News: Global related to Chalmers University of TechnologyWed, 10 Jul 2019 11:31:48 +0200 dummy shoulder saves lives<p><b>​Although standardized crash tests have made car journeys considerably safer over the past 30 years, they have not been totally comprehensive – especially not for oblique frontal collisions. Researchers at Chalmers have developed a crash test dummy that now sets a new, life-saving standard for safety in passenger cars.</b></p>​​Having the misfortune to be in a car accident in a new and modern car is considerably safer compared to 30 years ago. The main driving force behind the increased safety has been the so-called<em> New Car Assessment Programs </em>(NCAP), which set a new standard for crash safety throughout the world. When the tests were launched in the early 1990s, they received a lot of media attention, which lead to more and more investments in safety by car manufacturers. For car manufacturers performing well in the tests became, and continues to be, one of the most important marketing arguments. <div><br /></div> <div>For some time, crash safety improved mainly for the types of collisions that were represented in the official crash tests, especially for car companies that previously had a low level of ambition in their safety work. However, the risk of injury was still high in accidents where the body was thrown forward in oblique positions, such as in frontal collisions with oblique force direction. “We wanted to contribute to a new test standard for oblique collisions. The dummy used previously turned out to be too rigid and did not give a fair representation of how an actual person reacts to a crash that throws the body forward obliquely”, says Mats Svensson, professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences.</div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>An impo</span><span>rtant research tool</span><span> </span></h2></div> <div>To find out how a person moves and is affected by the safety belt in a collision, researchers from Chalmers compiled results from earlier studies and supplemented it with own mobility tests of the shoulder part of test subjects. In this way, the researchers could see how a human shoulder moves and compare it with the standard dummy, which was used for crash tests. It then became evident that the greatest shortcoming of the crash dummy was the difference in the more extensive and complex motion range of the human shoulder.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> With the support of Volvo Cars and Autoliv, the Chalmers researchers developed an artificial shoulder for the crash dummy that could better mimic the human shoulder’s mobility in interaction with the three-point belt in oblique collisions. The design of the dummy is a key factor in the development and evaluation of new safety belts and airbags. “The new type of artificial shoulder was an important research tool for us at Volvo Cars, which makes it possible for us to gain a better understanding of the human body's movement and the car's protective function in collisions with oblique forward movements. Our accident follow-up shows that oblique collisions are common in traffic and have significance for the damage outcome”, says Lotta Jakobsson, Senior Technical Leader Safety at Volvo Cars and adjunct professor at mechanics and maritime sciences. </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>NCAP next step </span></h2></div> <div>Chalmers has participated in the further development of the artificial shoulder and the new crash test dummy, which has resulted in that now both Euro NCAP and US NCAP has the ambition to use the new dummy in future standardized collision tests of new cars. Johan Davidsson is an associate professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences has been Chalmers spokesperson in the international forums that evaluated and recommended the new more advanced crash dummy with the new shoulder. “It is now possible to fine-tune and evaluate airbags and seat belts that use the latest sensor technology to tailor the protection in real-time in the event of a collision. We are convinced that we have contributed to a significant future reduction of injuries and deaths in car collisions”, says Johan Davidsson.</div>Wed, 10 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0200 the optics for new Swedish satellite<p><b>​It is the first Swedish research satellite in 18 years. Next year, MATS will be launched from Vostochny Cosmodrome in Russia. The main instrument on board the satellite is based on a new type of telescope developed in Gothenburg and described in a thesis by Arvid Hammar.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Arvid Hammar recently defended his thesis as an industrial doctoral student at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2 – at Chalmers. He has worked at Omnisys Instruments AB and the Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory and has been part of a team from Gothenburg that developed and built the payload* of MATS (Mesospheric Airglow/Aerosol Tomography and Spectroscopy) – Sweden's new satellite for atmospheric research.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>MATS has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Stockholm University, Chalmers and KTH Royal Institute of Technology. From its orbit at 600 kilometers altitude, MATS will be used to study so-called gravity waves* in the atmosphere by detecting formations in clouds in the mesosphere at altitudes between 70 and 110 kilometers. Just like waves in the ocean, gravity waves in the atmosphere give rise to large-scale circulation and are important to study in order to improve current climate models, and to give a better understanding of the atmosphere as a whole. To make measurements on gravity waves, MATS will detect signals from noctilucent clouds in the ultraviolet wavelength range (270-305 nm) as well as emissions from oxygen molecules at infrared wavelengths (754-772 nm). This will be done using six separate image sensors and by combining information from a large number of images, three-dimensional structures and temperature distributions in the atmosphere can be calculated.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/BILD_1_sprangskiss_vit_ENG-665px.jpg" alt="Exploded-view of MATS." style="margin:5px" /><br /><em>Exploded-view drawing of MATS showing the different parts of the satellite. Illustration: </em><em>Swedish National Space Agency</em><br /><br /></div> <div>Because the satellite itself was required to be relatively lightweight and compact– maximum 50 kilograms and not larger than a conventional dishwasher, 60×70×85 cubic centimeters (see picture below) – a single telescope had to be used to form images onto the six image sensors. In order to meet the scientific goals, MATS must be able to detect gravity waves with sizes down to 200 meters over a field of view of 250 kilometers in the atmosphere while disturbing signals – stray light – from, for example, the sun, and light from cities is efficiently suppressed.</div> <div>&quot;Combining these requirements in a single instrument is a big challenge that was driving the development of MATS telescope, which was the main focus of my thesis,&quot; says Arvid Hammar.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/BILD_4_storleksreferens_350px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="MATS compared to a dishwasher." style="margin:5px" />The telescope itself is a so-called off-axis telescope and is the first of its kind to utilize a new design method where linear astigmatism is eliminated to drastically enlarge the field of view while maintaining a high optical resolution. The fact that the field of view can be made larger is the key to a mission like MATS and cannot be done with classical telescope designs. The design utilizes three mirrors made of solid aluminum, which were fabricated using a special lathing process (diamond turning) that provides optical quality for the geometrically complex surfaces without any need for subsequent polishing.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The development of the payload has been made in a short time and with small resources, which has been a challenge for Arvid Hammar and his colleagues at Omnisys Instruments.</div> <div>&quot;It was therefore of great value to cooperate with Professor Soojong Pak and his group from Kyung Hee University in South Korea who have years of experience with this new telescope technology that is now used for the first time in a real application,&quot; says Arvid Hammar and continues:</div> <div>&quot;We are a small team that has worked with the development of the optical instrument, but at the same time this has enabled us to work in an efficient manner where the expertise has for the most part been found in-house.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In addition to design, the development of MATS has also implied extensive testing to ensure a functioning instrument in the challenging environment that space entails. The imaging quality of the telescope has been tested in a newly built lab that Arvid Hammar has set up and been responsible for as part of his work. In addition to optical resolution, stray light suppression has also been measured in the same facility.</div> <div>&quot;By utilizing a new extremely black material based on carbon nanotubes, the throughput of stray light has been minimized,&quot; says Arvid Hammar.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/BILD_3_mats_monterad_350px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Mats mounted." style="margin:5px" />For about two years, MATS will be used to study the upper part of the atmosphere. The data produced will be used by researchers worldwide. The launch is scheduled for 2020 when several satellites are sent up simultaneously using the same rocket, including a larger Canadian satellite. The last time Sweden put a research satellite in space was in 2001 when Odin was launched. During its 18 years in orbit, Odin has traveled nearly 100,000 times around the earth, although it was also expected to last for two years. A copy of the research satellite Odin can be seen close by Café Canyon at MC2. To the left is t<span style="background-color:initial">he research satellite MATS in mounted condition at OHB Sweden in Kista, with visible contributions from Omnisys and Chalmers.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Arvid Hammar defended his research findings related to the MATS telescope in his thesis &quot;Optics for Observation Instruments&quot; on 12 April. The thesis also describes instruments operating at longer wavelengths for two other space-related projects. Professor Jan Stake, head of the Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory, has been Arvid's main supervisor together with Anders Emrich, technical manager at Omnisys.</div> <div>&quot;It is exciting to see how a solid thesis work can be an important part of a new Swedish research satellite, whose instrument will contribute to a better understanding of our atmosphere and global climate challenges. Arvid's work is also a brilliant example of successful applied research in close collaboration with companies,&quot; says Jan Stake.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Several other Chalmers researchers are involved in various aspects of the MATS project, primarily Ole Martin Christensen and Donal Murtagh at the research division Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo: <span style="background-color:initial">Swedish National Space Agency</span></div> <div>Photo of Mats: Arvid Hammar</div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br />Facts &gt;&gt;&gt;</span><br /></div> <div>*The instruments you send up to space with a rocket or satellite is commonly called payload.</div> <div>*The gravitational waves described in the article are not the same as the gravity waves predicted by Einstein's theory of relativity.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Scientific initiator of MATS is the Department of Meteorology (MISU) at Stockholm University. In addition to the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, researchers at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers, and the Division of Space and Plasma Physics (SPP) at the KTH Royal Institute of Technology have contributed to the project. The satellite has been developed by OHB Sweden AB in collaboration with ÅAC Microtec, while the instrument was mainly developed by Omnisys Instruments AB. The initiative is being financed by the Swedish National Space Agency.</div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br />About Omnisys &gt;&gt;&gt;</span><br /></div> <div>Omnisys Instruments AB develops and manufactures measuring instruments for advanced research projects in satellite-based research and radio astronomy. The instruments are built from the ground up and include technology from many different areas such as microwave technology, electronics, mechanics, optics and software.</div> <div><a href="">​</a> </div> <div>  </div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">Related links:</span><br /></div> <div><a href="">Read Arvid Hammar's doctoral thesis​</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div>  </div> <div><a href="">Read more about the Swedish research satellite MATS</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div>   </div> <div><a href="">Watch clips of MATS on Youtube</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Follow MATS on Twitter</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> Mon, 08 Jul 2019 09:00:00 +0200 film could even out the indoor temperature using solar energy<p><b>​A window film with a specially designed molecule could be capable of taking the edge off the worst midday heat and instead distributing it evenly from morning to evening. The molecule has the unique ability to capture energy from the sun’s rays and release it later as heat. This is shown by researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, in the scientific journal Advanced Science.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">On sunny summer days, it can be little short of unbearable to stay indoors or in cars. The heat radiates in and creates an unpleasantly high temperature for people, animals, and plants. Using energy-intensive systems such as air conditioning and fans means combating the thermal energy with other forms of energy. Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology are proposing a method that utilises the heat and distributes it evenly over a longer period instead.</span><div>When their specially designed molecule is struck by the sun’s rays it captures photons and simultaneously changes form – it is isomerised. When the sun stops shining on the window film the molecules release heat for up to eight hours after the sun has set. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The aim is to create a pleasant indoor environment even when the sun is at its hottest, without consuming any energy or having to shut ourselves behind blinds. Why not make the most of the energy that we get free of charge instead of trying to fight it,” says chemist Kasper Moth-Poulsen, who is leading the research.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At dawn when the film has not absorbed any solar energy it is yellow or orange since these colours are the opposite of blue and green, which is the light spectrum that the researchers have chosen to capture from the sun. When the molecule captures solar energy and is isomerised, it loses its colour and then becomes entirely transparent. As long as the sun is shining on the film it captures energy, which means that not as much heat penetrates through the film and into the room. At dusk, when there is less sunlight, heat starts to be released from the film and it gradually returns to its yellow shade and is ready to capture sunlight again the following day. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“For example, airports and office complexes should be able to reduce their energy consumption while also creating a more pleasant climate with our film, since the current heating and cooling systems often do not keep up with rapid temperature fluctuations,” says Moth-Poulsen. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The molecule is part of a concept the research team calls MOST, which stands for ‘Molecular Solar Thermal Storage’. Previously the team presented an energy system for houses based on the same molecule (see the related press release below). In that case – after the solar energy had been captured by the molecule – it could be stored for an extended period, such as from summer to winter, and then used to heat an entire house. The researchers realised that they could shorten the step to application by optimising the molecule for a window film as well, which would also create better conditions for the slightly more complex energy system for houses. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>What the researchers still have to do is to increase the concentration of the molecule in the film whilst also retaining the film’s properties, and bring down the price of the molecule. But according to Moth-Poulsen they are very close to this innovation. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The step to applying our film is so short that it could happen very soon. We are at a very exciting stage with MOST,” he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>More about the research</strong></div> <div><a href="">Read the article in the paper Solar Energy Storage by Molecular Norbornadiene–Quadricyclane Photoswitches: Polymer Film Devices</a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research has been funded by the Australian Research Council, the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and the Swedish Strategic Research Foundation.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>For more information, contact:</div> <div>Kasper Moth-Poulsen, Professor of Nanochemistry, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 761 99 68 55,</div> Mon, 08 Jul 2019 07:00:00 +0200 method open new doors for medicinal research<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have developed a unique method for studying proteins which could open new doors for medicinal research. Through capturing proteins in a nano-capsule made of glass, the researchers have been able to create a unique model of proteins in natural environments. The results are published in the scientific journal, Small.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Proteins are target-seeking and carry out many different tasks necessary to cells’ survival and functions. This makes them interesting for development of new medicines – particularly those proteins which sit in the cellular membrane, and govern which molecules are allowed to enter the cell and which are not. This means that understanding how such proteins work is an important challenge in order to develop more advanced medicines. But this is no easy feat – such proteins are highly complex. Today several different methods are used for imaging proteins, but no method offers a full solution to the challenge of studying individual membrane proteins in their natural environment. </span><div><br /><div>A research group at Chalmers University of Technology, under the leadership of Martin Andersson at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, has now successfully used Atom Probe Tomography to image and study proteins. Atom Probe Tomography has existed for a while, but has not previously been used in this way – but instead for investigating metals and other hard materials. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“It was in connection with a study of contact surfaces between the skeleton and implants when we discovered we could distinguish organic materials in the bone with this technique. That gave us the idea to develop the method further for proteins,” says Martin Andersson. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The challenge lay in developing a method of keeping the proteins intact in their natural environment. The researchers successfully achieved this by encapsulating the protein in an extremely thin piece of glass, only around 50 nanometres in diameter (a nanometre is 1 millionth of a millimetre.) They then sliced off the outermost layer of the glass using an electrical field, freeing the protein atom by atom. The protein could then be recreated in 3D on a computer. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The results of the study have been verified through comparison with existing three-dimensional models of known proteins. In the future, the researchers will refine the method to improve the speed and accuracy. </div> <div>The method is ground breaking in several ways. As well as modelling the three-dimensional structure, it also reveals the proteins’ chemical composition. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Our method offers a lot of good solutions and can be a strong complement to existing methods. It will be possible to study how proteins are built at an atomic level,” says Martin Andersson. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>With this method, potentially all proteins can be studied, something that is currently not possible. Today, only around one percent of membrane proteins have been successfully structurally analysed. </div> <div>“With this method, we can study individual proteins, as opposed to current methods which study a large number of proteins and then create an average value,” says Gustav Sundell, a researcher in Martin Andersson’s research group. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>With Atom Probe Tomography, information on an atom’s mass can also be derived. </div> <div>“Because we collect information on atoms’ masses in our method, it means we can measure the weight. We can then, for example, create tests where medicinal molecules are combined with different isotopes – giving them different masses – which makes them distinguishable in a study. It should contribute to speeding up processes for constructing and testing new medicines,” says Mats Hulander, a researcher in Martin Andersson’s group. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Read the article:</strong> <br /><a href="">“Atom Probe Tomography for 3D Structural and Chemical Analysis of Individual Proteins” published in the journal Small.​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Malin Ulfvarson</div> <div><br /></div> </div>Wed, 03 Jul 2019 10:00:00 +0200,-analysis-shows.aspx,-analysis-shows.aspxCurrent coal phase-out pledges are insufficient<p><b>​The Powering Past Coal Alliance, or PPCA, is a coalition of 30 countries and 22 cities and states, that aims to phase out unabated coal power. But analysis led by Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, published in Nature Climate Change, shows that members mainly pledge to close older plants near the end of their lifetimes, resulting in limited emissions reductions. The research also shows that expansion of the PPCA to major coal consuming countries would face economic and political difficulties.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">By analysing a worldwide database of coal power plants, the researchers have shown that pledges from PPCA members will result in a reduction of about 1.6 gigatonnes of C02 from now until 2050. This represents only around 1/150th of projected C02 emissions over the same time period from all coal power plants which are already operating globally. </span><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20190101-20190630/jessica-jewell_portrait.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin-right:10px;height:262px;width:200px" /></div> <div>​<br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>“To keep global warming below 1.5°C, as aimed for in the Paris climate agreement, we need to phase-out unabated coal power – that is, when the carbon emissions are not captured – by the middle of this century. The Powering Past Coal Alliance is a good start but so far, only wealthy countries which don’t use much coal, and some countries which don’t use any coal power, have joined,” says Jessica Jewell, Assistant Professor at the Department of Space, Earth and the Environment at Chalmers University of Technology, and lead researcher on the article. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>To investigate the likelihood of expanding the PPCA, Jessica Jewell and her colleagues compared its current members with countries which are not part of the Alliance. They found that PPCA members are wealthy nations with small electricity demand growth, older power plants and low coal extraction and use. Most strikingly, these countries invariably rank higher in terms of government openness and transparency, with democratically elected politicians, independence from private interests and strong safeguards against corruption</div> <div><br /></div> <div>These characteristics are dramatically different from major coal users such as China, where electricity demand is rapidly growing, coal power plants are young and responsible for a large share of electricity production, and which ranks lower on government transparency and independence. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers predict therefore, that while countries like Spain, Japan, Germany, and several other smaller European countries may sign up in the near future, countries like China – which alone accounts for about half of all coal power usage worldwide – and India, with expanding electricity sectors and domestic coal mining are unlikely to join the PPCA any time soon. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>And recent developments confirm these predictions. Germany recently announced plans to phase out coal power, which could lead to a further reduction of 1.6 gigatonnes of C02 – a doubling of the PPCA’s reductions. On the other hand, the USA and Australia illustrate the difficulties of managing the coal sector in countries with persistent and powerful mining interests. The recent election in Australia resulted in the victory of a pro-coal candidate, supportive of expanding coal mining and upgrading coal power plants.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>More generally, the research suggests that coal phase-out is feasible when it does not incur large-scale losses, such as closing down newly constructed power plants or coal mines. Moreover, countries need the economic and political capacity to withstand these losses. Germany, for instance, has earmarked 40 billion Euros for compensating affected regions. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Not all countries have the resources to make such commitments. It is important to evaluate the costs of and capacities for climate action, to understand the political feasibility of climate targets,” explains Jessica Jewell. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the study “Prospects for Powering Past Coal” in the journal Nature Climate Change </a></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more on the Powering Past Coal Alliance here.</a></div> </div>Tue, 02 Jul 2019 08:00:00 +0200 charging to be developed from buses to boats<p><b>​Volvo Penta, ABB and Chalmers University of Technology have initiated a collaboration on possible solutions for fast charging of electrified passenger vehicles in a marine environment.​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">A feasibility study will assess if similar technology used for fast charging of electric buses also could be adapted for charging of electric vessels. The one-year project will be partly funded by the Swedish Energy Agency.</span><div><br /></div> <div>“While all-electric boating remains in its infancy, for this exciting new transport system to be a success and grow, a network of fast charging stations needs to be developed,” says Niklas Thulin, Director of Electromobility, Volvo Penta. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Upon completion of the feasibility study, it is envisaged that the fast charging technology will be incorporated into Gothenburg’s Marine Demo Arena and become part of the ElectriCity public transport network.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Snabbladdning%20tar%20steget%20från%20bussar%20till%20båtar/Yujing_Liu-3a_180px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />“Chalmers has a strong background in electric power engineering, and is already involved in the development of different charging technologies for land vehicles, together with our industrial partners,” says Yujing Liu, professor and head of the unit Electrical Machines and Power Electronics at Chalmers. “In this collaboration project, we will review all feasible solutions and identify the technology path towards the first installation of marine applications in the ElectriCity demo arena and future scale-up. The potential to utilize emerging technologies such as automatic docking and wireless power transfer will be investigated.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>For more information, contact:</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/yujing-liu.aspx">Yujing Liu</a>, professor of electric power engineering at the department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, <a href=""></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read a press release about the project from Volvo Penta: </div> <a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="" target="_blank"><div style="display:inline !important">Volvo Penta, ABB and Chalmers to conduct feasibility study on fast charging-at-sea</div></a><br /><div><br /></div> <div>Read more about the plans for an electric ferry service across Göta River: <a href="" target="_blank">ElectriCity takes to the water with Volvo Penta​</a><br /><a href="" target="_blank"></a><div><br /></div></div>Tue, 02 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0200 laser physics achieves energy at astronomical levels<p><b>With the help of extremely strong light pulses, photons with huge amounts of energy can be released. This paves the way for brand new types of experiments. A group of physicists from the University of Gothenburg and Chalmers have simulated laser configurations that could bring space phenomena into the lab.​​</b></p><div><div><div>“Through simulations, we have investigated an extreme type of collision, where particles collide with very strong light. To achieve this, we use incredibly strong laser pulses and electrons with high energy,” says Mattias Marklund, Professor of Physics at the University of Gothenburg.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research group also includes Arkady Gonoskov, Assistant Professor at the Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg and Joel Magnusson, PhD-student at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“What’s new about our results is that we have created an optimal configuration of laser pulses, where the laser energy is focused on an extremely small surface. This means that you get as much light as possible in the focus point,” says Joel Magnusson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The goal of creating such a forceful collision between laser pulses and electrons is to create photons (light particles) with as high energy as possible. If the research group's theories and simulations are successfully recreated in a lab, it would mean that researchers now have access to light with extremely high energy, known as gamma rays, at a level that has not previously been available. A photon produced according to the proposed experiment would have more than one billion times the energy of visible light.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Through this discovery, new areas of physics can be reached, realms of physics that have previously not been available to study. Eventually, we hope that our models will be tested in the newly built ELI laboratory in Prague. The next step will then be to identify how to utilize these new opportunities,” says Arkady Gonoskov.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The amounts of energy that the proposed experiment would give access to can be compared to the levels found in heavy atomic nuclei – or in astronomical phenomena that have so far only been observed with telescopes.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“A possible use for these findings is in laboratory astrophysics. The technique could recreate astrophysical conditions in a controlled laboratory environment. This would bring the physics of the stars down to earth,” says Mattias Marklund.<span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div> <div><br /></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><span></span><a href="">The results are published in Physical Review Letters.</a> The research has been done in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) in California, USA, ELI Beamlines in Prague, Czech Republic and Kansai Photon Science Institute in Kyoto, Japan.​<br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span></span><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release and download hig resolution images. ​​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><span style="font-weight:700;background-color:initial">Text and photo</span><span style="background-color:initial">: Carolina Svensson, </span><a href="">​​</a><br /></div> <div><span style="font-weight:700">Illustration</span> <span style="background-color:initial">of the extremely powerful light source: </span><span style="background-color:initial">Joel Magnusson​​​​​.​​​</span></div></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​<br /></span></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/Pressmeddelande%20Arkady%20Mattias%20Joel%202019%20(Cred%20Carolina%20Svensson)750x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The researchers behind the results: <span style="background-color:initial">Arkady Gonoskov, Mattias Marklund and Joel Magnusson. </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:20px;background-color:initial">For more information: </span><br /></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial"><br /></strong></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial">Mattias Marklund</strong><span style="background-color:initial">, P</span><span style="background-color:initial">rofessor of Physics, Department of Physics, </span>University of Gothenburg<span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span><span style="background-color:initial">+46 (0)31 786 9127, </span><span style="background-color:initial"><a href=""></a></span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Arkady Gonoskov</strong>, <span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">Assistant P</span><span style="background-color:initial">rofessor, Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">+46 70 208 56 94,</span><a href=""><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial"></span></a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Joel Magnusson,</strong> </span>PhD-student, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">+46 (0)31 772 3708</span><span style="background-color:initial">, </span><span style="background-color:initial"><a href=""> </a></span><span style="background-color:initial"><a href=""></a></span></div> <div><br /></div></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p>Tue, 02 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0200 honours first woman in Sweden to become an engineer<p><b>Just over a century ago Vera Sandberg became the first woman in Sweden to receive an engineering degree. Now, Chalmers University of Technology pays tribute to her by raising a statue. The work of art is Chalmers’ first, and Gothenburg’s third, sculpture of a named historical woman. “Vera Sandberg is a role model for everyone,” says Chalmers’ President Stefan Bengtsson.</b></p><div>W​hat was it like to study at Chalmers at the beginning of the previous century, as the sole woman among 500 men? We’ll never know for sure, but one thing is clear: Sandberg had the courage to go against the norms and follow her own path, paving the way for a broadening of the role of engineer.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>In 2017, when Chalmers commemorated 100 years since Sandberg took her degree, the idea of producing an art installation in her memory was born. On June 13 Jan Cardell’s work Veras laboration, a bronze statue with lighting and mobile parts illustrating Sandberg’s work in the laboratory at Chalmers, was unveiled.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“We think that the first woman in Sweden to become an engineer deserves to be recognised. Vera Sandberg is a role model for everyone, a good example of someone who dares to challenge what is regarded as normal and who is ready to go ahead on her own and follow her own interests,” says Chalmers’ President Stefan Bengtsson.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The work of art will ensure that Sandberg is seen as unique once again. The statue is Chalmers’ first, and Gothenburg’s third, sculpture of a named historical woman in a public space.<br /></div> <div> </div> <div style="text-align:center"> </div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2" style="text-align:center">“Vera Sandberg is a role model for everyone, a good example of someone who dares to challenge what is regarded as normal”</h2> <div style="text-align:center"> </div> <div style="text-align:center"><em>Stefan Bengtsson, President of Chalmers</em></div> <div> </div> <div> </div></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The statue is located in Vera Sandbergs Allé, which is not far from Kapellplatsen in the Vasa area of Campus Johanneberg. The area is the hub of Chalmers’ investment in innovation and entrepreneurship, where operations such as Chalmers School of Entrepreneurship, Chalmers Ventures, Stena Centre, the meeting area Veras Gräsmatta and the Department of Technology Management and Economics are gathered.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Maria Elmquist, Head of the Department of Technology Management and Economics and one of the initiators of the statue project, hopes that Sandberg can inspire more young people to pursue a career in science and technology. And follow their dreams.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“Vera Sandberg represents a person who had the courage to do something different, dared to go against the norms and see new opportunities – I regard her as an entrepreneur! That Sandberg did not let herself be held back by being the only woman among the Chalmers’ engineering students in her year group, makes her worthy of recognition. Seeing diversity in representation is important for the development of the university and society,” says Elmquist.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Sandberg grew up in Blekinge, where her mother ran the family’s paper mill. She was very interested in chemistry and when in 1914, as a 19-year-old, she applied for Chalmers’ chemistry course she had to take an exam to get into the course while her fellow male students were accepted on the basis of their school grades.  <br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"> </h3> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"> </h3> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"> </h3> <div style="text-align:center"><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">“Vera Sandberg represents a person who had the courage to do something different, dared to go against the norms and see new opportunities – I regard her as an entrepreneur!”</h2> <div><em>Maria Elmquist, Head of Department, Chalmers</em></div></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>We do not know much about what it was like for Sandberg during her studies, but for all Chalmers’ students at this time the studies were characterised by strict requirements and busy days packed out with compulsory attendances. After her degree Sandberg worked at Skandinaviska Raffinaderiet in Partille, Oljefabriken i Karlshamn, Helsingborgs Gummifabrik and Sieverts Kabelverk in Sundbyberg. In 1937 she married a widower who had five sons, thus ending her professional career. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>When Chalmers’ President Stefan Bengtsson gave a historical review, he noted that a lot had happened since the days when Sandberg studied at Chalmers.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“In 1917 when Vera Sandberg took her degree, there was no universal and equal suffrage for either men or women in Sweden. At the time Chalmers had around 500 students and Sandberg was the only woman. Today, around a third of Chalmers’ students are women. We have come a long way, but there is still work to do before we reach our goal,” he says.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Ulrika Ernström</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Photo:</strong> Johan Bodell and Chalmers

</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Gothenburg’s third sculpture of a named historical woman
</h3> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <ul><li>In 2017 five artists were commissioned to make proposals for an art installation at Chalmers to honour Vera Sandberg, the first woman in Sweden to take an engineering degree. Chalmers chose Jan Cardell’s ‘Veras Laboration’. The statue is located in Sandbergs Allé, not far from Kapellplatsen.<br /></li> <li>The work of art – which was unveiled on 13 June 2019 – is Chalmers’ first, and Gothenburg’s third, sculpture of a named historical woman in a public space. The other two are the author and poet Karin Boye, whose statue is located outside Göteborg City Library, and Johanna Hedén, whose bust is located outside Östra Sjukhuset’s women’s clinic. Hedén was a midwife and the first Swedish woman to receive formal training as a surgeon.</li> <li>‘Veras laboration’ is a bronze statue with lighting and motion, which depicts Vera Sandberg working in a laboratory. The statue is a total of four metres high, including a two metre high pedestal. “I wanted to depict Vera in her working environment, and think that she represents an encounter between the past and the present”, said Cardell during the unveiling.</li> <li>Many alumni and friends of Chalmers have made donations towards the statue, to a value totalling around half a million SEK. The Chalmers University of Technology Foundation has contributed the same amount. The donors include students, relatives of Sandberg, Dan Sten Olsson, alumni such as Rune Andersson (through Mellby Gård) and several companies.</li></ul>Mon, 01 Jul 2019 14:00:00 +0200 Albinsson new member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences<p><b>​Bo Albinsson, Professor of Physical Chemistry at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering has been elected member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">In his research, Bo Albinsson moves within the entire spectrum of physical chemistry, from experimental molecular spectroscopy to theoretical modeling and quantum mechanical calculations. Albinsson has contributed with important knowledge of electron and energy transport in molecular systems, where he combined theoretical and experimental studies. These works have been of great importance for further research in photocatalysis and molecular solar conversion systems and have received great international dissemination. Now he takes a seat among the members of the class for chemistry.</span><div><br /> </div> <div>“It is, of course, a great honor to be elected to KVA and in some sense a recognition of the importance of the ground research on the fundamental processes active in both the natural photosynthesis and in solar cells that my research group has been conducting for a long time”, says Bo Albinsson.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div>He is primarily interested in mechanical issues concerning electron and energy transfer mechanisms, which are the fundamental processes in all conversion of solar energy. Albinsson's research group is currently working on this in a project on photon up-conversion where they want to be able to convert the low energy photons of the sunlight into high energy photons, in order to increase the efficiency of solar cells and enable future production of solar fuels.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div>The class for chemistry within KVA has 18 members under the age of 65, but one is elected as a member for a lifetime. There are also international members and honorary members. Among the 18 members under the age of 65 in the class for chemistry, Bo Albinsson together with Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede are the two researchers who are active at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div>“KVA is active in both national and international policy work and therefore makes a number of investigations. In addition, the Academy of Sciences shares a number of awards and grants, where the Nobel Prize is the best known. I will, over time, gladly contribute to both of these important tasks”, says Bo Albinsson.</div> <div><br /> </div>Mon, 01 Jul 2019 00:00:00 +0200 role in European Innovation Council awarded to Chalmers<p><b>​The EU Commission has chosen its appointees to the board of the newly inaugurated European Innovation Council, which will guide the direction of a proposed budget of €10 billion, awarded to start-up companies and promising high-risk research. Sweden will have a role in the Council’s Advisory Board, thanks to the appointment of Fredrik Hörstedt, Chalmers Vice-President for Utilisation.</b></p><div>​Europe needs to capitalise on its science and start-ups to compete in global markets increasingly defined by new technologies, according to a <a href="" target="_blank">press release from the European Commission</a>. That is why they are introducing a European Innovation Council (EIC). Currently in its pilot phase, the EIC will become a full-fledged reality from 2021 under the next EU research and innovation programme Horizon Europe. <br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>On Thursday, the Commission appointed 22 exceptional innovators, from the worlds of entrepreneurship, venture capital, science and technology to the European Innovation Council Advisory Board, which will provide strategic leadership to the EIC. The Board will oversee the roll out of the current pilot and lead the strategy and design of the EIC under Horizon Europe.</div> <div> </div> <div> “I am delighted that the EIC will be advised by some of Europe’s most accomplished innovators and investors, and that we will be bringing in talented programme managers to get the work off the ground. With the EIC, we are filling a critical funding gap in the innovation ecosystem and putting Europe at the forefront of market creating innovation,” says Carlos Moedas, the EU Commissioner for Research, Science and Innovation.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>
Fredrik Hörstedt was previously an advisor in the EU’s investment in future technology breakthroughs (Future Emerging Technology, FET), as well as one of two advisors from Chalmers in the Swedish government’s strategic collaboration program. 

As Vice President, he is responsible for Chalmers’ innovation ecosystem, including, for example, the incubator <a href="">Chalmers Ventures</a> – ranked as the 3rd best in Europe according to the global <a href="" target="_blank">UBI rankings</a>.  </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> “I feel extremely honoured and excited to be able to contribute in this manner, and represent the Swedish perspective on innovation. The EIC will be an important instrument to strengthen European competitiveness,” says Fredrik Hörstedt.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>At an EU level, Chalmers has previously been responsible for the EU’s biggest ever research and innovation initiative, the <a href="" target="_blank">Graphene Flagship</a>, with the aim of taking the super-material graphene and other two-dimensional materials from lab to reality.
 Chalmers also has a vital role in the chairmanship of the European Spallation Source, ESS, a neutron source for material research in Lund, as well as the position of vice president for the world’s biggest radiotelescope, SKA – Square Kilometre Array– currently being constructed in South Africa and Australia. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“This is fantastic for Fredrik and Chalmers as a whole, to receive the appointment to this European role. I believe our previous experience at a European level has been a vital factor,” says Chalmers President and CEO Stefan Bengtsson. 

“I believe also that in Brussels, it is advantageous to be Swedish. For the second year in a row, Sweden has been assessed as the EU’s most innovative country, according to the <a href="" target="_blank">European Innovation Scoreboard</a>. As one of Sweden’s most well-regarded universities, Chalmers benefits highly from that. The EU is very interested in the Swedish way of working with research and innovation.”</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The Commission also yesterday announced 83 companies that will be part of the EIC’s Accelerator Pilots. They will share a combined €149 million in total, in the latest investment round of the framework Horizon 2020. Three of those companies originate from Chalmers.</div> <div> </div> <ul><li><a href="" target="_blank">Zero Point Technologies</a> develop ultrafast and energy efficient micro computers</li> <li>Life Science company <a href="" target="_blank">Elypta</a> use biomarkers to find cancer cells via blood testing</li> <li><a href="" target="_blank">Minesto</a> is a rapidly growing company, whose DeepGreen Technology, which extracts renewable energy from tidal currents is currently being tested in the Faroe Islands </li></ul> <div> The Commission also announced €164m to 53 new EIC Pathfinder pilot grants for high-risk research ideas, with potential high impact if successful. One of these is the consortium UltraFastNano, which includes researchers from Chalmers Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, the German company Nextnano GmbH, French research organisations CEA and CNRS, as well as the English National Physics Laboratory. </div> <div> </div> <div>The EIC Advisory Board will gather for the first time on 23-25 September, in connection with the <a href="">European Research and Innovation Days</a> in Brussels. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read more in the press release from the EU Commission: </div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />European Commission appoints top innovation leaders to guide the European Innovation Council​ </a></div> <div> </div> <div> Text: Christian Borg</div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">The 22 innovation leaders in the EIC Advisory Board </h2> <ul><li>Mark Ferguson, Entrepreneur, Science Foundation Ireland (Chair)</li> <li>Hermann Hauser, Co-founder of Amadeus Capital Partners (Vice-chair)</li> <li>Kerstin Bock, CEO of Openers</li> <li>Jo Bury, Managing Director of Flanders Institute of Biotechnology</li> <li>Dermot Diamond, Principal Investigator: INSIGHT Centre for Data Analytics, Dublin City University</li> <li>Laura González Estéfani, Founder and CEO at TheVentureCity</li> <li>Jim Hagemann Snabe, Chair Siemens AG, Chair A P Moller Maersk A/S</li> <li>Ingmar Hoerr, Founder and Chairman of the Supervisory Board of CureVac AG</li> <li>Fredrik Horstedt, Vice president of utilisation Chalmers University of Technology</li> <li>Heidi Kakko, Partner of BaltCap Growth Fund</li> <li>Bindi Karia, European Innovation Expert + Advisor, Connector of People and Businesses</li> <li>Anita Krohn Traaseth, Former CEO Innovation Norway</li> <li>Jerzy M. Langer, Physicist, Emeritus Professor at the Institute of Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences</li> <li>Ana Maiques, Chief Executive Officer, Neuroelectrics</li> <li>Marja Makarow, Biochemistry/molecular biology, director of Biocenter Finland</li> <li>Valeria Nicolosi, Chair of Nanomaterials and Advanced Microscopy</li> <li>Carlos Oliveira, Serial Entrepreneur, Innovator, Executive President of José Neves Foundation</li> <li>Bruno Sportisse, Chair and CEO at INRIA</li> <li>Kinga Stanislawska, Managing Partner and Founder of Experior Venture Fund</li> <li>Roberto Verganti, Innovation academic, former RISE group</li> <li>Martin Villig, Co-founder of Bolt (formerly Taxify)</li> <li>Yousef Yousef, CEO of LG Sonic</li></ul> <div> </div> <div><a href="" target="_blank">Longer profiles of the Advisory Board members can be found here</a> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div>Fri, 28 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 wood’s ultrastructure with 3D printing<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have succeeded in 3D printing with a wood-based ink in a way that mimics the unique ‘ultrastructure’ of wood. Their research could revolutionise the manufacturing of green products. Through emulating the natural cellular architecture of wood, they now present the ability to create green products derived from trees, with unique properties – everything from clothes, packaging, and furniture to healthcare and personal care products.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The way in which wood grows is controlled by its genetic code, which gives it unique properties in terms of porosity, toughness and torsional strength. But wood has limitations when it comes to processing. Unlike metals and plastics, it cannot be melted and easily reshaped, and instead must be sawn, planed or curved. Processes which do involve conversion, to make products such as paper, card and textiles, destroy the underlying ultrastructure, or architecture of the wood cells. But the new technology now presented allows wood to be, in effect, grown into exactly the shape desired for the final product, through the medium of 3D printing. </span><div><br /><div>By previously converting wood pulp into a nanocellulose gel, researchers at Chalmers had already succeeded in creating a type of ink that could be 3D printed. Now, they present a major progression – successfully interpreting and digitising wood’s genetic code, so that it can instruct a 3D printer.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>It means that now, the arrangement of the cellulose nanofibrils can be precisely controlled during the printing process, to actually replicate the desirable ultrastructure of wood. Being able to manage the orientation and shape means that they can capture those useful properties of natural wood.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Mimicking%20the%20ultrastructure%20of%20wood/Paul%20Gatenholm.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">“This is a breakthrough in manufacturing technology. It allows us to move beyond the limits of nature, to create new sustainable, green products. It means that those products which today are already forest-based can now be 3D printed, in a much shorter time. And the metals and plastics currently used in 3D printing can be replaced with a renewable, sustainable alternative,” says Professor Paul Gatenholm, who has led this research within Chalmers University of Technology’s Wallenberg Wood Science Centre.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>A further advance on previous research is the addition of hemicellulose, a natural component of plant cells, to the nanocellulose gel. The hemicellulose acts as a glue, giving the cellulose sufficient strength to be useful, in a similar manner to the natural process of lignification, through which cell walls are built.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The new technology opens up a whole new area of possibilities. Wood-based products could now be designed and ‘grown’ to order – at a vastly reduced timescale compared with natural wood.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Paul Gatenholm's group has already developed a prototype for an innovative packaging concept. They printed out honeycomb structures, with chambers in between the printed walls, and then managed to encapsulate solid particles inside those chambers. Cellulose has excellent oxygen barrier properties, meaning this could be a promising method for creating airtight packaging for foodstuffs or pharmaceuticals for example.</div> <div>“Manufacturing products in this way could lead to huge savings in terms of resources and harmful emissions,” he says. “Imagine, for example, if we could start printing packaging locally. It would mean an alternative to today's industries, with heavy reliance on plastics and C02-generating transport. Packaging could be designed and manufactured to order without any waste”.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>They have also developed prototypes for healthcare products and clothing. Another area where Paul Gatenholm sees huge potential for the technology is in space, believing that it offers the perfect first test bed to develop the technology further.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The source material of plants is fantastically renewable, so the raw materials can be produced on site during longer space travel, or on the moon or on Mars. If you are growing food, there will probably be access to both cellulose and hemicellulose,” says Paul Gatenholm.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers have already successfully demonstrated their technology at a workshop at the European Space Agency, ESA, and are also working with Florida Tech and NASA on another project, including tests of materials in microgravity.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Traveling in space has always acted as a catalyst for material development on earth,” he says.</div> <div> </div> <div>Read the article<a href=""> “Materials from trees assembled by 3D printing – Wood tissue beyond nature limits”​</a> published in Applied Materials Today. The paper was first published online on 1 March 2019, with the print edition appearing in June 2019. </div> <div><br /></div> </div>Thu, 27 Jun 2019 07:00:00 +0200 create framework for climate strategies<p><b>​A collection of 36 Swedish universities and colleges have developed a combined climate framework to serve as the basis for individual climate strategies, with the goal of coming into line with the Paris agreement’s 1.5C warming limit by the year 2030. This ambitious plan aims to both reduce direct emissions and increase involvement in societal climate questions.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The latest IPCC report from the UN’s climate panel showed that efforts to halt climate change must increase drastically if global warming is to be kept below two degrees. To achieve that climate goal, which Sweden and other countries have signed up to via the Paris agreement, emissions need to be roughly halved every decade. </span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>That will require rapid changes to society as a whole. All sectors will be influenced. Universities and colleges have several roles to play in this process, including core missions which are now more important than ever:</div> <div><br /> </div> <div><ul><li>​To research climate change – both how to combat it, and how we can adjust to manage it. </li> <li>To educate the citizens and leaders who can carry out the actions required.</li> <li>To develop solutions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and also remove previously emitted carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. And, to be involved in implementation of those solutions. </li> <li>To spread awareness of new scientific knowledge. </li></ul></div> <div>​<br /></div> <div>For the higher education sector in general, it is these activities that have the biggest potential for contributing meaningful climate action. They are part of the climate framework. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div>But the framework also aims to reduce those climate emissions directly linked to universities’ own operations. One of the biggest factors here is air travel. Tackling this source of carbon dioxide emissions is a challenge for universities, because of the highly international aspect of much of the work. The framework is therefore vital as a collaborative tool, and the signed-up universities and colleges will meet annually to cooperate in this area.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div>The initiative for the climate framework comes from KTH Royal University of Technology and Chalmers </div> <img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Syntolkning: Bild på Chalmers rektor Stefan Bengtsson." src="/SiteCollectionImages/20190101-20190630/StefanBengtsson_190425_07_2.jpg" style="width:189px;height:240px;margin-top:5px;margin-right:10px;margin-bottom:5px" /><div>​University of Technology.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div>“Because reducing emissions is such an urgent need, it is not enough to just focus on technical solutions,” says Chalmers President Stefan Bengtsson. “Behavioural changes are needed too, and this of course affects universities as well. We are some of the country’s largest employers. It is important to show too that we actually take our own research on climate change seriously.”</div> <div><br /> </div> <div>“The higher education sector has a comprehensive responsibility to develop the understanding of climate issues, and their solutions,” says KTH President Sigbritt Karlsson. “To simply pass that responsibility on to coming generations is not good enough. We must act now, on several levels simultaneously.” </div> <div><br /> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Institutions who have signed up to the climate framework:<br /></h2> <div><ul><li>Beckmans College of Design</li> <li>B<span style="background-color:initial">lekinge</span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial"> Institute of Technology</span></li> <li>Chalm<span style="background-color:initial">ers University of Technology</span></li> <li>Dalarna University College</li> <li>Ersta Sköndal Bräcke University College</li> <li>Gävle University College</li> <li>Halmstad University</li> <li>Jönköping University</li> <li>Karlstad University</li> <li>Karolinska Institute</li> <li>Konstfack, University of Arts, Crafts and Design </li> <li>Kristianstad University</li> <li>KTH Royal Institute of Technology</li> <li>Linköping University</li> <li>Linnaeus University</li> <li>Luleå University of Technology </li> <li>Lund University</li> <li>Malmö University</li> <li>Mid Sweden University</li> <li>Mälardalen University College</li> <li>Newman Institute</li> <li>Red Cross University College of Nursing</li> <li>Royal College of Music, Stockholm</li> <li>Royal Institute of Art</li> <li>Sophiahemmet University College</li> <li>S<span style="background-color:initial">tockholm School of Economics</span></li> <li>Stockholm School of Theology</li> <li>Swedish Defence University</li> <li>Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH</li> <li>Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences</li> <li>Södertörn University</li> <li>Umeå University</li> <li>University College West</li> <li>University of Borås</li> <li>University of Skövde</li> <li>Örebro University</li></ul></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on the climate framework:</h2> <div>The climate framework describes how universities and colleges should involve themselves in measures to lessen damage to the climate. The signed-up institutions recognise the climate as an essential and high-priority future issue and agree to the following. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div><ul><li>To continue contributing to society in ways such that climate goals can be achieved, through education, research and collaboration. </li> <li>To reduce their own climate impact, and by 2030 have introduced measures to be in line with the 1.5C warming limit.</li> <li>To set up long-term goals for climate work and dedicate resources to achieving those goals and carrying out follow-up measures.</li> <li>To clearly communicate their climate work, to inspire and spread knowledge to other actors and wider society. </li></ul></div> <div><br /> </div> <div>The climate framework is connected to a set of guidelines which describe a number of key areas where the higher education sector can influence society and suggests measures for reducing climate impact. The guidelines can help each university to choose the areas they will work most on, defining the goals and measures required based on their own situation. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on: the climate measures needed</h2> <div>The latest report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the IPCC, underlined the seriousness of climate change and the urgency with which it needs to be addressed. The report showed that already a warming of 1.5C would result in serious consequences, and that this would markedly increase with a warming of 2 degrees. The current measures to combat climate change, made by various countries, will still lead to a warming of at least 3 degrees this century, with further increases after that. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div>To keep warming below 2 degrees and strive for the 1.5 degree target of the Paris agreement, global emissions will need to reduce by about 50 percent per decade, to reach climate neutrality around the middle of this century. Thereafter, negative emissions need to be achieved. For Sweden, equivalent goals exist through the national climate policy framework. If the reduction in emissions is not fast enough, there is a risk that the climate could pass a critical point where the temperature increase becomes self-reinforcing. </div> <div><br /> </div> <div>Between 2017 and 18 Sweden’s emissions actually increased and no clear reduction in Swedish emissions has occurred since 2014.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div><strong>For more information, please contact: </strong></div> <div><ul><li>​Göran Finnveden, Vice President for Sustainable Development, KTH, +46 8-790 7318, <a href=""></a> </li> <li>Fredrik Hörstedt, Vice President for Utilisation and Sustainable Development, Chalmers, +46 31-772 43 22, <a href=""></a></li></ul> <div><br /> </div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Johanna Wilde</div></div> </div>Thu, 27 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 Australia entirely on solar power<p><b>​A car that will drive 3,000 km, using the sun as its only energy source. That is what 18 students have been working on this past academic year. The car is now ready to be tested in a competition where they will drive across Australia.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The project Chalmers Solar Team consists of students from most of Chalmers' educational programmes, who together have built a completely solar-powered car. The finished car will participate in the world's largest solar car competition, the Bridgestone World Solar Challenge in Australia.</span><div><br /><div>&quot;We were inspired by other universities in Sweden that have participated in the competition and we wanted to explore the possibilities of transporting a person, with purely the sun as energy source,&quot; says Olle Andersson, Mechanical Engineering student and Project Manager of Chalmers Solar Team.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The project is not part of a course at the University – the students started the project in their spare time, to gain new knowledge and to develop even more as engineers together.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Crossing the continent in under a week</h2> <div>The competition in Australia runs from Darwin to Adelaide and the participants are students from over 30 countries. Chalmers is participating for the first time. The contestants can choose between three different classes, and the students from Chalmers are aiming to be the fastest car. The teams have a week to cross the finish line in Adelaide.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>All teams will drive for eight hours a day, from eight in the morning to five in the afternoon, sleeping in tents beside the road. In addition to the solar car, there will be escort vehicles, where the other project members will be making sure everything is running smoothly. Josefin Svensson, a Mechatronic Engineering student at Chalmers, is one of three people who will drive the solar car during the competition.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Each driver will drive four hours at a time, then we switch. The space in the car is very small and in addition we have to wear helmets. So it requires a lot of practice, to prepare for both the small space in the car, and the incredible heat of Australia,” she says.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">The project kicked off with a scholarship</h2> <div>The student project was one of six projects that received the sustainability scholarship Tänk Om in 2018, by Göteborg Energi. The scholarship is awarded to projects with innovative ideas for a more sustainable everyday life. Chalmers Solar Team received the scholarship to inspire sustainable technology development in the automotive industry.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“It is an industry that often develops quite slowly and currently we are using very old forms of fuel. It feels great to contribute to something this ground-breaking, that dares to think differently” says Gustaf Blomgren, a Computer Engineering student and part of the project's programming group.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Bridgestone World Solar Challenge takes place October 13-20, 2019.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Read more:</strong></div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />About Chalmers Solar Team on their website</a></div> <div><a href="/en/education/programmes/Pages/Programmes.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />About Chalmers Master’s Programmes</a></div> <div>​<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Sophia Kristensson</div> <div><strong>Film: </strong>Johan Bodell</div> </div>Thu, 27 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 data transfer model saves energy on the internet<p><b>​The internet has arisen in the public debate as a climate hazard that causes carbon dioxide emissions as high as those originating from airplane travel. For five years, research at Chalmers has been underway to build models for energy-efficient data traffic. So far, the researchers have managed to reduce energy consumption to one tenth in specified areas.​</b></p>​​<span style="background-color:initial">We are streaming movies and music, saving our pictures in the cloud, and are constantly connected to all the opportunities that the internet offers. The use of a regular smartphone requires about as much electricity as a refrigerator. However, the charging of the mobile phone only accounts for a negligible part of that energy. The rest of the electricity is not being used at our homes, but in data centres which are housing the data stored in the cloud, and during the transportation of data through fiber-optic cables, sometimes being hundreds of kilometers long.</span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>An immense increase in data traffic</strong></div> <div>The amount of data transported via fiber-optic cables is increasing at an almost unimaginable rate. And so does the energy consumption from the data traffic. If nothing is done about the situation, within ten years, the internet alone will consume more electricity than is globally produced. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Ny%20modell%20för%20datatrafik%20sparar%20energi%20på%20internet/peter_andrekson_170112_250px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Peter Andrekson" style="margin:5px" />“It is a great challenge for society, and for us as researchers, to solve the equation of how to meet the demand for data capacity and performance, while keeping costs at a reasonable level and minimizing environmental impact. Not least, it requires a completely new way of optimizing the technical systems, says Peter Andrekson, Professor of photonics at Chalmers, who over the past five years has been the leader of a large research project with the aim to build a future model for energy-efficient optical fiber communication.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The intention of the project has been to locate the dominating energy consumers in the fiber-optic systems, and then to design and build a model that only uses one-tenth as much energy as the existing systems do. To succeed in this, a broad approach has been applied. Three different scientific perspectives have been joined together – optical hardware, electronic hardware and information theory, in order to perform coordination and transfer of data in the best possible way.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Many small energy thieves</strong></div> <div>Something that, at least to some extent, came as a surprise to the researchers was the fact that there are quite many small energy thieves with the potential of affecting the system – not a few large bottlenecks to tackle.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Ny%20modell%20för%20datatrafik%20sparar%20energi%20på%20internet/ErikAgrell_170608_250px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Erik Agrell" style="margin:5px" />“Examples of such energy thieves are the signal processors in the transmitters and receivers in the optical systems”, says Erik Agrell, Professor of communication systems, who in this project has been responsible for developing mathematical models for designing new, more efficient types of transmitter and receiver algorithms. “Higher data transfer rates are requiring transmitters and receivers with the ability to handle stronger signals. However, with the help of error correcting codes, the requirements on the optical hardware can be partially lowered. On the other hand, it also consumes more energy, because the error correcting electronic hardware also runs on electricity. This is a concrete example of the need to find a balance between performance, cost and energy consumption in order to choose the best solution in every individual case.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Within the framework of the project, chips containing error correcting code have been designed at Chalmers and then custom made by a manufacturer in Europe. Thereafter, the chips have been tested to verify that the theoretical models and simulations of the power consumption are correct, also in practice. The design and testing have been conducted by researchers in Professor Per Larsson-Edefors' research group at the department of Computer Science and Engineering at Chalmers.​</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Aims at reducing energy consumption to one tenth</strong></div> <div>The prerequisites for how to design the optimal system differ, among other things, depending on the distance that data is being transported. On one hand, the researchers have studied data communication over short distances, from 1 up to 500 meters, which occur, for example, in data centres and in network-based computation clusters. On the other hand, research has also been focused on larger optical systems, where traffic from many users simultaneously travel over distances up to hundreds of kilometers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The project aim, to reduce energy consumption to one tenth compared to the models used today, seemed in advance to be quite tough.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Within defined areas, we are able to state – not without pride – that we have managed to reach the levels that we aimed for,&quot; says Peter Andrekson. “This applies not least to the power reduction thanks to the error correcting code. We have also received good feedback on the scientific results that we have presented. However, commercial companies are not particularly willing to contribute to this type of research. For competitive reasons, they keep their knowledge to themselves but on the other hand they don´t hesitate to apply the results from academia.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Ny%20modell%20för%20datatrafik%20sparar%20energi%20på%20internet/Erik-Agrell-1_500px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Cristian Bogdan Czegledi and Erik Agrell" style="margin:5px" /><em>Professor Erik Agrell (to the right) is discussing effects of polarization in fiber optical communication with the doctoral student Cristian Bogdan Czegledi. (Photo J-O Yxell)​</em><br /><br /><br /></div> <div><strong>Interdisciplinary approach</strong></div> <div>To present results that really optimize the system as a whole, and not just the constituent parts, the researchers have worked interdisciplinary across three research fields. In total, the project will result in five doctoral theses. The doctoral students have worked in pairs circulating across departmental borders – an approach that has been the basis for reaching research results in a broad perspective.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“To be honest, the process of fully understanding each other's concepts within the project has been time-consuming. Even though we work within related fields of research, there are cultural differences between our specialist areas. Chalmers has a strength in the competence center <a href="/en/centres/force/Pages/default.aspx">FORCE​</a>, which coordinates research on fiber-optical communication”, says Peter Andrekson, who is also the director of this centre. ”We are now expanding, thanks to the move of the research group Optical Networks to Chalmers from KTH in Stockholm.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Sustainable economizing of the internet</strong></div> <div>“To obtain an internet that is sustainable from a resource-based point of view, three different perspectives have to be applied, says Erik Agrell. Firstly, it is about developing and using communication technology that is energy efficient, and in this perspective we can contribute as researchers. Secondly, it is about raising awareness and creating incentives for every one of us as internet users not to be unnecessarily wasteful of data traffic. In this case, the individual person, as well as the society at large, and our politicians, have a shared responsibility to maintain sustainability. And lastly, it is important for the climate which energy sources are used in each country to produce the electricity – the less fossil fuels and the more renewables the better.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“I am convinced that we are moving towards a paradigm shift”, he concludes. “In a not-too-distant future, data transfer and heavy calculations on the internet will be seen as resources to economize with, not as free and unlimited assets.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>More about the research</strong></div> <div>The research has been funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation during five years starting from 2014, with 33,9 MSEK.</div> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Energy-efficient optical fibre communication</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>For more information, contact:</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Peter-Andrekson.aspx">Peter Andrekson</a>, Professor of photonics, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, <a href=""></a></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/erik-agrell.aspx">Erik Agrell​</a>, Professor of communication systems, Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, <div style="display:inline !important"><a href=""></a></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Text: Yvonne Jonsson</div> <div>Photo: J-O Yxcell (photo at the top of the page), Henrik Sandsjö (portrait photo of Peter Andrekson) and Oscar Mattsson (portrait photo of Erik Agrell)</div></div> <div><br /></div> <a href=""></a><div><br /></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial">Data traffic and storage on the internet – this is how it works</strong><br /></div> <div>The internet is largely made up of fiber-optic cables, which are built into our houses, buried in the ground and at the bottom of the sea. In these cables, light is passed through the bundles of optical fibers with cores of very clean glass or plastic. The diameter of the fibers can range from a few millimeters down to less than a strand of hair, and they can be very long. A transmitter sends coded light signals through the optical fibers using lasers or light emitting diodes. At the other end, a receiver obtains the light signals and translates them back into electrical pulses, which are then passed on to computers, TV sets or mobiles. When the fiber-optical system is extended over long distances, signal amplifiers between the transmitter and the receiver may also be needed.</div> <div>When we use internet-based cloud services, we get access to applications, data storage and server capacity via the internet instead of having to handle them locally. Our data is then stored in huge server halls. These data centers use electricity for data storage, but also for cooling the servers.</div></div> <div><br /></div>Wed, 26 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 want to map the sea using solar power<p><b>Two students at Chalmers have built an autonomous boat powered by solar cells. The goal is to cross the Kattegat sea to Denmark, and explore the possibilities of automatic vehicles at sea.</b></p><div><div>Niels Jonsson and Josef Vernersson are students in their last year of the Mechatronics Bachelor of Engineering programme at Chalmers, and as their degree project​ they have built an autonomous solar powered boat. Their aim is for the boat to cross the sea to Denmark, completely self-propelled and using only solar power.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Niels and Josef b</span><span style="background-color:initial">uilt the boat in cooperation with the company Infotiv, and the purpose of the project is to explore the possibilities of using autonomous vehicles on the ocean. The also wanted to see what opportunities and risks come with using solar cells as an energy source at sea.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The use of autonomous vehicles at sea is still very new. Currently, it is difficult to extract continuous manual data at sea and the technology is very expensive. If you had a fleet of autonomous boats instead, it would be much cheaper and more efficient,” says Niels Jonsson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The boat is programmed to go between GPS coordinates by itself, and the students will be able to follow the boat using the GSM network on their phones. The trip is planned to start south of Gothenburg and from there, the boat will be released and travel autonomously to Skagen in Denmark.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The journey across the Kattegat is an opportunity for us to measure data and get an overview of the risk areas with this type of vehicle. An autonomous boat of this size could, for example, be suitable for use inshore, to collect data and measure water depth,” says Josef Vernersson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Since the boat is powered by solar cells, it must be as energy-efficient as possible and during the project, the choice of energy-efficient electricity systems and solar cells, among other things, has been important. In the near future, the hope from the project is that the boat will contribute to a platform for future projects in the development of vehicles powered by solar cells and automation on lakes and at sea.</div></div> <div>​<br /></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Sophia Kristensson</div> <div><strong>Photo :</strong> Johan Bodell and <span style="background-color:initial">Niels Jonsson.</span></div>Tue, 25 Jun 2019 11:00:00 +0200