This specialized chamber can mimic conditions inside an engine cylinder (up to 100 bar & 900 K) for studies of fuel spray combustion. Various types of fuel injectors can inject fuel into a continuous flow of heated air that passes through the chamber. Alternative fuels and various injection strategies can be studied. One example would be multiple injections from a Diesel fuel injector where, if the temperature is sufficiently high, the process of combustion and soot formation can be observed with various optical methods.
Optical methods typically used in this chamber include schlieren and shadowgraphy imaging, elastic laser light scattering (often called Mie scattering) from drops, laser induced fluorescence (LIF) for fuel and gas-phase species, laser induced incandescence for soot, ballistic imaging of spray breakup dynamics and so forth. Imaging is performed with various kinds of cameras (e.g. still images with fast shutters and image intensifiers, and high speed cameras with framing speeds up to 30 000 frames per second).