News: Global related to Chalmers University of TechnologyFri, 07 Aug 2020 09:42:47 +0200 the survival of Covid-19 in air<p><b>​When a person infected with Covid-19 coughs, sneezes or talks small particles flow out that can infect a new individual. Researchers at Chalmers will now investigate how long these particles survive outside the body under different environmental conditions.</b></p>​The current recommendations and understanding of the transmission in respiratory infectious diseases are based on a simple model developed ninety years ago to understand the transmission of tuberculosis. <div><br /></div> <div>“I hope that our study can lead to more up-to-date guidelines that can be used by policymakers to more effectively slow down the diffusion of Covid-19 and future respiratory infections” says Gaetano Sardina, assistant professor in Fluid mechanics at Chalmers University of Technology. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The results of the project could, for example, lead to more secure assumptions about the distance that should be kept between individuals, as well as regulations and proposals for humidity in public environments that accelerate the evaporation of the pathogen-bearing droplets. Hopefully, the research can also improve the current epidemiological mathematical models targeting in estimating the diffusion of the pandemic. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Longevity is affected by the surrounding environment​</h3></div> <div>In the project, the researchers will study how the lifetime of pathogen-bearing droplets is affected by whether the person sneezes, coughs, talks or breathes, droplet size and various environmental conditions such as humidity, temperature and air turbulence. The study will use detailed, high-resolution numerical simulations and a new stochastic method to calculate a random drip path. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“From a scientific point of view, we know quite a lot about the spread of the virus, but there is a lack of detailed knowledge about the mechanisms that cause the respiratory droplets from a sick person to reach other individuals. The goal of the study is to close that knowledge gap” says Gaetano Sardina. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The project is funded with computational time from the Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe and funds from the Swedish Research Council and Chalmers Area of Advance Information and Communication Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Read more</h3> <div><a href="/en/research/efforts-and-expertise-corona/Pages/default.aspx">Efforts and expertise concerning corona/covid-19​</a><br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/sardina.aspx">Gaetano Sardina</a></div>Thu, 06 Aug 2020 10:30:00 +0200 agents can learn to communicate effectively<p><b>A multi-disciplinary team of researchers from Chalmers and University of Gothenburg has developed a framework to study how language evolves as an effective tool for describing mental concepts. In a new paper, they show that artificial agents can learn how to communicate in an artificial language similar to human language. The results have been published in the scientific journal PLOS ONE.</b></p>This research lies on the border between cognitive science and machine learning. There has been an influential proposal from cognitive scientists that all human languages can be viewed as having evolved as a means to communicate concepts in a near-optimal way in the sense of classical information theory. The Gothenburg researchers' method for training the artificial agents is based on reinforcement learning, which is an area of machine learning where agents gradually learn by interacting with an environment and getting feedback. In this case, the agents start without any linguistic knowledge and learn to communicate by getting feedback on how well they succeed in communicating a mental concept. <p></p> <br /><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/DoIT/News/AI%20PLOS%20ONE/MikaelAI.gif" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Mikael Kageback" style="margin:5px" />”In our paper we have studied how agents learn to name mental concepts and communicate by playing a several rounds of a referential game consisting of a sender and a listener. We have especially focused on the colour-domain which is well studied in Cognitive Science. The game works as follows; the sender sees a colour and describes it by uttering a word from a glossary to the listener which then tries to reconstruct the colour. Both agents receive a shared reward based on how precise the listener’s reconstruction was. The words in the glossary have no meaning at the outset; it is up to the agents to agree on the meaning of the words during multiple rounds of the game. We see that the resulting artificial languages are near-optimal in an information-theoretic sense and with similar properties as found in human languages”, says Mikael Kågebäck, researcher at Sleepcycle, and whose PhD-dissertation at Chalmers contained some of the results presented in the paper.</div> <br /><div>Together with Sayeed, researcher in computer linguistics at the Centre for Linguistic Theory and Studies in Probability (CLASP) at University of Gothenburg, and Devdatt Dubhashi, professor, and Emil Carlsson, PhD student, in the Data Science and AI division at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering, he has now published the results. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/DoIT/News/AI%20PLOS%20ONE/AsadAI.gif" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Asad Sayeed" style="margin:5px" />”From a practical viewpoint, this research provides the fundamental principles to develop conversational agents such as Siri and Alexa that communicate with human language”, says Asad Sayeed.<br /><div>The underlying idea of learning to communicate through reinforcement learning is also interesting for research in social and cultural fields, for example for the project GRIPES, which studies dogwhistle politics, and is led by Asad Sayeed. <span style="display:inline-block"></span></div></div> <div><div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Useful in future research studies</h2> <div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/DoIT/News/AI%20PLOS%20ONE/DevdattAI.gif" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Devdatt Dubhashi" style="margin:5px" />”Cognitive experiments are very time consuming, as you often need to carry out careful experiments with human volunteers. Our approach provides a very powerful, flexible and inexpensive approach to investigate these fundamental questions. The experiments are fully under our control, repeatable and totally reliable. Thus our computational framework provide a valuable tool to investigate fundamental questions in cognitive science, language and interaction. For computer scientists it is a fertile area to explore the effectiveness of various learning mechanisms”, says Devdatt Dubhashi.</div> <div> </div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/DoIT/News/AI%20PLOS%20ONE/EmilAI.gif" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Emil Carlsson" style="margin:5px" /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>“In the future, we want to investigate whether agents can develop communication similar to human language in other areas as well. One example is if our agents are able to reconstruct the hierarchical structures we observe in human language”, says Emil Carlsson. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Long-standing question</h2></div> <div>The study stems from a long-standing central question in cognitive science and linguistics: whether, in all of the vast diversity of human languages, there are common universal principles. Classic work from the 20th century indicated that there were common properties in different languages in words to describe colours. Are there underlying principles accounting for these common properties? </div> <div>A recent influential proposal from cognitive scientists is that there are indeed such common universal principles when viewed from the lens of information theory when languages are viewed as a means to communicate mental concepts making the most efficient use of resources. </div> <div>A series of talks given at CLASP by Ted Gibson from MIT back in 2016, where he <a href="">described results from experiments on human subject</a>s chosen from different societies and cultures around the world, led to the question ‘what if the human subjects were substituted by artificial computer agents? Would they develop a language with similar universal properties?'</div> <div><div><br /></div> <div><a href="">Link to the article in PLOS ONE</a>.<br /></div> <div><br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Contact<br /></h2> <div>Asad Sayeed, researcher researcher in computer linguistics, Department of Philosophy, Linguistics, Theory of Science. <br /><a href=""></a></div> <div><br />Devdatt Dubhashi, professor, Data Science and AI division, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers and University of Gothenburg. <br /><a href=""></a></div> <div><br />Emil Carlsson, PhD Student, Data Science and AI division, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers and University of Gothenburg.<br /><a href=""></a></div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>By <br />Monica Havström <br />Communications officer, Department of Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science, University of Gothenburg. <br />Phone: +46 31-786 30 42 <br /> <br />Anneli Andersson <br /><div>Communications officer, Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Chalmers and Unitversity of Gothenburg.</div> <div>Phone: +46 31-772 10 29<br /></div></div> ​Wed, 15 Jul 2020 10:00:00 +0200 ambitious climate policy is economically beneficial<p><b>​An economically optimal climate policy is in line with the Paris Agreement’s 2-degree temperature target. This is according to a new study involving the University of Gothenburg, Chalmers University of Technology and others. The study updates the cost/benefit analyses of climate measures made by Economics Laureate William Nordhaus.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The economist William Nordhaus was awarded the 2018 The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel for his research on climate-related questions. In particular, the prize recognized his development of the DICE model (Dynamic Integrated Climate-Economy), which has gained widespread influence. When he calibrates his model, he found that an increase in the average temperature of 3.5 degrees until 2100 is economically most optimal. This new level was well above the Paris Agreement’s 2-degree target and would have resulted in extensive negative consequences for nature and society in large parts of the world.<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Daniel_Johansson_256x344px.jpg" alt="Daniel Johansson" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:10px;width:190px;height:255px" /><br /></span><div><br /></div> <div>In a new study published in Nature Climate Change, a team of researchers in Sweden, England and Germany has updated this DICE model.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We made a number of important changes. In part, it was about an improved calibration of how much carbon dioxide and heat is absorbed by the oceans, and in part updating calculations of how much climate damage will cost in economic terms,” says Daniel Johansson, associate professor in physics resource theory at Chalmers University of Technology, and one of the authors of the study.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>An important factor that determines what is economically optimal involves discounting or comparing future costs to current costs. Fundamentally, this is a value judgement, and in the study the research team used a large number of expert assessments of these ethical questions, which deal with how the current and future generations’ interests should be weighed against each other.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Thomas-Sterner_256x344px.jpg" alt="Thomas Sterner" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:10px;width:190px;height:255px" /><br /></div> <div>These changes to the model lead to the conclusion that a 1.5–2 degree increase in average temperature is economically optimal.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Nordhaus has shown the way forward in these questions, like the need for a significant price on carbon dioxide emissions throughout the world, but compared to his previous analyses, our results show that more ambitious targets can be supported with economic arguments,” says Thomas Sterner, professor of environmental economics at the School of Business, Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>According to the researchers, in wider international climate policy discussions, the study can support climate targets in line with those adopted in the Paris Agreement and thereby increase acceptance for setting a tax on emissions that meets the adopted climate targets. The model points to a carbon dioxide tax of around USD 100 per tonne, which is in line with the current carbon dioxide tax in Sweden and four times higher than the price in EU’s emissions trading scheme, ETS.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/christian-azar_256x344px.jpg" alt="Christian Azar" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:10px;width:190px;height:255px" /><br /></div> <div>“Achieving ambitious climate targets requires politicians to introduce a significant tax on carbon dioxide, but it also requires investments in new technology like electric cars, solar cells, hydrogen and carbon capture, to name a few examples. If this is done, it is possible to achieve ambitious climate targets like the 2-degree target. But we also must be aware that there is significant political resistance in large parts of the world, presenting us with a major challenge. This is not a simple question,” says Christian Azar, professor of physical resource theory at Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>For more information, please contact:</strong></div> <div><div><ul><li>Christian Azar, professor of physical resource theory at Chalmers University of Technology<br />e-mail: <a href=""></a>, telephone: +46-(0)31–772 31 32</li> <li>Daniel Johansson, associate professor of physical resource theory at Chalmers University of Technology<br />e-mail: <a href=""></a>, telephone: +46-(0)31–772 28 16</li> <li>Thomas Sterner, professor of environmental economics at the School of Business, Economics and Law at the University of Gothenburg<br />e-mail: <a href="">​</a>, telephone: +46-(0)70–816 3306</li></ul></div></div>Tue, 14 Jul 2020 07:00:00 +0200 part of European University in new alliance<p><b>​Chalmers and four other Swedish universities are participating in different consortia that have been appointed European Universities. The initiative by the European Commission is to, among other things, strengthen the attractiveness of European higher education.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">European Universities are part of the EU's Erasmus+ program and are transnational collaborations between different universities in Europe. The aim is to increase mobility between European universities, and to enhance the quality, inclusion and attractiveness of European higher education.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>In 2019, 17 groups of higher education institutions were selected for the collaboration and now another 24 European Universities have been added, where Chalmers is one of five Swedish universities participating. In addition to Chalmers, Karolinska Institutet, Linnaeus University, Luleå University of Technology and Uppsala University will be part of a European University. A total of eleven Swedish universities are now participating in the initiative.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Together with six other European technical universities, Chalmers forms the Enhance consortium, the European Universities of Technology Alliance, one of the 24 new European University collaborations. The project will be in progress for three years and with funding of EUR 5 million, the network is to strengthen the integration between the universities and enable an increased international exchange for students, teachers and researchers. The collaboration consists of the following higher education institutions:</div> <div><br /></div> <div><ul><li>Chalmers University of Technology</li> <li>NTNU, Norwegian University of Science and Technology</li> <li>Polytechnic University of Milan</li> <li>Polytechnic University of Valencia</li> <li>RWTH Aachen University</li> <li>Technical University of Berlin</li> <li>Warsaw University of Technology</li></ul></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Read more</h3> <div><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />European Commission – 24 new European Universities reinforce the European Education Area</a>.</div> </div>Mon, 13 Jul 2020 16:00:00 +0200 mission is to inspire others<p><b>After finishing her master’s studies at Chalmers, Andjela Kusmuk started working at ​companies like Netlight and Amazon. Now she wants to inspire young women going into the tech industry - with her own Youtube channel.​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Since she left Chalmers in 2015, Andjela Kusmuk has, among other things, been responsible for consulting at the IT company Netlight, developed Amazon's Nordic gaming venture and given an inspiring TED talk on how computer games can lead to gender equality in the technology industry. Now she leads a part of the technical development at the investment company EQT.</span><p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">“I have always loved technology, whether it was fixing a broken computer or writing commands for a machine so that it did as I said. There is so much else in the world that is ruled by emotions and thoughts. So, it’s a nice change to be able to search for a logical solution and concrete results”, says Andjela Kusmuk.<br /> <br /> </span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20200101-20200701/AndjelaK_puff.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />After finishing her studies ​in Mechanical Engineering at Jönköping University, she continued on to the master's programme in Production Engineering at Chalmers.</span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">“I chose Mechanical Engineering since my study advisor directed me away from Physics and Computer Engineering. She thought my previous experience in programming wouldn’t be enough. Today I am very happy that I chose Mechanical Engineering, but for a long time, I was anxious about my choice and felt great insecurity. I wouldn’t want any other girl in my position to have that same experience,” she says.<br /> <br /> She describes her first lecture at Chalmers as “exciting”. The lecture itself was given by a younger female professor who talked about how future production is affected by the ageing population.</span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">“She was incredibly knowledgeable in her subject and engaging as a teacher. A really strong role model who has inspired me in many ways.”<br /><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br />Shares </span><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">advice on Youtube</span><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="background-color:initial">She wants to convey a similar feeling in the new Youtube channel IT-Girls Tech which she runs with EQT colleague Elin Bäcklund. Together, they alternate easily accessible &quot;know-how&quot; about machine learning and coding with more tangible tips, such as how to succeed in a job interview. The channel is currently aimed towards young Swedish girls.</span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">“Young girls generally do not see technology as something creative or even something that suits their personality. Therefore, a big change needs to take place to get them interested and able to see all the possibilities in the industry.”</span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">“If at least ten girls who watch our Youtube channel apply to, for example, Chalmers, then we would have fulfilled our purpose and set the ball in motion”.<br />The technology industry itself offers many benefits that could really be attractive for the female population, she says.</span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">“There are many young people who dream of becoming an influencer, without realising what an incredible amount of technology lies behind that type of work. The cameras you record with, the software required to edit a video. Why not work on developing that instead? It is creative, well paid and there is never a shortage of interesting challenges at work.”<br /><span style="background-color:initial">Gender equality is not only important to approach a more balanced gender distribution, but also because it gives better results overall, she says.</span><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">“Studies from MIT, among others, show that diversified workplaces meet their financial goals faster and perform better.”</span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br />Women can find different solutions</span><br /></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">Another aspect that highlights the need for equality in the industry, according to her, is that women can come up with different technical solutions than men.</span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">“The contraceptive Natural Cycles is a brilliant example of this. It was founded by a woman, Men had probably never thought about the idea that hormones in contraceptives are bad because they do not use them themselves. This is part of the reason why the industry is generally better at solving &quot;male&quot; problems than &quot;female&quot; in business. There are not as many female entrepreneurs or engineers and those that do exist are analysed under different conditions than men. Therefore, capital is not distributed equally.”</span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US"><span style="background-color:initial">She lights up when she talks about new companies started by women and other technological innovations and achievements. She explains why she sees it as her responsibility to be a role model and inspire others.</span><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">“If more women go into technical education, more tech-companies will also be started by women. These women will, in turn, have sufficiently important positions to be able to financially pave the way for more women who want to develop their innovations. It is as simple as that.”</span></p> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"><span lang="EN-US">Helped Amazon launch a new venture</span></h3> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">Two years ago, she helped Amazon launch its game development venture in northern Europe. The work consisted of taking care of all startups in The nordic region, meeting company founders and helping them to develop their business and technology-secure their products. She got to help them with everything from &quot;go-to-market&quot; strategies to architectural optimisation.</span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">“It was of course a great opportunity for someone as young as me. I was still relatively new in the industry but got the chance to combine my technical background with my great interest in gaming and the contacts I built up during my time as a consultant.”<br /><span style="background-color:initial">“What was cool about Amazon was all the freedom. You got to come up with your own ideas and brainstorm as much as you wanted. As long as you could show figures on what you wanted to achieve and how you would get there, you got the opportunity to kick-start your own initiatives. There was an openness to change that was very exciting to be a part of, we reorganised at least every six months.&quot;</span><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US"><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial"><br />W</span><span style="color:rgb(33, 33, 33);font-family:inherit;font-size:16px;font-weight:600;background-color:initial">orks with developing AI</span><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">During the time at Amazon, Andjela Kusmuk was headhunted by EQT, where she currently works with artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning, among other things.</span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">“AI may not be the first thought when you think of investment companies, but I think it will become increasingly common. My colleague Elin and I lead three technical teams in a domain together. In short, our work is about training the algorithms to become better at finding the right choice more easily when it comes to buying and selling companies.”<br /><span style="background-color:initial">That she finally ended up where she is today is not something she could have predicted. She thinks that this shows the true value of her education.</span><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">“My strength is that I am good at solving problems regardless of which industry I work in. That is the mindset you get from Chalmers. Tasks can be solved in many different ways and you have to test many different solutions until you succeed. That, combined with a sense of numbers, is probably my favourite trait about myself.”<br /><span style="background-color:initial">To stop worrying about choosing the &quot;wrong education&quot; is a piece of advice that Andjela Kusmuk wants to give young people who are considering a technical education in the future.</span><br /></span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><span lang="EN-US">“Just because you choose a certain programme now, it doesn’t necessarily mean that it will determine your entire future. See it more as a means to achieve your goals. With a technical education, you can decide for yourself where you direct your energy. Technology is available in all industries and you can work with basically anything”.</span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing">Text<span style="background-color:initial">: Vedrana Sivac</span></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><br /></p> <p></p> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Links</h3> <p></p> <span></span><p class="MsoNoSpacing"><a href="/en/education/programmes/masters-info/Pages/Applied-Mechanics.aspx" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="/en/education/programmes/masters-info/pages/production-engineering.aspx" target="_blank">Master's programme in Production Engineering​</a></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="" target="_blank"><span>Andjela Kusmuks TED-talk about gaming and eq</span><span style="background-color:initial">uality</span></a></p> <p class="MsoNoSpacing"><a href="" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="" target="_blank"><span>Andje</span>l<span style="background-color:initial">a Kusmuks Youtube channel IT-Girls Tech (in Swedish) ​</span>​</a></p>Fri, 10 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0200 by curiosity after 50 years<p><b>​Kjell Jeppson rather looks forward than back in time. It is now 50 years since he stepped in through the gates as a doctoral student at Chalmers. As a pensioner, he keeps up with orienteering and supervision. &quot;I&#39;m still driven by curiosity,&quot; he says.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/kjeppson_IMG_8794_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Kjell Jeppson." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />We meet at Kemigården on a June day which will prove to be one of the hottest of the year. Some seagulls are screaming around above us. Kjell Jeppson is comfortably dressed in cotton trousers, short-sleeved shirt, vest and a straw hat. He looks relaxed. <div>&quot;An advantage of being a professor emeritus is that you have no other duties, but can sit for a whole day and talk to a doctoral student,&quot; he says.</div> <div> </div> <div>The Corona pandemic has of course affected Kjell Jeppson just like everyone else this spring. He tries to be careful to pay attention to the authorities' recommendations. Recently, he celebrated his 73rd birthday. It was a different celebration:</div> <div>&quot;When the children come with their partners, I say: Strict rules! No one enters! We keep our distance! But just like that, everyone is indoors anyway, it's hard to be careful! But we have a large terrace where we could be in the end,&quot; says Kjell.</div> <div> </div> <div>He and the family have stayed healthy during the crisis.</div> <div>&quot;When you see the reports on TV with those who have been really sick, you think that &quot;you do not want to be in that situation&quot;.&quot;</div> <div>Kjell has stayed away from Chalmers, where he has a workplace in the Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory in the MC2 building.</div> <div>&quot;It feels a bit empty inside, but I have had very close contact with one of the doctoral students. We have spent over three months full time writing an article on three pages! Now it is submitted for evaluation,&quot; Kjell says.</div> <div> </div> <div>He is a man who lives in the present and does not want to dwell too much in the past, but he offers some puzzle pieces during our conversation. Born in 1947, grew up in Guldheden with parents and younger sister, then a student at Landalaskolan, then high school followed by a Master of Science degree in electrical engineering at Chalmers from 1966. An obvious choice.</div> <div>&quot;We went by tram or walked past Chalmers every day. &quot;That's where I should start,&quot; I thought. It was always Chalmers that it came to. There was a small meetinghouse where my sister attended a dance school at the same spot where the student union building lies today.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>Chalmers was an important part of Kjell's everyday life, in fact throughout his entire childhood. In high school he attended a class where 26 students out of 29 started at Chalmers eventually.</div> <div>&quot;It was quite purposeful,&quot; he says with a smile.</div> <div> </div> <div>He describes Guldheden as a nice area to grow up in and praises the city planners:</div> <div>&quot;It was a valley with buildings on both sides, a small school, a football field that was washed every winter so we could go skating, and completely car-free,&quot; he says.</div> <div> </div> <div>Mom was a housewife and sewed all the family's clothes. Kjell remembers how all the women in the area queued at the convenience store when the new style patterns were released every spring. New fabrics were bought, summer dresses were sewn.</div> <div>&quot;It was a little fuss. Large fabrics were laid on the table and the tissue paper was fixed on them with needles. It was a different life and a small world.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Where does your technology interest come from?</h3> <div>&quot;It's probably from my father. He had trained as a high school engineer at &quot;Chalmers lägre&quot;, and was in charge of a mechanical workshop at SKF. Dad was a pure practitioner who always built small useful things from different parts. Suddenly he had built a screwdriver! He did so with everything. There was no doubt that we would replace silencers and water pumps in the car itself. But I probably never became as practical as he,&quot; says Kjell.</div> <div> </div> <div>In May, 50 years ago, he began his doctoral studies at the then Department of Electron Physics, more or less hand-picked by the legendary professor Torkel Wallmark. During his doctoral studies, he spent a year at Rockwell International in Los Angeles. The dissertation took place in 1977 with the thesis &quot;Design and characterization of MIS devices&quot;. As a curiosity, it can be mentioned that the thesis's main article is still cited by other researchers 30-40 times a year.</div> <div>&quot;We speculated a little about instability in mos circuits, and were a bit out on the limb, but it turned out to be pretty good. We must have been at the forefront!&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/kjeppson_IMG_8788_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Kjell Jeppson." class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" />Kjell Jeppson remained at Chalmers, now as an assistant professor, and later a senior lecturer and associate professor before being promoted to professor of microelectronics in 1996.</div> <div>&quot;Microelectronics was on the rise then, and national microelectronics programs were started. We received a large grant and were able to build an education lab, &quot;kretslabbet&quot;. It was a milestone that allowed us to start training and get real circuits made in a technology that had been inaccessible before.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>Retiring was also a milestone for Kjell. Contrary to all expectations, he was invited to be a visiting professor at Shanghai University in China.</div> <div>&quot;I spent four shorter periods in Shanghai and managed to supervise a doctoral student both on site and then remotely for a Chinese PhD. Her name is Bao Jie and she is currently a postdoc in Canada. It was a new experience to connect with young people in China,&quot; says Kjell.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">What's your driving force?</h3> <div>&quot;Curiosity. I was also given the opportunity to change research fields from silicon components to carbon nanotubes and graphene. Graphene has such good heat-equalizing properties. We used it to spread heat on chip surfaces and in this way get better circuits. When we had done that, we thought that you can actually make transistors of graphene. That means I'm really back to where I started, and doing the same things we did then but with significantly better tools, like laser printers instead of inky xy printers and graphs hand drawn with ruler and curve template on millimeter paper. The circle is closed.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>The great leisure interest since 30 years is orienteering. Kjell and his wife travel around the world and let the locations of the races control where they end up. Some recent examples are New Zealand, Switzerland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Belarus, Hungary and Croatia. In February every year there are training camps in Portugal.</div> <div>&quot;Last year I ran 97 competitions! Now it is less races to run. We just got home from Portugal before the big shutdowns.&quot;</div> <div>&quot;The travel destinations is a little different. We do not go to the big cities but end up in Castelo de Vide or some other small border village where you can get a cup of coffee for ten crowns at a cozy café, or a glass of wine for a euro,&quot; Kjell says.</div> <div> </div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div>Wed, 08 Jul 2020 06:00:00 +0200 exclusive student conference in quantum technology<p><b>​Participants from some 30 countries are expected to attend Berlin when the Quantum Future Academy 2020 (QFA2020) is organized on 1-7 November. The event is coordinated from Chalmers with Professor Göran Wendin at the forefront. Now he is chasing top Swedish students for the conference.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/GoranWendin_171101_01_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Göran Wendin" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />Göran Wendin, to the right, is one of the driving forces within the Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT), which is led by Chalmers and aims to build a Swedish quantum computer within twelve years. At the moment, however, he is fully busy with the QFA2020 management.<br />&quot;It is an extensive job with a lot of work, but also a lot of fun,&quot; he says in a pause.<br /><br />The assignment comes directly from the German research institute VDI Technologiezentrum [VDITZ] in Düsseldorf, which is the headquarters of the EU's research flagship on quantum technology, worth one billion euros, launched in autumn 2018.<br /><br />The idea of ​​QFA2020 is to offer European top students in the field of quantum technology an opportunity to gain new knowledge and new contacts in order to develop future commercial applications of the technology.<br />Similar events have been held four times before, then at the national level in Germany and France. Now, QFA is opening up and turning it into a major European education conference with participants from 30 countries.<br />&quot;One of the aims is to raise the understanding of quantum technology as a matter for Europe as a whole. We want to help create a sustainable network of young researchers,&quot; says Göran Wendin.<br /><br />Each participating country selects two students during the late summer who can travel to Germany completely free of charge in November. Travel, accommodation and living are fully reimbursed.<br /><br />QFA2020 will take place in Berlin. However, Göran Wendin points out that the organizers are closely following the development of the corona pandemic, and that all safety procedures will be followed.<br />&quot;All participants will receive detailed information in good time about any changes,&quot; he says.<br /><br />The application is open until 24 July for all interested students at the bachelor's or master's level with basic knowledge in quantum mechanics. In Sweden, the winners will be presented at a digital workshop at Chalmers in mid-September, where all applicants will present their ideas.<br /><br />The conference week in Berlin in November has a packed content. It will include study visits to companies and research laboratories, lectures, meetings with researchers, politicians and entrepreneurs, workshops and even cultural activities.<br />&quot;We can promise an exciting and exclusive week in Berlin,&quot; concludes Göran Wendin.<br /><br />Text: Michael Nystås<br />Photo: Johan Bodell<br /><br /><strong>Contact:</strong><br />Göran Wendin, Professor, Quantum Technology Laboratory, Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT), Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience <span>–<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span> MC2, Chalmers,<br /><br /><div><span><strong>Read more about Quantum Future Academy 2020 (QFA2020) &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /><a href="/en/centres/wacqt/qfa2020"></a> and also<br /><a href=""></a> <br /><br /><strong><a href="/en/centres/wacqt">Read more about Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT)</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /><br /><a href="">Läs mer om Read more about the EU flagship in quantum technology </a>&gt;&gt;&gt;<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /></div>Fri, 03 Jul 2020 09:00:00 +0200 star sharpens her skiing with technology from Chalmers<p><b>​Power meters integrated in a ski-pole handle from Chalmers will contribute to skier Lina Korsgren&#39;s third victory in Vasaloppet. &quot;The pole and the power measurement can help me improve one more step,&quot; she says in a news feature on SVT Sport on 16 June.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/johan_lina_375x500.jpg" alt="Picture of Johan and Lina." class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" />The new handle has sensors that measure the power while poling and can be mounted on any pole. Lina Korsgren has now started to use the invention in her training:<br />&quot;The handle is a little thicker than a regular handle, but I just see it as an advantage because then you do not have to hold the pole as hard. It is positive with less strain on the elbows, but otherwise it feels just as usual&quot;, she tells SVT Sport.<br /><br />The data from the handles is sent to software for analysis down to fractions of a single poling. It makes it possible to adjust the really small details of the ride. Lina Korsgren's trainer, former elite cyclist Mattias Reck, says on SVT Sport:<br /><div>&quot;Lina is already incredibly good, but that means if she is to get even better, there are little things you can work on. Power measurement is really such a next step. I am absolutely convinced that we will make her even stronger.&quot;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /><br /></div> <div><span><em><br />Johan Högstrand, CEO of Skisens AB, and skier Lina Korsgren </em><br /><em>with the ski poles whose handle is based on Chalmers </em><br /><em>technology. Photo: Mattias Reck</em></span><br /></div> <br />The background to the handle is a master's thesis, which was supervised in 2016 by Dan Kuylenstierna, associate professor at the Microwave Electronics Laboratory at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2 – at Chalmers, and postdoctoral student Szhau Lai at the same department.<br />&quot;Szhau Lai, who had recently defended his thesis, showed a keen interest in sensors and embedded electronics. Through the Area of Advance Materials Science and Chalmers Sports &amp; Technology he was given the opportunity to work with sensor solutions and underwater communication for swimming. The idea behind the ski power meter came as a spin-off from this work&quot;, says Dan Kuylenstierna.<br /><br />Johan Högstrand, who studied automation and mechatronics, was one of the students. The group ou students also included Henrik Gingsjö, Jeanette Malm, Theo Berglin, Mathias Tengström and Marcus Bengths.<br /><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/dan_2015_350x305.jpg" alt="Photo of Dan Kuylenstierna." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />After the end of the thesis work, the students continued to develop the handle with support from Vinnova. In 2017, they took the victory in the business development competition Chalmers Ventures Startup Camp. This helped them to establish the company Skisens AB, with Johan Högstrand as CEO. Dan Kuylenstierna is co-owner and co-founder:<br />&quot;With the large variations in the skiing conditions, power measurement is necessary to estimate performance. It is our conviction that in the long term it will be more important for skiiing than it currently is in cycling. The great importance of technical skills in cross-country skiing also makes it important to measure in the field under realistic conditions&quot;, says Dan (picture to the right).<br /><br />One who early snatched up the rumor about the company is the former coach of the Swedish national biathlon team (Svenska Skidskytteförbundet), Wolfgang Pichler. Pichler immediately said that &quot;power measurement is a revolution for skiing&quot; and got the team to invest in a collaboration with Skisens. Dan Kuylenstierna emphasizes the importance of this work and sees it as crucial for the company’s position today.<br />&quot;People like Wolfgang, who dare to invest in what is new even if the benefit lies several years into the future, are extremely valuable&quot;, he says.<br /><br />Now the company has arrived at a product that opens to a wider market with more partners. Recently, they have thus started to collaborate with Lina Korsgren's team, Team Ramudden, where Mattias Reck is hired as head coach via the company Guided Heroes.<br />&quot;It's very exciting to have the opportunity to apply my experience and knowledge in a new sport. In ski sports you often only have heart rate monitors, but with power meters in the sticks you can see how hard you press in every second, it gives completely new opportunities&quot;, says Mattias Reck in a press release.<br /><br />Dan Kuylenstierna is also Deputy Director of <a href="/en/centres/sportstechnology">Chalmers Sports &amp; Technology</a>, a venture that links academic research and sport in a number of projects. In the fall, he will lead the new course &quot;Digitalization in Sports&quot; within the framework of Chalmers new training venture <a href="">Tracks</a>, together with Moa Johansson at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering.<br />&quot;We have got 22 applicants who will work in groups of five on different challenges from the world of sports&quot;, concludes Dan Kuylenstierna.<br /><br />Text: Michael Nystås<br />Photo of Johan Högstrand and Lina Korsgren: Mattias Reck<br />Photo of Dan Kuylenstierna: Michael Nystås<br /><br /><strong>Contact:</strong><br />Dan Kuylenstierna, Associate Professor, Microwave Electronics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, <br /><br /><a href="">See the feature on SVT Sport</a> (in Swedish) &gt;&gt;&gt;<br /><br /><a href="">Read more about powermeters for cross-country skiing</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;Thu, 02 Jul 2020 10:00:00 +0200's-disease-protein-damages-cell-membranes-.aspx's-disease-protein-damages-cell-membranes-.aspxNew method shows how Parkinson&#39;s protein damages cells<p><b>​In sufferers of Parkinson&#39;s disease, clumps of α-synuclein (alpha-synuclein), sometimes known as the ‘Parkinson’s protein’, are found in the brain. These destroy cell membranes, eventually resulting in cell death. Now, a new method developed at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, reveals how the composition of cell membranes seems to be a decisive factor for how small quantities of α-synuclein cause damage.</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span>Parkinson's disease is an incurable condition in which neurons, the brain's nerve cells, gradually break down and brain functions become disrupted. Symptoms can include involuntary shaking of the body, and the disease can cause great suffering. To develop drugs to slow down or stop the disease, researchers try to understand the molecular mechanisms behind how α-synuclein contributes to the degeneration of neurons.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">It is known that mitochondria, the energy-producing compartments in cells, are damaged in Parkinson's disease, possibly due to ‘amyloids’ of α-synuclein. Amyloids are clumps of proteins arranged into long fibres with a well-ordered core structure, and their formation underlies many neurodegenerative disorders. Amyloids or even smaller clumps of α-synuclein may bind to and destroy mitochondrial membranes, but the precise mechanisms are still unknown.</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">New method reveals structural damage to mitrochondrial membranes​</h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The new study, recently published in the journal <em>PNAS</em>, focuses on two different types of membrane-like vesicles. One of them is made of lipids that are often found in synaptic vesicles, the other contained lipids related to mitochondrial membranes. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">The researchers found that the Parkinson’s protein would bind to both vesicle types, but only caused structural changes to the mitochondrial-like vesicles, which deformed asymmetrically and leaked their contents.</span><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> “Now we have developed a method which is sensitive enough to observe how α-synuclein interacts with individual model vesicles, which are ‘capsules’ of lipids that can be used as mimics of the membranes found in cells. In our study, we observed that α-synuclein binds to – and destroys – mitochondrial-like membranes, but there was no destruction of the membranes of synaptic-like vesicles. The damage occurs at very low, nanomolar concentration, where the protein is only present as monomers – non-aggregated proteins. Such low protein concentration has been hard to study before but the reactions we have detected now could be a crucial step in the course of the disease,” says Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Professor of Chemical Biology at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering. </p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">&quot;Dramatic ​differences in how the protein affects membranes&quot;</h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The new method from the researchers at Chalmers University of Technology makes it possible to study tiny quantities of biological molecules without using fluorescent markers. This is a great advantage when tracking natural reactions, since the markers often affect the reactions you want to observe, especially when working with small proteins such as α-synuclein.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> “The chemical differences between the two lipids used are very small, but still we observed dramatic differences in how α-synuclein affected the different vesicles,” says Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“We believe that lipid chemistry is not the only determining factor, but also that there are macroscopic differences between the two membranes – such as the dynamics and interactions between the lipids. No one has really looked closely at what happens to the membrane itself when α-synuclein binds to it, and never at these low concentrations.” </p> <p></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Next step: Investigate proteins with mutations and cellular membranes</h2> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The next step for the researchers is to investigate variants of the α-synuclein protein with mutations associated with Parkinson's disease, and to investigate lipid vesicles which are more similar to cellular membranes.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> “We also want to perform quantitative analyses to understand, at a mechanistic level, how individual proteins gathering on the surface of the membrane can cause damage” says Fredrik Höök, Professor at the Department of Physics, who was also involved in the research.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“Our vision is to further refine the method so that we can study not only individual, small – 100 nanometres – lipid vesicles, but also track each protein one by one, even though they are only 1-2 nanometres in size. That would help us reveal how small variations in properties of lipid membranes contribute to such a different response to protein binding as we now observed.”</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Text: </strong>Susanne Nilsson Lindh and Joshua Worth<br /><strong>Illustration:</strong> Fredrik Höök</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <div> </div> <div><strong>More information on the method</strong></div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li>Vesicle membranes were observed by measuring light scattering and fluorescence from vesicles which were bound to a surface – and monitoring the changes when low concentrations of α-synuclein were added.</li> <li>Using high spatiotemporal resolution, protein binding and the resulting consequences on the structure of the vesicles, could be followed in real time. By means of a new theory, the structural changes in the membranes could be explained geometrically.</li> <li>The method used in the study was developed by Björn Agnarsson in Fredrik Höök's group and utilises an optical-waveguide sensor constructed with a combination of polymer and glass. The glass provides good conditions for directing light to the sensor surface, while the polymer ensures the light does not scatter and cause unwanted background signals.</li> <li>The combination of good light conduction and low background interference makes it possible to identify individual lipid vesicles and microscopically monitor their dynamics as they interact with the environment – in this case, the added protein. Sandra Rocha in Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede's group provided α-synuclein expertise, which is a complicated protein to work with.</li> <li>The research project is mainly funded by the Area of Advance for Health Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology, and scholar grants from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. The researchers’ complementary expertise around proteins, lipid membranes, optical microscopy, theoretical analysis and sensor design from Chalmers’ clean room has been crucial for this project.</li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Read the full study in <em>PNAS</em>: </strong></div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /><span style="background-color:initial"><font color="#5b97bf">Single-vesicle imaging reveals lipid-selective and stepwise membrane disruption by monomeric α-synuclein</font></span>​</a><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Read more about the researchers:</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/bio/research/chemical_biology/Wittung-Stafshede-Lab/Pages/default.aspx" title="Link to Pernilla Wittungs reserch group"><span><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></span> Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede</a><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Fredrik-Höök.aspx" title="Link to Fredrik Höök's bio"><span><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></span> Fredrik Höök</a><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> ​Thu, 02 Jul 2020 07:00:00 +0200 design experiments develop next generation aircraft engine<p><b>​Open Rotor is a new type of aircraft engine delivering up to 20 percent reduced fuel burn than today&#39;s turbofan engines. Chalmers, together with the University of Cambridge and Fraunhofer FCC, is leading a project that studies aspects of manufacturing during the design phase.</b></p><p></p> <div>The next generation of aircraft engines is being developed in the large European Joint Undertaking <a href="">Clean Sky 2</a>. Open Rotor is one of the concepts that has shown promising results when it comes to reducing both CO<sub>2</sub> emissions and noise. Open rotor is a new engine type with two, counterrotating, propellers that radically improve propulsive efficiency. This type of technology radically changes how the engines are designed and integrated with the aircraft. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/Open%20Rotor%203%20-®%20Eric%20Drouin%20Safran_400px.jpg" alt="Open Rotor 3 -® Eric Drouin Safran" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px 15px;width:170px;height:259px" />Within Clean Sky 2, Chalmers, together with Cambridge University and Fraunhofer FCC, is now leading a project called Development of Interdisciplinary Assessment for Manufacturing and Design (DIAS).<br /><br />DIAS is a targeted support project, where the goal is to develop support for integrating manufacturability aspects already in the design phase, where advanced decision support models are developed. For example, it is critical that robots get to weld the components properly. In the DIAS project, Chalmers latest research results are used in modeling alternative concepts enabling digital experimentation of alternative product architecture, with Fraunhofer's expertise in simulating robotic paths, and Cambridge's expertise in interactive decision-making and modeling-based risk analysis.<br /><br /></div> <div><br /><em>–    We have a unique opportunity to combine the latest achievements from Chalmers, Fraunhofer FCC and Cambridge, into a new and powerful way to support GKN Aerospace in their integration of next generation technologies already in the concept phase, says Ola Isaksson, researcher at Chalmers and leader of the consortium.</em><br /><br />GKN Aerospace Sweden AB in Trollhättan is responsible for critical engine components of Open Rotor engines. Ultimately, the goal is to enable the methods developed in the DIAS project to enable GKN Aerospace to offer the technologies demonstrated in Clean Sky in future business.<br /> <br /><em>–    We are very happy that this Chalmers led consortium won this Call for Partners. The competition was indeed very tough and this shows that Chalmers is a leading University in this important area in Europe, says Robert Lundberg (Director EU Programmes) at GKN Aerospace Sweden.</em><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More information about DIAS and Clean Sky</h2> <div><a href="" title="Link to the DIAS project"><br /></a></div> <div><span>This project has received funding from the Clean Sky 2 Joint Undertaking (JU) under grant agreement No 887174. The JU receives support from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme and the Clean Sky 2 JU members other than the Union. The information on this web page reflects only the author's view and that the JU is not responsible for any use that may be made of the information it contains.<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/EU_logo.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px 20px;width:258px;height:179px" /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Produktutveckling/JU_logo.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px 25px;width:330px;height:186px" /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><br /></h2> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Contact</h2> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/iola.aspx">Ola Isaksson</a>, professor Department of Industrial and Materials Science at Chalmers University of Technology<br /></div> <div></div> <div><span style="float:none;font-family:&quot;open sans&quot;, sans-serif;font-size:14px;font-style:normal;font-variant:normal;letter-spacing:normal;text-align:center;text-decoration:none;text-indent:0px;text-transform:none;white-space:normal;word-spacing:0px;display:inline !important">+46 31 7728202</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Robert Lundberg<em>, </em><span>Director EU Programmes GKN Aerospace</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:11pt;font-family:calibri, sans-serif"></span>+46 700 872371 </div> <div><a href=""></a></div></div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p></p> <br /><p></p>Wed, 01 Jul 2020 00:00:00 +0200 platform for shaping the interaction between micromechanical motion and light<p><b>​Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology have developed a novel experimental platform for the field of cavity optomechanics. The findings are a crucial step towards increasing light-matter interactions further in order to access new possibilities in the field of quantum technology. The work also shows the ability to fabricate two mechanical resonators on top of each other with a gap smaller than one micrometer. &quot;This ability is an important ingredient for the next step of the project&quot;, says Witlef Wieczorek, head of the group at MC2.</b></p><div><span><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/figure_2_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of device" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" /></span></span>How can light interact with matter? A rather evident way is via the radiation pressure force. However, this force is tiny. Or, have you already been pushed back by a laser pointer hitting you? But when we consider much smaller systems in the micro- and nano world, this force becomes appreciable and can actually be used to manipulate tiny objects. The radiation pressure force can even be enhanced in so-called cavity optomechanical devices. These devices exploit the interaction between light and micro- or nanomechanical resonators to alter the dynamical properties of either of the two systems. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span><em>The figure above shows a </em><span></span><span><em>scanning electron microscope image<br />of a fabricated device: a 100 nanometer thin slab of GaAs is <br />freely suspended and hold by four strings above a GaAs substrate. <br />The holes in the device are a photonic crystal pattern that yield <br />high optical reflectivity at telecom wavelengths. <br />Image: Sushanth Kini Manjeshwar</em><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;Cavity optomechanical devices open the door to a world of possibilities such as studying quantum mechanical behavior on larger scales or as transducing microwave to optical photons, which could prove invaluable in superconducting-based quantum computing&quot;, says Witlef Wieczorek.</div> <div><br /></div> In Witlef Wieczorek’s research group, the cavity optomechanics project deals with increasing the light-matter interaction even further to access novel possibilities for the field of quantum technology. The present work reports a crucial step in this direction and presents a novel experimental platform based on specifically tailored AlGaAs heterostructures. <br /><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/figure3_sushanth_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Sushanth Kini" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />Sushanth Kini Manjeshwar (to the right), PhD student in the lab of Witlef Wieczorek at MC2 and the lead author of the article, fabricated high-reflectivity mechanical resonators in AlGaAs heterostructures in the world-class nanofabrication cleanroom at MC2. The raw material, an epitaxially grown heterostructure on a GaAs wafer, was supplied by the group of professor Shu Min Wang at the Photonics Laboratory at MC2. <br />&quot;We patterned the mechanical resonators with a so-called photonic crystal, which can alter the behavior of light. Here, the photonic crystal enables an increase of the optical reflectivity of the mechanical resonator, which is a crucial requirement for the project&quot;, explains Sushanth Kini Manjeshwar.<br />The design of the photonic crystal pattern was developed by the group of associate professor Philippe Tassin at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.<br /> <br />The work also shows the ability to fabricate two mechanical resonators on top of each other with a gap smaller than one micrometer. This ability is an important ingredient for the next step of the project, where the researchers plan to integrate the presented devices in a chip-based optomechanical cavity. Their grand goal is then to access the elusive regime of strong interaction between a single photon and a single phonon, which is indispensable for realizing novel hardware for the field of quantum technology.<br /><br />This is the first experimental work from the Wieczorek Lab at the Quantum Technology Laboratory at MC2, and it has been published as Editor’s Pick in the special topic on Hybrid Quantum Devices in the scientific journal Applied Physics Letters.<br /><br /><div>The research was driven by a newly established collaboration amongst researchers from Chalmers comprising the groups of Witlef Wieczorek and Shu Min Wang, both at MC2, and of Philippe Tassin at the <span>Department of Physics<span style="display:inline-block">.</span></span></div> <br /><div>The work was jointly supported by Chalmers Excellence Initiative Nano, the Swedish Research Council (VR), the European QuantERA project C’MON-QSENS! and the Wallenberg Centre for Quantum Technology (WACQT).</div> <br />Text: Witlef Wieczorek and Michael Nystås<br />Illustration: Alexander Ericson, Swirly Pop AB<br />Image of device: Sushanth Kini Manjeshwar<br />Photo of Sushanth Kini Manjeshwar: Michael Nystås<br /><br /><strong>Contact:</strong><strong> </strong><br />Witlef Wieczorek, Assistant Professor, Quantum Technology Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden,, <a href=""><span>wiecz</span><span></span></a><br /><br /><strong>Read the article in Applied Physics Letters &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /><a href="">Suspended photonic crystal membranes in AlGaAs heterostructures for integrated multi-element optomechanics</a><br />Tue, 30 Jun 2020 09:00:00 +0200 material to protect us from various pandemics<p><b>​A new material that can kill bacteria has now shown early promise in de-activation of viruses, including certain coronaviruses. The material, developed by researchers at Chalmers, is now being evaluated against SARS-CoV-2, which causes covid-19.</b></p><div>​The novel material, recently presented in a doctoral thesis, has proven to be very effective in killing common infection causing bacteria, including those that are resistant to antibiotics such as MRSA and a E. coli superbugs.<br /></div> <div>The basis of the research is a unique and patented technology where microbe-killing peptides are combined with a nanostructured material. So far, it has been targeted towards bacteria, but with the outbreak of the new coronavirus, the researchers started a study to <img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Amferia/porträtt_martin_320%20x%20400.jpg" alt="" style="height:229px;width:180px;margin:5px" />understand if the material would work against the virus. <br /><br />“Similar peptides that we work with have previously shown to be effective against various other coronaviruses, including those that have caused the outbreaks of SARS and MERS. Our premise is that the antimicrobial effect of our peptides seen on bacteria can be also be used to inactivate the coronavirus, says Martin Andersson”, research leader and professor at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Chalmers.<br /> </div> <div>Tests with the new material on another human coronavirus has shown promising early results where the material deactivated 99.9 percent of the virus. The researchers now see great potential for it to work on SARS-CoV-2, which causes Covid-19. They have initiated collaboration with researchers, based in Gothenburg University/ Sahlgrenska Academy, with access to the SARS-Cov-2.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Can be produced in various forms - mimics the body's immune system</h2> <div>The material can be produced in many different forms such as surface treatments and as small particles. When microbes such as bacteria and viruses come in contact with the material surface, they are rapidly killed, and further spread is prevented. The material can easily be adapted for use in personal protective equipment such as face masks and medical devices including respirators and intubation tubes. This way, the material may offer reliable protection against the current and future pandemics. The researchers see it as valuable technology for our efforts towards pandemic preparedness.<br />   </div> <div>“A surface layer of our new material on face masks would not only stop the passage of the virus but also reduce the risk that it can be transported further, for example when the mask is removed and thus reduce the spread of infection”, explains Martin Andersson.<br />  </div> <div>The strategy is to imitate how the body's immune system fights infectious microbes. Immune cells in our body produce different types of peptides that selectively damage the outer shell of bacteria and viruses. The mechanism is similar to the effect that soap and water has on bacteria and viruses, although, the peptides have higher selectivity and are efficient while totally harmless to human cells. A major advantage is that the way the material works provides a high flexibility and gives it a low sensitivity to mutations. Unlike vaccines, the peptides continue to inactivate the virus even if it mutates. The idea behind the research is to make us less vulnerable and better prepared when the next pandemic comes.</div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Connection between the ongoing pandemic and antibiotic resistance</h2> <div>As covid-19 unfolds, another healthcare threat, what many call the “silent pandemic” caused by antibiotic resistance has been ongoing for decades. According to WHO, antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to humanity. Without drastic action, estimates show that more people are likely to die of bacterial infections than cancer by 2050. Unfortunately, there is a worrying link between the ongoing pandemic and antibiotic resistance. Many covid-19 patients develop secondary bacterial infections which must be treated with antibiotics. According to the researchers, the new material may prove efficient for preventing both the viral and bacterial infections. </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Meant to protect health care personnel and individuals</h2> <div>To enable societal benefit from the new technology, the researchers started a company, Amferia AB, with support from Chalmers Innovation Office and Chalmers Ventures. Amferia is based at Astrazeneca BioVentureHub in Mölndal, Sweden.</div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Amferia/porträtt_saba_320%20x%20400.jpg" width="320" height="400" alt="" style="height:244px;width:190px;margin:5px" /><br />Earlier this year, Saba Atefyekta defended her PhD at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering at Chalmers. She presented the new material in her doctoral thesis titled &quot;Antibacterial Surfaces for Biomedical Applications&quot;. Saba is one of the founders of Amferia and the company's research manager<br />   </div> <div>“If we are not going to meet a dark future, we must prevent infections from happening. We believe that the materials we develop can help prevent future infections and thus reduce the use of antibiotics, so that we can continue to use these life-protecting medicines in the future”, says Saba Atefyekta</div> <div> </div> <div>When the antiviral effect of the material on the SARS-CoV-2 is confirmed, the next step is to make it rapidly available to protect both healthcare professionals and the general public.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div>Text: Jenny Jernberg</div> <div>Portrait photo  Saba Atefyekta: Mats Hulander<span style="display:inline-block"></span></div> <br /></div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Complementary fresh news about Amferia</h2> <div>Tuseday 30 June it was announced that Amferia has been selected as a “one to watch” in this year’s Spinoff Prize, which is organized by Nature Research and Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.</div> <div> </div></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div>Mon, 29 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0200 Cars and Chalmers renewed agreement<p><b>​Chalmers and Volvo Cars have a longstanding and well working collaboration in education, research and development. In June, the collaboration agreement was renewed for another three years.</b></p><div>​<span style="background-color:initial">The new agreement – signed by Chalmers' President Stefan Bengtsson and Mats Moberg, Senior Vice President Research &amp;Development at Volvo Cars – implies that Volvo Cars continues to be one of Chalmers so-called strategic partners. The strategic partnerships are characterized by extensive research collaborations, joint educational initiatives, and a diversity in collaboration across Chalmers research disciplines as well as focus on highlighted topics (<a href="/en/collaboration/strategic-partnerships/Pages/default.aspx">read more about the strategic partnerships here</a>).</span></div> <div><span><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">&quot;Chalmers takes an exceptional position&quot;</h2></span></div> <div>The academy is central for Volvo Cars, and will remain so in the future, says Mats Moberg:</div> <div> </div> <div> “For our provision of competence through excellent educational programmes, for the present through lifelong learning, and for our future development as a company with knowledge through collaborations in research and innovation. As a university, Chalmers takes an exceptional position as our main collaboration partner in all these areas”, he says, and continues:</div> <div> </div> <div>“We collaborate in student thesis projects, courses and educational programmes. Volvo and Chalmers work together in international projects, from the United States in the west to China in the east, and 60 percent of our industrial PhD students in Volvo Cars Industrial PhD Program – VIPP, which we established in 1999 – are now enrolled at Chalmers.”<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The great collaboration is not only due to the fact that Chalmers is close to Volvo Cars head office as the company is global, Mats Moberg points out.</div> <div> </div> <div>“It is simply because Chalmers offers both excellency and relevance in collaboration forms that have worked splendidly and enduring over the years.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Major and rapid changes in the transport system</h2> <div> </div> <div>The first partnership agreement was signed with Volvo Cars back in 2013. The company is today one of Chalmers’ largest strategic partners, says Sinisa Krajnovic, Director of Chalmers Transport Area of Advance. The renewal of the agreement means an opportunity to further develop the partnership.</div> <div> </div> <div>“We are in a time period with major and rapid changes in the transport system, including new technologies and mobility behaviors. The collaboration with Volvo Cars gives us an expanded opportunity to develop our research and education, and our utilization within the transport system, making us even more able to contribute to the development of sustainable, road-safe and efficient transport.”</div> <div> </div> <div><br />For Chalmers, the strategic partnerships are a tool for updating research and education, ensuring the research to be conducted at the forefront, as well as offering education to the very best future engineers. Through the partnerships, strategies are synchronized and the parties also have the opportunity to build joint infrastructures and test beds that would not have been possible without continuous dialogue.</div> <div> </div> <div><div>“In my opinion, the Areas of Advance have an important role to play in coordinating, as hosts of the partnerships”, says Sinisa Krajnovic.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Electrification and automation important areas</h2></div> <div> </div> <div>Chalmers and Volvo Cars already have a multitude of joint investments in research infrastructures, competence centers and research projects.</div> <div> </div> <div>“We also look forward to working together in the new, big investment in electromobility research, SEEL – Swedish Electric Transport Laboratory – where Volvo Cars plays an important part. Electrification is an important area of collaboration for both Chalmers and Volvo Cars, as well as automation”, says Sinisa Krajnovic.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>And Mats Moberg agrees:</div> <div> </div> <div>“The renewal of our agreement is a confirmation of our mutual ambition to further sharpen our collaboration. This to continue towards added excellency, and to continue our work towards our goal of a sustainable, safe and personal mobility, but also to be leading in electrification, autonomous drive and digitalization.”<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The renewed agreement is for three years, and automatically extended for another two years thereafter.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Text: Mia Malmstedt</div> <div> </div> <div>Photo: Erik Axén, Volvo Cars</div> <div> </div> <div>​<br /></div> <div> </div>Fri, 26 Jun 2020 16:00:00 +0200 million to develop communication systems of the future<p><b>​Niklas Rorsman, research professor at the Microwave Electronics Laboratory at MC2, receives 10 MSEK in research grant from the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF). Now, he has the opportunity to develop his cooperation with Taiwan.</b></p>&quot;We are very happy! You are always pleasantly surprised when applications are granted. This is especially true of SSF's calls where competition is always hard. In this call, there were many applicants, so the chance that our application would be welcomed so positively was relatively small&quot;, says Niklas Rorsman.<br /><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/nrorsman_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Picture of Niklas Rorsman." style="margin:5px" />He is funded with SEK 10 million for the new project &quot;Advanced GaN Devices for mm and sub-mm-wave communication&quot;.<br />&quot;We will try to optimize GaN transistors to operate at very high frequencies with the goal of being able to deliver enough output for the communication systems of the future. In the project, we will develop new materials and explore new component concepts to achieve this goal. We will be very dependent on the clean room and our measuring laboratory to be able to try and evaluate new ideas&quot;, explains Niklas.<br /><br />SSF awards a total of SEK 60 million to strengthen research collaboration with Taiwan in various projects. It is a new venture that complements the cooperation that SSF already has with Japan and South Korea.<br />&quot;I look forward to the fruition of this massively expanded collaboration between Swedish and Taiwanese researchers, including benefits to interacting industry with market opportunities stemming from innovations and scientific advances made in the projects&quot;, says professor and SSF CEO Lars Hultman in a press release.<br /><br />For Niklas Rorsman's part, a golden opportunity now arises to extend his existing exchange with Taiwan, by means of personnel, materials and knowledge:<br />&quot;We have long had a relatively close relationship with a group at National Chiao Tung University (NCTU) in Taiwan. So far, it has resulted in some &quot;dual-degree&quot; dissertations and we have had several guest doctoral students, who have been at Chalmers for about a year and worked with us in our projects&quot;, says Niklas.<br /><br />The hope is that doctoral students and researchers will be able to periodically spend time as guest researchers in Taiwan.<br />&quot;Taiwan is an interesting country to work with. They are one of the world's largest exporters of semiconductor technology&quot;, says Niklas.<br /><br />He describes himself as a country guy and a research professor who is most comfortable with lab work.<br />&quot;I am not so fond of air travel, but it might be necessary to travel to Taiwan now...&quot;<br /><br />Niklas Rorsman is one of only two Chalmers researchers to get support in this call, which received a total of 49 applications, of which six were granted. His happy colleague is Marianna Ivashina, professor at the Department of Electrical Engineering. She receives 10 million SEK for her project &quot;Antenna Technologies for Beyond-5G Wireless Communication&quot;.<br /><br />Text: Michael Nystås<br />Photo: Anna-Lena Lundqvist<br /><br /><div><a href="">Read press release from SSF</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/10-million-grant-to-antenna-research.aspx">Read more about Marianna Ivashina's grant</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<br /></div>Thu, 25 Jun 2020 09:00:00 +0200 to reach new diagnostics<p><b>​Research to develop new techniques for diagnostics is found all over Chalmers. Read about some examples here!​</b></p><em><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/New-technology-to-give-more-healthcare.aspx">​These examples are linked to a main article published here.</a><br /></em><div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Combating antibiotic resistance</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Erik Kristiansson at the Department of Mathematical Sciences has developed algorithms to analyse patterns in bacterial DNA. This can pinpoint changes that lead to resistance to antibiotics, thus increasing the chances of effective treatment. </span><br /></div> <div>In partnership with Kristina Lagerstedt and Susanne Staaf, Kristiansson founded 1928 Diagnostics, whose cloud-based software analyses the genetic code of bacteria and provides information about its spread and treatment options.<br /><br /></div> <div>Fredrik Westerlund at Biology and Biological Engineering studies the DNA molecules, called plasmids, that primarily cause the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance. To identify plasmids, the scientists attach “bar codes” to them. In combination with the CRISPR gene-editing tool, they can also identify the genes that make bacteria antibiotic resistant. Now the method has been further developed to identify the actual bacterium, which is important as different types of bacteria cause infections of differing severity.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div><em>Caption to picture above: Fredrik Westerlund studies the DNA molecules that primarily cause the rapid spread of antibiotic resistance. Here with colleagues Gaurav Goyal and Vinoth Sundar Rajan.</em></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Diagnostics using microwaves</h2> <div>Microwaves make it possible to detect patterns that can be used for diagnostics, by passing weak microwave signals through the body and processing them. The pattern created is analysed using algorithms for image reconstruction or AI-based classification.</div> <div> </div> <div>Researchers in the Department of Electrical Engineering, along with Sahlgrenska University Hospital and other partners, are applying these methods to stroke diagnostics and mammography. The technology makes it possible to build small, mobile units, which make it easier to make a fast, early diagnosis – which is particularly critical when diagnosing a stroke. </div> <div>The so called “stroke helmet” developed by the research team can be used in an ambulance to determine, even before the patient arrives in hospital, whether a stroke was caused by a blood clot or a haemorrhage. This reduces the time to treatment, allowing more stroke patients to recover with fewer aftereffects. </div> <div>“Many factors indicate that microwave technology has the potential to be a highly efficient diagnostic tool,” says Andreas Fhager.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Caption to picture above</em></span><em>: Andreas Fhager and the “stroke helmet”, which can determine whether a stroke was caused by a blood clot or a haemorrhage.</em></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">AI and diagnostics</h2> <div>Artificial intelligence can provide significant help in making healthcare decisions, and several AI projects are under way at Chalmers.</div> <div>Robert Feldt, Professor of computer science, and Marina Axelson-Fisk, Professor of mathematics, are working with the Clinic for Infectious Diseases at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in a project about sepsis – blood poisoning. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are critical for survival, but modern screening tools have low precision. The aim of the project is to help doctors to make the right diagnosis faster through the use of AI. The method they are developing can also be tested on other diagnoses, and this spring the researchers have particularly looked at whether it can be used on Covid-19.<br /><br /></div> <div>Another field where AI support has potential is in the analysis of medical imaging, in which computers learn to interpret radiological images of human organs. Fredrik Kahl’s research team at Electrical Engineering has partnered with Sahlgrenska University Hospital to develop an AI-based method of assessing tomographic images of the coronary arteries. Cardiovascular diseases are still the most common cause of death in Sweden and worldwide. An AI assessment not only has the potential to be just as accurate as a human, but also goes much faster and is more consistent once the computer has been fully trained. </div> <div>In the next step, AI can help to discover hitherto unnoticed connections and patterns, and thus contribute to creating new medical knowledge.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Caption to picture above:</em></span><em> Fredrik Kahl is a professor in the Department of Electrical Engineering. His research team is developing AI to diagnose medical imaging.</em></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Identifies disease before symptoms arise</span></h2> <div>Rikard Landberg at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering works in the field of metabolomics, an extensive analysis of molecules in biological samples such as blood plasma. Factors that affect health – genetics, lifestyle, environmental pollutants, medicines – make their mark on the metabolome, the pattern of tiny molecules in the sample. By measuring these indicators and relating them to health parameters and diseases, scientists can study the impact of various factors, as well as learning about underlying mechanisms. Research is also under way to find biomarkers that can identify diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes or cancer.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Caption to picture above:</em></span><em> Biomarkers in blood samples can give information on the risks of developing common illnesses.</em></div> <em> </em><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Fast and accurate influenza test</span></h2> <div>At the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Dag Winkler and his colleagues are building a small portable device that will be able to diagnose influenza in less than an hour, eliminating the need to send the sample to a lab for analysis. Getting the test results within an hour means that patients with contagious diseases can be isolated in time. The research project is being carried out in collaboration with several partners, including Karolinska Institutet.</div> <div>The project is focused on influenza diagnostics, but the team say the equipment can also be used to diagnose other diseases, such as malaria, SARS or Covid-19. In the past year, the research team has improved the sensitivity of the device to such a degree that they have applied for a patent and are looking into commercialisation.</div> <div><br /> </div> Texts: Mia Malmstedt and Malin Ulfvarson<br /><br /><a href="">These texts are republished from Chalmers Magasin no.1, 2020</a> (in Swedish).</div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/health/news/Pages/New-technology-to-give-more-healthcare.aspx">The exampels are linked to a main article, published here.​</a></div> <div><br /> </div>Wed, 24 Jun 2020 18:00:00 +0200