News: Centre Graphenehttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyFri, 22 Oct 2021 02:46:17 +0200http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Janus-graphene-opens-doors-to-sustainable-sodium-ion-batteries.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Janus-graphene-opens-doors-to-sustainable-sodium-ion-batteries.aspxJanus graphene opens doors to sustainable batteries<p><b>​In the search for sustainable energy storage, researchers at Chalmers University of Technology present a new concept to fabricate high-performance electrode materials for sodium batteries. It is based on a novel type of graphene to store one of the world's most common and cheap metal ions – sodium. The results show that the capacity can match today’s lithium-ion batteries.</b></p><div>​Even though lithium ions work well for energy storage, lithium is an expensive metal with concerns regarding its long-term supply and environmental issues. <br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Sodium, on the other hand, is an abundant low-cost metal, and a main ingredient in seawater (and in kitchen salt). This makes sodium-ion batteries an interesting and sustainable alternative for reducing our need for critical raw materials. However, one major challenge is to increase the capacity.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>At the current level of performance, sodium-ion batteries cannot compete with lithium-ion cells. One limiting factor is the graphite, which is composed of stacked layers of graphene, and used as the anode in today’s lithium-ion batteries. <br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The ions intercalate in the graphite, which means that they can move in and out of the graphene layers and be stored for energy usage. Sodium ions are larger than lithium ions and interact differently. Therefore, they cannot be efficiently stored in the graphite structure. But the Chalmers researchers have come up with a novel way to solve this. <br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Jinhua_Sun.jpg" alt="Jinhua Sun" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:0px 25px;width:125px;height:145px" />“We have added a molecule spacer on one side of the graphene layer. When the layers are stacked together, the molecule creates larger space between graphene sheets and provides an interaction point, which leads to a significantly higher capacity,” says researcher Jinhua Sun at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science at Chalmers and first author of the scientific paper, published in Science Advances. </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Ten times the energy capacity of standard graphite</h2></div> <div> </div> <div>Typically, the capacity of sodium intercalation in standard graphite is about 35 milliampere hours per gram (mA h g-1). This is less than one tenth of the capacity for lithium-ion intercalation in graphite. With the novel graphene the specific capacity for sodium ions is 332 milliampere hours per gram – approaching the value for lithium in graphite. The results also showed full reversibility and high cycling stability.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Aleksandar_Matic.jpg" alt="Aleksandar Matic" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:0px 30px;width:125px;height:146px" />“It was really exciting when we observed the sodium-ion intercalation with such high capacity. The research is still at an early stage, but the results are very promising. This shows that it’s possible to design graphene layers in an ordered structure that suits sodium-ions, making it comparable to graphite,” says Professor Aleksandar Matic at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">“Divine” Janus graphene opens doors to sustainable batteries</h2></div> <div> </div> <div>The study was initiated by Vincenzo Palermo in his previous role as Vice-Director of the Graphene Flagship, a European Commission-funded project coordinated by Chalmers University of Technology. <br /></div> <div> </div> <div> The novel graphene has asymmetric chemical functionalisation on opposite faces and is therefore often called Janus graphene, after the two-faced ancient Roman God Janus – the God of new beginnings, associated with doors and gates, and the first steps of a journey. In this case the Janus graphene correlates well with the roman mythology, potentially opening doors to high-capacity sodium-ion batteries. <br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/VincenzoPalermo.jpg" alt="Vincenzo Palermo" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px 20px;width:140px;height:165px" /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Our Janus material is still far from industrial applications, but the new results show that we can engineer the ultrathin graphene sheets – and the tiny space in between them – for high-capacity energy storage. We are very happy to present a concept with cost-efficient, abundant and sustainable metals,” says Vincenzo Palermo, Affiliated Professor at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span><em>Text: Marcus Folino and Mia Halleröd Palmgren<br /></em></span></div> <div><span><em></em><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><span><em>Image of Jinhua Sun: Marcus Folino<span style="display:inline-block"></span></em></span><em><span style="display:inline-block"></span><br /></em><div><em>Image of Aleksandar Matic: Anna-Lena Lundqvist<br /></em></div> <div><span><em>Image of Vincenzo Palermo: Graphene Flagship<span style="display:inline-block"></span></em></span><br /><em><span style="display:inline-block"></span></em></div> <br /></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on the material: Janus graphene with a unique structure</h2> <div>The material used in the study has a unique artificial nanostructure. The upper face of each graphene sheet has a molecule that acts as both spacer and active interaction site for the sodium ions. Each molecule in between two stacked graphene sheets is connected by a covalent bond to the lower graphene sheet and interacts through electrostatic interactions with the upper graphene sheet. The graphene layers also have uniform pore size, controllable functionalisation density, and few edges. </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on the research: </h2> <div>The scientific article <a href="https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abf0812" title="Link to the scientific article">“Real-time imaging of Na+ reversible intercalation in “Janus” graphene stacks for battery applications”</a> was published in Science Advances and is written by Jinhua Sun, Matthew Sadd, Philip Edenborg, Henrik Grönbeck, Peter H. Thiesen, Zhenyuan Xia, Vanesa Quintano, Ren Qiu, Aleksandar Matic and Vincenzo Palermo. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers are active at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science, the Department of Physics and Competence Centre for Catalysis at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, Accurion GmbH, Germany and Institute of Organic Synthesis and Photoreactivity (ISOF) at the National Research Council of Italy.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The research project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under GrapheneCore3 881603–Graphene Flagship, FLAG-ERA project PROSPECT, the Chalmers Foundation and the Swedish Research Council. The calculations were performed at C3SE (Gothenburg, Sweden) through an SNIC grant. This work was performed, in part, at Myfab Chalmers and Chalmers materials analysis laboratory. <br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For more information, please contact: </h3> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/jinhua.aspx">Jinhua Sun</a>, Researcher, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 76 960 99 56, <a href="mailto:%20jinhua@chalmers.se">jinhua@chalmers.se<br /></a></div> <div><a href="mailto:%20jinhua@chalmers.se"><br /></a></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Aleksandar-Matic.aspx">Aleksandar Matic</a>, Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 31 772 51 76, <a href="mailto:%20matic@chalmers.se">matic@chalmers.se</a></div> <div><br /> </div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Vincenzo-Palermo.aspx">Vincenzo Palermo</a>, Affiliated Professor, Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Director, Institute for Organic Synthesis and Photoreactivity, CNR, Bologna, Italy, +39 051 639 97 73 or +39 051 639 98 53, <a href="mailto:%20palermo@chalmers.se">palermo@chalmers.se</a></div> <div> </div>Wed, 25 Aug 2021 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Graphene-binds-drugs-which-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Graphene-binds-drugs-which-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspxGraphene binds drugs which kill bacteria on implants<p><b>​Bacterial infections relating to medical implants place a huge burden on healthcare and cause great suffering to patients worldwide. Now, researchers at Chalmers, have developed a new method to prevent such infections, by covering a graphene-based material with bactericidal molecules. </b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/SysBio/Santosh_Pandit_340x400px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Santosh Pandit" style="margin:5px 10px;width:240px;height:282px" /><span>“Through our research, we have succeeded in binding water-insoluble antibacterial molecules to the graphene, and having the molecules release in a controlled, continuous manner from the material. This is an essential requirement for the method to work. The way in which we bind the active molecules to the graphene is also very simple, and could be easily integrated into industrial processes,” explains <strong>Santosh Pandit</strong>, researcher at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering at Chalmers, and first author of the <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89452-5">study which was recently published in Scientific Reports​</a>.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">Certain bacteria can form impenetrable surface layers, or ‘biofilms’, on surgical implants, such as dental and other orthopaedic implants, and represent a major problem for healthcare globally. Biofilms are more resistant than other bacteria, and the infections are therefore often difficult to treat, leading to great suffering for patients, </span><span style="background-color:initial">and in the worst cases, necessitating removal or replacement of the implants. In addition to the effects on patients, this entails large costs for healthcare providers.</span></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Graphene is suitable as an attachment material​<br /></span></h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">There are a variety of water-insoluble, or h</span><span style="background-color:initial">ydrophobic, drugs and molecules that can be used for their antibacterial properties, but in order for them to be used in the body, they must be attached to a material, which can be difficult and labour intensive to manufacture.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">“Graphene offers great potential here for interaction with hydrophobic molecules or drugs, and when we created our new material, we made use of these properties. The process of binding the antibacterial molecules takes place with the help of ultrasound,” says Santosh Pandit.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">In the study, the graphene material was covered with usnic acid, which is extracted from lichens, for example fruticose lichen. Previous research has shown that usnic acid has good bactericidal properties. It works by preventing bacteria from forming nucleic acids, especially inhibiting of RNA synthesis, and thus blocking protein production in the cell. Usnic acid was tested for its resistance to the pathogenic bacteria <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Staphylococcus epidermidis</em>, two common culprits for biofilm formation on medical implants.  </span></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Simple method paves way for future drugs</span></h2> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">The researchers’ new material displayed a number of promising properties. In addition to successful results for integrating the usnic acid into the surface of the graphene material, they also observed that the usnic acid molecules were released in a controlled and continuous manner, thus preventing the formation of biofilms on the surface. </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial">“Even more importantly, our results show that the method for binding the hydrophobic molecules to graphene is simple. It paves the way for more effective antibacterial protection of biomedical products in the future. We are now planning trials where we will explore binding other hydrophobic molecules and drugs with even greater potential to treat or prevent various clinical infections,” says Santosh Pandit.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>More about the study</strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"></p> <ul><li>Read the full scientific article <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89452-5">Sustained release of usnic acid from graphene coatings ensures long term antibiotic film protection </a></li> <li>The research project is run by <a href="/en/departments/bio/research/systems-biology/mijakovic-lab/Pages/default.aspx">Professor Ivan Mijakovic's group</a> at the Department of Biology and Biotechnology at Chalmers University of Technology and is funded by Formas and the Swedish Research Council.</li></ul> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div><strong>Text: </strong>Susanne Nilsson Lindh &amp; Joshua Worth<br /><strong>Illustration:</strong> Yen Strandqvist/Chalmers<br /><strong>Photo (Santosh Pandit):</strong> Johan Bodell/Chalmers</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><strong>Read more: </strong></div> <div><ul><li><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Graphite-nanoplatelets-on-medical-devices-prevent-infections-.aspx">Graphite nanoplatelets prevent infections</a></li> <li><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspx">Spikes of graphene can kill bacteria on implants</a></li></ul></div></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div>Mon, 09 Aug 2021 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/new-director-of-2d-tech-and-graphene-centre.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/new-director-of-2d-tech-and-graphene-centre.aspxNew director of 2d-tech and graphene centre<p><b>​Entrepreneurship, pro-activity, and interaction with the industry – three crucial ingredients when making Chalmers the Swedish epicenter of atomically thin materials and quantum materials. At least if you ask Samuel Lara-Avila who now takes the lead as new director of 2D-TECH and Graphene centre at Chalmers University. ​​​</b></p><span style="background-color:initial"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/2D-TECH/Samuel%20Lara%20Avila_1.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:250px;height:218px" />Samuel Lara-Avila, associate professor of physics, was appointed new director of 2D-TECH and Graphene Centre at the 2D-TECH assembly on 3 March. And with more than ten years’ experience working on graphene and an academic history at Chalmers that took off already in 2006, it’s safe to say he’s in familiar territories. </span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>“I know for a fact that graphene can bring something to the table and solve real-world problems that other materials cannot. I see GCC and 2D-TECH as two tools to consolidate Chalmers as the Swedish epicenter of atomically thin materials and quantum materials”, says Samuel. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What made you want to take on the role as director? </strong></div> <div>“The conditions right now are very favorable: there is a large enthusiastic and highly competent community taking part in GCC and 2D-TECH. It has been a great achievement to kick-start a Vinnova competence centre and I’m here to do my best in trying to push it beyond. With the human resources and the infrastructure at Chalmers and partners, I believe this to be a feasible endeavour”.  </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>What challenges do you see and what are your thoughts on how to overcome them? </strong></div> <div>“One core challenge that needs to be addressed is that many of the graphene technologies worldwide are at risk of getting stuck in the technological “valley of death”. But when I look at the list of PIs and participants of 2D-TECH, I see many ingredients are in place in order to tackle that challenge. For the next couple of years, I see It will be crucial to ensure we are not a passive community. Accountability for deliverables should be in place, and the interactions between companies and PIs should be closely followed. We should not forget the entrepreneurial spirit, of which I see more and more at Chalmers, especially among younger PIs”. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Samuel succeeds Ermin Malic who has been director of Graphene Centre since 2017 and of 2D-TECH since its birth in February 2020. And to Ermin stepping down doesn’t mean slowing down. New challenges await in the same country where he once got his PhD 13 years ago.  </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/2D-TECH/ErminMalic_190415_05.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:174px" />So, what will you be doing now? </strong></div> <div>“I’m building up a new research group &quot;Ultrafast Quantum Dynamics&quot; at the Philipps-Universität Marburg in Germany. The focus will be on microscopic understanding of moire exciton physics in atomically thin semiconductors”, says Ermin. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>If you were to put the last few years into words, what would you say? </strong></div> <div>“Building up the 2D-TECH center at Chalmers was a very challenging, intense and rewarding time and it broadened my horizon in many different ways”. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Lovisa Håkansson</div> </div>Wed, 03 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Recipients-of-the-annual-PhD-award.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Recipients-of-the-annual-PhD-award.aspxRecipients of the annual PhD award<p><b>​Molecular doping of epigraphene and excitons in two-dimensional materials – those are the topics of the day as Samuel Brem and Hans He receive the GCC/2D-tech PhD Award for best doctoral thesis on graphene and related materials at Chalmers in 2020. </b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The two award winners received their prizes – a diploma and 15 000 SEK - at a web seminar on 1 March. </span><div><br />&quot;I’m honored that Graphene Center has recognized my PhD work, and I am grateful to be the recipient of the 2D-Tech award. I am very happy that my research on applications of epigraphene has garnered some interest&quot;, says Hans He, former PhD student at the quantum device laboratory at MC2. <br /></div> <div>And his co-award-winner Samuel Brem, who carried out his PhD work at Condensed Matter and Materials Theory at the Physics department, joins in: </div> <div>&quot;This award means a lot to me and I am very proud of it. It motivates me to continue my path in the academic world and to keep working hard on myself.&quot;<br /><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/2D-TECH/Samuel%20Brem%20300x400.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Samuel’s  thesis titled Microscopic theory of exciton dynamics in two-dimensional materials focuses on the dynamics of excitons in transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD’s) and their heterostructures – a topic that is believed to further new physics and help open the route to new technological applications such as sensors or light emitters. His PhD work includes five peer-reviewed scientific articles with Samuel being the first author, and a scientific production of 31 articles, which so far have been cited 524 times – arguably the highest H-index in the history of newly graduated PhD:s from Chalmers. <br /><br /></div> <div>&quot;Samuel has developed a novel theoretical approach to describe moire exciton phenomena in technologically promising van der Waals heterostructures. He has been involved in over 30 scientific publications, including a cover article on Nature Materials&quot;, says Ermin Malic, director of the Graphene Centre and 2D-TECH. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/2D-TECH/hans_he_300x400.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />In his thesis, Molecular doping of epitaxial graphene for device application, Hans He uses a doping method to solve a common challenge when working with graphene and 2D materials: to create practical devices that are stable in ambient conditions and that can last for many years. By comparing with conventional quantum resistance standards, it has been confirmed that doped epigraphene meets the stringent criteria for use in precision quantum resistance metrology. The product is now commercialized and is has been used by various National Metrology Institutes across the world. In his PhD work, Hans also developed sensitive Hall sensors for magnetic field detection and contributed to the fabrication of a proof-of-concept terahertz detector, which potentially could revolutionize sensors used in next-generation space telescopes.<br /><br /></div> <div>&quot;Hans has developed a novel molecular doping technique for 2D materials, which has resulted in a patent and a high-impact publication in Nature Communications&quot;, says Ermin. <br /></div> <div>The director of the Graphene Centre is also keen to emphasize what the two award winning theses mean to the university at large. <br /></div> <div>&quot;Chalmers is often just seen as the coordinator of the big Graphene Flagship, but Samuel and Hans demonstrate how strong the actual 2D material research is at Chalmers.&quot;<br /><br /></div> <div>After receiving their prizes Hans and Samuel presented their award-winning theses. And besides enjoying the honor of winning the awards, it turns out also the prize money will come in handy. <br /></div> <div>&quot;As for the money, I'll probably save it until this pandemic passes and go travel somewhere with my wife&quot;, says Hans. <br /></div> <div>&quot;I will buy myself a good tablet to keep all my notes in the cloud and the rest of it will probably contribute to the budget needed to finally get my driving license&quot;, concludes Samuel. <br /><br /></div> <div>Samuel is currently doing his PostDoc at the University of Marburg in Germany and Hans is working for RISE where he continues doing active research on graphene-based primary metrology. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text</strong>: Lovisa Håkansson</div> Mon, 01 Mar 2021 16:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-nano-weapon-against-resistant-bacteria.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/New-nano-weapon-against-resistant-bacteria.aspxNew nano-weapon against resistant bacteria<p><b>​Nanoparticles coated with graphene flakes and antibiotics. This antibacterial nano-weapon is the goal of a new Nordic research project co-ordinated by Professor Ivan Mijakovic at Chalmers. The project aims to deliver the next generation of treatments against antibiotic-resistant bacteria. </b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span><span>Bacterial infections that cannot be treated due to antibiotic resistance is a rising and acute global problem. More than 700,000 people worldwide die each year due to infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. </span></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><span>In a worst-case scenario presented in a UN report in 2018, we can, if no measures are taken, reach a situation by 2050 where the death toll due to these infections rises to 10 million per year. As it is a time-consuming process to develop new antibiotics, and today's antibiotics are rapidly becoming ineffective, innovations are needed quickly.</span></span></p> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Treatment of antibiotic resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>​</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><span style="background-color:initial"></span></span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/SysBio/IvanMijakovic_180327_340x400.jpg" alt="Ivan Mijakovic" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="width:240px;height:282px" />“This is the right time for scientists to mobilise and try to solve this problem, which will be a real threat to mankind in a decade or two. Traditionally we all tend to think that the solution is to find new antibiotics, but we could also try to find a disruptive new technology that is not based on antibiotic discovery,” says<strong> Ivan Mijakovic</strong>, Professor of Systems and Synthetic Biology at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering at Chalmers, w​ho is the co-ordinator of the new Nordic project.  </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The research </span><span>pro</span><span>ject will run </span><span>for three years, and in January 2021 it was awarded 15 MSEK by </span><a href="https://www.nordforsk.org/">Nordforsk</a><span>. The researchers will specifically be focusing on treatment of methicillin-resistant </span><em>Staphylococcus aureus</em><span> (MRSA), which, among other things, causes chronic skin infections and sepsis. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>MRSA can also infect tissues and organs inside the body, such as heart and lungs, and they can also grow on different kinds of implants used in health care. MRSA-infections are easily spread in hospitals and cause great suffering in affected patients. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Combine three techniques in a new way</span></h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The idea of the project is to combine three already established techniques in a completely new way to create a new system for drug delivery. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Metal nanoparticles, graphene flakes and antibiotics all have antibacterial properties. Combined they would be even more powerful, as these particles most likely can penetrate the bacterial biofilm formed at the area of infection and release the antibiotic there. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Biofilm is the thick layer of bacteria and the mucus they produce when they attach to a surface and start to multiply, and it creates a protective barrier for the bacteria. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Graphene flakes cut and kill bacteria</span></h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><p class="chalmersElement-P"><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/SysBio/A%20Yurgens%201_340x400.jpg" alt="August Yurgens" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="width:240px;height:282px" />Ch</span><span>almers is one of the world leading universities in the research field of graphene. The idea of using graphene for medical treatments is relatively young but has great potential.  <strong>August Yurgens</strong> is Professor at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience at Chalmers. His research group is developing the process where the nanoparticles are coated axially with graphene flakes. </span></p></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“Sharp edges of graphene flakes placed vertically on a surface cut through the membrane of cells of a certain size, which <a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspx">research from Ivan and other scientists at Chalmers already has shown</a>.  Small bacterial cells are killed when they are cut by the sharp graphene edges, but human cells, which are bigger, are not harmed. The graphene flakes will be coated with the drug for transporting it deeper into the infected tissue. The antibiotics will then be released in the infected tissue gradually, &quot;says August Yurgens and continues: </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>&quot;Since some chemicals used as drugs are non-soluble in water, the main constituent of our bodies, we must find other ways of transporting the drugs within the body. The graphene coated nanoparticles could be a solution to this problem.” </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>His research group has made trials where they tried to grow graphene on silicon nanoparticles </span><span>−</span><span> </span><span> with promising results. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>“Of course, we are facing some challenges since the nanoparticles are spherical and for most efficient result, they need to be covered evenly with graphene flakes. We have several ideas on how we can solve that,” he says. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Green nanoparticles and novel drugs​</span></h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>The other Nordic partners are <a href="https://www.biosustain.dtu.dk/">DTU</a> in Denmark, and the research institute <a href="https://www.sintef.no/en/">SINTEF​</a> in Norway.  DTU will deliver the so-called green nanoparticles, which produced from plant or bacterial extracts, for an environmentally friendly production. </span></p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Researchers at SINTEF are developing new drugs with antibacterial properties, which will be loaded on the graphene coated nanoparticles. </span></p> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">&quot;Mechanism that effectively can be used against MRSA&quot;</h2> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <p class="chalmersElement-P">I<span>van Mijakovic’s research group will test the new nano-weapons for killing of bacterial biofilms. Ivan Mijakovic says that even if their study is successful, further obstacles must be overcome before this system can be used in patients. </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span>Graphene-based nanotechnology is not yet allowed in medical treatments within the EU. But, since this area has such potential, there are ongoing clinical trials to ensure safe treatments. </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span> “It usually takes decades to develop treatments like this. But we are at the forefront of developing a mechanism that we think can be effectively used against MRSA and other dangerous pathogens, and it is important that we test it and act now,” says Ivan Mijakovic.  </span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p 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<div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><strong>Read more: </strong></span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspx">Spikes of graphene can kill bacteria on implants</a></li> <li><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Ny-teori-om-snabb-spridning-av-antibiotikaresistens.aspx" style="font-weight:300">​</a><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Graphite-nanoplatelets-on-medical-devices-prevent-infections-.aspx">Graphite nanoplatelets prevent infections​</a></li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Graphite-nanoplatelets-on-medical-devices-prevent-infections-.aspx"></a></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div></div>Tue, 02 Feb 2021 10:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Cooling-electronics-efficiently-with-graphene-enhanced-heat-pipes.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Cooling-electronics-efficiently-with-graphene-enhanced-heat-pipes.aspxCooling electronics efficiently with graphene-enhanced heat pipes<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have found that graphene-based heat pipes can help solve the problems of cooling electronics and power systems used in avionics, data centres, and other power electronics. &quot;Heat pipes are one of the most efficient tools for this because of their high efficiency and unique ability to transfer heat over a large distance,&quot; says Johan Liu, Professor of Electronics Production, at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, at Chalmers. The results, which also involved researchers in China and Italy, were recently published in the scientific Open Access journal Nano Select.</b></p><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/jliu_2016_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Johan Liu." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />Electronics and data centres need to be efficiently cooled in order to work properly. Graphene enhanced heat pipes can solve these issues. Currently, heat pipes are usually made of copper, aluminium or their alloys. Due to the relatively high density and limited heat transmission capacity of these materials, heat pipes are facing severe challenges in future power devices and data centres.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>(Picture to the right: Prof. Johan Liu)</em><br /> </div> <div> </div> <div>Large data centres that deliver, for example, digital banking services and video streaming websites are extremely energy-intensive, and an environmental culprit that emits more than the aviation industry. Reducing the climate footprint of this industry is therefore vital. The researchers’ discoveries here could make a significant energy efficiency contribution to these data centres, and in other applications too.</div> <div> </div> <div>The graphene-enhanced heat pipe exhibits a specific thermal transfer coefficient which is about 3.5 times better than that of copper-based heat pipe. The new findings pave the way for using graphene enhanced heat pipes in lightweight and large capacity cooling applications, as required in many applications such as avionics, automotive electronics, laptop computers, handsets, data centres as well as space electronics.</div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/ya_liu_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Ya Liu." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />The graphene-enhanced heat pipes are made of high thermal conductivity graphene assembled films assisted with carbon fibre wicker enhanced inner surfaces. The researchers tested pipes of 6mm outer diameter and 150mm length. They show great advantages and potential in cooling of a variety of electronics and power systems, especially where low weight and high corrosion resistance are required. </div> <div>&quot;The cold part of the graphene enhance heat pipe can be substituted by a heat sink or a fan to make the cooling even more efficient when applied in a real case,&quot; explains Ya Liu <em>(picture to the right)</em>, PhD Student at the Electronics Materials and Systems Laboratory at Chalmers. </div> <div> </div> <div>The new study is based on a collaboration between researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Fudan University, Shanghai University, China, SHT Smart High-Tech AB, Sweden and Marche Polytechnic University, Italy. <br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">For further information &gt;&gt;&gt;</h3> <div>Ya Liu, PhD Student, Electronics Materials and Systems Laboratory (EMSL), Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, yaliu@chalmers.se </div> <div> </div> <div>Johan Liu, Professor, Electronics Materials and Systems Laboratory (EMSL), Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, johan.liu@chalmers.se </div> <div> </div> <div>Illustration: Ya Liu and Johan Liu</div> <div>Photo of Johan Liu: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo of Ya Liu: Bo Hu</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Read the full paper in Nano Select &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong></div> <div><a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nano.202000195"><span>http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nano.202000195<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></a></div>Thu, 03 Dec 2020 08:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Magic-chemical-makes-perfect-edges-in-2D-materials.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Magic-chemical-makes-perfect-edges-in-2D-materials.aspxHow to make perfect edges in 2D-materials<p><b>Ultrathin materials such as graphene promise a revolution in nanoscience and technology. Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have now made an important advance within the field. In a recent paper in Nature Communications they present a method for controlling the edges of two-dimensional materials using a ‘magic’ chemical. </b></p><div><div>​</div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/500_Battulga%20Munkhbat-200924.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:166px;width:130px" /><span style="background-color:initial">“</span><span style="background-color:initial">Our method makes it possible to control the edges – atom by atom – in a way that is both easy and scalable, using only mild heating together with abundant, environmentally friendly chemicals, such as hydrogen peroxide,” says Battulga Munkhbat, a postdoctoral researcher at the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology, and first author of the paper. </span><div><br /></div> <div>Materials as thin as just a single atomic layer are known as two-dimensional, or 2D, materials. The most well-known example is graphene, as well molybdenum disulphide, its semiconductor analogue. Future developments within the field could benefit from studying one particular characteristic inherent to such materials – their edges. </div> <div>Controlling the edges is a challenging scientific problem, because they are very different in comparison to the main body of a 2D material. For example, a specific type of edge found in transition metal dichalcogenides (known as TMD’s, such as the aforementioned molybdenum disulphide), can have magnetic and catalytic properties. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Typical TMD materials have edges which can exist in two distinct variants, known as zigzag or armchair. These alternatives are so different that their physical and chemical properties are not at all alike. For instance, calculations predict that zigzag edges are metallic and ferromagnetic, whereas armchair edges are semiconducting and non-magnetic. Similar to these remarkable variations in physical properties, one could expect that chemical properties of zigzag and armchair edges are also very different. If so, it could be possible that certain chemicals might ‘dissolve’ armchair edges, while leaving zigzag ones unaffected. </span><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>Now, such a ‘magic’ chemical is exactly what the Chalmers researchers have found – in the form of ordinary hydrogen peroxide. At first, the researchers were completely surprised by the new results. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“It was not only that one type of edge was dominant over the others, but also that the resulting edges were extremely sharp – nearly atomically sharp. This indicates that the ‘magic’ chemical operates in a so-called self-limiting manner, removing unwanted material atom-by-atom, eventually resulting in edges at the atomically sharp limit. The resulting patterns followed the crystallographic orientation of the original TMD material, producing beautiful, atomically sharp hexagonal nanostructures,” says Battulga Munkhbat.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The new method, which includes a combination of standard top-down lithographic methods with a new anisotropic wet etching process, therefore makes it possible to create perfect edges in two-dimensional materials.</div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Timur%20Shegai-webb_NY.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;height:166px;width:130px" /></div> <div>​<br /><div>“This method opens up new and unprecedented possibilities for van der Waals materials (layered 2D materials). We can now combine edge physics with 2D physics in one single material. It is an extremely fascinating development,” says Timur Shegai, Associate Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers and leader of the research project. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>These and other related materials often attract significant research attention, as they enable crucial advances within in nanoscience and technology, with potential applications ranging from quantum electronics to new types of nano-devices. These hopes are manifested in the Graphene Flagship, Europe’s biggest ever research initiative, which is coordinated by Chalmers University of Technology. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>To make the new technology available to research laboratories and high-tech companies, the researchers have founded <a href="http://www.smena-tech.com/">a start-up company ​</a>that offers high quality atomically sharp TMD materials. The researchers also plan to further develop applications for these atomically sharp metamaterials.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Mia Halleröd Palmgren and Joshua Worth</div> <div><strong>Portrait pictures: </strong>Anna-Lena Lundqvist</div> <a href="https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2020-10/cuot-cpe101620.php"><div><br /></div> <div><div><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release and download high resolution images.​​​​</div></div></a></div> <div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More on the publication </h2> <div>The paper <a href="https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18428-2">Transition metal dichalcogenide metamaterials with atomic precision​</a> recently appeared in Nature Communications The article is written by Battulga Munkhbat, Andrew Yankovich, Denis Baranov, Ruggero Verre, Eva Olsson and Timur Shegai at the Department of Physics at Chalmers. </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>For more information, please contact: </span></h2></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Battulga-Munkhbat.aspx">Battulga Munkhbat</a>, Post Doc, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 73 995 34 79, <a href="mailto:battulga@chalmers.se">battulga@chalmers.se​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/Timur-Shegai.aspx">Timur Shegai</a>, Associate Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, +46 31 772 31 23, <a href="mailto:timurs@chalmers.se">timurs@chalmers.se</a></div> </div>Mon, 19 Oct 2020 06:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/A-New-Spin-on-Topological-Quantum-Material.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/A-New-Spin-on-Topological-Quantum-Material.aspxA New Spin on Topological Quantum Material<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, with collaborators in Germany and China, have discovered a new spin polarization in Tungsten di-telluride (WTe2), a topological Weyl semimetal candidate. These experimental findings can pave the way for the utilization of spin currents in developing the next generation of faster and energy-efficient spintronic and quantum technologies. The results are recently published in the journal Advanced Materials.</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Topological quantum materials have attracted significant attention in condensed matter physics and information technology because of their unique band structure with topologically protected electronic states. After the realization of graphene and topological insulators, recently, Weyl semimetals were discovered with topological electronic properties. In contrast to the Schrödinger equation used to describe the electronic behavior in conventional materials and the Dirac equation for graphene and surface states of topological insulators, in Weyl semimetals, they follow the Weyl principles, proposed by Herman Weyl in 1929.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>In these Weyl semimetals, the conduction and valence bands cross at specific points in momentum space, known as Weyl nodes. These nodes are topologically secured with opposite chirality in bulk with linear band dispersions. The appealing revelation in a Weyl semimetal is the presence of nontrivial surface states that connect the projections of Weyl nodes on the surface, called Fermi-arc. It has been shown that such a Weyl semimetal candidate WTe2 hosts unique electronic transport phenomena such as chiral anomaly, unconventional quantum oscillations, colossal magnetoresistance, spin Hall effect, and quantum spin Hall states, which opens a new era for physics experiments. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/saroj_prasad_dash_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Saroj Dash." class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" />In the present experiment​, researchers at Chalmers detected an unconventional spin current in Weyl semimetal WTe2, which is parallel to the applied electric field. The generated spin polarization in WTe2 is found to be different from the <a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Spin-Hall-effect-in-Weyl-semimetal-for-Energy-efficient-Information-Technology.aspx" target="_blank">already known​</a> conventional spin-Hall and Rashba-Edelstein effects. </div> <div>&quot;Such a new spin-polarization component can be possible due to its broken crystal symmetry combined with large Berry curvature, spin-orbit interaction, and novel spin-texture of WTe2,&quot; explains Associate Professor Saroj Prasad Dash (to the left), who leads the research group at the Quantum  Device Physics Laboratory (QDP), the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The spin polarization in WTe2 is electrically detected by using both direct and its inverse phenomenon, obeying Onsager reciprocity relation. A robust and practical method for electrical creation and detection of spin polarization is demonstrated and utilized for efficient spin injection and detection in a graphene channel up to room temperature. </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/bing_zhao_2020_350x305.jpg" alt="Photo of Bing Zhao." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /><br />&quot;These findings open opportunities for utilizing topological Weyl materials as non-magnetic spin sources in all-electrical 2D spintronics&quot;, states Bing Zhao (to the right),  researcher at QDP, and the first author of the paper.</div> <div>He continues:</div> <div>&quot;Moreover, the findings have great potential for utilizing topological semimetals in spintronic circuits and quantum technologies. The electrical creation and detection of spin polarization in topological Weyl semimetal can be useful for switching magnetization of ferromagnets for its use in the spin-orbit torque effect in spintronic memory and logic technologies. Furthermore, such layered topological semimetal can be combined with superconductors and ferromagnets to use in topological quantum technologies&quot;.</div> <div> </div> <div>The devices were nanofabricated in the state-of-the-art  cleanroom facility at MC2, and measured at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory. Theoretical calculations were performed in collaboration with Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle, Germany, and University of Science and Technology Beijing, China. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Chalmers researchers acknowledge financial support from the European Union Graphene Flagship, Swedish Research Council, VINNOVA 2D Tech center, and AoA Materials and EI Nano program at Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Illustration: Bing Zhao et al</div> <div>Photo of Saroj Prasad Dash: Oscar Mattsson</div> <div>Photo of Bing Zhao: Private</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>For further information &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong></div> <div>Saroj P. Dash, Associate Professor, Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, +46 31 772 5170, saroj.dash@chalmers.se</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>Read the full paper in Advanced Materials &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong></span><br /></div> <div>Unconventional Charge–Spin Conversion in Weyl‐Semimetal WTe2, Bing Zhao, Bogdan Karpiak, Dmitrii Khokhriakov, Annika Johansson, Anamul Md Hoque, Xiaoguang Xu, Yong Jiang, Ingrid Mertig, Saroj P. Dash; Advanced Materials, 2000818 (2020). <br /><a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202000818" target="_blank">https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202000818​</a></div>Thu, 24 Sep 2020 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Spin-galvanic-effect-in-graphene-with-topological-topping-demonstrated.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Spin-galvanic-effect-in-graphene-with-topological-topping-demonstrated.aspxSpin-galvanic effect in graphene with topological topping demonstrated<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have demonstrated the spin-galvanic effect, which allows for the conversion of non-equilibrium spin density into a charge current. Here, by combining graphene with a topological insulator, the authors realize a gate-tunable spin-galvanic effect at room temperature. The findings were published in the scientific journal Nature Communications.</b></p>“We believe that this experimental realization will attract a lot of scientific attention and put topological insulators and graphene on the map for applications in spintronic and quantum technologies,” says Associate Professor Saroj Prasad Dash, who leads the research group at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory (QDP), the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2.<br /><br />Graphene, a single layer of carbon atoms, has extraordinary electronic and spin transport properties. However, electrons in this material experience low interaction of their spin and orbital angular moments, called spin-orbit coupling, which does not allow to achieve tunable spintronic functionality in pristine graphene. On the other hand, unique electronic spin textures and the spin-momentum locking phenomenon in topological insulators are promising for emerging spin-orbit driven spintronics and quantum technologies. <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/dmitrii_2020_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Dmitrii Khokriakov." class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" /><br />However, the utilization of topological insulators poses several challenges related to their lack of electrical gate-tunability, interference from trivial bulk states, and destruction of topological properties at heterostructure interfaces. <br />“Here, we address some of these challenges by integrating two-dimensional graphene with a three-dimensional topological insulator in van der Waals heterostructures to take advantage of their remarkable spintronic properties and engineer a proximity-induced spin-galvanic effect at room temperature,” says Dmitrii Khokhriakov (to the right), PhD Student at QDP, and first author of the article.<br /><br />Since graphene is atomically thin, its properties can be drastically changed when other functional materials are brought in contact with it, which is known as the proximity effect. Therefore, graphene-based heterostructures are an exciting device concept since they exhibit strong gate-tunability of proximity effects arising from its hybridization with other functional materials. Previously, combining graphene with topological insulators in van der Waals heterostructures, the researchers have shown that a strong proximity-induced spin-orbit coupling could be induced, which is expected to produce a Rashba spin-splitting in the graphene bands. As a consequence, the proximitized graphene is expected to host the spin-galvanic effect, with the anticipated gate-tunability of its magnitude and sign. However, this phenomenon has not been observed in these heterostructures previously.<br />“To realize this spin-galvanic effect, we developed a special Hall-bar-like device of graphene-topological insulator heterostructures,” says Dmitrii Khokhriakov. <br /><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/saroj_prasad_dash_350x305.jpg" alt="Picture of Saroj Dash." class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" />The devices were nanofabricated in the state-of-the-art cleanroom at MC2 and measured at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory. The novel device concept allowed the researchers to perform complementary measurements in various configurations via spin switch and Hanle spin precession experiments, giving an unambiguous evidence of the spin-galvanic effect at room temperature. <br />“Moreover, we were able to demonstrate a strong tunability and a sign change of the spin galvanic effect by the gate electric field, which makes such heterostructures promising for the realization of all-electrical and gate-tunable spintronic devices,” concludes Saroj Prasad Dash (to the left).<br /><br />The researchers acknowledge financial support from the European Union Graphene Flagship, Swedish Research Council, VINNOVA 2D Tech Center, FlagEra, and AoA Materials and EI Nano program at Chalmers University of Technology.<br /><br />Illustration: Dmitrii Khokhriakov<br />Photo of Saroj Prasad Dash: Oscar Mattsson<br />Photo of Dmitrii Khokhriakov: Private<br /><br /><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-17481-1">Read the full paper in Nature Communications</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<br /><br />References<br />1. D. Khokhriakov, A.M. Hoque, B. Karpiak, &amp; S.P. Dash, Gate-tunable spin-galvanic effect in graphene-topological insulator van der Waals heterostructures at room temperature, Nature Communications. 11, 3657 (2020).<br />2. A. Dankert, P. Bhaskar, D. Khokhriakov, I. H. Rodrigues, B. Karpiak, M. V. Kamalakar, S. Charpentier, I. Garate, S.P. Dash. Origin and evolution of surface spin current in topological insulators. Phys. Rev. B 97, 125414 (2018).<br />3. A. Dankert, J. Geurs, M. V. Kamalakar, S. Charpentier, &amp; S.P. Dash, Room Temperature Electrical Detection of Spin Polarized Currents in Topological Insulators. Nano Letters 15, 7976–7981 (2015).<br />4. D. Khokhriakov, A. W. Cummings, K. Song, M. Vila, B. Karpiak, A. Dankert, S. Roche, S. P. Dash, Tailoring emergent spin phenomena in Dirac material heterostructures. Science Advances. 4, eaat9349 (2018).<br />Thu, 27 Aug 2020 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/One-atom-thin-platinum-makes-a-great-chemical-sensor.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/One-atom-thin-platinum-makes-a-great-chemical-sensor.aspxOne atom thin platinum makes a great chemical sensor<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden, with collaborators, have reported the possibility to prepare one-atom thin platinum and use it as chemical sensors. The results were recently published in the scientific journal Advanced Material Interfaces.</b></p><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/Kyung_Kim_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Picture of Kyung Ho Kim." style="margin:5px" />“In a nutshell, we managed to make a one-atom thin metal layer, a sort of a new material. We found that this atomically-thin metal is super sensitive to its chemical environment: its electrical resistance changes significantly when it interacts with gases”, explains Kyung Ho Kim (to the right), postdoc at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, and lead author of the article. </div> <div> </div> <div>The spirit of the research is the development of 2D materials beyond graphene.  </div> <div>“Atomically thin platinum can be actually useful for ultra-sensitive and fast electrical detection of chemicals. We have studied the case of platinum in great detail, but other metals like Palladium produce similar results”, says Samuel Lara Avila (below to the right), Associate Professor at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory at MC2, and one of the authors of the article.</div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/Samuel_Lara_Avila_1_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The researchers used the sensitive chemical-to-electrical transduction capability of atomically thin platinum to detect part-per-billion contents of toxic gases. They demonstrate this for detection of benzene, a compound that is cancerogenic to very small concentrations in ambient, and for which no low-cost detection apparatus exists. </div> <div>“This new material approach, atomically thin metals, is very promising for future air-quality monitoring applications”, says Jens Eriksson, Head of the Applied sensor science unit at Linköping University and co-author of the paper.</div> <div> </div> <div>The study is a collaboration between scientists from Chalmers, Linköping University, Uppsala University, University of Zaragoza (Spain), and the MAX IV Laboratory in Lund. From Chalmers, Kyung Ho Kim, Hans He and Sergey Kubatkin contributed to the research together with Samuel Lara-Avila.</div> <div> </div> <div>The work was jointly supported by the Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF), the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, The Swedish Research Council and Chalmers Excellence Initiative Nano. The experiments were performed in part at the Nanofabrication Laboratory at Chalmers.</div> <div> </div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Illustration: Hans He</div> <div>Photo of Samuel Lara Avila: Jan-Olof Yxell</div> <div>Photo of Kyung Ho Kim: Private</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Contact:</h3> <div>Samuel Lara Avila, Assistant Professor, Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, samuel.lara@chalmers.se </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Read the article in Advanced Material Interfaces &gt;&gt;&gt;</h3> <div>Chemical Sensing with Atomically Thin Platinum Templated by a 2D Insulator</div> <div><a href="https://doi.org/10.1002/admi.201902104">https://doi.org/10.1002/admi.201902104 </a></div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">MORE ABOUT THE RESEARCH &gt;&gt;&gt;</h3> <div>Boosting the sensitivity of solid‐state gas sensors by incorporating nanostructured materials as the active sensing element can be complicated by interfacial effects. Interfaces at nanoparticles, grains, or contacts may result in nonlinear current–voltage response, high electrical resistance, and ultimately, electric noise that limits the sensor read‐out. </div> <div> </div> <div>This work reports the possibility to prepare nominally one atom thin, electrically continuous platinum layers by physical vapor deposition on the carbon zero layer (also known as the buffer layer) grown epitaxially on silicon carbide. With a 3–4 Å thin Pt layer, the electrical conductivity of the metal is strongly modulated when interacting with chemical analytes, due to charges being transferred to/from Pt. The strong interaction with chemical species, together with the scalability of the material, enables the fabrication of chemiresistor devices for electrical read‐out of chemical species with sub part‐per‐billion (ppb) detection limits. The 2D system formed by atomically thin Pt on the carbon zero layer on SiC opens up a route for resilient and high sensitivity chemical detection and can be the path for designing new heterogenous catalysts with superior activity and selectivity.</div>Mon, 15 Jun 2020 03:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Graphene-enables-a-more-robust-electrical-system.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Graphene-enables-a-more-robust-electrical-system.aspxGraphene enables a more robust electrical system<p><b>​​The use of more renewable energy sources in Europe will rely on the smart electric grids, able to distribute and store energy matching production and demand. Circuit breakers are safety-critical components of electric grids, associated with very high and recurring maintenance costs. By adding graphene to the circuit breakers, the electrical system will become more robust and reduce the costs of maintenance drastically.</b></p><div>Low voltage circuit breakers, common in domestic and industrial applications, need grease to function properly. The grease is applied to all circuit breakers during manufacturing. The problem is that the grease stiffens and dries out with age and has a narrow temperature range. This leads to a metal-to-metal wear that must be serviced at high maintenance costs, and to an increased risk of circuit breaker failure. Lack of lubrication is the number one problem that test technicians find when servicing circuit breakers in the field. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Self-lubrication properties enables maintenance free operation</h2></div> <div> </div> <div>Graphene is a material with self-lubricating properties; the Swedish company ABB, partner of the Graphene Flagship research program, has recently demonstrated that multifunctional graphene-metal composite coatings could improve the tribological (interactive surfaces in relative motion) performance of metal contacts. ABB will thus lead a new project, starting in April 2020, with the aim to take such graphene-based composites to commercial applications.</div> <div> </div> <div>The project, named “Circuitbreakers” is one of eleven selected Spearhead projects funded by the Graphene Flagship, Europe’s biggest initiative on graphene research, involving more than 140 universities and industries located in 21 countries. Chalmers University of Technology is the coordinator of the Graphene Flagship. </div> <div> </div> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Prototype for industrial use</h3></div> <div> </div> <div>All spearheads will start in April 2020, building on previous scientific work performed in the Graphene Flagship in last years. The aim of the Circuitbreakers project is to develop a fully functional and tested prototype ready for industrial implementation in just three years. This new generation of circuit breakers will be self-lubricant and have a wider temperature range than existing circuit breaker options. This will enable maintenance-free operation, which will save business huge costs and reduce the risk on any undesired outage of the electrical system due to circuit breaker failure.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Extensive experience of graphene- and graphene-based composites</h2></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/VincenzoPalermo.png" alt="Vincezo Palermo" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px 15px;width:141px;height:155px" />Prof. Vincenzo Palermo and Dr. Jinhua Sun from the Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology will support ABB in the spearhead project providing new solutions to process graphene in coatings, to fabricate graphene-enhanced circuit breaker prototypes for practical application in the industrial scale. The research group has more than ten years of research experience in graphene and graphene-based composites. Their knowledge on characterization and processing of graphene-based materials will help industrial partners to select the appropriate graphene raw materials. <br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/JinhuaSunChalmers.jpg" alt="Jinhua Sun" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px 10px;width:235px;height:178px" />Prof. Palermo and Dr. Sun will help work on developing new chemical procedures and industrial applicable processing methods to coat graphene on the major component of circuit breakers. In addition, the advanced characterization techniques available at Chalmers Materials Analysis Laboratory (CMAL) will be important to evaluate the added value of graphene on the performance of circuit breaker.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">More information: </h2> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">About the Graphene Flagship</h3></div> <div> <a href="https://graphene-flagship.eu/" title="Link to graphene flagship website"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />https://graphene-flagship.eu</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Partners</h3> <div> The Circuitbreakers Spearhead project is a multidisciplinary project that consists of both academic and industrial partners. The industrial partners are ABB (Sweden), Nanesa (Italy) and Graphmatech AB (Sweden). </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Funding</h3> <div>The Graphene Flagship is one of the largest research projects funded by the European Commission. With a budget of €1 billion over 10 years, it represents a new form of joint, coordinated research, forming Europe's biggest ever research initiative. The Flagship is tasked with bringing together academic and industrial researchers to take graphene from academic laboratories into European society, thus generating economic growth, new jobs and new opportunities.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><span>Chalmers University of Technology as a core partner will receive 481,000 Euro to work in the Circuitbreakers Spearhead project, which will formally start from April 2020 with a total period of 3 years.<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /></div>Thu, 23 Apr 2020 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Graphite-nanoplatelets-on-medical-devices-prevent-infections-.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Graphite-nanoplatelets-on-medical-devices-prevent-infections-.aspxGraphite nanoplatelets prevent infections <p><b>​Graphite nanoplatelets integrated into plastic medical surfaces can prevent infections, killing 99.99 per cent of bacteria which try to attach – a cheap and viable potential solution to a problem which affects millions, costs huge amounts of time and money, and accelerates antibiotic resistance. This is according to research from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, in the journal Small.​</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">​<span>Every year, over four million people in Europe are affected by infections contracted during health-care procedures, according to the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Many of these are bacterial infections which develop around medical devices and implants within the body, such as catheters, hip and knee prostheses or dental implants. In worst cases implants need to be removed.</span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Bacterial infections like this can cause great suffering for patients, and cost healthcare services huge amounts of time and money. Additionally, large amounts of antibiotics are currently used to treat and prevent such infections, costing more money, and accelerating the development of antibiotic resistance.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“The purpose of our research is to develop antibacterial surfaces which can reduce the number of infections and subsequent need for antibiotics, and to which bacteria cannot develop resistance. We have now shown that tailored surfaces formed of a mixture of polyethylene and graphite nanoplatelets can kill 99.99 per cent of bacteria which try to attach to the surface,” says Santosh Pandit, postdoctoral researcher in the research group of Professor Ivan Mijakovic at the Division of Systems Biology, Department of Biology and Biotechnology, Chalmers University of Technology. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​&quot;Outstanding antibacterial effects&quot;</h2> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Infections on implants are caused by bacteria that travel around in the body in fluids such as blood, in search of a surface to attach to. When they land on a suitable surface, they start to multiply and form a biofilm – a bacterial coating.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">Previous studies from the Chalmers researchers showed how vertical flakes of graphene, placed on the surface of an implant, could form a protective coating, making it impossible for bacteria to attach – like spikes on buildings designed to prevent birds from nesting. The graphene flakes damage the cell membrane, killing the bacteria. But producing these graphene flakes is expensive, and currently not feasible for large-scale production.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“But now, we have achieved the same outstanding antibacterial effects, but using relatively inexpensive graphite nanoplatelets, mixed with a very versatile polymer. The polymer, or plastic, is not inherently compatible with the graphite nanoplatelets, but with standard plastic manufacturing techniques, we succeeded in tailoring the microstructure of the material, with rather high filler loadings , to achieve the desired effect. And now it has great potential for a number of biomedical applications,” says Roland Kádár, Associate Professor at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science at Chalmers.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​No damage to human cells</h2> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The nanoplatelets on the surface of the implants prevent bacterial infection but, crucially, without damaging healthy human cells. Human cells are around 25 times larger than bacteria, so while the graphite nanoplatelets slice apart and kill bacteria, they barely scratch a human cell. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“In addition to reducing patients’ suffering and the need for antibiotics, implants like these could lead to less requirement for subsequent work, since they could remain in the body for much longer than those used today,” says Santosh Pandit. “Our research could also contribute to reducing the enormous costs that such infections cause health care services worldwide .”</p> <p></p> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">​Correct orientation is the decisive factor</h2> <p></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">In the study, the researchers experimented with different concentrations of graphite nanoplatelets and the plastic material. A composition of around 15-20 per cent graphite nanoplatelets had the greatest antibacterial effect – providing that the morphology is highly structured.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">“As in the previous study, the decisive factor is orienting and distributing the graphite nanoplatelets correctly. They have to be very precisely ordered to achieve maximum effect,” says Roland Kádár.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The study was a collaboration between the Division of Systems and Synthetic Biology at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, and the Division of Engineering Materials at the Department of Industrial and Materials Science at Chalmers, and the medical company Wellspect Healthcare, who manufacture catheters, among other things. The antibacterial surfaces were developed by Karolina Gaska when she was a postdoctoral researcher in the group of Associate Professor Roland Kádár. </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P">The researchers’ future efforts will now be focused on unleashing the full potential of the antibacterial surfaces for specific biomedical applications.</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Read the scientific article in the scientific journal Small</strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial"><font color="#333333"><a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/smll.201904756">Precontrolled Alignment of Graphite Nanoplatelets in Polymeric Composites Prevents Bacterial Attachment​</a></font></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Read the previous news text, from April 2018</strong></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspx">Spikes of graphene can kill bacteria on implants​</a></span></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><br /></p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"><strong>Text:</strong> Susanne Nilsson Lindh and Joshua Worth<br /><strong>Ilustration:</strong> Yen Strandqvist</p> <p class="chalmersElement-P"> </p>Mon, 23 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/graphene-cleans-water-more-effectively.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/graphene-cleans-water-more-effectively.aspx​Graphene cleans water more effectively<p><b>​Billions of cubic meters of water are consumed each year. However, lots of the water resources such as rivers, lakes and groundwater are continuously contaminated by discharges of chemicals from industries and urban area. It’s an expensive and demanding process to remove all the increasingly present contaminants, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, perfluorinated compounds, heavy metals and pathogens. Graphil is a project that aims to create a market prototype for a new and improved way to purify water, using graphene. </b></p><div>Graphene enhanced filters for water purification (GRAPHIL) is one of eleven selected spearhead projects funded by The Graphene Flagship, Europe’s biggest initiative on graphene research, involving more than 140 universities and industries located in 21 countries. Chalmers is the coordinator of the Graphene Flagship. </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The purpose of the spearhead projects which will start in April 2020, building on previous scientific work, is to take graphene-enabled prototypes to commercial applications. Planned to end in 2023, the project aims to produce a compact filter that can be connected directly onto a household sink or used as a portable water purifying device, to ensure all households have access to safe drinking water.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/VincenzoPalermo.png" alt="Vincenzo Palermo" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:10px;width:196px;height:216px" /><br />&quot;This is a brand-new research line for Chalmers in the Graphene flagship, and it will be a strategic one. The purification of water is a key societal challenge for both rich and poor countries and will become more and more important in the next future. In Graphil, hopefully we will use our knowledge of graphene chemistry to produce a new generation of water purification system via interface engineering of graphene-polysulfone nanocomposites,&quot; says Vincenzo Palermo, professor at the Department of industrial and materials science. </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Graphene enhanced filters outperforms other water purification techniques</h2> <div>Most of the water purification processes today are based on several different techniques. These are adsorption on granular activated carbon that removes organic contaminants, membrane filtration that removes for example, bacteria or large pollutants, and reverse osmosis. Reverse osmosis is the only technique today that can remove organic or inorganic emerging concern contaminants with high efficiency. Reverse osmosis has however high electrical and chemical costs both from the operation and the maintenance of the system. </div> <div> </div> <div>Many existing contaminants present in Europe’s water sources, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and surfactants, are also resistant to conventional purification technologies. Consequently, the number of cases of contamination of ground and even drinking water is rapidly increasing throughout the world, and it is matter of great environmental concern due to their potential effect on the human health and ecosystem.</div> <div> </div> <div>Graphil is instead proposing to use graphene related material polymer composites. Thanks to the unique properties of graphene, the composite material favours the absorption of organic molecules. Its properties also allow the material to bind ions and metals, thus reducing the number of inorganic contaminants in water. Furthermore, unlike typical reverse osmosis, granular activated carbon and microfiltration train systems, the graphene system will provide a much simpler set up for users. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Grafenprov.jpg" alt="Grafenprov" style="margin:5px;width:660px;height:309px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Graphil will not just replace all the old techniques, but significantly out-perform them both in efficiency and cost. The filter works as a simple microfiltration membrane, and this simplicity requires lower operation pressures, amounting in reduced water loss and lower maintenance costs for end users.</div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Upscaling the technique for industrial use</h2> <div>Chalmers has, in collaboration with other partners of the Graphene Flagship, investigated during the last years the fundamental structure-property relationships of graphene related material and polysulfones composition in water purification. A filter has then been successfully developed and validated in an industrial environment by the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the water filtration supplier Medica.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Now the task is to integrate the results and prove that the production can be upscaled in a complete system for commercial use.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Prof. Vincenzo Palermo and Dr. Zhenyuan Xia from the department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers will support Graphil with advanced facilities for chemical, structural and mechanical characterization and processing of graphene oriented-polymer composite on the Kg scale. Chalmers’ role in the project will be to perform chemical functionalization of the graphene oxide and of the polymer fibers used in the filters, to enhance their compatibility and their performance in capturing organic contaminants.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/ZhenyuanXia_grafenprov_600px.jpg" alt="Zhenyuan Xia" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:15px 10px;width:295px;height:207px" /><br />&quot;We are very excited to begin this new activity in collaboration with partners from United Kingdom, France and Italy, and I hope that my previous ten years’ international working experience in Italy and Sweden will help us to better fulfil this project,&quot; says Zhenyuan Xia, researcher at the Department of industrial and materials science. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Partners</h2> <div>Graphil is a multidisciplinary project that consists of both academic and industry partners. The academic partners include Chalmers, the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the University of Manchester. The industrial partners are Icon Lifesaver, Medica SpA and Polymem S.A – all European industry leaders in the water purification sector. The aim is to have a working filter prototype that can be commercialized by the industry for household water treatment and portable water purification.  </div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Funding</h2> <div>The Graphene Flagship is one of the largest research projects funded by the European Commission. With a budget of €1 billion over 10 years, it represents a new form of joint, coordinated research, forming Europe's biggest ever research initiative. The Flagship is tasked with bringing together academic and industrial researchers to take graphene from academic laboratories into European society, thus generating economic growth, new jobs and new opportunities.</div> <div> </div> <div>The total budget of the spearhead project GRAPHIL will be 4.88 million EURO and it will start from April 2020 with a total period of 3 years.</div>Sun, 22 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Graphene-spin-circuits-–-towards-all-spin-computing.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Graphene-spin-circuits-%E2%80%93-towards-all-spin-computing.aspxGraphene spin circuits – towards all-spin computing<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have demonstrated spin circuit architectures with large area graphene channels efficiently carrying and communicating the electronic spin information between nanomagnets arranged in different complex geometries consisting of multiple devices. The findings were recently published in the scientific journal Carbon. ​</b></p><div><span style="background-color:initial">Solid-state electronics based on utilizing the electron spin degree of freedom for storing and processing information can pave the way for next-generation spin-based computing. However, the realization of spin communication between multiple devices in complex spin circuit geometries, essential for practical applications, still remained challenging.</span><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/saroj_prasad_dash_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Picture of Saroj Dash." style="margin:5px" />&quot;Our experimental demonstration of spin communication in large area CVD graphene spin circuit architectures is a milestone towards large-scale integration and development of spin-logic and memory technologies”, says Saroj Dash (to the left), associate professor and group leader, who supervised the research project.  </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Dmitrii Khokhriakov, PhD student at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory at Chalmers University of Technology, carved complicated graphene Y-junction and Hexa-arm spin circuit architectures utilizing nanofabrication techniques compatible with industrial manufacturing processes. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The researchers demonstrate that the spin-polarized current can be effectively communicated between the magnetic memory elements in different 2D graphene circuit architectures. They take advantage of extraordinary long-distance spin transport observed in commercially available wafer-scale CVD graphene with transport lengths exceeding 34 μm at room temperature. In addition, the researchers also demonstrate that by engineering the graphene channel geometry and orientation of spin polarization, the symmetric and antisymmetric spin precession signals can be tuned in a precise manner.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>This research at Chalmers is funded by the EU Graphene Flagship and the Swedish Research Council (VR).</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Illustration: Dmitrii Khokhriakov​<br /></div> <div>Photo of Saroj Prasad Dash: Oscar Mattsson</div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Read the article &quot;<a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0008622320301226?via%3Dihub">Two-Dimensional Spintronic Circuit Architectures on Large Scale Graphene</a>&quot; &gt;&gt;&gt;</span></div>Wed, 12 Feb 2020 09:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/graphene/news/Pages/GCC-phd-award-2019.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/graphene/news/Pages/GCC-phd-award-2019.aspxFirst recipient of new Graphene Centre award<p><b></b></p>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Grafencentrum/M%20Bonmann%20GCC%20award.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:159px" /><span style="background-color:initial;font-size:14px">Marlene Bonmann, PhD student at the Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory at MC2, is the first winner of the annual GCC PhD Award. She received her prize at a seminar in Kollektorn on 27 January.</span><div><span style="background-color:initial">After receiving her award, a diploma, flowers and 15 000 SEK, Marlene Bonmann presented her prize-winning thesis &quot;Graphene field-effect transistors and devices for advanced high-frequency applications&quot;.</span><div><span style="font-size:14px"><br /></span></div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/publication/514394" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read Marlene Bonmann's thesis​</a></span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px"> </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><strong>About the award</strong></span><br /></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">Graphene Centre at Chalmers acknowledges excellent PhD research within the field of 2D materials at Chalmers. The winner obtains 15.000 SEK and a certificate. This can be theoretical or experimental work with a clear focus on graphene or related 2D materials and heterostructures. The most important criterium is scientific excellence.</span></div> <div><span style="font-size:14px">To nominate a candidate, please send an email to <a href="mailto:ermin.malic@chalmers.se">ermin.malic@chalmers.se</a></span></div> <div><br /></div> </div>Thu, 30 Jan 2020 09:00:00 +0100