“Thinking about problems, discussing physics and supervising doctoral students. But just sitting on my own doing calculations can be a bit boring.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>We meet at the cosy Kafé Zenith in the Majorna district of Gothenburg. This is Göran’s home turf. He has spent a lot of time here. He knows the district like the back of his hand.</div> <div>“I thought it would be fun to meet in Majorna. My parents grew up in Majorna and we used to visit my grandparents here when I was small. When I left home, I moved to Klarebergsgatan street and lived there until we moved to Kommendörsgatan street, which is just 100 metres from here.”</div> <div>Part of what he loves about the area is its rich and varied cultural life.</div> <div>“Yes, there is much to enjoy here. I used to listen to new music and buy LPs at Bengans a stone’s throw from here.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Göran Johansson grew up in Påvelund, where his parents moved from the Frölunda Torg area. His mother was a domestic science teacher and his father a mechanical engineer who studied at Chalmers. Göran also has a sister who is four years older. He now lives with his wife Annika and their two children Adam, who is studying engineering physics at Chalmers, and Ellen, who is in the first year of upper secondary school, in a terraced house in Hagen, very close to Påvelund.</div> <div>“As you can see, I haven’t moved very far,” he says with a smile. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Göran developed an interest in technology at a young age. There is still something of the technical dreamer from his childhood in Påvelund in the 70s and 80s about Göran Johansson. He lights up when he talks about exploring science as a child, often with his father.</div> <div>“He has always been interested in technology. I used to get up early and go with him to his shed. He would bring home old electronic gadgets, and he let me cut off all the resistors and sort them. We watched popular science TV shows. I really liked Carl Sagan’s TV series ‘Cosmos’ and learned a lot from it. Above all, I was extremely interested in physics and wanted to understand how the world works. I have always wanted to find new things,” says Göran.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>He was also a member of the ‘Teknoteket’ technology club started by Staffan Ling and Bengt Andersson, the duo behind the children’s TV programme ‘Sant &amp; Sånt’.</div> <div>“You got a box of puzzles and books with a technology theme through the post every month. There were boxes on nuclear power, on genetic engineering and much more besides,” says Göran.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>He decided to take one of the first classic home computers along to the photo session at Henrik Sandsjö’s studio in Röda Sten, a Sinclair ZX81. It turns out to be the very machine that Göran bought aged eleven in London in 1981 on a trip with his family.</div> <div>“It was my first computer, and I’ve kept it all these years. It was on sale for half price in London! The next day I wanted to buy a game. At that time, you bought games on cassette tapes and I remember getting to the shop at closing time, putting my foot in the door and saying in my broken English “I want to buy a computer game”. They let me in to buy one,” he says. </div> <div>Göran gets enthusiastic:</div> <div>“Back then, you could buy magazines with program code for games that you could program yourself. When I connected the computer up at home, I suddenly realised that you could write on TV! It was a great feeling.”</div> <div>As a childhood memory, there is still a big sticker from ‘Teknoteket’ on the computer, a collage of stars, planets and Albert Einstein.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>After taking the natural sciences course at school at Sigrid Rudebecks Gymnasium, Göran began studying engineering physics at Chalmers.</div> <div>“I knew that I wanted to do that at a very early stage. I think it’s because my dad studied mechanical engineering at Chalmers. He was the first in his family to go to university. I remember him saying that “the engineering physics students really seem to know what they are talking about...”.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>His studies at Chalmers were interrupted after six months by 15 months’ military service in Sollefteå, but in February 1995 Göran graduated as an engineer. He was 23 years old and he wanted more.</div> <div>“I did some extra work on theoretical physics with Professor Bengt Lundqvist while I was studying and spent some time with the doctoral students. I didn’t really think that I learned all that much as an undergraduate and wanted to learn more. So it was quite natural to continue,” says Göran. </div> <div>This involved postgraduate studies with professors Göran Wendin and Vitaly Shumeiko as supervisors. They are now colleagues at MC2. Göran Johansson wrote his doctoral thesis in 1998: ‘Multiple Andreev Reflection – a Microscopic Theory of ac Josephson Effect in Mesoscopic Junctions’.</div> <div>“In the thesis, we gave a theoretical description of how current flows in a small superconductor. I thought we had discovered something new and was slightly disappointed when our theory was subsequently not used in experiments by other researchers. We had worked hard but no one really cared.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>His doctoral studies went fast and Göran then spent a few years in the late 90s as a research project manager at Ericsson Mobile Data Design.</div> <div>“I managed a research project on computer communication. It was about digital radio, and we were looking at how you could download data extremely fast on your mobile using the digital radio network,” he explains.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>However, his longing to do proper research again grew, and when Göran Wendin offered him the opportunity to be part of an EU project, he returned to Chalmers. </div> <div>“At Ericsson, I realised that I like solving mathematical problems. I now had the chance to be involved in a project with the aim of building a superconducting quantum computer that was actually based on the technology in my thesis. Now it was OK to do calculations with our small superconductors.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Göran then became a postdoc at the illustrious Karlsruhe Institute of Technology in Germany, where his family lived in 2002–2004. This was because the Institute was involved in the EU project. Göran thinks with hindsight that the working climate in Germany was quite tough.</div> <div>“It was also extremely exciting to carry on working with superconducting quantum computers, and my wife really liked it there. But when I was offered a position as Assistant Professor at Chalmers in 2004, we returned to Gothenburg.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>One aim of Göran Johansson’s research is to understand more about how quantum physics works and how its effects can be used in technological applications. He sees great value in presenting research to the general public, and appears as often as he can in various popular science contexts. He has given two TedX talks, in Gothenburg in 2017 and in Lund in 2018.</div> <div>“It is a challenge to explain something so difficult as easily as possible, and it was extremely useful to try and say something interesting in eight minutes... Great fun and slightly nerve-wracking,” he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At Senioruniversitetet i Stockholm, which offers courses for pensioners aged 55 and over, he lectured about quantum computers to 300 people in a full cinema. And this year, he talked about the future on an expert panel at a science fiction festival. </div> <div>He knows that his research field is one of the most difficult and most challenging to explain. This is one of the things he has noticed in social situations:</div> <div>“People understand what I am talking about when it’s about computer communication and mobile surfing. As soon as I mention quantum physics, which I think is fun and in which I have a PhD, people stop listening,” he laughs. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>2020 saw the publication of the book ‘Kvantfysiken och livet’ (Quantum Physics and Life) (Volante Förlag), which Göran wrote with Göran Wendin, Joar Svanvik, Ingemar Ernberg and the science journalist Tomas Lindblad. This interdisciplinary book shows how a combination of quantum physics and medical research may form the basis of the next scientific revolution. It took several years to write.</div> <div>“First, we read papers and discussed among ourselves for a number of years. Then we each wrote a few chapters, which we then read and commented on. When Tomas entered the picture, he looked through all the chapters and made the style a little more consistent. It was a lot of work, but so great when it was finished. We are also talking about an English version,” says Göran.</div> <div>Most of the marketing activities have been postponed on account of the coronavirus pandemic. However, there is a piece on UR Play in which co-author Ingemar Ernberg is interviewed about the book by Tomas Lindblad. There are also plans to take part in the Aha festival at Chalmers in May 2021. Göran is on the festival organising committee.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In 2012, Göran Johansson was involved in a major innovation. Researchers at Chalmers had succeeded in creating light from a vacuum, a milestone in quantum mechanics that physicists had been anticipating for over 40 years. With the experimentalists Per Delsing and Christopher Wilson, Göran was able to demonstrate the dynamic Casimir effect.</div> <div>“It is an example of an interesting fundamental effect of quantum mechanics which describes how photons are generated from a vacuum when a mirror accelerates and moves at speeds close to the speed of light,” he explains.</div> <div>The researchers’ article was published in the journal Nature and attracted huge attention from Swedish and international media. The experiment was based on Göran’s theories, and they were able to capture photons that constantly emerge and disappear in a vacuum. The media described the discovery as ‘creating light from a vacuum’.</div> <div>“It was the most enjoyable project I have worked on and I got a real kick out of it. It was the first time I was involved in such a high-profile project. If you are published in Nature, doors open and you have the chance to be interviewed on Vetenskapsradion (a science programme on Swedish radio) and in other media. It means a lot and is a career boost,” says Göran.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Not long afterwards, he was awarded two prestigious prizes: the Albert Wallin Science Prize by the Royal Society of Arts and Sciences in Gothenburg, and the Edlund Prize by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.</div> <div>“I was really happy. The Albert Wallin prize was my first prize, so of course it means a little more.”</div> <div><strong>I assume that you sometimes have some free time. What do you like doing?</strong></div> <div>“I am trying to be better at taking time off and switching off properly. I like family dinners and being out in nature,” he says.</div> <div>Running is another interest, and Göran has run the Göteborgsvarvet half marathon many times.</div> <div>“The first time I was still at school and I was unable to finish. That taught me that you have to have good shoes.”</div> <div>The Lidingöloppet cross country race, the Kiel Marathon and the Skogsmaran run between Skatås and Hindås along the Vildmarksleden trail are other competitions he has taken part in.</div> <div>“I like running a long way but not very fast,” he says with a smile.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Science fiction is one of Göran’s major interests, both literature and films. </div> <div>“This is one of my favourite film and literary genres. When I was small, I read every single science fiction book I could find in the library.”</div> <div>His favourites include Jules Verne and Isaac Asimov, in particular the latter’s Foundation trilogy and ‘I, Robot’. </div> <div>“Jules Verne was extremely prescient. And I’ve read all of Haruki Murakami! ‘The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle’ was the first of his I read. There is another that is a mixture of a hard-boiled detective novel and fantasy – ‘Hard-Boiled Wonderland and the End of the World’.” </div> <div><br /></div> <div>He also recommends films such as ‘The Fifth Element’, ‘The Matrix’, ‘Interstellar’, ‘Star Wars’ and ‘Star Trek’. </div> <div>“The first Matrix film is still good. I watched it in the cinema with my daughter on its 20th anniversary. She liked it as well.”</div> <div>Göran has also been a guest reviewer of the TV series ‘Devs’ on the website of publisher Volante. A quantum computer plays an important role in the series.</div> <div>“It’s a nice thriller with good music that deals with quantum physics in a relevant, well-informed and appealing manner,” he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Given that he used to hang out at Bengans record shop, it is hardly surprising that Göran also loves music. When he was younger, he listened to a lot of synth. Depeche Mode, Lustans Lakejer and Ultravox were some of his idols. Later, his taste broadened to include Talking Heads, Kent and Olle Ljungström.</div> <div>“I saw an early recording with Broder Daniel of the Swedish TV show Valvet as a friend’s brother was in the band. ‘Shoreline’ is one of my favourite songs, by both Broder Daniel and Anna Ternheim.”</div> <div>Håkan Hellström is a big favourite with the entire family.</div> <div>“We listen to him all the time and had tickets for concerts in both June and August, but unfortunately they were postponed to 2021.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At the end of the year, Göran Johansson will leave his position at EI Nano, which will then come under new leadership. The plan is to take his family to MIT in Boston towards summer 2021 and live there as a guest researcher for a year. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo: Henrik Sandsjö</div> <div>Photo of Göran drinking coffee: Michael Nystås</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://youtu.be/zPRi6kFHx3g">See Göran Johansson at TedX Lund on 14 November 2018</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://urplay.se/program/217766-ur-samtiden-en-ny-verklighet-och-livet-vi-vill-leva-kvantfysiken-och-livet-nya-svar-pa-gamla-fragor">See the piece on the book ‘Kvantfysiken och livet’ on UR Play</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read more about the high-profile Nature article &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div><a href="http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheter/sidor/chalmersforskare-skapar-ljus-ur-vakuum.aspx">Chalmers researchers create light from a vacuum</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://volante.se/texter/kvantdatorbyggande-forfattare-tipsar-om-kvantfyisk-hbo-serie">Read Göran’s review of the TV series ‘Devs’</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://sv.wikipedia.org/wiki/ZX81">Read more about the Sinclair ZX81 home computer</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">ABOUT GÖRAN</span><br /></div> <div><strong>Born:</strong> Yes, 7 December 1971 in Påvelund.</div> <div><strong>Lives:</strong> Terraced house in Hagen, Gothenburg.</div> <div><strong>Family:</strong> Wife and two children.</div> <div><strong>Job:</strong> Professor of Applied Quantum Physics at Chalmers.</div> <div><strong>Career in brief:</strong> Has been trying to build a quantum computer since 2000.</div> <div><strong>Leisure interests:</strong> Running and forest walks. Family, music, film and books.</div> <div><strong>Favourite place for inspiration:</strong> Out in the forest. I switch off and am happy.</div> <div><strong>Most proud of:</strong> My children. I am pleased that they seem to enjoy life. In terms of research, the experiment on the dynamic Casimir effect.</div> <div><strong>Motivation:</strong> Curiosity.</div> <div><strong>Best thing about being a researcher:</strong> Being curious, exploring new things, thinking about how the world works and finding new solutions. I think that is really exciting.</div> <div><strong>Challenges of the job:</strong> Being innovative and asking the right questions that can be answered. I now have a role in which I also have to inspire others and get them to work well with each other. This is always a challenge. Everyone is motivated by different things. As with all jobs, it is easier if you like what you do. I try to help people feel that way.</div> <div><strong>Dream for the future:</strong> One dream is to find a problem that a quantum computer can solve. That would be fantastic. I look forward to spending a year at MIT. Otherwise I am very happy with my lot and think that I have found the right balance between administration and research. No radical changes are needed in my life. Maybe just to find a new dream in the future.</div> Tue, 24 Nov 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/wacqt/news/Pages/nyheter/Universal-Gate-Set-for-Continuous-Variable-Quantum-Computation-with-Microwave-Circuits.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/wacqt/news/Pages/nyheter/Universal-Gate-Set-for-Continuous-Variable-Quantum-Computation-with-Microwave-Circuits.aspxUniversal Gate Set for Continuous-Variable Quantum Computation with Microwave Circuits<p><b></b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P"><span lang="EN-US" style="background-color:initial">Researchers from WACQT, Chalmers has toghether with researchers from RWTH and Queen’s University </span><span style="background-color:initial">presented a novel proposal for harnessing properties of a recently developed superconducting circuit element in order to realize long-standing goals in continuous-variable quantum computing. </span><span style="background-color:initial">For almost two decades</span><span style="background-color:initial"> this has primarily been pursued in the context </span><span style="background-color:initial">of optical systems. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">The work heralds further research in an area that could be referred to as “continuous-variable – noisy intermediate-scale quantum” (CV-NISQ) algorithms. </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong style="background-color:initial">Authors and affiliations:</strong><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">Timo Hillmann</span><sup style="background-color:initial">1,2</sup><span style="background-color:initial">, Fernando Quijandría</span><sup style="background-color:initial">1</sup><span style="background-color:initial">, Göran Johansson</span><sup style="background-color:initial">1</sup><span style="background-color:initial">, Alessandro Ferraro</span><sup style="background-color:initial">3</sup><span style="background-color:initial">, Simon​e Gasparinetti</span><sup style="background-color:initial">1</sup><span style="background-color:initial">, and Giulia Ferrini</span><sup style="background-color:initial">1</sup></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 160501 – </span><span style="background-color:initial">Published 12 October 2020</span><br /></p> <div></div> <div></div> <div></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><sup></sup></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.160501" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /><span style="background-color:initial">Read the article in Physical Re</span></a><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.160501" target="_blank">view Letters</a></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="font-size:10.5px;vertical-align:super;background-color:initial">1/ Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience (MC2), Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg, Sweden<br /></span><span style="font-size:10.5px;vertical-align:super;background-color:initial">2/ Institut für Theorie der Statistischen Physik, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen, Germany<br /></span><span style="font-size:10.5px;vertical-align:super;background-color:initial">3/ Centre for Theoretical Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, United Kingdom​</span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /><span style="font-size:14px"></span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span lang="EN-US"></span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p>Fri, 06 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Electron–spin-dynamics-studied-on-their-natural-timescale.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Electron%E2%80%93spin-dynamics-studied-on-their-natural-timescale.aspxElectron–spin dynamics studied on their natural timescale<p><b>​With the help of extremely short light pulses and coincidence technology, researchers from several Swedish universities have succeeded in following the dynamic process of when the electron&#39;s spin – its rotation around its own axis – controls how an atom absorbs light. Göran Wendin, at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, at Chalmers and Raimund Feifel, at the Department of Physics at the University of Gothenburg, are two of the contributors. The new results were recently published in the scientific journal Nature Communications.</b></p><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/GoranWendin_171101_01_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Picture of Göran Wendin." style="margin:5px" />Professor Göran Wendin (to the right) is one of the driving forces within the Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT), which is led by Chalmers and aims to build a Swedish quantum computer within twelve years. He is involved in several research projects, including this, financed by Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (KAW).</div> <div>&quot;In fact, my contribution goes all the way back to my doctoral thesis from 1972 which explained the photo absorption cross section of the 4d-shell in xenon in the range 70-140 eV, studied by the present KAW collaboration,&quot; explains Göran Wendin.</div> <div> </div> <div>In the new study, the researchers have used attosecond light pulses and coincidence techniques to follow – in real time – how the electron spin (i.e. the angular momentum of the electron around its own axis) influences the absorption of a photon in a  many-electron quantum system, the xenon atom. An attosecond is a billionth of a billionth of a second.</div> <div> </div> <div>The study is using xenon, a heavy rare gas element that exists in small amounts in the atmosphere of the Earth. It is known to absorb soft x-rays of specific wavelength unusually efficiently. </div> <div>Physicists have named the effect a giant resonance and explained that it is caused by a strong collective response of the electron cloud when the atom is exposed to the x-rays. Especially intriguing is that the electron spin has a pronounced effect on the light absorption in this system.</div> <div> </div> <div>The present analysis combines precision in both time and energy to show that the strong absorption is explained by an excited state living less than 50 attoseconds. The influence of the electron spin, however, is due to a ten times longer-lived nearby state, which can be reached by a change of electron spin (called spin flip). </div> <div>The spin-flipped state serves as a switch and determines the state of the remaining ion. The results provide new insight into the complex electron-spin dynamics of photo-induced phenomena and might be of considerable interest to applied science such as spintronics.</div> <div> </div> <div>Photo of Göran Wendin: Johan Bodell</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Read the article in Nature Communications &gt;&gt;&gt; </h3> <div><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18847-1" target="_blank">www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18847-1 </a></div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More information &gt;&gt;&gt;</h3> <div>Anne L’Huillier, Department of Physics, Division of Atomics Physics, The Lund Attosecond Science Center (LASC), Lund University, 0705-317529, anne.lhuillier@fysik.lth.se</div> <div>Eva Lindroth, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, 0736-795034, eva.lindroth@fysik.su.se</div> <div>Göran Wendin, Quantum Technology Laboratory, Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT), Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers, 031-7723189, goran.wendin@chalmers.se</div> <div>Raimund Feifel, Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 0708-381689, raimund.feifel@physics.gu.se</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More background &gt;&gt;&gt;</h3> <div>Inspired by his supervisor, legendary Chalmers Professor Stig Lundqvist (1925-2000), Göran Wendin in his thesis applied the many-body theories developed for collective excitations in atomic nuclei to the electron dynamics in heavy atoms. The point was that independent-electron models did not work – it was all pretty collective, and it explained the experimental data from the pioneering work with synchrotron radiation. Actually, Wendin was the one who in 1973 introduced the name &quot;giant dipole resonance&quot; to describe the phenomenon. </div> <div> </div> <div>While working in France 1981-83, Göran Wendin came in contact with Anne L’Huillier at the research institute Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique (CEA) in Saclay, France. Anne was doing her PhD work in the pioneering high-intensity laser group, and she wanted to do calculations for multiphoton ionization of rare-gas atoms, including xenon. Wendin became her theory supervisor, and they collaborated during the following 5 years and published a number of papers together. </div> <div> </div> <div>After that, Anne L’Huillier took off and became one of the world-leading experimentalists in the field, and she became deeply involved in the development to understand and make use of high-harmonic radiation for attosecond spectroscopy. The Nobel Prize for this kind of work was awarded to Gérard Mourou and Donna Strickland in 2018. </div> <div><br /><a href="/en/centres/gpc/activities/lisemeitner"><span>Professor Anne L’Huillier is also honored with the Gothenburg Lise Meitner Award 2020, which is awarded to scientists who made breakthrough discoveries in p​</span>hysics.​</a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>If one sends intense infrared femtosecond laser pulses on a metal substrate, one can generate a comb of up to 100 overtones with 2 eV distance, covering a range of 200 eV, including the region of the xenon giant resonance. With these experiments one has a stopwatch ticking with attosecond resolution, meaning that one can follow electrons on their flight out of the atom.</div> <div> </div> <div>Related work that Göran Wendin did around 1975-85 had analyzed the giant resonance in term of atomic effective potentials, and that turned out to be very useful when relating the theoretical calculations of Eva Lindroth and her group at Stockholm University to experiment. The good old models for collective excitations – &quot;atomic plasmons&quot; – still provide the background for understanding the results of modern attacks on the atoms with optical and free-electron lasers.</div>Wed, 04 Nov 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Mentoring-program-to-stop-the-leaky-pipeline-of-academia.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Mentoring-program-to-stop-the-leaky-pipeline-of-academia.aspxMentoring program to stop the leaky pipeline of academia<p><b>​28 mentees and 28 mentors have just started their journey together in a brand-new mentoring program at Chalmers University of Technology. The purpose is to support female researchers in their personal and professional development, and to create good connections between junior and senior academic women.</b></p>​​<span style="background-color:initial">The mentoring program is an initiative by the two networks WiSE (Women in Science, based at the Department of Electrical Engineering), and WWACQT (Women in WACQT, within the Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology). The program is supported by the Gender Initiative for Excellence at Chalmers, Genie.</span><div><br /></div> <div>“Our aim is primarily to promote personal and professional development for female PhD students and postdocs. The mentoring program will provide a framework for discussing challenges and problems in everyday research life, and thus foster an environment to make wiser career choices. Networking is a key component”, says Giulia Ferrini, representing WWACQT in the organizing committee of the mentoring program.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The program was launched at a digital kick-off on 25 September.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Provide guidance through ups and downs</strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">“We have wanted to start a program like this for many years”, says Hana Dobsicek Trefna from WiSE who held the introduction at the meeting. “As a junior in academia you soon realize that you need a role model that can provide new perspectives and guide you through the ups and downs of life. We are very pleased that this pilot finally is becoming a reality.”</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Academia is a leaky pipeline in the sense that many female researchers drop off to seek other career opportunities, before reaching senior positions. This is especially true in the technical fields, and that is also one of the reasons why the networks WiSE and WWACQT were founded, in 2011 and 2019 respectively. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“My lesson learned over the years is that support from different persons and constellations means a lot, both at work and in life. Based on this, I especially want to emphasize the importance of what you do in WWACQT, WiSE and Genie, and what a mentoring program can accomplish”, said Lena Gustavsson, professor emerita, in her keynote speech at the kick-off meeting.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Advice for mentees and mentors</strong></div> <div>Lena Sommarström, study and career guidance counsellor, experienced in organizing student mentor programs at Chalmers, shared her best practices for mentors and mentees. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“As a mentee, you should first ask yourself what you think you need to develop, and then share your thoughts with your mentor. Accepting the role as a mentor is an excellent opportunity for a senior person to further develop communications skills, practice active listening and mirror herself as a role model,” she said.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The participants also got the opportunity to meet for the first time in their new roles and say hello digitally to their match. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“I joined the program because I think it's valuable to hear tips and experiences from older and wiser colleagues”, says Marina Kudra, a mentee in the program and a doctoral student at Microtechnology and Nanoscience, who has found her match in Silvia Muceli, assistant professor at Electrical Engineering. “The fact that my mentor is a female I consider a big plus. She can help me see which challenges and advantages academia has to offer. I am looking forward to the journey.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In its first phase the program will run for one year and will then be evaluated. The participants are encouraged to continue their relations as long as the dialogue is rewarding and fruitful.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Yvonne Jonsson<br />Photo: Susannah Carlsson</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><a href="/en/about-chalmers/Chalmers-for-a-sustainable-future/initiatives-for-gender-equality/gender-initiative-for-excellence/Pages/Wise-Wwacqt%20mentorship/WiSE-WWACQT-Mentorship-Program.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the mentorship program</a></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/e2/network/wise/Pages/default.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read about WiSE - Women in Science</a> </div> <div><a href="/en/centres/wacqt/Pages/Women-in-WACQT.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read about WWACQT - Women in WACQT, within the Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology</a></div></div> <div><a href="/en/about-chalmers/Chalmers-for-a-sustainable-future/initiatives-for-gender-equality/gender-initiative-for-excellence/Pages/default.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read about Genie - <span style="background-color:initial">Gender Initiative for Excellence </span>​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/WACQT/WiSE+WWACQT%20logo.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:400px;height:120px" /><br /><br /><br /></div> <div></div>Wed, 07 Oct 2020 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Giant-atoms-merge-quantum-processing-and-communication.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Giant-atoms-merge-quantum-processing-and-communication.aspxGiant atoms merge quantum processing and communication<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden and MIT in the US, among others, have demonstrated a new quantum-computing architecture that makes it possible to both perform quantum computations and communicate quantum information between distant parts of the quantum processor, all with low losses. The results were recently published in the renowned scientific journal Nature.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/anton_IMG_8889_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Anton Frisk Kockum." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />&quot;We showed that quantum bits can communicate through a waveguide without the quantum information being lost&quot;, says Anton Frisk Kockum (to the right), researcher at the Applied Quantum Physics Laboratory at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, at Chalmers, and one of the authors of the article.<br /><br />A challenge for scaling up quantum computers is to enable communication between quantum bits (qubits) that are far apart. Coupling qubits to a long waveguide is usually detrimental, since it provides a channel through which quantum information can leak out. The solution the researchers found was to use “giant atoms”, a new regime of light-matter interactions.<br /><br />“Natural atoms are usually much smaller than the wavelength of the light they interact with. However, an experiment in the group of Professor Per Delsing at Chalmers in 2014 showed that an artificial atom made from superconducting circuits can connect to a waveguide at multiple points spaced wavelengths apart. When calculating how two such giant atoms would behave, we found that interference effects due to emission from the multiple coupling points could prevent the atoms from decaying into the waveguide, but still allow them to talk to each other via the waveguide. This was now demonstrated in the experiment carried out at MIT”, explains Anton Frisk Kockum.<br /><br />The researchers used the interference effects of the giant atoms to demonstrate both that the individual atoms could be protected from losing quantum information into the waveguide and that the two atoms could be entangled, with 94% fidelity, through their protected interaction via the waveguide. <br /><br />This is the first time that anyone has even reported a number for the fidelity of a two-qubit operation with qubits strongly coupled to a waveguide, since the fidelity for such an operation would be low if the qubits were not giant. The ability to perform high-fidelity quantum-computing operations on qubits coupled to a waveguide creates exciting new opportunities. <br />“It is now possible to prepare a complex quantum state in the qubits, and then quickly adjust the interference effect in the giant atoms to turn on the coupling to the waveguide and emit this quantum state as photons that can travel a long distance”, says Anton Frisk Kockum.<br /><br />The study is a collaboration between scientists from Chalmers (the theoretical part), MIT, and the research institution RIKEN in Japan. From Chalmers, Anton Frisk Kockum contributed.<br /><br />The work was partly supported by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and The Swedish Research Council. The experiments were performed at the Research Laboratory for Electronics at MIT.<br /><br />Photo of Anton Frisk Kockum: Michael Nystås<br />Illustration: Philip Krantz, Krantz NanoArt<br /><br /><strong>Contact:</strong><br />Anton Frisk Kockum, Researcher, Applied Quantum Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, anton.frisk.kockum@chalmers.se<br /><br /><strong>Read the article in Nature &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /><a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2529-9">Waveguide quantum electrodynamics with superconducting giant artificial atoms</a><br /><br /><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=9216">Read more about the research project</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<br /><br /><strong>Further reading &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /><a href="https://science.sciencemag.org/content/346/6206/207">Propagating phonons coupled to an artificial atom</a>. Gustafsson et al., Science 346, 207 (2014)<br /><a href="https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.140404">Decoherence-Free Interaction between Giant Atoms in Waveguide Quantum Electrodynamics</a>. Kockum et al., Physical Review Letters 120, 140404 (2018)<br /><br /><a href="https://news.mit.edu/2020/giant-atoms-quantum-processing-communication-0729">Press release from MIT</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;Wed, 02 Sep 2020 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Organizes-exclusive-student-conference-in-quantum-technology.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Organizes-exclusive-student-conference-in-quantum-technology.aspxOrganizes exclusive student conference in quantum technology<p><b>​Participants from some 30 countries are expected to attend Berlin when the Quantum Future Academy 2020 (QFA2020) is organized on 1-7 November. The event is coordinated from Chalmers with Professor Göran Wendin at the forefront. Now he is chasing top Swedish students for the conference.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/GoranWendin_171101_01_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Göran Wendin" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />Göran Wendin, to the right, is one of the driving forces within the Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT), which is led by Chalmers and aims to build a Swedish quantum computer within twelve years. At the moment, however, he is fully busy with the QFA2020 management.<br />&quot;It is an extensive job with a lot of work, but also a lot of fun,&quot; he says in a pause.<br /><br />The assignment comes directly from the German research institute VDI Technologiezentrum [VDITZ] in Düsseldorf, which is the headquarters of the EU's research flagship on quantum technology, worth one billion euros, launched in autumn 2018.<br /><br />The idea of ​​QFA2020 is to offer European top students in the field of quantum technology an opportunity to gain new knowledge and new contacts in order to develop future commercial applications of the technology.<br />Similar events have been held four times before, then at the national level in Germany and France. Now, QFA is opening up and turning it into a major European education conference with participants from 30 countries.<br />&quot;One of the aims is to raise the understanding of quantum technology as a matter for Europe as a whole. We want to help create a sustainable network of young researchers,&quot; says Göran Wendin.<br /><br />Each participating country selects two students during the late summer who can travel to Germany completely free of charge in November. Travel, accommodation and living are fully reimbursed.<br /><br />QFA2020 will take place in Berlin. However, Göran Wendin points out that the organizers are closely following the development of the corona pandemic, and that all safety procedures will be followed.<br />&quot;All participants will receive detailed information in good time about any changes,&quot; he says.<br /><br />The application is open until 24 July for all interested students at the bachelor's or master's level with basic knowledge in quantum mechanics. In Sweden, the winners will be presented at a digital workshop at Chalmers in mid-September, where all applicants will present their ideas.<br /><br />The conference week in Berlin in November has a packed content. It will include study visits to companies and research laboratories, lectures, meetings with researchers, politicians and entrepreneurs, workshops and even cultural activities.<br />&quot;We can promise an exciting and exclusive week in Berlin,&quot; concludes Göran Wendin.<br /><br />Text: Michael Nystås<br />Photo: Johan Bodell<br /><br /><strong>Contact:</strong><br />Göran Wendin, Professor, Quantum Technology Laboratory, Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT), Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience <span>–<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span> MC2, Chalmers, goran.wendin@chalmers.se<br /><br /><div><span><strong>Read more about Quantum Future Academy 2020 (QFA2020) &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /><a href="/en/centres/wacqt/qfa2020">www.chalmers.se/en/centres/wacqt/qfa2020</a> and also<br /><a href="https://www.quantentechnologien.de/event/quantum-future-academy-2020.html">www.quantentechnologien.de/event/quantum-future-academy-2020.html</a> <br /><br /><strong><a href="/en/centres/wacqt">Read more about Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT)</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /><br /><a href="https://qt.eu/">Läs mer om Read more about the EU flagship in quantum technology </a>&gt;&gt;&gt;<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /></div>Fri, 03 Jul 2020 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/wacqt/news/Pages/nyheter/Quantum-structures-enable-deep-tissue-imaging-of-blood-oxygenation.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/wacqt/news/Pages/nyheter/Quantum-structures-enable-deep-tissue-imaging-of-blood-oxygenation.aspxQuantum structures enable deep tissue imaging of blood oxygenation<p><b>​​Imaging of the blood oxygenation inside the body would be a useful tool for fast diagnosis of conditions like stroke and heart failure. However, it has so far been prevented by the fact that body tissue scatters light in all directions. A research team within the Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology now make use of a crystal with tailored quantum structure to solve the problem.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px">More than 30 % of the patients seeking emergency care have symptoms related to reduced blood oxygenation, possibly indicating stroke, heart failure or similar conditions. Therefore, it would be advantageous to be able to image the oxygenation in the body. It is known that deoxygenated blood absorbs red light of a specific wavelength (700 nanometres) to a much greater extent than oxygenated blood. Measuring the light absorption at that wavelength can thus reveal the oxygenation level. Unfortunately, body tissue scatters the light in all directions, making it impossible to tell where the absorption took place.</span><span></span><div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">A research team within the Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT) now tries to solve this problem by pointing an ultrasound pulse to the location to be measured. The ultrasound shifts the wavelength of the light by a small amount, and by analyzing the wavelength-shifted light for different positions of the ultrasound pulse, they expect to be able to form an image of the oxygenation level. In order to filter out the tiny amount of wavelength-shifted light from the much stronger unshifted light, they use a crystal with a specific quantum structure designed by the Quantum Information Group at Lund University. The crystal strongly suppresses light at the unshifted wavelength – and also slows down the shifted light to just a few kilometres per second.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“This means it comes out long after any remaining unshifted light, and effectively can be distinguished from it,” says principal investigator Stefan Kröll.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">In this way, the team has managed to achieve measurements almost free from background noise, as described in an <a href="https://www.osapublishing.org/boe/abstract.cfm?uri=boe-10-11-5565" target="_blank">article in Biomedical Optics Express​</a>. The technique is developed by industrial PhD student David Hill at the medical start-up company SpectraCure AB together with the Quantum Information Group at Lund University.</span></div> <div><br /></div> Fri, 15 May 2020 10:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/wacqt/news/Pages/nyheter/Small-scale-demonstration-of-useful-quantum-algorithm.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/wacqt/news/Pages/nyheter/Small-scale-demonstration-of-useful-quantum-algorithm.aspxSmall-scale demonstration of useful quantum algorithm<p><b>​Being able to solve a useful problem on a quantum computer – and ideally much faster than on a conventional computer – is future milestone that many researchers dream of. Researchers within Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT) have now successfully demonstrated a quantum algorithm which represents a small instance of a flight optimization problem.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px">A team of WACQT researchers, more specifically an industrial PhD student from the air logistics company Jeppesen together with quantum computing experimentalists and theorists, have now successfully demonstrated a quantum algorithm which represents a small instance of a flight optimization problem. The algorithm was run on WACQT’s superconducting two-qubit processor. In this first demonstration, the result could easily be verified as the instance of the solved problem was very small – it involved only two airplanes.</span><span></span><div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“We have shown that the so-called Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm works in practice and that we have the ability to map useful problems onto our quantum processor. We have few qubits, but they work really well. The challenge is now to maintain the performance as we scale up”, says experimentalist Jonas Bylander.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The team is first to have managed to run the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm to its second level, an achievement which requires really good hardware and accurate control of the hardware. The resulting scientific paper is available as a <a href="https://arxiv.org/abs/1912.10495" target="_blank">pre-print at arxiv.org​</a>.</span></div> <div>​<br /></div> Fri, 15 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/wacqt/news/Pages/nyheter/WACQT-is-enlarged-and-extended.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/wacqt/news/Pages/nyheter/WACQT-is-enlarged-and-extended.aspxWACQT is enlarged and extended<p><b>​With an additional investment of 395 MSEK, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation increases the annual budget and adds two extra years to Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT). This allows the centre to raise the goals, among other things for its quantum computer project.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px">WACQT was originally planned for ten years and mainly financed with a 600 MSEK donation from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation (KAW). However, in November 2019 KAW decided to allocate money to increase the budget for the remaining years with 15 MSEK per year, and also to extend the duration to 12 years, that is through 2029. </span><div><span style="background-color:initial">With the enlarged annual budget, WACQT will be able to:</span><div><ul><li><span style="font-size:14px">invest more in developing better materials for qubits</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:14px">invest more in quantum communication in order to be able to compete in the European quantum communication infrastructure,</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:14px">increase industrial participation by additional industrial PhD students,</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:14px">invest more in quantum computer software, and</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:14px">provide larger startup packages for newly recruited experimentalists.</span></li></ul></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The two additional years will allow WACQT to:</span></div> <div><ul><li><span style="font-size:14px">develop a more advanced quantum computer with well above 100 qubits,</span></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">take better care of innovations,</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:14px">improve the education in quantum technology, and</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:14px">push to start a bachelor’s programme in quantum technology.</span></li></ul></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The WACQT management is now working on a formal re-application to KAW, which hopefully will be granted for the next four years. The decision will be taken in March 2021.</span></div> <div><br /></div> </div>Fri, 15 May 2020 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Big-breakthrough-for-quantum-computers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Big-breakthrough-for-quantum-computers.aspxBig breakthrough for quantum computers<p><b>​Researchers at Google have for the first time succeeded in solving a problem that is beyond the reach of a regular computer with a quantum computer. In just minutes, their quantum computer performed a computational task that, according to the researchers, would have taken more than ten thousand years for a powerful supercomputer. Göran Johansson, one of the leaders of Chalmers quantum computer project, sees this as a major milestone.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>How did you feel when you heard of the news?</strong></span><br /></div> <div>“I felt very happy! I knew that Google's research team was starting to get results with their 53-qubit quantum computer Sycamore, but that they have now managed to get such good reliability in their operations that they can perform this kind of calculation – it's a fantastic breakthrough!”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What lies behind the breakthrough?</strong></div> <div>“Sycamore is quite similar to Google's previous quantum computers in its structure. The breakthrough rather results from careful design of the hardware and software used to control the chip and a thorough analysis of which computational task to choose.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Does this mean that quantum computers now outperform regular computers in general?</strong></div> <div>“No, absolutely not. The research team has shown that their quantum computer can solve a single calculation task better than a regular computer. The solved task is completely useless, it was chosen solely because it was judged to be easy to solve for a quantum computer but very difficult for a conventional one. But as quantum computers evolve, they will outperform conventional computers in more and more types of tasks.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>IBM criticizes Google’s calculations and states that their best supercomputer could solve the task in less than three days. What do you think about that?</strong></div> <div>“If that is the case, it would still be the first time a quantum computer performs something that requires the full capacity of the world's largest supercomputer, for almost three whole days, to reproduce. Whether it's ten thousand years or three days, I see the achievement of Google’s team as a very important step forward.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What does this breakthrough mean to Chalmers quantum computer project?</strong></div> <div>“We are aiming for a quantum computer with one hundred well-functioning qubits, and Google has now shown that it is possible to create over fifty qubits that operate at over 99 percent reliability. It is incredibly inspiring and motivating!”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>How does your quantum computer compare to Google’s?</strong></div> <div>“We use the same basic building blocks – superconducting circuits – as Google. So far, we are working, completely according to our plan, with a chip with only two qubits. Our strategy is to first get it to work really, really well on a small scale. For example, Google's qubits have an average lifetime of 16 microseconds, while we have over 80 microseconds. The longer the lifetime, the more computational operations you can do. On the other hand, Google has managed to reach significantly faster operations than we have, but we are working at getting really good at that as well. Then we will start to scale up in fairly large steps.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What will be the next milestone in the development of quantum computers?</strong></div> <div>“Finding a useful problem that is beyond the reach of ordinary computers, but which a quantum computer with fifty to a hundred qubits can solve. We work intensively on this in collaboration with our industry partners. Probably, it will be within logistics or simulation of large molecules.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Ingela Roos</div> <div>Photo: Johan Bodell</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The article has previously been published in Swedish in Chalmers magasin #2 2019</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/centres/wacqt">Read more about Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology​</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div>Wed, 18 Dec 2019 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Wieczorek-WAF.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Wieczorek-WAF.aspxQuantum scientist becomes Wallenberg Academy Fellow<p><b>Witlef Wieczorek, Assistant Professor at the Quantum Technology Laboratory at MC2, has been honoured with a prestigious Wallenberg Academy Fellow assignment. &quot;It feels just great and I am overwhelmed by this decision and award,&quot; says Witlef.</b></p><div><div>The Wallenberg Academy Fellow is a five-year grant which provides young researchers with opportunities to make important scientific breakthroughs by providing long-term research funding in Sweden. Witlef Wieczorek is funded with 7.5 MSEK for the years 2020-2024 with a possibility to apply for five years extension after that.</div> <div>&quot;It feels just great and I am overwhelmed by this decision and award. The Wallenberg Academy Fellow means much to me as it provides me with the opportunity to pursue a long-term and challenging research project, here at Chalmers,&quot; he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Witlef joined MC2 in 2017 as tenure-track Assistant Professor in the Excellence Initiative Nano. Since then, he built up a lab and a research group, whose focus lies on research with mechanical-based quantum devices.</div> <div> </div> <div>As a Wallenberg Academy Fellow, he will pursue his research project entitled &quot;Levitated superconducting mechanical resonators: a novel platform for quantum experiments and sensing&quot;.</div> <div>&quot;The big goal of the project is to prepare a micrometer-sized object in a spatial superposition state. Though superposition states are at the heart of the flourishing field of quantum technologies, such big objects have never been brought into such states.&quot;</div> <div>  </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/Witlef%20december2019/witlef_puffbild_portratt_350x305_IMG_8291_adj.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:300px;height:260px" />Witlef gives us an example:</div> <div>&quot;Erwin Schrödinger, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, invented the gedankenexperiment of a cat being dead and alive at the same time. Though, such a state of a cat is in principle allowed by the laws of quantum mechanics, we have never observed superposed cats. The current record in superposition size is held by impressive experiments that observe the interference of large molecules. My project aims to superpose 10 million times heavier objects. This goal is ambitious! Therefore, we construct a novel experimental platform that should make this possible: levitated micrometer-sized superconducting objects that are coupled to superconducting circuitry,&quot; he explains.</div> <div> </div> <div>The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation is announcing 29 new Wallenberg Academy Fellows on 3 December 2019. The underlying intention of this investment is to strengthen Sweden as a research nation by retaining the greatest talent in the country, while also recruiting young international researchers to Sweden.</div> <div>&quot;To make scientific breakthroughs, it is important to concentrate on your research for a long period and have good resources. Wallenberg Academy Fellows provides these conditions, and they are available during what could be the most creative phase of their research careers. They also have the opportunity to participate in a mentoring program, which helps boost their scientific leadership,&quot; says Göran K. Hansson, Secretary General of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Read about Witlef Wieczorek's research in brief </div> <div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/witlef-wieczorek" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Can Schrödinger’s cat weigh ten million times as much?​​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Read pressrelease from The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation</div> <div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/press/twenty-nine-young-researchers-become-wallenberg-academy-fellows-2019" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Twenty nine young researchers become Wallenberg Academy Fellows 2019​</a></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://kaw.wallenberg.org/en/witlef-wieczorek" target="_blank"></a>Read more about the other two Chalmers researchers who received a research grant through the Wallenberg Adacemy Fellows: </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-Wallenberg-Academy-Fellow-2019.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Elin Esbjörner - </a><span style="background-color:initial;color:rgb(51, 51, 51)"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-Wallenberg-Academy-Fellow-2019.aspx" target="_blank">New Wallenberg Academy Fellow seeks to prevent neurodegenerative disorders</a></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><a href="/en/departments/math/news/Pages/The-mathematics-of-shape-is-addressed-by-new-Wallenberg-Academy-Fellow.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Klas Modin - The mathematics of shape is addressed by new Wallenberg Academy Fellow</a><br /></p></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read an interview from January 2018 with Witlef Wieczorek</div> <div><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Setting-up-a-new-laboratory-for-mechanical-quantum-device-research.aspx" target="_blank" title="Setting-up-a-new-laboratory-for-mechanical-quantum-device-research"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />New laboratory for mechanical quantum device research</a></div> <div><br /></div></div>Tue, 03 Dec 2019 10:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Lectures-and-discussions-at-quantum-workshop.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Lectures-and-discussions-at-quantum-workshop.aspxLectures and discussions at quantum workshop<p><b>​Some 30 participants from business and academia met at a successful industrial workshop with the Wallenberg Center for Quantum Technology (WACQT) at Chalmers on 23 and 24 May. &quot;This is the fourth time we meet and now we are beginning to find one’s feet. It is fun&quot;, says Göran Johansson, professor of applied quantum physics and one of the main researchers in WACQT.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">On the agenda during the two fully booked days, there were, among other things, presentations of PhD projects from business representatives, and panel discussions that captured the industry's expectations and wishes. Invited speakers from WACQT's scientific advisory board were Steve Girvin, Yale University, USA, Harry Buhrman, QuSoft, the Netherlands, and Charles Marcus, Copenhagen University, Denmark. Giulia Ferrini, assistant professor at MC2, presented the course Advanced Quantum Algorithms, which is a part of WACQT's graduate school for doctoral students.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Since the center was launched on 1 January 2018, a number of industrial partners have been attached to the project. During the workshop representatives from all seven were present in the auditorium Kollektorn, and held their own presentations: Marika Svensson, Jeppesen, Azimeh Sefidcon and Gemma Vall Llosera, Ericsson, Petter Wirfält, Volvo Group, Anders Ström, Saab, Anders Nyqvist, SEB, Mikael Unge, ABB and Anders Broo, Astra Zeneca.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_wshop_350x305_b.jpg" alt="Picture from workshop." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />When we made a visit on Friday we were listening to Jonas Bylander (to the right), associate professor of physics at the Quantum Technology Laboratory, as he spoke about how the project progresses. Also, fellow researchers Laura García Álvarez, Anton Frisk-Kockum, both at the Applied Quantum Physics Laboratory, Stefan Kröll, Lund University, and Gunnar Björk, the Royal Institute of Technology, gave their own lectures on topics such as &quot;Quantum computing and simulation&quot;, &quot;Quantum communication&quot; and &quot;Quantum sensing&quot;. The latter two coordinate the areas of quantum sensors and quantum communication within WACQT.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The industrial workshop was organized by WACQT coordinator Philip Krantz and Professor Göran Wendin. Linda Brånell was responsible for the logistics and made sure that everything was proceeding smoothly. Professor Wendin was very pleased with the two days:</div> <div>&quot;Personally I am very happy about the result of the workshop. The idea to combine the meeting of the WACQT Strategic Advisory Board (SAB) with a workshop turned out very well. The organisation worked as planned, and the presentations were excellent and at the right level. The discussions during coffee breaks, lunches and dinners were intense. It seems clear that the common industry-academia-PhD projects create strong engagement from both sides, which is very promising for our future efforts&quot;, he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The development of the quantum computer is the main project in the ten-year research program Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology, launched at the turn of the year, thanks to a donation of SEK 600 million from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. With additional funds from Chalmers, industry and other universities, the total budget is landing nearly SEK 1 billion.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The goal of the 10-year Wallenberg Center for Quantum Technology research program is to build a functioning quantum computer within ten years. The total investment is almost SEK 1 billion. Most come from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, which contributes with 600 million. The rest come from Chalmers, the cooperating universities in Lund, Linköping and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), as well as collaborative companies.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Read more &gt;&gt;&gt;</h3> <div><a href="/en/news/Pages/Engineering-of-a-Swedish-quantum-computer-set-to-start.aspx">Engineering of a Swedish quantum computer set to start​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Now-the-quantum-computer-will-become-reality.aspx">Now the quantum computer will become reality</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Well-attended-kickoff-for-new-center-in-quantum-technology.aspx">Well-attended kickoff for new center in quantum technology</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span>Facts about the Wallenberg Center for Quantum Technology</span></h3></div> <div>• Wallenberg Center for Quantum Technology is a ten-year initiative aimed at bringing Swedish research and industry to the front of the second quantum revolution.</div> <div>• The research program will develop and secure Swedish competence in all areas of quantum technology.</div> <div>• The research program includes a focus project aimed at developing a quantum computer, as well as an excellence program covering the four sub-areas.</div> <div>• The Wallenberg Center for Quantum Technology is led by and largely located at Chalmers. The areas of quantum communication and quantum sensors are coordinated by KTH and Lund University.</div> <div>• The program includes a research school, a postdoctoral program, a guest research program and funds for recruiting young researchers. It will ensure long-term Swedish competence supply in quantum technology, even after the end of the program.</div> <div>• Collaboration with several industry partners ensures that applications are relevant to Swedish industry.</div> Tue, 28 May 2019 09:00:00 +0200