News: Globalhttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyFri, 21 Feb 2020 13:15:02 +0100http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/New-swedish-indian-collaboration-on-traffic-safety.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/New-swedish-indian-collaboration-on-traffic-safety.aspxNew Swedish-Indian collaboration on traffic safety<p><b>​Every year, more than 150,000 fatal traffic accidents occur in India. Chalmers University of Technology is now entering into a new collaboration between companies and institutes in Sweden and India, as the sole Swedish academic party. The collaboration will improve traffic safety and provide the basis for new innovations and knowledge exchange.​</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">On Thursday, 20 February, a collaboration agreement was signed to mark the start of Sitis, the Sweden-India Transport Innovation and Safety Partnership. This agreement brings together leading Swedish and Indian companies and institutes in a long-term and global cooperation.<br /><br /></span><div>“The aim of this collaboration is to become a prominent platform for applied research and innovation in the area of safe and sustainable transport,” says Chalmers President Stefan Bengtsson, and continues:</div> <div>“Traffic safety is an urgent and immediate concern in all parts of the world and is also critical in driving a nation’s prosperity. We are now very happy to enter into a bilateral partnership that will address key traffic safety challenges in India and Sweden.”<br /><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_bilder-utan-fast-format/rickshaw_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /></div> <div><div><div>The collaboration's outlines have been worked out over the past year, with Chalmers involved from day one. Both overall content and potential individual projects have been discussed. For Chalmers, the Sitis partnership is similar to an agreement with China, the China-Sweden Research Centre for Traffic Safety, which was signed in 2012.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Different strengths</h2></div></div> <div>Through Safer – the Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre at Chalmers – which brings together 35 parties from academia, industry and society, Chalmers has extensive experience of collaborations in the field of traffic safety. Magnus Granström, Director at Safer, points out that both Sweden and India have high capacity to develop technology, concepts and solutions. But the competence lies partly in different areas. Sweden is globally renowned for work on traffic safety, while India has a strong IT and computer science sector.<br /><br /></div> <div>“Chalmers can contribute with, for example, knowledge on intelligent transport systems, artificial intelligence and cyber security, road safety research and knowledge of how to establish test beds. These are strong areas for us,” says Magnus Granström.</div> <div><div>“We see a clear advantage to having a platform for cooperation with Swedish companies and institutes around challenges in India. Chalmers already collaborates with several of the parties involved through the Safer competence centre, and with Sitis in place we can now further develop these collaborations. The agreement also allows us to find new Indian parties to work together with.”</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">A new set of challenges</h2></div> <div>India is a huge and fast-growing country, with considerable gaps between the high and low educated, and major challenges in the transport sector. The Sitis partnership will build a deeper understanding of road safety in the country. This also provides insights into the core challenges of other fast-growing economies with similar problems, and potential solutions can be developed.</div> <div>“We will be able to benefit from learning the needs in a country so different from ours, in terms of both culture and infrastructure. How is a transport system developed in such a country? How do they serve the population with freight and passenger transport? These questions need to be answered in order to build a sustainable and prosperous society,” says Magnus Granström.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_bilder-utan-fast-format/SITIS_Sinisa_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS: Sitis, </strong><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Sweden</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>-</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>India Transport Innovation and Safety</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong> </strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Partnership</strong></span></div> <div>Sitis was launched in Stockholm on the third global conference on road safety within the UN. Nitin Gadkari, Minister of Transport &amp; Highways in India, and Tomas Eneroth, Swedish Minister for Infrastructure, were present, as well as CEOs and senior management representatives of various Swedish and Indian companies, academia and research institutes. Sinisa Krajnovic, Director of Chalmers Transport Area of Advance, signed for Chalmers.<br /><br /></div> <div>The members of Sitis are all leading in the traffic safety area. Members are:</div> <div>• The Volvo Group (initiator of Sitis)</div> <div>• Autoliv</div> <div>• Ericsson</div> <div>• Manipal Hospital</div> <div>• Altair</div> <div>• Saab</div> <div>• Tech Mahindra</div> <div>• India Institute of Science (IISc)</div> <div>• Transportation Research and Injury Prevention Program</div> <div>• Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (TRIPP, IITD)</div> <div>• Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div>• Rise</div> <div>• ARAI</div> <div>• Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI)<br /><br /></div> <div>The partnership will also collaborate with the Vision Zero Academy at the Swedish Transport Administration and Niti Aayog, National Institution of Transforming India.<br /><br /></div> <div>Text: Mia Malmstedt</div> <div>​Ph<span style="background-color:initial">oto: Magnus Granström, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Rana Prathap, </span><span style="background-color:initial">Pixabay</span></div> Thu, 20 Feb 2020 16:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Chalmers-Ventures-enters-a-new-phase.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Chalmers-Ventures-enters-a-new-phase.aspxChalmers Ventures enters a new phase – recruitment process for a new CEO begins<p><b>​Since its beginning in 2015, Chalmers Ventures has had a fantastic development. Now, halfway through its ten-year establishing period, it is time to expand further. The Board has now begun the recruitment of a new CEO, to replace outgoing CEO Linnéa Lindau. Gunnar Fernström will step in as acting CEO.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers Ventures came about from Chalmers' desire to consolidate its venture creation business. The wholly owned subsidiary was formed through a decision by Chalmers University of Technology and the Chalmers Foundation to raise 150 million kronor in operating funds and 300 million in investment capital for a ten-year establishing period.</span><div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The company's first fiscal year was 2015. The business is now five years old, halfway through the agreed funding period.</span><div><br /></div> <div>Linnéa Lindau has been CEO of Chalmers Ventures from the beginning. She has implemented the strategy for the first phase and, together with the staff at Chalmers Ventures, successfully established the business and developed Chalmers Ventures into an internationally leading incubator and investment organisation. In November, the company was named one of the world's ten best university incubators at the World Incubation Summit 2019 in Doha, Qatar.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The business is now primed to move up and enter a new, more expansive phase. Halfway through the agreed ten-year period, Chalmers Ventures’ Board has started strategic work looking at long-term goals. In conjunction with this work, the Board and owners together believe that it is now appropriate for a change of leadership. The owners and the Board see this as a natural step in the development of the business.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The recruitment process for a new CEO has begun. Outgoing CEO Linnéa Lindau hands over to Gunnar Fernström, who is now appointed acting CEO.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The Board of Directors and the owner would like to thank Linnéa Lindau for her invaluable efforts in establishing Chalmers Ventures as an internationally leading incubator and investment company, and we congratulate her on this achievement. We wish her all the best going forward,” says Johan Inden, Chairman of Chalmers Ventures.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Christian Borg</div> <div><br /></div> </div>Wed, 19 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Making-the-internet-more-energy-efficient-through-systemic-optimisation.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Making-the-internet-more-energy-efficient-through-systemic-optimisation.aspxMaking the internet more energy efficient<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers ​recently completed a 5-year research project looking at how to make fibre optic communications systems more energy efficient. Among their proposals are smart, error-correcting data chip circuits, which they refined to be 10 times less energy consumptive. The project has yielded multiple scientific articles, in publications including Nature Communications.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Streaming films and music, scrolling through social media, and using cloud-based storage services are everyday activities now. But to accommodate this digital lifestyle, a huge amount of data needs to be transmitted through fibre optic cables – and that amount is increasing at an almost unimaginable rate, consuming an enormous amount of electricity. This is completely unsustainable – at the current rate of increase, if no energy efficiency gains were made, within ten years the internet alone would consume more electricity than is currently generated worldwide. The electricity production cannot be increased at the same rate without massively increasing the usage of fossil fuels for electricity generation, which of course would lead to a significant increase in carbon dioxide emissions.</span><div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Smarta%20datachips%20del%20av%20lösningen%20för%20att%20göra%20internet%20energisnålare/Peter-Andrekson_250x333px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Peter Andrekson" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:263px" /><br /><span style="background-color:initial">“The challenge lies in meeting that inevitable demand for capacity and performance, while keeping costs at a reasonable level and minimising the environmental impacts,” says Peter Andrekson, Professor of Photonics at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience at Chalmers.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Peter Andrekson was the leader of the 5-year research project <a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=5914" target="_blank">‘Energy-efficient optical fibre communication’</a>, which has contributed significant advances to the field.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In the early phase of the project, the Chalmers researchers identified the biggest energy drains in today's fibre optic systems. With this knowledge, they then designed and built a concept for a system for data transmission which consumes as little energy as possible. Optimising the components of the system against each other results in significant energy savings.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Currently, some of the most energy-intensive components are error-correction data chips, which are used in optical systems to compensate for noise and interference. The Chalmers researchers have now succeeded in designing these chips with optimised circuits.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Smarta%20datachips%20del%20av%20lösningen%20för%20att%20göra%20internet%20energisnålare/Per-Larsson-Edefors_250x333px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Per Larsson-Edefors" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:263px" />“Our measurements show that the energy consumption of our refined chips is around 10 times less than conventional error-correcting chips,” says Per Larsson-Edefors, Professor in Computer Engineering at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>At a systemic level, the researchers also demonstrated the advantages of using ‘optical frequency combs’ instead of having separate laser transmitters for each frequency channel. An optical frequency comb emits light at all wavelengths simultaneously, making the transmitter very frequency-stable. This makes reception of the signals much easier – and thus more energy efficient.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Energy savings can also be made through controlling fibre optic communications at the network level. By mathematically modelling the energy consumption in different network resources, data traffic can be controlled and directed so that the resources are utilised optimally. This is especially valuable if traffic varies over time, as is the case in most networks. For this, the researchers developed an optimisation algorithm which can reduce network energy consumption by up to 70%.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The recipe for these successes has been the broad approach of the project, with scientists from three different research areas collaborating to find the most energy-saving overall solution possible, without sacrificing system performance.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Smarta%20datachips%20del%20av%20lösningen%20för%20att%20göra%20internet%20energisnålare/Erik-Agrell_250x333px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Erik Agrell" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:263px" />These research breakthroughs offer great potential for making the internet of the future considerably more energy-efficient. Several scientific articles have been published in the three research disciplines of optical hardware, electronics systems and communication networks.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Improving the energy efficiency of data transmission requires multidisciplinary competence. The challenges lie at the meeting points between optical hardware, communications science, electronic engineering and more. That’s why this project has been so successful”, says Erik Agrell, Professor in Communications Systems at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>More on the research</strong></div> <div>The research could have huge potential to make future internet usage significantly more energy efficient. It has resulted in several research publications within the three scientific disciplines of optical hardware, electronics systems and communications networks.The research results have been published in multiple articles, including the following three:</div> <div><ul><li><a href="http://postman.mynewsdesk.com/wf/click?upn=jT4ao6EIWq-2B-2Fx9SECyWO4-2F3NrlX2-2Fnm4FQcveXCi43isecyOuYW7oWnBr4foZiiDxPTbB82z7TI6BXHyW07hfQ-3D-3D_X6nVGqSMdJTrz-2FI1LxXG5p2migGMf1WazWDFt93-2FtiI1gYqAxvDcGyKwx2VSvp2QlDC8zwl-2FiQ3z2nU-2FDvBfcCXNBfSZya5hShDiF8z08wfY7Q-2FR1Jl97JC9YEVeNAuUKw8A6Hg9HFJqED33HyC6X-2FPdIthmPed6oD5We0Cz87flAJm27k78v9LfPFamfc6duUGlnbrgzUumapYLt9CqXRkCTRLkkbhfMNmxjd1h7iXQb-2BOPNzQT4bZTPmb1ZIjaOFnwDCQE5HLYh3Mri-2BWrjHOC4kzMhCIBi1-2FNW8vRW76K7Tk7QGjX780n-2BSbUF7FlOtYLygDDS4wPuoHqi3RKntryQc11wS-2B7ixuLgOjOpxfR0LworYeAvjl6WCn-2F7MRPmR9TqGwYnOmpd8PUhD68XM-2BE0bkDD309Y4u6oF0oqFYVv7m0PMWSqA7I-2Fumtm0si">Phase-coherent lightwave communications with frequency combs</a>, in the journal Nature Communications</li> <li><a href="http://postman.mynewsdesk.com/wf/click?upn=jT4ao6EIWq-2B-2Fx9SECyWO476aL63ZsrzN6XM2ZyLUkt4LVCzdaMF6a-2BbtzhvUwUNAPg5CrkovkVIZl32zUyuVDA-3D-3D_X6nVGqSMdJTrz-2FI1LxXG5p2migGMf1WazWDFt93-2FtiI1gYqAxvDcGyKwx2VSvp2QlDC8zwl-2FiQ3z2nU-2FDvBfcCXNBfSZya5hShDiF8z08wfY7Q-2FR1Jl97JC9YEVeNAuUKw8A6Hg9HFJqED33HyC6X-2FPdIthmPed6oD5We0Cz87flAJm27k78v9LfPFamfc6duUGlnbrgzUumapYLt9CqXaMOvQXSbSnPVHd7JGZmXlLnNRGpyxYUzDnnGBpduNzYe59Jypgq3i2XlfcsP3jyAOgvphzUmCJDC0Doc3P2lWApRkWgPn53L8Xv7KLoBaBTMKdagQ-2BJt-2FYg3iMSvkdvxHKZEyxe0Bbwdd9j-2Fon9v3dZ9qXSGo6nPuhjSydnrT4zt4i7YlM7aHkKlCOiYXwIrd7fIJjwM0w79a51f3XNP6B5K-2FV-2FLX0I5BKZjP6Hha7Q" target="_blank">Energy-Efficient High-Throughput VLSI Architectures for Product-Like Codes</a>, in the Journal of Lightwave Technology</li> <li><a href="http://postman.mynewsdesk.com/wf/click?upn=jT4ao6EIWq-2B-2Fx9SECyWO45ylyOQAxTlckGFPvpsOSfmETKhei9ty-2FGzNz3WavkKCxfhOKjZjQLgQnwnpXvl6PzOwocXiDbtcgAQSLukL6jFQGZmg46jsdzSB6P9sSovl_X6nVGqSMdJTrz-2FI1LxXG5p2migGMf1WazWDFt93-2FtiI1gYqAxvDcGyKwx2VSvp2QlDC8zwl-2FiQ3z2nU-2FDvBfcCXNBfSZya5hShDiF8z08wfY7Q-2FR1Jl97JC9YEVeNAuUKw8A6Hg9HFJqED33HyC6X-2FPdIthmPed6oD5We0Cz87flAJm27k78v9LfPFamfc6duUGlnbrgzUumapYLt9CqXfRTKFpEtDMh-2BfW9a51nHBFj7O70TmIHGP9cZbVbjLNtwxgdvzK3G-2B-2BUvZCdlRa1y6qdR3Gzw-2Fa7FLh5DIO1hSoc9uXCYiuoXAlgUNsCi6w9tFtxDTkABgoqpHycm-2BoZ8DvOdQQNR7816C8YXaXbHueyTSeBUqpVxpxb73U6FJUpGqLvpqiMbUbxJwR47BTFERCY88tAvDa7PhfAFsUA5gcgdDirN4WjS4k76MksJoVd" target="_blank"><span style="background-color:initial">Join</span><span style="background-color:initial">t power-efficient traffic shaping and service provisioning for metro elastic optical networks</span>​</a><span style="background-color:initial">, in the journal IEEE/OSA Journal of Optical Com</span><span style="background-color:initial">munications and Networking, </span><br /></li></ul></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The 5-year research project <a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=5914">’Energy-efficient optical fibre communication’</a> ran from 2014–2019, and was financed by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Some more information on some of the research breakthroughs:</strong></div> <div>Smart, error correcting chips:</div> <div>The data chips have been designed by Chalmers and manufactured in Grenoble in France. The Chalmers researchers subsequently verified the chips’ performance and measured the energy usage, which was just a tenth of current error-correcting chips. </div> <div>At an energy transfer speed of 1 terabyte per second (1 terabyte = 1 trillion bits) <a href="https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/8611331" target="_blank">the researchers demonstrated that the chip drew less energy than 2 picojoules​</a> (1 picojoule = 1 trillionth of a joule) per bit. This equates to a power consumption of 2 Watts at this data rate. Comparatively, the current energy usage at such high transfer speeds is around 50 picojoules per bit, around 50 Watts.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Yvonne Jonsson</div> <div>Portrait photos: Johan Bodell, Chalmers, Laurence L Levin</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>For more information, contact:</strong></div> <div>Optical hardware: </div> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Peter-Andrekson.aspx">Peter Andrekson</a>, leader of the research project, and Professor of Photonics at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience at Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div><a href="mailto:%20peter.andrekson@chalmers.se">peter.andrekson@chalmers.se</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Electronics systems: </div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/perla.aspx">Per Larsson-Edefors</a>, Professor in Computer Engineering at the Department of Computer Science and Engineering at Chalmers <span style="background-color:initial">University of Technology</span></div> <div><a href="mailto:%20perla@chalmers.se">perla@chalmers.se</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Communications networks: </div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/erik-agrell.aspx">Erik Agrell​</a>, Professor in Communications Systems at the Department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers <span style="background-color:initial">University of Technology</span></div> <div><a href="mailto:%20perla@chalmers.se">agrell@chalmers.se</a></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div></div></div></div>Thu, 13 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/Experts-Traffic-deaths-halved-by-2030.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/Experts-Traffic-deaths-halved-by-2030.aspxExperts: Fatal road accidents halved by year 2030<p><b>​Over 1.3 million people die in traffic accidents every year. Consequently, traffic accidents are the most common cause of death in certain age groups. The world&#39;s experts are now gathering in Stockholm to discuss new UN goals for road safety, developed under the leadership of Chalmers professor Claes Tingvall.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Transports and traffic are fundamental parts of life for most of us. From our homes, we step into a traffic system that takes us to work, school, business, health care or to our loved ones.</span><div>But at the same time, 1.3 million people are killed in road accidents and 50 million people are injured – every year. Most accidents, as much as 93 per cent, occur in low- and middle-income countries, where the resources and technical solutions for road safety are lacking to a larger extent.<br /><br /></div> <div>“The problem of road accidents has not diminished the way we hoped. The recommendations proposed by our expert group are effective actions – it is now a matter if it gets done or not”, says Claes Tingvall, adjunct professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers and chair of the academic expert group that has developed new UN targets for world road safety.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_bilder-utan-fast-format/Claes%20Tingvall_300.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">he overall goal is to reduce the number of deaths and serious injuries as a result of traffic accidents by fifty per cent over the next ten years. To achieve this goal by the year 2030, Claes Tingvall is certain about the way forward:</span><br /></div> <div>“We must constantly point to science as the solution to societal problems. Then stick to it and act accordingly!”<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">A public health issue</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">On February 19–20, 2020, the world's leading road safety experts will convene together with decision-makers and ministers in Stockholm for the third global conference on road safety within the UN. There, the expert group's opinion will be indicative for the global cooperation for safer traffic.</span></div> <div>The academic expert group, chaired by Claes Tingvall, is composed of 13 experts from around the world and has been tasked with developing complementary methods, processes and tools for the new decade's global traffic safety. The fundament has been the global goals for sustainable development and Agenda 2030.<br /><br /></div> <div>“The lack of road safety is a public health issue. More than 100,000 children die each year in traffic accidents, making it the most common cause of death for in certain age groups. But it is possible to solve the problem, provided that scientifically developed methods are used”, says Claes Tingvall.<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Collaboration is the key</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">oday broad research is being conducted in vehicle and road safety at Chalmers. The focus is, among other things, on understanding why accidents occur and how they can be prevented, as well as minimizing injuries to the human body when it is exposed to the extreme stresses that often occur in traffic accidents. Historically, vehicle and traffic safety has been a strong research area at Chalmers and the development of modern seat belts, child safety seats and airbags originated at the university.<br /><br /></span></div> <div>Research within road safety will be even more significant in the future as the volume of traffic is constantly increasing. According to the UN, the world's cities will grow by over 50 per cent in the next 30 years. It is important to have knowledge of how to develop roads and infrastructures in the best possible way as it is being built, while scientific solutions are applied and developed in already existing traffic systems.<br /><br /></div> <div>Magnus Granström is the director of the Safer competence centre at Chalmers, where multidisciplinary research is conducted in road safety. At Safer, various research areas – such as systems for accident prevention, road user behaviour, human body protection and safety performance evaluations – connect. Magnus Granström believes that there are many sub-areas to focus on in road safety, and unprotected road users will be a special challenge as we see an increasing number of cyclists, electric scooters and pedestrians.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Areas%20of%20Advance/Transport/_puffbilder/Magnus_Granstrom_350_cropped.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">Universities need to continue to invest in a breadth of research, as there is no single answer to the question of how traffic should continue to become safer. Above all, understanding the complexity of future traffic systems with different types of road users will be necessary”, says Magnus Granström.<br /></span><br /></div> <div>To reach the goal of cutting the number of deaths and injuries by half, Magnus Granström believes that the research community needs to gain further insight into existing obstacles. For example, he points to an over-reliance in automated vehicles and their contribution to increased safety, as well as a lack of system thinking among researchers and financiers, who instead focus too much on individual areas and personas.</div> <div>“The main key to achieving this goal is collaboration between the various players – industry, academia and politics”, says Magnus Granström.<br /></div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Recommendations with a clear vision</h2> <div><span style="background-color:initial">T</span><span style="background-color:initial">he academic group of experts has presented a total of nine scientifically based recommendations. If the recommendations are followed, the expert group believes that the goal of reducing the number of deaths by half is likely to be achieved by 2030. The recommendations are interconnected and will guide the work on road safety as part of the Global Sustainable Development Goals. And for the first time, road safety is now included in international objectives through agenda 2030.</span></div> <div>“With the global goals, which point out who should do what, we have access to both the private and the public sector, and thus can benefit from the synergies that exist between climate, health and justice. For example, speed connects to clean air, climate and security”, says Claes Tingvall.<br /><br /></div> <div>At the same time, he emphasizes the fact that the most powerful tools will also make the greatest impact. Those tools are mainly about sustainability reporting and public procurement. If the work on road safety is integrated with these tools, large effects can be achieved. The report that the expert group recently released highlights collaborations between politics, academia, business and other organizations on a global scale.</div> <div>“To solve the problems in low-income countries, where the problems are greatest, you need to apply the simple and cheap solutions that already exist. In high-income countries, all known methods must be applied – it's as simple as that”, says Claes Tingvall.<br /><br /></div> <div>Text: Anders Ryttarson Törneholm and Mia Malmstedt<br />Photos: Rune Borgström, Emmy Jonsson and Pixabay</div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: The Sustainable Development Goals</h3> <div>The Sustainable Development Goals were adopted by all United Nations Member States in 2015 as a universal call to action to end poverty, protect the planet and ensure that all people enjoy peace and prosperity by 2030.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Road safety is directly connected to two of the 17 global goals:</div> <div> </div> <div>Goal 3: Good health and well-being</div> <div> </div> <div>Target 3.6:  Halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents.</div> <div> </div> <div>Goal 11: Sustainable cities and communities</div> <div> </div> <div>Target 11.2: Provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Road safety also affects many of the other global goals indirectly.</div></div> <div><div><a href="https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/sdgs">​Read more about the UN Sustainable Development Goals here!</a></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: Nine recommendations for safer traffic</h3> <div>The expert group's recommendations is divided into:<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>1. Modal Shift</div> <div> </div> <div>2. Sustainable Practices and Reporting</div> <div> </div> <div>3. Safe Vehicles across the Globe</div> <div> </div> <div>4. Childrens Health</div> <div> </div> <div>5. Public Procurement</div> <div> </div> <div>6. Speed limit of 30 kph</div> <div> </div> <div>7. Upgrade Infrastructure</div> <div> </div> <div>8. Zero Speeding</div> <div> </div> <div>9. Technology</div></div> <div><div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="https://www.roadsafetysweden.com/about-the-conference/recommendations-from-academic-expert-group/">Watch film clips with Claes Tingvall explaining each recommendation!</a></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="https://www.roadsafetysweden.com/contentassets/c65bb9192abb44d5b26b633e70e0be2c/200113_final-report-single.pdf">Read the full report from the expert group here.</a></div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: Safer</h3> <div> </div> <div>Safer is a centre of excellence for vehicle and traffic safety which conducts collaborative, interdisciplinary research and knowledge transfer to eliminate fatalities and serious injuries in traffic. Chalmers is the host for the center, which has in total 35 partners from academia, industry and society.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="https://www.saferresearch.com/">Read more about Safer.</a></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3"> </h3> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">FACTS: A pre-event on the night before the UN conference arranged by Safer</h3> <div> </div> <div><span></span> <span style="background-color:initial">On the evening of February 18, the day before the UN conference, Safer organizes a pre-event in Stockholm. The focus will be, among other things, on collaborations and new research. Participants include Fredrik Hörstedt, Chalmers Vice President of Utilisation, and speakers from the European Commission and Volvo. About 200 guests are expected, including EU commissioners, decision-makers and Swedish parliament politicians. Most of the guests come from countries with many fatal road accidents, including Uganda, Liberia, India and Nigeria.</span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“We hope to spread the message about our way of collaborating to the international actors participating it our event, and at the same time create even better communication between both partners and research areas”, says Magnus Granström, Director at Safer.<br /><br /><a href="https://www.saferresearch.com/events/borderless-research-save-lives-dinner-event-how-vision-zero-can-be-addressed-collaboration">Read more about the pre-event!</a><br /><br />Previous news article about Claes Tingvall: <a href="/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Will-develop-new-global-goals-for-road-safety-in-the-UN.aspx">Will develop new global goals for road safety​</a></div></div> Wed, 12 Feb 2020 19:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Two-new-steps-as-the-Chalmers-fence-celebrates-five-years.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Two-new-steps-as-the-Chalmers-fence-celebrates-five-years.aspxTwo new steps as the Chalmers fence celebrates five years<p><b>​The Chalmers fence at the Gothenburg Horse Show 2020 measures the horse&#39;s jump curve, where the horse has its highest point in relation to the fence. As the Chalmers fence now celebrates its five-year anniversary, two new steps are taken – the technology used will for the first time be based on machine learning, and the previous measurement technology from the fence will move into the Swedish Equestrian Federation&#39;s educational facility Strömsholm.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The way a horse jumps over a fence differs between both individuals and equipage. Some horses jump off too early or too late, giving the highest point before or after the fence. In an optimal jump, the highest point is just above the fence, meaning the horse used just the right technique and amount of energy for its leap.</span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>First time with machine learning</strong><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>For this year's fence, the group of students will, for the first time ever, use the Image Processing technique, where a computer is trained through machine learning to detect the horse's hooves in a filmed leap and thereby calculate the coordinates for the highest position in the jump over the fence.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“This involves some technical difficulties. In previous years, the Chalmers fence has measured one variable at a time. We are measuring both the highest point in a vertical path from the ground, and where that point relates to the fence in a horizontal direction,” says Anna Skötte, student and project manager for the Chalmers fence 2020.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Chalmers fence project is run by Chalmers students in collaboration with Gothenburg Horse Show, with the aim of using new smart technology to broaden the knowledge of the horses' jumping technique and thereby provide scientific evidence for sustainable training and competition of horses, as well as breeding. Like last year, the competing riders in the Gothenburg Horse Show are invited to the Chalmers exhibition stand in Scandinavium's foyer to see their own measuring results.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Swedish Equestrian Federation will use the technology​</strong></div> <div>The Chalmers fence project takes yet another new and important step as the combined experience from five years of measurements at the Gothenburg Horse Show will moves into the Swedish Equestrian Federation's riding house Strömsholm. The national team leaders in the Equestrian Association Federation have made a wish list for more developed scientific technology, and Chalmers University of Technology has been asked to engage, together with the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences and the National Horse Industry, and further develop the connected riding house at Strömsholm and supplement with cameras and sensors for biomechanics, among other things.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What does this collaboration mean for the equine industry and equestrian sports in Sweden?</strong></div> <div>“In the horse world we have a lot of commonly accepted truths that we have not been able to test scientifically. With this collaboration we have that opportunity, so from now on it is only our imagination that sets boundaries,” says Tomas Torgersen, competition manager for the Gothenburg Horse Show.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Daniel Svensson is the head teacher in horse jumping at the Strömsholm Riding School and one of the driving forces behind the collaboration with Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What do you hope Chalmers will contribute to the development of Strömsholm's riding house?</strong></div> <div>“Just like national teams in other sports scientifically analyse how they can change their training and achieve better results, we need to examine how the horse behaves, what the riders do and how it affects the horses. Chalmers has developed scientific technology and methods for several years, and we want to share the experience, instead of reinventing the wheel, to investigate what is most favourable to the horse and give the best results in competition,” says Daniel Svensson.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>With the project &quot;<a href="/en/centres/sportstechnology/education/Pages/Tracks-course-Chalmers-Fence.aspx" title="Link to information at chalmers.se">The continuation of the Chalmers fence</a>&quot;, which is part of Chalmers’ new<a href="/en/news/Pages/Tracks-prepares-students-for-the-future.aspx" title="Link to article about Tracks"> educational initiative Tracks</a>, students from different disciplines will continue to develop both new and existing techniques for horse welfare and performance.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span></span><strong>What significance does the collaboration with Strömsholm have for Chalmers?</strong><span style="font-weight:700"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/MagnusKarlsteen_180130_270x170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:10px 15px" /></span><strong><br /></strong><span style="background-color:initial">“This means that the technology demo</span><span style="background-color:initial">nstrated at the Gothenburg Horse Show through the Chalmers fence is further developed and given the opportunity to reach into the horse world via Strömsholm. In addition, Chalmers students and alumni will be involved in developing technology that can change equestrian sports at the highest level, in collaboration with people and horses at one of Sweden's finest equestrian facilities, and also at a later stage make the technology available to the ordinary rider,” says Magnus Karlsteen, responsible for the Chalmers fence and Chalmers equestrian sports.</span><strong><br /></strong></div> <div><br /></div></div> <div>Text: Helena Österling af Wåhlberg</div> <div>Photo: Johan Bodell/Mia Halleröd Palmgren/Chalmers</div>Wed, 12 Feb 2020 07:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/New-opportunities-for-materials-research-at-Chalmers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/New-opportunities-for-materials-research-at-Chalmers.aspxNew opportunities for materials research at Chalmers<p><b>The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) has decided to extend the funding of the SwedNess research school by 100 million SEK until 2025.</b></p><div><div><span></span><span style="background-color:initial"></span><span style="background-color:initial">SwedNess is a graduate school for neutron scattering operated by six Swedish Universities, including Chalmers.</span><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">The goal is to educate 20 doctoral students as a base for Sweden's expertise in neutron scattering with respect to the research infrastructure European Spalliation Source (ESS) being built outside Lund right now. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Jan%20Swenson.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:100px;width:100px" /><div>&quot;It is important to strengthen the competence in neutron scattering at Chalmers in order to remain successful in materials research and to benefit from ESS,&quot; says Professor Jan Swenson at the Department of Physics at Chalmers, who is SwedNess'  Director of Studies at Chalmers.  </div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/sv/institutioner/fysik/nyheter/Sidor/Nya-mojligheter-for-materialforskningen-pa-Chalmers.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read a longer article on Chalmers' Swedish homepage. </a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://strategiska.se/en/research/ongoing-research/graduate-school-neutron-science/project/8304/"><span><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></span>Read more about SwedNess. ​</a></div> <div></div>Fri, 07 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/researchinfrastructure/oso/news/Pages/Alma-double-star-HD101584.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/researchinfrastructure/oso/news/Pages/Alma-double-star-HD101584.aspxChalmers astronomers and Alma study stellar fight&#39;s beautiful outcome<p><b>​A Chalmers-led team of ​astronomers have used the telescope Alma to study the remarkable gas cloud that resulted from a confrontation between two stars. One star grew so large it engulfed the other which, in turn, spiralled towards its partner provoking it into shedding its outer layers.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Like humans, stars change with age and ultimately die. For the Sun and stars like it, this change will take it through a phase where, having burned all the hydrogen in its core, it swells up into a large and bright red-giant star. Eventually, the dying Sun will lose its outer layers, leaving behind its core: a hot and dense star called a white dwarf.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The star system HD101584 is special in the sense that this ‘death process’ was terminated prematurely and dramatically as a nearby low-mass companion star was engulfed by the giant,” said Hans Olofsson, astronomer at Chalmers University of Technology, who led a recent study, published in Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics, of this intriguing object.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Thanks to new observations with Alma, complemented by data from the telescope Apex (Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment), Hans Olofsson and his team now know that what happened in the double-star system HD 101584 was akin to a stellar fight. As the main star puffed up into a red giant, it grew large enough to swallow its lower-mass partner. In response, the smaller star spiralled in towards the giant’s core but didn’t collide with it. Rather, this manoeuvre triggered the larger star into an outburst, leaving its gas layers dramatically scattered and its core exposed.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The team says the complex structure of the gas in the HD101584 nebula is due to the smaller star’s spiralling towards the red giant, as well as to the jets of gas that formed in this process. As a deadly blow to the already defeated gas layers, these jets blasted through the previously ejected material, forming the rings of gas and the bright bluish and reddish blobs seen in the nebula.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A silver lining of a stellar fight is that it helps astronomers to better understand the final evolution of stars like the Sun, explains co-author Sofia Ramstedt, astronomer at Uppsala University.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Currently, we can describe the death processes common to many Sun-like stars, but we cannot explain why or exactly how they happen. HD101584 gives us important clues to solve this puzzle since it is currently in a short transitional phase between better studied evolutionary stages. With detailed images of the environment of HD101584 we can make the connection between the giant star it was before, and the stellar remnant it will soon become,” she says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Co-author Elizabeth Humphreys from ESO in Chile highlighted that Alma and Apex, located in the country’s Atacama region, were crucial to enabling the team to probe “both the physics and chemistry in action” in the gas cloud. She added: “This stunning image of the circumstellar environment of HD 101584 would not have been possible without the exquisite sensitivity and angular resolution provided by Alma.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>While current telescopes allow astronomers to study the gas around the binary, the two stars at the centre of the complex nebula are too close together and too far away to be resolved. ESO’s Extremely Large Telescope, under construction in Chile’s Atacama Desert, “will provide information on the ‘heart’ of the object,” says Hans Olofsson, allowing astronomers a closer look at the fighting pair. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>See also ESO's press release: <a href="https://www.eso.org/public/news/eso2002/">https://www.eso.org/public/news/eso2002/</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong><em>Image:</em></strong></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <em> </em><div><em>A. (top) </em><span style="background-color:initial"><em>​ALMA reveals the beautiful results of a struggle between two stars: a complex of gas clouds round binary star HD 101584. </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>​</em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em> The colours represent speed, going from blue — gas moving the fastest towards us — to red — gas moving the fastest away from us. Jets, almost along the line of sight, propel the material in blue and red. The stars in the binary are located at the single bright dot at the centre of the ring-like structure shown in green, which is moving with the same velocity as the system as a whole along the line of sight. Astronomers believe this ring has its origin in the material ejected as the lower mass star in the binary spiralled towards its red-giant partner.​</em></span></div> <em> </em><div><span style="background-color:initial"><em>Credit: </em></span><span style="background-color:initial"><em>ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), Olofsson et al. Acknowledgement: Robert Cumming</em></span></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <div><strong>More information</strong></div> <div><br /></div> <div>This research was presented in a paper published in Astronomy &amp; Astrophysics: <i style="background-color:initial">HD 101584: circumstellar characteristics and evolutionary status</i><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">(</span><a href="https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201834897">https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201834897</a><span style="background-color:initial">)</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The team is composed of Hans Olofsson (Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers), Theo Khouri (Chalmers), Matthias Maercker (Chalmers), Per Bergman (Chalmers), Lam Doan (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University), Daniel Tafoya (National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers), Wouter Vlemmings (Chalmers), E. M. L. Humphreys (European Southern Observatory [ESO], Garching, Germany), Michael Lindqvist (<span style="background-color:initial">Onsala Space Observatory,</span><span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">Chal</span><span style="background-color:initial">mers), Lars-Åke Nyman (ESO, Santiago, Chile) and Sofia Ramstedt (Uppsala University).</span></div> <div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA), an international astronomy facility, is a partnership of ESO, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Institutes of Natural Sciences (NINS) of Japan in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. ALMA is funded by ESO on behalf of its Member States, by NSF in cooperation with the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) and the National Science Council of Taiwan (NSC) and by NINS in cooperation with the Academia Sinica (AS) in Taiwan and the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). ALMA construction and operations are led by ESO on behalf of its Member States; by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), managed by Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI), on behalf of North America; and by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ) on behalf of East Asia. The Joint ALMA Observatory (JAO) provides the unified leadership and management of the construction, commissioning and operation of ALMA. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Chalmers and Onsala Space Observatory have been involved in Alma since its inception, building for example receivers for the telescope. Onsala Space Observatory hosts the Nordic Alma Regional Centre which provides technical expertise and supports scientists <span style="background-color:initial">in the Nordic countries who </span><span style="background-color:initial">use​​​​​ Alma</span><span style="background-color:initial">.​</span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div><br /></div>Wed, 05 Feb 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/tme/news/Pages/Entrepreneurship-as-design.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/tme/news/Pages/Entrepreneurship-as-design.aspxEntrepreneurship as design – a useful approach<p><b>​What does it mean to study entrepreneurship as design rather than with a “scientific microscope”? Chalmers researcher Henrik Berglund and his colleagues believe that the research becomes more useful in practice when you assume that products, services and companies are created in response to different needs and purposes.</b></p><div>​Some of the world's leading entrepreneurship researchers recently gathered for the second time at a conference in Gothenburg to discuss what it means to treat entrepreneurship as a design science. The event was initiated by Henrik Berglund, Associate Professor at the Division of Entrepreneurship and Strategy, Department of Technology Management and Economics at Chalmers.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Entrepreneurship research has traditionally been treated as a science concerned with natural phenomena. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“In the natural sciences, you want to find out how the world is constructed. What kind of mechanisms there are, such as laws of nature, or social mechanisms? For example, ‘people who have greater self-confidence see more business opportunities’ – and the scholars will correlate people's self-confidence with the number of opportunities they identify.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“Design science, on the other hand, is not about describing nature. Instead, it is about describing artificial systems and how to create artifacts, that is, ‘non-natural’ things that people design for a purpose. A pen does not exist in nature. Someone has made it that way so that you can write with it, carry it in your pocket, manufacture it cheaply and so on.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Henrik Berglund continues:</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“Scientific disciplines such as engineering and architecture are examples of design sciences. We believe that entrepreneurship belongs in this category as well. The purpose of these sciences is to understand how to design artifacts, such as cars or buildings. What are the characteristics of these artifacts? What are effective methods and processes to design them? In design science, researchers often start from the fundamental knowledge provided by the natural sciences and study how this, in combination with human needs, can give rise to new artifacts.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Useful in practice</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Design science research can also more easily be used in teaching as evidenced by the fact that most entrepreneurship courses are based on handbooks written by various practicing entrepreneurs, rather than on the teachers' own research.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“These practice books are often very useful and good, but they are also a bit coarse and based on a limited set of experiences. The advantage we have as researchers is that we can spend five or ten years and think deeply about how things work. In this sense research resembles practice, but involves more and deeper reflection,” says Henrik Berglund.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“In design science, validity is about producing things that are actually useful and workable, rather than ‘corresponding with nature’ as in the natural sciences. Here the question is rather: is it useful? It is a more pragmatic approach.”</div> <div style="text-align:center;font-size:20px"> </div> <div style="text-align:center;font-size:20px"><div><span><em>&quot;Many researchers feel that the gap between their research <br />and teaching is disturbing.”</em><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>How controversial is it to change to, or rather supplement with, a different scientific approach?</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“Here at Chalmers most people think this makes a lot of sense. As they do at most other technical universities. There is also a general trend in this direction. Many researchers feel that the gap between their research and teaching is disturbing.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More than just decision making</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>One person who has long advocated for the merits of design science is Professor Saras D. Sarasvathy of Darden School of Business, University of Virginia, USA. She is a former jubilee professor at Chalmers, she is also affiliated with the reputable Indian Institute of Management in Bangalore and has been named one of the world's leading entrepreneurship researchers by Fortune magazine. At the conference, she presented a work detailing design as co-creation.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“The process of co-creating is fascinating. To design relationships, how do we do that? We want to do something together, but that means that we also need to structure our relationship. What is my role, what is your role? Who is bringing what to the table and how will we share the rewards? How can we structure such relationships when there are multiple uncertainties?”</div> <div> </div> <div></div> <div><div> </div> <div style="text-align:center;font-size:20px"><span><em>&quot;In the world we live in today, it is not enough <br />to just study decision making&quot;</em><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Saras Sarasvathy believes that much of management and entrepreneurship research has been driven around the issue of decision making. “How do we make the choice?”, but never asking where the alternatives came from. Someone must have designed the choice set in the first place – and how was that done?</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“I see decision making as a subset of design. We go from something quite narrow, like decision making, to design, which is much broader – but also more difficult. In the world we live in today, it is not enough to just study decision making. We need to address these larger aspects. I think the design perspective is much more useful.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The social opportunities are exciting, says Saras Sarasvathy.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“There is an ongoing democratization of design and innovation. Our students want to discuss things like how to end poverty and deal with climate change. We are all part of solving it – we cannot leave it to a few experts. Students want to talk about it, and policy makers want to know how it works. Even larger companies today have to confront the social aspects of the business.”</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/sv/institutioner/tme/nyheter/PublishingImages/saras_sjoerd_750x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><em>Saras Sarasvathy from </em></span><span><span><em>University of Virginia</em><span style="display:inline-block"><em>  </em></span></span></span><span><em>and Sjoerd Romme from TU Eindhoven.</em></span><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Creativity as a systematic process</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Another participant at the Chalmers conference was Sjoerd Romme from TU Eindhoven in the Netherlands. Originally, he comes from a social science and economics background, but when he started working together with engineers he adopted a different mindset. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“The design methodology is more like how an engineer thinks and acts. It is more problem-oriented, more problem-solving, rather than developing theories and trying to validate them.”</div> <div> </div> <div style="text-align:center;font-size:20px"><span> </span></div> <div> </div> <div style="text-align:center;font-size:20px"><div><span><span><span><em>”</em></span></span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><span><span><em>All breakthrough research starts with some <br />type of ‘Eureka moment’&quot;</em></span></span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>He believes that all good research has a strong design component.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“All breakthrough research starts with some type of ‘Eureka moment’: in the bathtub, in the car when driving, during a conversation at a conference or when you sit with a customer. We rarely cover this creative moment in science.”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>“We often want to refer to some kind of rational process, something evidence-based, some kind of basic principle that can explain our insights. But creativity is also a reasonably systematic process – an exploration of different alternatives that you try out. This also means you can learn it and teach it. That is a great advantage of the design methodology,” Sjoerd Romme points out.</div> <div><br /><br /></div> <div><strong>Further reading:</strong><br /><span style="background-color:initial">Henrik Berglund, Marouane Bousfiha and Yashar Mansoori from Chalmers have been published in </span><span style="background-color:initial">The Academy of Management Review with the article </span><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/338817318_Opportunities_as_Artifacts_and_Entrepreneurship_as_Design">&quot;Opportunities as Artifacts and Entrepreneurship as Design&quot;</a>.</span></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>The conference<span> &quot;Entrepreneurship as Design and Opportunities as Artifacts&quot; was sponsored by <a href="https://www.rj.se/">Riksbankens Jubileumsfond</a>. <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><em>Text: Daniel Karlsson</em><br /><em>Photo: Pia Aleborg, Daniel Karlsson</em><br /></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> ​Tue, 04 Feb 2020 14:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Mobility-as-a-service-tested-on-Campus-Johanneberg.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Mobility-as-a-service-tested-on-Campus-Johanneberg.aspxMobility as a service tested on Campus Johanneberg<p><b>​This spring, employees at Chalmers University of Technology and other companies established on the Johanneberg campus in Gothenburg will get to test a new mobility concept. The EC2B service, allowing booking of public transport journeys as well as shared electric bicycles and cars, will now be further developed to also cover short work-related travels.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Finding ways to use vehicles collectively with the aim of reducing climate impact and better utilize centrally located property, currently used as parking spaces, is a growing trend that urban planners throughout Europe are working to develop. In Gothenburg the concept EC2B has been successfully implemented in the newly built <a href="https://www.riksbyggen.se/ny-bostad/aktuella-projekt/vastra-gotaland/brf-viva/">Housing Association Brf Viva</a>, as part of the <a href="https://www.johannebergsciencepark.com/en/node/17299">EU-project IRIS Smart Cities</a>. In the project MoJo the service will be developed further. </span><div><br /></div> <div>“The experiences from Brf Viva show satisfied users, a greatly reduced number of private cars and a large use of the common vehicles. We hope that our concept will be appreciated by employees as a way to avoid using their private fossil-fueled cars during working hours. We also plan to incorporate administrative functions that handle, for example, travel bills directly in the app,” says Björn Wendle, CEO of EC2B Mobility.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>&quot;Mobility hubs&quot; at campus</strong></div> <div>The goal is to demonstrate the concept in close cooperation with service providers, property owners and employers for a year and a half. In a first phase, between 300-500 users will have access to the service, which will include physical resources such as electric bikes and cars (including the already existing electric car-pool Move About) at a number of hubs located on campus, as well as access to public transport. The project will also prepare for a possible commercial procurement of a joint mobility service in the area when the project ends.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Through the IRIS project and the implementation in Brf Viva near campus Johanneberg, we have gained valuable experiences and a well-established stakeholder network that will be useful in the MoJo project as well. This will enable us to utilize the relatively short project time in an efficient way,” says Per Sunnergren, project manager at Johanneberg Science Park.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Test pilots needed</strong></div> <div>Even though digitalisation makes it relatively easy to combine different mobility services in one app, there are many other challenges related to establishing new concepts in the sector known as Mobility as a Service (MaaS). Therefore, there is a need for pilots, tests and demonstrations in order to be able to develop sustainable business models and customer-close offers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The challenge is to establish functioning business models and close collaborations between stakeholders who are used to competing for travelers. In this project we also have clients coming from a variety of organisations, such as the University, property owners and companies operating in the area. They need to be coordinated to enable a future solution that benefits everyone,” says Hasse Alfredson, Vice President of Chalmers’ Operations Support.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Facts/Mojo</strong></div> <div>The project MoJo is a collaboration between <a href="https://ec2b.se/">EC2B</a>, <a href="/en/Pages/default.aspx">Chalmers University of Technology</a>, <a href="https://chalmersfastigheter.se/">Chalmersfastigheter</a>, <a href="https://www.akademiskahus.se/">Akademiska Hus</a>, <a href="https://www.hsb.se/goteborg/om-hsb/in-english/">HSB</a>, <a href="https://www.johannebergsciencepark.com/en">Johanneberg Science Park</a> and <a href="https://www.smartresenar.se/">Smart Resenär i Sverige</a>. It is coordinated by EC2B and goes on between November 2019 and June 2021. <a href="https://www.energimyndigheten.se/en/">The Swedish Energy Agency</a> is contributing with just over SEK 1.6 million. More information about planned schedule and implementation of the tests will be available in February 2020.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Karin Weijdegård<span style="background-color:initial">​</span></div>Fri, 24 Jan 2020 13:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Jessica-Jewell-about-the-rising-oil-demand.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/energy/news/Pages/Jessica-Jewell-about-the-rising-oil-demand.aspxNo more business as usual with respect to energy<p><b>Recently, the media reported that both investments in fossil energy and carbon dioxide emissions are increasing, though at a slower rate than before. How should we interpret this message? We had an email chat with Dr Jessica Jewell, an expert in energy transitions. Her research focuses on mechanisms of energy transitions, particularly fossil fuel phase-out and low-carbon electricity growth. This is what she responded:​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/20190101-20190630/jessica-jewell_portrait.jpg" alt="Portrait: Jessica Jewell" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />Fi</strong></span><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>rst, can you tell us a little about your research? </strong></span><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">&quot;It's focused on political feasibility of energy transitions. I research national trends in energy use seeking to understand how individual countries respond to the global challenge of climate change given their specific national circumstances. More specifically, my research can be divided into two broad streams:<br /><br /></span></div> <div><ul><li><span style="font-size:14px">​What drives and constrains the expansion of low-carbon technologies. I have done work on nuclear power and I am now also <span></span>looking into renewable electricity investigating which countries introduce it earlier and where renewables can be expanded faster.</span></li> <li><span style="font-size:14px">What drives and constrains the decline of carbon-intensive technologies. I am measuring the global and national rates of decline in carbon-intensive sectors and comparing them to what we need to mitigate climate change; I also research social factors and mechanisms that differentiate countries that phase out fossil fuels from those that expand them.</span></li></ul></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>How to interpret these media reports about carbon dioxide emissions?</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“The use of fossil fuels is still increasing because of the increasing demand for fossil fuels. Part of this trend is easier to understand: for example, demand for oil primarily depends on the growth of transportation and there are more and more vehicles in the world, particularly in the emerging economies such as China. The vast majority of cars and trucks sold today are still driven by oil, not to mention ships and airplanes which explains rising oil demand. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">What is more paradoxical is that in many parts of the world, emissions from the power sector are increasing. This is particularly interesting for social scientists, because we have technical solutions to produce low carbon electricity: hydropower, nuclear power, wind and solar power. Some of these technologies are already cheaper than coal or gas in some markets. However, some developing countries are making paradoxical energy choices of investing in new coal power instead of renewables”.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>Is the emission curve broken?</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“Global emissions are growing, but at a slower rate than before. If we look at the business-as-usual emission forecasts from a few decades ago and compare them with what we have now, we can clearly see that we’re doing much better than ‘business as usual’ as it was imagined in the 1990s and the early 2000s. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">The global emission curve reflects the combination of distinct trends: in some countries emissions are plateauing or slowly declining and in some countries they are still growing. </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">In other words, there is a gradual evolution of the emission curve rather than radical breaking with the past”.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"> </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>What is politically feasible in Europe, China and the United States?</strong></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“First of all, this depends on global technological developments and breakthroughs. Political feasibility in all three regions will be influenced by breakthroughs in different technologies such as small modular nuclear power reactors, carbon capture and sequestration (CCS), batteries and hydrogen technologies. Incremental developments such as falling the cost of solar PV panels and offshore wind power will also be important in a near future; Equally important to these global factors are national socio-political circumstances which shape political feasibility what can be done in a given context. I believe three such factors are particularly critical: </span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><ul><li><span style="font-size:14px">How fast energy demand is growing; this mostly depends on population and economic growth in a given country and thus is difficult to change by policies. Energy demand in China is growing much faster than in the EU and the US which means that China needs much faster expansion of low-carbon energy to reduce emissions and as long as low-carbon energy grows slower than demand, emissions will keep growing<br /></span></li> <li>How fast low-carbon energy technologies can expand. For example, in recent research I and co-authors show that Europe and the United States introduced nuclear, solar and wind power earlier than China. We now need to understand what determines how fast low-carbon technologies expand. The market in China is more favorable (because it is growing), so perhaps renewables can be expanded even faster with right policies.<br /></li> <li><span style="background-color:initial">How fast we can phase-out carbon-intensive sectors. This may be even more challenging to do than expanding low-carbon energy. This is because growing a new sector brings jobs and profits and no one is in principle against it. However, phasing out an industry leads to job and economic losses, which is a political challenge. In a recent article I and co-authors explore this dilemma by looking at which countries pledge to phase out coal power. What we found out is that these countries extract and use little coal, have older power plant fleets, slow demand growth, higher incomes and exceptionally transparent governments which are able to deal with political challenges of coal phase out. There are many such countries in Europe and many of the US states have the same characteristics, so no wonder that coal use in Europe and North America is rapidly declining. In contrast, China has a very young coal power plant fleet (with an average age of only 12 years), produces most of its electricity from the domestically extracted coal, has rapidly expanding electricity demand, and less transparent government. So it is less feasible for China to phase out coal in the near term&quot;.</span></li></ul></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial">Is there anything more you want to say?</strong><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">“I joined Chalmers about six months ago and I’m so happy I did. I have been struck by the wonderful combination of inspiring intellectual interactions and a supportive working environment. Chalmers offers great opportunities for young international scholars to build on and expand their networks and science”.<br /><br />By: Ann-Christine Nordin <br />Photo: Oil field <span style="font-size:14px"></span></span><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px">Haizhen Du/Shutterstock​</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><strong>RELATED:</strong><br /><span style="font-size:14px"><a href="/en/departments/see/news/Pages/current-pledges-to-phase-out-coal-power-are-critically-insufficient-to-slow-down-climate-change,-analysis-shows.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />​Current coal phase-out pledges are insufficient</a><br /></span><a href="http://www.chalmers.se/en/staff/Pages/jewell.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Jessica Jewell, Assistant Professor, Department of Space, Earth and Environment​</a></div>  ​Tue, 21 Jan 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Glutamate.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Glutamate.aspxGlutamate in the brain shows unexpected qualities<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology and Gothenburg University in Sweden have achieved something long thought almost impossible – counting the molecules of the neurotransmitter glutamate released when a signal is transferred between two brain cells. With a new analysis method, they showed that the brain regulates its signals using glutamate in more ways than previously realised.</b></p><div>​<img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/KB/Generell/Nyheter/Glutamat/AnnSofieCans_340%20x400.png" alt="" style="height:252px;width:245px;margin:5px" />The ability to measure the activity and quantity of glutamate in brain cells has been long sought-after among researchers. Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Despite its abundance, and its influence on many important functions, we know a lot less about it than other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and dopamine, because so far glutamate has been difficult to measure quickly enough. <p> </p> <p>The new findings around glutamate are therefore very significant and could help improve our understanding of the pathologies underlying neurological and psychiatric diseases and conditions. The relationship between glutamate and these disorders, as well as our memory, our appetite and more, are just some of the questions which the researchers’ newly discovered technology could help answer.</p> <p>“When we started, everybody said ‘this will never work’. But we didn’t give in. Now we have a beautiful example of how multi-disciplinary basic science can yield major breakthroughs, and deliver real benefit,” says Ann-Sofie Cans, Associate Professor in Chemistry at Chalmers and leader of the research group.</p> <p>The key was to do the opposite of what had been previously attempted. Instead of using a biosensor made from thick layers, they used an ultrathin layer of the enzyme needed for biological identification. The researchers made it so that the enzyme, which was placed on a nano-structured sensor surface, was just a molecule thick. This made the sensor technology a thousand times faster than previous attempts. </p> <p>The technique was therefore fast enough to measure the release of glutamate from a single synaptic vesicle – the small liquid vessel which releases neurotransmitters to the synapse between two nerve cells. This is a process that occurs in less than a thousandth of a second. </p> <p>“When we saw the benefits of improving the sensor technology in terms of time, instead of concentration, then we got it to work” says Ann-Sofie Cans. </p></div> <div>The research was carried out in two steps. In the first, the breakthrough was being able to measure glutamate. That study was published early in Spring 2019 in the scientific journal ASC Chemical Neuroscience. In the second part, which the current publication addresses, Ann-Sofie Cans and her research group made further important adjustments and ground-breaking discoveries. <p> </p> <p>“Once we had built the sensor, we could then refine it further. Now, with the help of this technology we have also developed a new method to quantify these small amounts of glutamate,” she explains. </p> <p>Along the way the group had many interesting surprises. For example, the quantity of glutamate in a synaptic vesicle has been revealed to be much greater than previously believed. It is comparable in quantity to serotonin and dopamine, a finding which came as an exciting surprise.</p> <p>“Our study changes the current understanding of glutamate. For example, it seems that transport and storage of glutamate in synaptic vesicles is not as different as we thought, when compared with other neurotransmitters like serotonin and dopamine”, says Ann-Sofie Cans.</p> <p>The researchers also showed that nerve cells control the strength of their chemical signals by regulating the quantity of glutamate released from single synaptic vesicles.</p> <p>The fact we can now measure and quantify this neurotransmitter can yield new tools for pharmacological studies in many vital areas in neuroscience.</p> <p>“The level of measurement offered by this ultra-fast glutamate sensor opens up countless possibilities to truly understand the function of glutamate in health and disease. Our knowledge of the brain function, and dysfunction, is limited by the experimental tools we have, and this new ultra-fast tool will allow us to examine neuronal communication at a level we did not have access to before”, says Karolina Patrycja Skibicka, Associate Professor in Neuroscience and Physiology at Gothenburg University.</p> <p>“The new finding, that glutamate-based communication is regulated by the quantity of glutamate released from synaptic vesicles, begs the question of what happens to this regulation in brain diseases thought to be linked to glutamate, for example epilepsy.”</p></div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More information on glutamate and glutamic acid </h3> <div>Glutamate, or glutamic acid, is found in proteins in food. It occurs naturally in meat, in almost all vegetables, and in wheat and soy. It is also used as a food additive to enhance flavours, for example in the form of MSG, or monosodium glutamate. <p> </p> <p>Glutamate is an amino acid, and an important part of our body. It is also a neurotransmitter which nerve cells use to communicate, and forms the basis for some of the brain's basic functions such as cognition, memory and learning. It is also important for the immune system, the function of the gastrointestinal tract, and to prevent microorganisms from entering the body.</p></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Source: Swedish Food Agency and Chalmers University of Technology</div> <a href="https://www.livsmedelsverket.se/livsmedel-och-innehall/tillsatser-e-nummer/ovriga/glutamat/"><div>https://www.livsmedelsverket.se/livsmedel-och-innehall/tillsatser-e-nummer/ovriga/glutamat/ </div></a><div> </div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For more information</h3> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/ann-sofie-cans.aspx">Ann-Sofie Cans</a>, Associate Professor in Chemistry, Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div><a href="mailto:karolina.skibicka@gu.se">Karolina Patrycja Skibicka</a>, Associate Professor in Neuroscience and Physiology at Gothenburg University</div> <div><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More on the research</h3> <div>The study, <a href="https://pubs.acs.org/doi/full/10.1021/jacs.9b09414">Counting the Number of Glutamate Molecules in Single Synaptic Vesicles</a> has been published in the scientific publication Journal of the American Chemical Society. <p> </p> <p>The research has been funded by the Swedish Research Council, the Swedish Brain Foundation, Ragnar Söderberg Foundation, the Novo Nordisk Foundation, the Wallenberg Center for Molecular and Translational Medicine at the University of Gothenburg, Ernst and Fru Rådman Colliander Stiftelse, Wilhelm and Martina Lundgren Stiftelse and Magnus Bergvall Stiftelse.</p></div> <div> </div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div>Tue, 21 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Energy-storage-at-sea-allows-for-more-stable-sustainable-power-production.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/m2/news/Pages/Energy-storage-at-sea-allows-for-more-stable-sustainable-power-production.aspxEnergy storage at sea augments grid stability<p><b>​To reach the climate goals, society will have to rely more on renewable energy. However, solar and wind power, do not necessarily supply electricity exactly when needed. Now researchers at Chalmers have received EUR 420,000​ from the EU to develop offshore energy storage to stabilize the electricity production.​</b></p>Wind-, hydro- and solar power are seen by many as the main methods to produce sustainable electric power. But when it is calm or cloudy, wind and solar power cannot supply enough electricity to the grid. And if there is no prerequisite for controllable hydropower, the risk of electricity shortages increases. To satisfy the need for electricity at any moment, the surplus energy generated under favourable conditions needs to be stored for later occasions.<p></p> <p>“With the entire society and our modern lifestyle built around electric power, it is incredibly important to have a stable electricity supply. Our project will develop techniques to stabilize the electricity grid by storing energy in seawater reservoirs. The idea is that seawater is pumped into the reservoirs when there is an excess of electricity and then release it through turbines to ‘get back’ the electricity when there is a deficit”, says Håkan Nilsson, professor in the Department of Fluid Science at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences.</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">New technology at sea</h2> <p>The technique of storing water in reservoirs already exists in mountainous areas where there are large differences in altitude. This project aims to develop corresponding technology for flat coastal areas. Since the space is limited in existing coastal regions, an alternative is to build so-called &quot;energy islands&quot; offshore. The offshore plants are required to handle very small altitude differences and to be able to operate with saltwater instead of freshwater.</p> <p>The project has received EUR 5 million in total and is coordinated by TU Delft. In addition to the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences at Chalmers, another 11 industries and universities in Europe are participating, with broad expertise to meet the goal. The competencies include civil engineering, fluid mechanics, electromechanics, machine design, economy and environment. <span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers has received EUR </span><span style="background-color:initial">420,000</span><span style="background-color:initial"> over 4 years.​</span></p> <p>“The role we have at Chalmers is to design and optimize pump turbines for these specific conditions. We will also look at what loads and deformations these are exposed to in different operating cases and change between pumping and running as a turbine. We will also conduct a smaller validation experiment for one of the techniques”, says Håkan Nilsson.</p> <p>Read more about the project: <a href="https://research.chalmers.se/project/9185">Augmenting grid stability through Low-head Pumped Hydro Energy Utilization &amp; Storage​</a></p> <p>Text: Anders Ryttarson Törneholm​</p>Fri, 17 Jan 2020 10:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/math/news/Pages/Particle-behaviour-in-space.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/math/news/Pages/Particle-behaviour-in-space.aspxParticle behaviour in space<p><b>​How do objects in space interact when they are exposed to different forces? What do globular clusters look like? What happens to small particles in space over time? Maximilian Thaller’s PhD thesis has space as study object, with elements both from mathematics and physics.</b></p><p>​<img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Maximilian Thaller" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MV/Nyheter/maximilianthaller250x300.jpg" style="margin:5px" />Maximilian’s research lies within the framework of kinetic theory, where he considers certain meta models which consist of ensembles of particles that all look alike. These models play a role in several different fields in physics, such as plasma physics. But the particles can also, as in Maximilian’s work, signify stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters – it is just a matter of different scales. The particles interact with different forces, such as an electromagnetic field in plasma and a gravitational field in a galaxy. Maximilian investigates the interaction in gravitational fields, i.e. what happens with the particles – if they form time-independent clouds, if they collapse into dense objects, or if they disperse.</p> <h2>The Einstein-Vlasov system</h2> <p>There are two common ways to describe gravity. The oldest and simplest is the Newtonian, but often it is not accurate enough. In Maximilian’s work, the particles do not collide but they “feel” the gravitational field created by all the particles collectively. This is described by the Vlasov equation, which is coupled to Einstein’s theory of General Relativity. Gravity is not seen as a force, but as a curvature of the spacetime that the particles live in. The motivation for using this theory instead is that it can describe astronomical objects like galaxies and galaxy clusters very well. In some contexts the difference is not so big, but certain circumstances need new mechanisms, like when the behaviour of the particles is very different from the usual. Examples are very dense particle clouds, or models of the universe as a whole, allowing for the study of its expansion behaviour.</p> <p>The thesis consists of two parts. The first involves steady states, where time independent clouds of particles like globular clusters too small to be called galaxies are studied as regarding what symmetries they have and how dense they can be. The other part is about small data time evolution, what happens if we only have a few particles scattered around? In space, there is no perfect vacuum, there are always some particles and there are stability questions regarding these – do they for example clump together? Maximilian’s thesis show that the particles move away into infinity and that vacuum space time is stable. There are many others working with these questions through testing different meta models, but the Vlasov model is more complex and more reliable than most.</p> <h2>Collaboration led to PhD position</h2> <p>That Maximilian ended up doing his PhD thesis in Gothenburg is something of a coincidence. He has a physicist background from Constance and was working with similar things in Vienna, where he had a collaboration with Håkan Andréasson, his future supervisor. Håkan suggested that Maximilian should apply for a still vacant PhD position which had not been appointed in the usual admission during Spring, and so he did. Since he was not a Mathematician he had to prove himself and also catch up with courses during his PhD time. In Gothenburg the PhD students read rather many courses compared to other places, but that suited Maximilian’s situation well.</p> <p>– I have had good conditions here, for example I have had the possibility of two stays abroad, each for three months. You are very free as a PhD student in Sweden, which is good as you can follow your research interest, but there can also be difficulties in being certain of what is a good research question and what the relevant methods are. If I had been working more closely to my supervisor all the time I would probably also have had fewer other research contacts than today.</p> <p>After the thesis defence, Maximilian plans to try a different work environment through going to Munich and the private industry. Something with simulations or maybe the financial sector are two options, where mathematical methods as wave equations and geometry can be used.<br /><br /><em>Maximilian Thaller will defend his PhD thesis “On the Einstein-Vlasov system with massless or charged particles: stationary and small data solutions” on January 24 at 10.15 in the room Pascal, Hörsalsvägen 1. Supervisor is Håkan Andréasson.</em><br /><br /><strong>Text and photo</strong>: Setta Aspström</p>Thu, 16 Jan 2020 03:45:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/ABB-and-Chalmers-in-joint-research-.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/ABB-and-Chalmers-in-joint-research-.aspxABB and Chalmers in joint research on electric power engineering<p><b>​Developments within the field of electric power engineering are in focus when the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research, SSF, gives funding to two research projects that will be performed in collaboration between ABB and Chalmers University of Technology.</b></p>Olof Hjortstam and Rahul Kanchan have been working for several years at ABB in Västerås in various research positions. In 2019, they were appointed adjunct researchers at Chalmers. The purpose is to establish a closer cooperation between academia and industry, for mutual benefit.<p></p> <p>Recently, it was also announced that the two researchers will receive funding from SSF of more than SEK 800,000 each for projects that in various ways aim to increase the utility of electricity in society. Both projects will start in 2020 and last for two years.</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More efficient transmission system for high voltages</h2> <p>Olof Hjortstam, Adjunct Professor at the department of Electrical Engineering, will lead the project “Charge dynamics in future HVDC insulation systems”. HVDC, High Voltage Direct Current, is a technology that is increasingly used worldwide to transfer large amounts of electricity over long geographical distances with low losses. The research will increase knowledge about how the next generation of components and insulation materials should be designed to withstand higher voltages and longer transmissions. Today, there are HVDC transmissions that are more than 200 kilometers long using voltages up to 800 kV DC. In the near future, transfers that are more than 300 km long with a voltage of 1100 kV DC will be commissioned.</p> <p>“The way different materials interact in an insulation system with, for example, air, insulation fluids and polymer materials is very complex to predict”, says Olof Hjortstam. “The purpose of the project is to formulate better models for high voltage engineers to use when developing components and insulation materials for future transmission systems. In the end, this benefits the stability and efficiency of society's electricity supply system.”</p> <p>The collaborative partner at Chalmers will be Yuriy Serdyuk, Professor at the department of Electrical Engineering. </p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Smart technology diagnoses the electric vehicles of the future</h2> <p>Rahul Kanchan, Adjunct Associate Professor at the department of Electrical Engineering, is heading the project “Future Powertrains for eMobility”. The research aims to develop innovative technical solutions for the propulsion of electric vehicles and to have impact on the development towards more efficient and reliable technology.</p> <p>“We are developing highly integrated machine-power electronic converters for the drivelines in electric vehicles, assisted by a novel control and diagnostics solution that predict the condition of the driveline. Smart maintenance scheduling can then prevent operational failures”, says Rahul Kanchan.</p> <p>The project aims to leverage on smart sensing and industrial digitalisation technologies, already used in other areas, and adapt them to advanced functions in eMobility solutions. The research will also include practical aspects of creating an framework for so called digital twins, representing a model of the powertrain, based on advanced AI analytics, to predict the need of service and perform maintenance planning.</p> <p>The collaborative partner at Chalmers will be Yujing Liu, Professor at the department of Electrical Engineering.​</p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on SSF and the program for strategic mobility</h2> <p>Annually, the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) in its Strategic Mobility program gives funding to exciting projects with the purpose of transferring knowledge between academia and industry/clinics. The aim is to make it easier for researchers from industry or academia/research institutes to work with the other party. SSF allocates SEK 15 million annually to the program.</p> <p>This time, a total of 14 projects received funding, of which two are jointly performed by Chalmers’ department of Electrical Engineering and ABB in Västerås.</p> <p><a href="https://strategiska.se/en/" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more on the Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF)​</a></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">For more information contact</h2> <p><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/olofhj.aspx">Olof Hjortstam</a>, Adjunct Professor at the department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology and Senior Principal Scientist at ABB Power Grids Research in Västerås<br /> <a href="mailto:%20olof.hjortstam@se.abb.com">olof.hjortstam@se.abb.com</a></p> <p><a href="/en/staff/Pages/yuriy-serdyuk.aspx">Yuriy Serdyuk</a>, Professor at the department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology<br /> <a href="mailto:%20yuriy.serdyuk@chalmers.se">yuriy.serdyuk@chalmers.se</a></p> <p><a href="/en/staff/Pages/rahul-kanchan.aspx">Rahul Kanchan</a>, Adjunct Associated Professor at the department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology and Principal Scientist at ABB Corporate Research in Västerås<br /> <a href="mailto:%20rahul.kanchan@se.abb.com">rahul.kanchan@se.abb.com</a></p> <p><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/yujing-liu.aspx">Yujing Liu​​</a>, Full Professor at the department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers University of Technology<br /> <a href="mailto:%20yujing.liu@chalmers.se">yujing.liu@chalmers.se</a><span style="background-color:initial">​</span>​</p>Thu, 16 Jan 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/The-US-Ambassador-visited-Chalmers-first.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/The-US-Ambassador-visited-Chalmers-first.aspxThe US Ambassador visited Chalmers first<p><b>​Newly appointed US Ambassador Kenneth Howery began his first official visit outside Stockholm at Chalmers University of Technology in Gothenburg. He highlighted three areas in which Sweden and the US share important interests: free trade agreements, a clear attitude towards China and the push for secure 5G networks.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">Gothenburg, a city with strong historical ties to the United States, not least as a trading city and port of departure during the great Swedish emigration of the 19th century, became his first stop. Chalmers is also the first university that Ken Howery has visited in Sweden.</span><div><br /></div> <div>“I am becoming familiarised with the university, the student base, and learning what’s been done so far. We would love to explore ideas, and learn what might be possible,” says Texas-born Ken Howery, who has a long background as a Silicon Valley entrepreneur.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>He founded Paypal together with, among others, Elon Musk, in 1998 – the same year he graduated in economics from Stanford. When Paypal was acquired by Ebay, he became head of business development there, and since 2005 has worked as a venture capitalist.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“It is very exciting for Chalmers to have an Ambassador with an entrepreneurial background, who has created tech companies and is interested in the role of universities,” comments Stefan Bengtsson, President and CEO of Chalmers University of Technology, and host for the visit.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>In front of a packed lecture hall, the Ambassador talked about his political priorities, where the US regards Sweden as an ally.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>On the topic of 5G, he emphasised that each country should ensure that it procures 5G from suppliers with integrity against the governments regulating them, and that the national standards in place prevent untrusted vendors of any national origin from securing access to a network. The Chinese companies Huawei and ZTE are forced to cooperate fully with the Chinese authorities and army, and to keep that relationship secret, the Ambassador claimed.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> “These are not paranoid fantasies. There are many documented cases of Chinese cyber intrusions linked to the Chinese Communist Party, even without the easy access 5G would provide”, Ken Howery said.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>He also had a concrete message regarding exchanges with Chalmers. Since 1952, Sweden and the United States have had an academic exchange programme called the Fulbright Commission, where both Swedes and Americans can apply for funding for exchanges at different levels. Recently, for example, Professor David Blekhman, active at California State University, was installed as the Fulbright Distinguished Chair in Alternative Energy here at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“I want to encourage more Chalmers students and faculty members to apply for these programmes, to have more diversity within them. Right now, I think we have a high percentage of lawyers among the Fulbright winners,” said Ken Howery.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Christian Borg</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="https://www.fulbright.se/" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more on the website for Fulbright commission</a></div> Wed, 15 Jan 2020 09:00:00 +0100