News: KoMhttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyFri, 20 Apr 2018 07:56:27 +0200http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspxSpikes of graphene can kill bacteria on implants<p><b>​A tiny layer of graphene flakes becomes a deadly weapon and kills bacteria, stopping infections during procedures such as implant surgery. This is the findings of new research from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, recently published in the scientific journal Advanced Materials Interfaces.</b></p><p>​Operations for surgical implants, such as hip and knee replacements or dental implants, have increased in recent years. However, in such procedures, there is always a risk of bacterial infection. In the worst case scenario, this can cause the implant to not attach to the skeleton, meaning it must be removed.<br /><br />Bacteria travel around in fluids, such as blood, looking for a surface to cling on to. Once in place, they start to grow and propagate, forming a protective layer, known as a biofilm.<br /><br />A research team at Chalmers has now shown that a layer of vertical graphene flakes forms a protective surface that makes it impossible for bacteria to attach. Instead, bacteria are sliced apart by the sharp graphene flakes and killed. Coating implants with a layer of graphene flakes can therefore help protect the patient against infection, eliminate the need for antibiotic treatment, and reduce the risk of implant rejection. The osseointegration – the process by which the bone structure grow to attach the implant – is not disturbed. In fact, the graphene has been shown to benefit the bone cells.<br /><br />Chalmers University is a leader in the area of graphene research, but the biological applications did not begin to materialise until a few years ago. The researchers saw conflicting results in earlier studies. Some showed that graphene damaged the bacteria, others that they were not affected.<br /><br />“We discovered that the key parameter is to orient the graphene vertically. If it is horizontal, the bacteria are not harmed” says Ivan Mijakovic, Professor at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering.<br /><br />The sharp flakes do not damage human cells. The reason is simple: one bacterium is one micrometer – one thousandth of a millimeter – in diameter, while a human cell is 25 micrometers. So, what constitutes a deadly knife attack for a bacterium, is therefore only a tiny scratch for a human cell.<br /><br />&quot;Graphene has high potential for health applications. But more research is needed before we can claim it is entirely safe. Among other things, we know that graphene does not degrade easily” says Jie Sun, Associate Professor at the Department of Micro Technology and Nanoscience.<br /><br />Good bacteria are also killed by the graphene. But that’s not a problem, as the effect is localised and the balance of microflora in the body remains undisturbed.<br /><br />&quot;We want to prevent bacteria from creating an infection. Otherwise, you may need antibiotics, which could disrupt the balance of normal bacteria and also enhance the risk of antimicrobial resistance by pathogens” says Santosh Pandit, postdoc at Biology and Biological Engineering.<br /><br />Vertical flakes of graphene are not a new invention, having existed for a few years. But the Chalmers research teams are the first to use the vertical graphene in this way. The next step for the research team will be to test the graphene flakes further, by coating implant surfaces and studying the effect on animal cells.<br /><br />Chalmers cooperated with <a href="http://www.wellspect.co.uk/">Wellspect Healthcare</a>, a company which makes catheters and other medical instruments, in this research. They will now continue with a second study. <br /><br />The projects are a part of the national strategic innovation programme SIO Grafen, supported by the Swedish government agencies Vinnova (Sweden’s innovation agency), the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Research Council Formas. The research results are published in Advanced Materials Interfaces: &quot;<a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/admi.201701331">Vertically Aligned Graphene Coating is Bactericidal and Prevents the Formation of Bacterial Biofilms</a>&quot;<br /><br /><strong>The making of vertical graphene</strong><br />Graphene is made of carbon atoms. It is only a single atomic layer thick, and therefore the world's thinnest material. Graphene is made in flakes or films. It is 200 times stronger than steel and has very good conductivity thanks to its rapid electron mobility. Graphene is also extremely sensitive to molecules, which allows it to be used in sensors.<br /><br />Graphene can be made by CVD, or Chemical Vapor Deposition. The method is used to create a thin surface coating on a sample. The sample is placed in a vacuum chamber and heated to a high temperature at the same time as three gases – usually hydrogen, methane and argon – are released into the chamber. The high heat causes gas molecules to react with each other, and a thin layer of carbon atoms is created.<br />To produce vertical graphene forms, a process known as Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition, or PECVD, is used. Then, an electric field – a plasma – is applied over the sample, which causes the gas to be ionized near the surface. With the plasma, the layer of carbon grows vertically from the surface, instead of horizontally as with CVD.<br /></p> <div class="ms-rtestate-read ms-rte-wpbox"><div class="ms-rtestate-notify ms-rtestate-read 21aa3563-502e-4205-bcb8-3e04875a5b8d" id="div_21aa3563-502e-4205-bcb8-3e04875a5b8d" unselectable="on"></div> <div id="vid_21aa3563-502e-4205-bcb8-3e04875a5b8d" unselectable="on" style="display:none"></div></div> <p><br />Text: Mia Malmstedt<br />Photo and video: Johan Bodell<br />Illustration: Yen Strandqvist </p>Mon, 16 Apr 2018 09:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Certain-iron-supplements-may-influence-the-development-of-colon-cancer.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Certain-iron-supplements-may-influence-the-development-of-colon-cancer.aspxCertain iron supplements may influence the development of colon cancer<p><b>​Two common iron compounds increase the formation of a known biomarker for cancer, according to a new study of cancer cells from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. The two compounds, ferric citrate and ferric EDTA, are often used in dietary supplements and as a food additive respectively, in worldwide markets including the USA and the EU.</b></p>​The researchers studied ferric citrate and ferric EDTA, which have both previously been shown to worsen tumour formation in mice with colon cancer. The science behind this has been little understood until now, and possible effects on human cells were not previously investigated. <br /><br />The new study, which was in collaboration with the UK Medical Research Council and Cambridge University, looked at the effect of normal supplemental doses of these compounds on two types of cultured human colon cancer cells. As a comparison, they also measured the effects of ferrous sulphate, another very commonly available iron compound.<br /><br />While ferrous sulphate had no effect, both ferric citrate and ferric EDTA caused an increase in cellular levels of amphiregulin, a biomarker for cancer. This was the case even at low doses.<br /><br />&quot;We can conclude that ferric citrate and ferric EDTA might be carcinogenic, as they both increase the formation of amphiregulin, a known cancer marker most often associated with long-term cancer with poor prognosis,&quot; says Nathalie Scheers, Assistant Professor at Chalmers University of Technology, and lead writer on the study.<br /><br />Today there are many different types of iron supplements on the market. These can be based on at least 20 different iron compounds, and sold under a wide range of brands. Ferric sulphate is one of the most common, but ferric citrate, which is said to be gentler for the stomach, is also widely available in stores and online. It is also more easily absorbed by the body through foods such as granary bread, beans and nuts.<br /><br />But for consumers looking to make an informed choice, it can often be difficult to know what exactly they are buying. <br /><br />“Many stores and suppliers don’t actually state what kind of iron compound is present – even in pharmacies. Usually it just says ‘iron’ or ‘iron mineral’, which is problematic for consumers,” says Nathalie Scheers. <br /><br />Iron is also added to some foods, to combat iron deficiency. Ferric EDTA is approved as a fortifying agent in both the USA and the EU. It is also used in countries such as China, Pakistan, Brazil, Mexico and The Philippines, where it is added to flour and powdered drinks. Additionally, it is present in certain medicines for children with low iron levels in countries such as the UK and France. <br /><br />With both ferric citrate and ferric EDTA in widespread use, how should consumers or patients relate to these new findings?<br /><br />“First, we must bear in mind that the study was done on human cancer cells cultured in the laboratory, since it would be unethical to do it in humans. But, the possible mechanisms and effects observed still call for caution. They must be further investigated,&quot; says Nathalie Scheers. &quot;At the moment, people should still follow recommended medical advice. As a researcher, I cannot recommend anything – that advice needs to come from the authorities. But speaking personally, if I needed an iron supplement, I would try to avoid ferric citrate,” she continues. <br /><br />Beyond this, she is not willing to comment. Research in the field has so far been limited, even concerning the more common ferrous sulphate. The key thing for her is that we begin to differentiate between different forms of iron. <br /><br />&quot;Most importantly, researchers and authorities need to start to distinguish between this form of iron and that form of iron. We need to consider that different forms can have different biological effects,” she concludes.<br /><br /><strong>Women at greater risk</strong><br />Most of the iron that the body needs is obtained through food such as meat, fish, vegetables, fruits and whole grains. But sometimes this is not enough. Pregnant women may need additional iron, as well as people who have lost blood or have low haemoglobin levels for other reasons. In patients with kidney disease, high doses of iron may be needed to bind phosphates into the bloodstream.<br /><br /><strong>More about the study</strong><br />The research was funded by Formas, (The Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning) and was in collaboration with a research team at Elsie Widdowson laboratory, Medical Research Council, Cambridge/University of Cambridge. The study was recently published in the journal Oncotarget: <a href="http://www.oncotarget.com/index.php?journal=oncotarget&amp;page=article&amp;op=view&amp;path%5b%5d=24899">‘Ferric citrate and ferric EDTA but not ferrous sulfate drive amphiregulin-mediated activation of the MAP kinase ERK in gut epithelial cancer cells’</a><br /><p><br />Text: Christian Borg<br />Photo/illustration: Yen Strandqvist </p>Thu, 12 Apr 2018 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/A-beacon-for-interdisciplinary-education.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/A-beacon-for-interdisciplinary-education.aspxChalmers &quot;a beacon for interdisciplinary education<p><b>​A new benchmarking report from MIT ranks Chalmers University of Technology top ten in the world of engineering education. Strong interdisciplinary programmes and healthy emphasis on teaching excellence, are highlighted as two of Chalmers&#39; characteristics.</b></p>​The report from MIT puts a spotlight on worldwide trends in the changing landscape of engineering education, pinpoints the current and emerging leaders in the field, and describes some of its future directions. It is based on interviews with 178 thought leaders with knowledge of and experience with world-leading engineering programs.<br /><br />&quot;Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden was noted by a number of interviewees to be '<em>a real beacon for their interdisciplinary programs... they have created a good power balance [between the departments and the programs] with mutual commitment from both sides</em>',&quot; writes Dr Ruth Graham, independent higher education consultant and author of this global review of cutting-edge practice in engineering education.<br /><br />Chalmers also gets recognition for its quality and pervasiveness of faculty training in education, and how educational achievements are rewarded career-wise.<br /><br />Educational excellence is often confined to certain environments, one programme or one department. Best practice is seldom a university-wide phenomenon. But European universities like Aalborg, Delft, Chalmers and KTH seem to have been able to take a more coordinated, consistent approach than most American universities, according to the report. <br /><br />Ruth Graham will present the report at a seminar at Chalmers University of Technology later this spring. The full report is available for download here: <br /><br /><a href="https://jwel.mit.edu/assets/document/global-state-art-engineering-education" target="_blank"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />The Global State of the Art in Engineering Education</a> <br /><br /><strong>Text:</strong> Christian Borg<br />Mon, 09 Apr 2018 18:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Three-ERC-Advance-Grants-goes-to-researchers-at-Chalmers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Three-ERC-Advance-Grants-goes-to-researchers-at-Chalmers.aspxThree ERC Advance Grants goes to researchers at Chalmers<p><b>The European Research Council has today released the list of selected researchers to receive the prestigious ERC Advanced Grant. Three out of the ten Swedish researchers who receives funding are working at Chalmers University of Technology. Jonathan Tan, Andrew Ewing and Susanne Aalto thus receive 2.5 million euros each for their research.</b></p><p class="chalmersElement-P">The prestigious research grants will encourage the best, most creative researchers to be even more adventurous and take risks in their research. 2,166 researchers from across Europe had applied for an ERC Advanced Grant in the latest announcement. A total of 269 world-class researchers around Europe today get to shared 653 million euros. 17 percent of the funds have gone to female researchers, which corresponds to the proportion of female applicants.</p> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Exploring the hidden nuclei of galaxies</h3> <div> <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/saalto.aspx">Susanne Aalto</a>, professor in radio astronomy och head of the division Astronomy and Plasma Physics, is one of two astronomers at Chalmers University of Technology who received an ERC Advanced Grant. She is also the first woman at Chalmers with an ERC Advanced Grant. In the HIDDeN project, her research team will explore how supermassive black holes - like the one in the middle of the Milky Way - grow together with their host galaxies.</div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;If you want to understand how the universe develops, you must understand the development of galaxies. We have discovered extremely dust-embedded galaxy nuclei that are invisible, both in normal light and in infrared radiation. We believe that they hide a thus-far unknown, compact and very transient phase of growth,&quot; says Susanne Aalto.</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/departments/see/news/Pages/hidden-galaxy-evolution.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read the whole interview with Susanne Aalto</a> </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">He will develop new methods to study brain cells</h3> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/andrew-ewing.aspx">Andrew Ewing</a>, professor in analytic chemistry, is the first researcher at Chalmers to receive a second ERC Grant. His research will give greater insight into the chemical processes of brain cells and may lay the groundwork for new ways to cure brain-related diseases where short-term memory is affected. In the new project will his research group chart the role of secretion of neurotransmitters in our memory process. Signal substances in the brain are the molecules that cells use to communicate and send nerve signals to each other. </div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;This can give us tools to understand the processes that are affected in diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, adding a new pharmaceutical target by regulating individual vesicles and how they open,&quot; says Andrew Ewing.</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Chalmers-ERC-funding.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read the whole interview with Andrew Ewing</a></div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">A star is born – but how?</h3> <div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/jonathan-tan.aspx">Jonathan Tan</a>, professor in Astrophysics, also received an ERC Advanced Grant. <span style="background-color:initial">Massive Star Formation Through the Universe, </span><span style="background-color:initial">his research group </span><span style="background-color:initial">will </span><span style="background-color:initial">focus on massive star formation - in current times, as well as in the very early </span><span style="background-color:initial">times after the Big Bang. </span>He hopes to be able to use their results to better understand the complete life cycle of stars, star clusters and the interstellar medium in galaxies. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"> </span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">&quot;Without massive stars, life as we know it would not be possible, since many important chemical elements are created in massive stars and released into the universe when they ultimately explode in supernovae. We hope to answer some of the numerous open questions about the birth of massive stars in this project,&quot; says Jonathan Tan</span>. </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Massive-star-formation.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read the whole interview with Jonathan Tan</a></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>MORE FACTS</strong><br /><a href="https://erc.europa.eu/news/erc-awards-its-2017-advanced-grants-269-senior-researchers-europe"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release from the European Research Council, ERC.</a><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/research/EU-funded-research/Pages/ERC-funded-scientists.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read about other researchers at Chalmers University of Technology who earlier have received one of the three grants ERC Advanced Grant, ERC Consolidator Grant or ERC Starting Grant.</a></div> <div> </div>Fri, 06 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Russian-Great-Gold-Medal-to-Chalmers-professor-.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Russian-Great-Gold-Medal-to-Chalmers-professor-.aspxRussian Great Gold Medal to Chalmers professor<p><b>​Chalmers Professor Björn Jonson has been rewarded with the highest award of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) - the Great Gold Medal named after the Russian scientist Mikhail Lomonosov.</b></p><p>The prize acknowledges outstanding achievements in the natural sciences and the humanities. Among the previous recipients, there are many renowned scientist and even Nobel Prize laureates. <br /><br />&quot;Of course, I’m honoured, but it’s also a recognition of the importance of our field of research within subatomic physic, both here at Chalmers and internationally,” says <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Bjorn-Jonson.aspx">Björn Jonson</a>, Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology. <br /><br />He was awarded for his extensive contributions within fundamental nuclear physics. Björn Jonson has been engaged in research at Chalmers since 1967 and the Russian Academy of Sciences emphasize that his work is of fundamental importance for the study of the nuclear structure and nuclear stability of exotic lightest nuclei at the boundaries of nucleon stability.<br /><br />The award ceremony was held in Moscow at the General Meeting of the RAS, on Friday 30 March 2018. The Lomonosov Gold Medal is awarded each year since 1959. Since 1967, two medals are awarded annually: one to a Russian and one to a foreign scientist. This time the Russian nuclear physicist Yuri Oganessian was rewarded together with Björn Jonson.  <br />Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se</a></p> <p>Image: Elena Puzynina, JINR<br /><br /><a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lomonosov_Gold_Medal"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more about the award and previous recipients at Wikipedia.</a><br /></p>Tue, 03 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/gpc/news/Pages/They-are-ready-for-an-Olympic-challenge-in-physics.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/gpc/news/Pages/They-are-ready-for-an-Olympic-challenge-in-physics.aspxThey are ready for an Olympic challenge in physics<p><b>​The best physics students from Swedish upper secondary schools visited the Gothenburg Physics Centre 12-16 March to compete for five places in the International Physics Olympiad in Lisbon, Portugal 21-29 July 2018. The week in Gothenburg also offered lots of seminars, workshops, study visits, experimental work and social activities.</b></p>” It is with pleasure I note that the participants enjoyed their stay with us and that the week encouraged to future studies in physics, not the least in Gothenburg. I’ve met several participants from previous years who are now studying physics here with us&quot;, says Jonathan Weidow, Associate Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers and one of the organisers of the week. <br /><br />The Physics Olympiad in Sweden is arranged by the Swedish Physical Society, with financial support from the Marcus and Amalia Wallenberg Foundation. The Swedish award is known as the Wallenberg Physics Prize. <br />The students did some experimental tests during the week at the Gothenburg Physics Centre. On 25-27 April the competitions will continue in Estonia. After that we will know the names of the five who will represent Sweden in Lisbon. <br /><br />In addition to the competing students, some of the most talented female students in the second year of their upper secondary studies took part of the physics week in Gothenburg as VIP guests. The aim is to encourage them to take part of the competition next year. <br />“I really appreciated the week. I have learned a lot and it was nice to meet students from all over Sweden who also love physics,” says Johanna Odbratt, one of the invited students.  <br /><br />The last day the whole group enjoyed a very special ice-cream. The delicious dessert was ready-made in a minute - thanks to liquid nitrogen. The students also tried to dip biscuits into the substance, resulting in lots of cold smoke flowing out of the mouth. <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=484W4kOz4Mw">Check out the experiment here! <br /></a>Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se</a><br /><a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se"></a><br /><span><a href="http://www.fysikersamfundet.se/wallenbergs-fysikpris/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /></a><a href="http://www.fysikersamfundet.se/wallenbergs-fysikpris/"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a></span>The Swedish Radio reported from the last day of the week in Gothenburg. <a href="http://sverigesradio.se/sida/artikel.aspx?programid=104&amp;artikel=6908698">Listen to the report (in Swedish) here.</a> (The report starts after 23 seconds in the clip.)<br /><br /><a href="http://www.fysikersamfundet.se/wallenbergs-fysikpris/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more about Wallenbergs fysikpris.</a><br /><a href="https://www.facebook.com/ChalmersPhysics/"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Check out more pictures on Facebook. </a><a href="http://www.fysikersamfundet.se/wallenbergs-fysikpris/"></a><br />Mon, 26 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Ships-in-the-English-Channel-have-the-highest-rate-of-sulphur-violations-in-northern-Europe.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Ships-in-the-English-Channel-have-the-highest-rate-of-sulphur-violations-in-northern-Europe.aspxMost ships follow the new sulphur regulations in northern Europe<p><b>​Researchers at Chalmers have shown that between 87 and 98 percent of ships comply with the tougher regulations for sulphur emissions that were introduced in northern Europe in 2015. The lowest levels of compliance were observed in the western part of the English Channel and in the middle of the Baltic Sea.</b></p><div>​<span style="background-color:initial">The highest permitted sulphur content in shipping fuel was drastically reduced at the end of 2014 for vessels sailing in the northern European <em>Sulphur Emission Control Area (SECA)</em> – from 1.00 to 0.10 per cent. Before the stricter regulations were implemented, sulphur emissions from the shipping industry were estimated to cause the premature death of 50,000 Europeans each year, because the sulphur forms particles that are swept inland by the wind.</span></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div>Researchers at Chalmers have developed a ground-breaking method for remotely monitoring emissions from marine vessels, which they’ve used to investigate the effects of the new regulations. The work has been carried out through the Danish Environmental Protection Agency and the EU projects <em>Compmon</em> and <em>Envisum</em>.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Some of the measurements were taken using an aeroplane flying over Denmark, the English Channel and the middle of the Baltic Sea, while others used fixed measuring stations in the approach to Gothenburg, Sweden, on the Oresund Bridge (between Copenhagen and Malmo) and on the Great Belt Bridge in central Denmark.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/_W2_2695_Peter_Widing_300x199px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Johan Mellqvist, professor of optical remote sensing, heads the work at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“We can see differences in how the regulations are followed depending on who owns the vessels,” he says. While the vast majority of the ships comply with the regulations, a few shipping companies seem repeatedly to use non-compliant fuel.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“Other patterns we can see are that vessels that only rarely come into these waters break the rules more frequently. In addition, it’s more common that vessels emit excessive sulphur as they are leaving the SECA rather than on the way in, when they risk an on-board inspection. Some ships that have installed abatement technique for sulphur, so called scrubbers, have been observed with high levels on multiple occasions.”</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>One use of remote sensing is to advise port authorities as to which ships they should select for on-board fuel inspections. Such inspections are a prerequisite for taking legal action against rule breakers. <a href="http://network.mynewsdesk.com/wf/click?upn=g0w1MBRrUOjXN4HPYt-2Br1IZJNSjUGbTx7a5YZeRM-2FcGq3hfbvn8km3rUS68pLP0RSyoFn0UmvSoNCuqsXtdcEETIf9I0pvn1JCb0JLtrEfHLhdLJ2odDV6YjbbvMx5dr-2BXLVwAah48UauYdJVoEK9v8d44mo9SDv3XxgvdO1xBM-3D_fgdfEHDCI143B5MiSZvxuz50maR1Fe9kIZX0heMeEvkTD1oGPJpqSgiwDEzvPwxrZgADBQWwyit1jzmbgAiwZQnARWX1LDLmcP5WzsT5iMCVxUmcTDcILT3ncwGsVRtlNlvstwbezxtrKic8LCBzlGC62SGo42nkY0AYNm9eBguTTLIjn-2FFd0aW0J19clNzi3aBjEG4V-2FN7oQeo1iwyQNsv2SQ55Eyjflf5lQ-2F7BJDr3rZQXAPEOuhgz64pshwmTLrd-2BVhtacJ4kpoZ7HTqQ3JVR6eii5VtzlaJW1C4c3kaYHrGTzZwOtqUPTOXR2-2BbaUnyWuzJiljnkKspDTAJW9fRmzf0IH6bvSVz2s8YTW7JP-2Fq1EgBGq082kqK5J42EjNiwzKPfkeDVNwv3qN8lM7tPmfdQIwF45Sodify8c80s-3D">Recently the Norwegian Maritime Authority fined a ship  NOK 600.000 </a>(about EUR 63.000) for non-compliance. This was detected by the Great Belt measuring station and reported to the Norwegian Authorities.</div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>“In general, the vessels carry both low-sulphur fuel oil and the less expensive high-sulphur oil on board,” Mellqvist says. “If they switch fuel well in advance of their passing of the measuring stations, they won’t be caught out. That’s why aerial monitoring is superior. It shows how much the vessels actually emit when they are out at sea and don’t know that they will be monitored.”</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Gotland_IMG_0515_Jörg_Beecken_300x163px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The aerial surveys show that 13 per cent of vessels in the western part of the English Channel, near the SECA border, were in violation of the sulphur regulations in September 2016. For vessels around Denmark, the corresponding figure is 6-8 per cent, depending on time period. The fixed measuring stations on the approach to Gothenburg, on the Oresund Bridge and the Great Belt Bridge show that between 2 and 5 per cent of the bypassing ships use non-compliant fuel. This can be compared to on-board inspections showing non-compliance rates of around 5 per cent of the vessels at port. This may indicate that some ships change to compliant fuels too late (when entering the SECA) or change to non-compliant fuels too early (when leaving the SECA), while aiming at compliance at the fixed stations where they expect to be observed. </div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>“There is a strong financial incentive for shipping companies to continue using the prohibited high-sulphur fuel,” Mellqvist says. “For example, they can save around 100,000 euros by using the cheaper, high-sulphur fuel on a single round trip between the UK and Sankt Petersburg. The entirety of this journey lies within the SECA.”</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>On Friday, March 23, Johan Mellqvist will present the ship surveillance work at the <em>19th International Environmental Forum &quot;Baltic Sea Day&quot;</em> 2018 in Sankt Petersburg, describing results from surveillance flights last summer in the middle of the Baltic Sea. The preliminary results show that the compliance rate was 88 percent, which is lower than in the western part of the Baltic Sea.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Text:</strong> Johanna Wilde.</div> <div><strong>Photos:</strong> <span style="background-color:initial"> </span><span style="background-color:initial">Jörg Beecken and </span><span style="background-color:initial">Peter Widding.</span></div> <em> </em><div><em> </em></div> <em> </em><div><br /></div> <div> </div> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">More about: The Chalmers researchers’ method for remote sensing of emissions</h6> <div> </div> <div>The method that the Chalmers researchers have developed is based on a combination of established technologies that have been refined and adapted. They include optical remote sensing, physical/chemical analysis using a “sniffer” and monitoring vessels using an Automatic Identification System (AIS).</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>In addition to sulphur, the system can analyse marine emissions of nitrogen oxides and particles, for which the regulations have also been tightened for the shipping industry in recent years.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>The method was completely unique when it came, and it is gaining ground in the industry. For example, the Chalmers team has built an aerial surveillance system for monitoring air pollution in Belgium. They’ve also conducted a pilot project in Los Angeles and maintain regular contacts with China, where the detection technique is about to be implemented.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div> </div> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">More About: Sulp​hur emissions from the shipping industry</h6> <div> </div> <div>Sulphur emissions are above all a health issue, but in the Nordic region, where the bedrock has low lime content, they also contribute to acidification in lakes and waterways.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Since 2015, the Baltic Sea, the Kattegat, the Skagerrak, the North Sea and the English Channel have made up a Sulphur Emission Control Area in which shipping fuel may contain no more than 0.1 per cent sulphur. The rest of the EU follows the regulations set out by the UN’s International Maritime Organisation, IMO, which will reduce the maximum permitted sulphur content in shipping fuel from the current 3.5 per cent to 0.5 per cent worldwide by 2020.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Reducing sulphur emissions is very costly for shipping companies, no matter how they choose to meet the requirements. There are several alternatives:</div> <div> </div> <div><ul><li>Powering ships with the significantly more expensive low-sulphur heavy fuel oil (HFO).<br /></li> <li>Installing scrubbers on board to reduce sulphur emissions to the necessary degree.<br /></li> <li>Switching fuels entirely, for example to liquefied natural gas (LNG) or methanol, which the ferry company <span style="background-color:initial">Stena Line is now testing on a few of its vessels.</span><br /></li></ul></div> <div> </div> <div><br /></div> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6"> <div>More about: The research</div> </h6><div>The results come from measurements that the Chalmers researchers carried out at the behalf of <a href="http://mst.dk/luft-stoej/luft/luftforurening-fra-skibe/haandhaevelse-af-reglerne/">the Danish Environmental Protection Agency</a> and the recently completed EU compliance monitoring project <a href="http://compmon.eu/">Compmon</a>.</div> <div><br /></div> <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.17196/DEPA.001"><div><div><em>Surveillance of Sulfur Emissions from Ships in Danish Waters</em></div></div></a><div><div><br /></div> <a href="https://research.chalmers.se/publication/500248/file/500248_Fulltext.pdf"><div><em>Fixed remote surveillance of fuel sulfur content in ships from fixed sites in the Göteborg ship channel and Öresund bridge</em></div></a><div>Report from the EU project Compmon</div> <div><br /></div> <a href="https://research.chalmers.se/publication/500250/file/500250_Fulltext.pdf"><div><em>Certification of an aircraft and airborne surveillance of fuel sulfur content in ships at the SECA border</em></div></a><span style="background-color:initial">Report from the EU project Compmon</span><div><br /></div></div> <div>The EU project <a href="https://www.utu.fi/fi/yksikot/mkk/hankkeet/envisum/Sivut/home.aspx">Envisum​</a> is currently investigating the health benefits created by the new regulations in the countries around the Baltic. Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg University and City of Gothenburg are some of the participants. The project focuses particularly on health effects in Gothenburg, Saint Petersburg and Gdynia-Gdansk – some of the biggest ports in the area, which are centrally located in their respective cities.</div> <div> </div>Thu, 22 Mar 2018 11:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Electric-textile.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/chem/news/Pages/Electric-textile.aspxElectric textile lights a lamp when stretched<p><b>​Working up a sweat from carrying a heavy load? That is when the textile works at its best. Researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have developed a fabric that converts kinetic energy into electric power, in cooperation with the Swedish School of Textiles in Borås and the research institute Swerea IVF. The greater the load applied to the textile and the wetter it becomes the more electricity it generates. The results are now published in the Nature Partner journal Flexible Electronics.</b></p>​Chalmers researchers Anja Lund and Christian Müller have developed a woven fabric that generates electricity when it is stretched or exposed to pressure. The fabric can currently generate enough power to light an LED, send wireless signals or drive small electric units such as a pocket calculator or a digital watch.<div> </div> <div>The technology is based on the piezoelectric effect, which results in the generation of electricity from deformation of a piezoelectric material, such as when it is stretched. In the study the researchers created a textile by weaving a piezoelectric yarn together with an electrically conducting yarn, which is required to transport the generated electric current.</div> <div> </div> <div>“The textile is flexible and soft and becomes even more efficient when moist or wet,” Lund says. “To demonstrate the results from our research we use a piece of the textile in the shoulder strap of a bag. The heavier the weight packed in the bag and the more of the bag that consists of our fabric, the more electric power we obtain. When our bag is loaded with 3 kilos of books, we produce a continuous output of 4 microwatts. That’s enough to intermittently light an LED. By making an entire bag from our textile, we could get enough energy to transmit wireless signals.”</div> <div> </div> <div>The piezoelectric yarn is made up of twenty-four fibres, each as thin as a strand of hair. When the fibres are sufficiently moist they become enclosed in liquid and the yarn becomes more efficient, since this improves the electrical contact between the fibres. The technology is based on previous studies by the researchers in which they developed the piezoelectric fibres, to which they have now added a further dimension. </div> <div> </div> <div>“The piezoelectric fibres consist of a piezoelectric shell around an electrically conducting core,” Lund says. “The piezoelectric yarn in combination with a commercial conducting yarn constitute an electric circuit connected in series.” </div> <div> </div> <div>Previous work by the researchers on piezoelectric textiles has so far mainly focused on sensors and their ability to generate electric signals through pressure sensitivity. Using the energy to continuously drive electronic components is unique. </div> <div> </div> <div>“Woven textiles from piezoelectric yarns makes the technology easily accessible and it could be useful in everyday life. It’s also possible to add more materials to the weave or to use it as a layer in a multi-layer product. It requires some modification, but it’s possible,” Lund says. </div> <div> </div> <div>The researchers consider that the technology is, in principle, ready for larger scale production. It is now mainly up to industrial product developers to find out how to make use of the technology. Despite the advanced technology underlying the material, the cost is relatively low and is comparable with the price of Gore-Tex. Through their collaboration with the Swedish School of Textiles in Borås the researchers have been able to demonstrate that the yarn can be woven in industrial looms and is sufficiently wear-resistant to cope with the harsh conditions of mass production.<br />   </div> <div><a href="https://www.youtube.com/embed/8kAchXoQaz0"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" /> Anja Lund about the research results</a></div>Thu, 22 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/New-Swedish-satellite-to-map-unstudied-winds.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/New-Swedish-satellite-to-map-unstudied-winds.aspxNew Swedish satellite to map unstudied winds high up in Earth&#39;s atmosphere<p><b>​Chalmers University of Technology has won the competition to provide Sweden’s next national research satellite to the Swedish National Space Board. The satellite, named SIW, will be the first to study wind currents in the upper atmosphere, increasing understanding about how they affect weather and climate.</b></p><div>​”I am really happy to see our proposal become a reality”, says Kristell Pérot, researcher in the Division of Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing, at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers.</div> <div>SIW, which stands for Stratospheric Inferred Winds, will study wind patterns in the atmosphere to answer questions about their dynamics and circulation. It will contribute important data to climate models, and increase understanding of how the different parts of the atmosphere interact.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Better weather forecasting</h4> The climate and weather in the troposphere, the layer closest to Earth’s surface, is affected by wind changes in the two layers above, the stratosphere and the mesosphere (altitudes between 11 and 85 kilometres). Observing and analysing events in the upper layers is therefore critical to achieving more reliable long-term predictions. <div> </div> <div>For example, many consider the recent cold weather across Europe this month, and concurrent warmer temperatures in the Arctic, to be linked to temperature changes in the upper atmosphere – so-called ’sudden stratospheric warming’.</div> <div> </div> <div>“This process is not very well understood in current models, and more knowledge is needed. With SIW, it will be easier to study this kind of event and to understand the forces behind them. That has never been done in this way before” says Kristell Pérot.</div> <div><br /> </div> <div>“SIW will also be a fine complement to the satellite Aeolus, to be launched by the European Space Agency later this year to study the winds lower down in the atmosphere,” she adds.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Dual purpose</h4> <div>Patrick Eriksson, professor of Global Environmental Measurements at Chalmers, believes the second part of SIW’s mission will be equally important – to measure the concentration of certain gases in the atmosphere.</div> <div> </div> <div>”As it stands, SIW looks to be alone in being able to measuring the gases that are important to assessing the status of the ozone layer. Above all, it’s chlorine- and nitrogen-bearing gases that we want to keep track of. SIW will take over that role after the <span style="background-color:initial">satellite </span><span style="background-color:initial">Odin</span><span style="background-color:initial">, </span><span style="background-color:initial">which will soon be ready for retirement after 17 years in space” says Eriksson.</span></div> <span></span><div></div> <div> </div> <div>Several Swedish companies will participate in the SIW project, including Omnisys Instruments, which will be responsible for the scientific instruments, and OHB Sweden, which will construct the satellite itself and have overall responsibility for the project. Donal Murtagh, professor of Global Environmental Measurements and Head of Division Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment, will be scientifically responsible for SIW. <span>The satellite will also contain parts manufactured at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2 – at Chalmers. <span></span><span style="display:inline-block"></span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div>   <div>The Swedish National Space Board will finance the production and launch of SIW, which will be the second satellite in its innovative research satellites venture. It is scheduled for launch in 2022.</div> <div> </div> <div>You can read more about the SIW satellite on the <a href="http://snsb.se/sv/Nyheter/Ny-svensk-forskningssatellit-ska-studera-vindarna-i-atmosfaren/">Swedish National Space Board’s website </a>(Swedish only).<br /> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>For more information, contact:</strong></div> <div><span><span>​</span>,</span> Professor of Global Environmental Measurements and Head of Division, Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment</div> <div><span>r</span><span>ot</span>, researcher from the Division of Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing, at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment</div> <div><a href="/en/staff/Pages/patrick-eriksson.aspx">Patrick Eriksson</a>, Professor of Global Environmental Measurements at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment</div> <div><br /> </div>Wed, 21 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/how-to-make-kitchen-pots-harder-giulio-maistro.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/how-to-make-kitchen-pots-harder-giulio-maistro.aspxHow to make kitchen pots harder<p><b>​New research shows that tailor-making the material used when making stainless steel is the key to optimize hardness and corrosion free properties. This new knowledge is important for oil, gas, food and nuclear industries – and for your kitchen pots.</b></p>​<img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Material%20och%20tillverkning/Giulio%20Maistro_200x250.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Giulio Maistro" style="margin:5px;width:170px;height:213px" /><span style="background-color:initial">In a recently published doctoral thesis, <a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/maistro.aspx" target="_blank">Giulio Maistro</a> presents studies of methodologies to make austenitic stainless steel harder, without losing the &quot;stainless&quot; properties. The results show that it is important to consciously balance the different metals used in the steel, as well as the additives nitrogen and carbon.</span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>Austenitic stainless steel </strong>is a specific type of stainless steel alloy that is used for kitchen pots and many industrial applications. This type of material is very good to use with strong acids or salty water because it is resistant to corrosion. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Unfortunately, today’s stainless steel has the drawback of being very easy to scratch and damage. It is too soft. This is not crucial for our kitchen ware, but is a big problem for jewellery or for industrial applications. In industrial sectors like the oil, gas, food and nuclear industries, the surface has to be smooth like a mirror. </span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>When making stainless steel</strong>, it is the combination of the material in itself and the surface treatment that defines how good the result is. The result of a surface treatment can be radically different depending on the formula the material is composed of. Giulio Maistro says that this can be both a good and a bad thing. </div> <div><span style="color:black;font-family:calibri,sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:black;font-family:calibri,sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial">– </span>Nowadays, we have reached a stagnation in the application of surface treatments like plasma, gas nitriding or carburizing. More or less everyone in the field knows &quot;when it is worth to use them and when it is not&quot;. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>According to Giulio Maistro, companies keep their processes secret which makes process development hard and almost completely abandoned in academia. Giulio Maistro’s research is welcomed. Not much research has been done earlier on the optimization of the materials to fit the treatment. Instead of trying to change and over-optimize the treatment parameters, it could be easier and more effective to tailor-make a new material that better matches the treatment.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>This tailor-making involves</strong> <strong>Nickel and Molybdenum</strong>, two metals that typically are added into the steel to improve resistance against corrosion. </div> <div><span style="color:black;font-family:calibri,sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:black;font-family:calibri,sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial">– </span>In my research I show that by adding Nickel it is possible to decrease the unwanted formation of carbides, which are bad for corrosion. However, when too much Nickel is used, the material cannot be hardened very much. This is because carbon and nitrogen do not like Nickel and vice versa. If you use the metal Molybdenum, the opposite effect is shown. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>To harden the steel, it is common to introduce nitrogen or carbon in it. The more nitrogen or carbon you have, the harder the steel gets. This relates to Nickel and Molybdenum. Depending on how much of those metals you have in the steel, you can change how much nitrogen or carbon you can introduce in it. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>However, if you introduce too much nitrogen or carbon, chemical compounds called nitrides and carbides are formed. When they form, the stainless property of the steel gets lost. In general, Molybdenum increases the amount of nitrogen or carbon you can insert. Nickel limits the amount but also limits the formation of nitrides or carbides. </div> <div><span style="color:black;font-family:calibri,sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial"><br /></span></div> <div><span style="color:black;font-family:calibri,sans-serif;font-size:11pt;background-color:initial">– </span>This new knowledge shows that companies that manufacture products made of stainless steel need to find a balance between Nickel and Molybdenum to get the maximum hardness while maintaining the stainless properties, upon introducing nitrogen or carbon, says Giulio Maistro.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS:</strong></div> <div>Gas nitriding or carburizing are methods to introduce nitrogen or carbon to the steel.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/maistro.aspx" target="_blank">Giulio Maistro​</a> performed his doctoral studies at the <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/Pages/default.aspx">division of Materials and Manufacture</a> which belongs to the <span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx">department of Industrial and Materials Science</a> at <a href="/en/Pages/default.aspx">Chalmers University of Technology</a>. He </span><span style="background-color:initial">successfully defended his doctoral thesis on January 26th. The title of the thesis is: </span></div> <span></span><div><em>Low-temperature carburizing/nitriding of austenitic stainless steels - Influence of alloy composition on microstructure and properties.</em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Read more in this scientific article:</strong></div> <div><a href="https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897217305042">https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897217305042</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text: Nina Silow</em></div> <div><em>Photo in the article: Marcus Folino</em></div> ​Tue, 20 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/tme/news/Pages/A-world-pioneer-in-life-cycle-research.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/tme/news/Pages/A-world-pioneer-in-life-cycle-research.aspxA world pioneer in life cycle research<p><b>Henrikke Baumann was one of the first people in the world to earn a doctorate in life cycle assessment. Over the past 25 years, she has contributed to building up the renowned research topic at Chalmers University of Technology - and has also worked her way back from a severe riding accident. Now she is to become Sweden&#39;s first professor of industrial and domestic ecologies.</b></p><div><div>The academic world was not a place where Henrikke Baumann had ever imagined herself working, but her life's path led her down that road and she's never looked back. &quot;I think research suits me and my widely varied background,&quot; she says. &quot;I don't know what else I possibly could have done.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>We're sitting in the spacious lunchroom in the Environmental Systems Analysis Division, a part of the Department of Technology Management and Economics at Chalmers University of Technology. Baumann speaks thoughtfully and calmly, using examples to explain her reasoning.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>No one in her family works in the academic world, but she can still see how her background led her to where she is today. Baumann was born in Sweden, to a Norwegian father and an Estonian mother, both of whom came to the country as refugee children. Her family moved around a lot; she spent her childhood in France and Belgium and attended a British convent school. Social issues and politics were constant topics of discussion at home, and she developed an analytical approach at an early age. &quot;I think it was a way of managing all the culture clashes I encountered,&quot; she says. &quot;I really do like observing things and relating what I see to the things people say.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>She began her studies at Chalmers in chemical engineering, then went on to study history of technology, international relations, environmental science and nuclear chemistry. It may seem like a broad palette of topics, but Baumann sees a common thread: &quot;I've always enjoyed technical subjects that can be linked to some kind of social debate.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Her first encounter with life cycle assessment (LCA), which came to be her major field of research, occurred when she was hired on a large Chalmers project on packaging and the environment. Headed by Chalmers researcher Anne-Marie Tillman, the project was the first public study in Sweden using life-cycle assessment - in this case, to analyse the environmental impact of packaging in all of its phases, from cradle to grave.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>This was in the early 1990s when life-cycle assessment was still a new field. Baumann was there when the methodology was developed and scientific life cycle research got off the ground. In time, she became the first PhD holder in the LCA group at Chalmers, and one of the first 12 people in the world to get a doctorate in the field.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;I was one of the first generations of researchers in life cycle assessment,&quot; she says. &quot;It's been very rewarding to watch a field of research being created and developing in the academic world.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><div>Life-cycle assessment can be described as a method of tracing a product's environmental impact through its entire lifecycle - from the extraction of raw materials, through manufacture and use, to disposal.</div> <div style="text-align:center"> </div></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center"> </h3> <div><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center"> &quot;This is a research field that embraces environment, technology and society, and you have to bring them all together. It's like one long mystery that you never get tired of.&quot;</h3> <div style="text-align:center"><em> – Henrikke Baumann, professor, Chalmers</em></div> <div> </div></div> <div> </div> <div>As an example, Baumann holds up the coffee cup in her hand. &quot;An LCA study can calculate the total emissions this mug generates throughout its life cycle, from a lump of clay to its use as a mug, and finally its disposal. One thing we learn from this is how many times we need to use the mug for it to be a better environmental option than a disposable one.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;Life cycle assessments allow us to compare different products' environmental impacts, to see where in the cycle emissions occur and where it will be most effective to introduce environmental measures.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Environmental studies and LCAs are complicated, she explains. That's what she likes about them. &quot;This is a research field that embraces environment, technology and society, and you have to bring them all together. It's like one long mystery that you never get tired of.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>In the past ten years, Baumann has paved the way for a new perspective on LCAs, by introducing human activity and material flows into the research. From a start, where she calculated of the environmental impact of products themselves, she now focuses more on the networks of actors surrounding them. The research field is called &quot;societal material flows&quot;, and for Henrikke, it's about seeing the big picture and combining a variety of perspectives.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;Social scientists study interpersonal relationships and attitudes, but they miss out on the physical environmental impact. Engineers do calculations - but they don't take into account how learning, organisation and change occur. These are the aspects I want to unite. I found a way to study product flows themselves, not just do calculations on them. It's important to understand how existing conditions and different interests in the product chain are connected if we are to achieve change. Because it's not always where the biggest emissions occur that measures need to be introduced.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>When LCAs are combined with an understanding of how technical and social systems interact, it spotlights even more aspects, Baumann says. She provides another example, this time a study in Ghana, where she compared product flows of both standard and environmentally labelled cocoa. The research team studied the organisation and players in the product flows growers, wholesalers, retailers and government agencies. Soon it was clear that the product chain for the environmentally labelled cocoa was significantly more complex because it involved more players.</div> <div> </div> <div><br /><img src="/en/departments/tme/news/Documents/Henrikkemat.jpg" alt="Henrikkemat.jpg" style="margin:5px;width:102px" /><br /><br /><strong><sup>Studies society’s material flows. </sup></strong><sup>What environmental impact do the items on the shelf have? Henrikke Baumann conducts research in the field of life cycle assessments, which focus on the environmental impact of products throughout their </sup><sup>life cycle</sup><sup> - from cradle to grave.</sup><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>At the same time, other effects - for the players themselves - became clear. &quot;The farmers who chose to grow environmentally labelled cocoa were taught to keep shade trees and to grow their products without pesticides. They avoided the added expense of the pesticides, increasing their return, and that, in turn, gave their families improved opportunities to send their children to school. The long-term value, in this case, came out of the societal effects - the knowledge they gained lasted longer than the environmental labelling.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Over the past three decades, Baumann has written over a hundred articles and books, and she has been an important force in the establishment of life cycle research at Chalmers.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>But she has also been forced to change her pace in life.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Thirteen years ago she had a serious riding accident, and these days she only works part-time. After the accident, she woke up to a new life situation, where a brain injury and post-traumatic stress syndrome taught her about brain fatigue and the importance of focusing on one thing at a time.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;Putting yourself back together after an accident is hard work,&quot; she tells us. &quot;I have to be very careful these days with what I choose to do. I've learned an awful lot about how the brain works. It can be difficult for people to understand that they can't expect the same performance from me anymore.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>But Baumann returned to research and was recently awarded a professorship in industrial and domestic ecologies. She doesn't have any easy answers to the question of what it means to become a professor; in fact, she confesses that her first reaction to the news was pure stress.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;A professorship can mean a lot more publicity and visibility, and I think that scared me most of all. From the start I never had any thoughts of going into research, much less becoming a professor. It sort of came with the job.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>At the same time, she feels that a professorship is a form of recognition for all her hard work and that it may open new doors. &quot;It feels important to be recognised for what I do,&quot; she says. &quot;I hope that my professorship can contribute to greater interest in the issues involved in product and material flows in society.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Text: Ulrika Ernström</strong></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Henrikke Baumann on…</h4> <div> </div> <p><strong>Academics</strong><br />&quot;Academics is a place for discussion and reflection, and an important source of change in society.&quot;<br /><br /><strong>Teaching</strong><br />&quot;It's important not to trivialise environmental research, but to show our students what happens, who is affected, what the reactions are.&quot; <br /><br /><strong>Dreams for the future</strong><br />&quot;I'd like to write another book. Maybe a genuine 'coffee table book' about where all of our things come from, what happens in different parts of the chain and everyone who is involved in manufacturing them.&quot;</p> <div> </div> <p><br /></p> <div> </div> <p></p> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">About: Henrikke Baumann</h4> <div> </div> <div><strong>Born in: </strong>1964</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Lives in:</strong> Gothenburg</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Research field</strong>: Society’s material flows. Currently focusing on plastics in our seas. The new professor of industrial and domestic ecologies at Chalmers.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Bonus information</strong>: Lived in Chalmers student accommodation as a baby, when her father was studying engineering at the university. Worked for a while as a reporter for the technology magazine Ny Teknik during a sabbatical from the university. In collaboration with Professor Anne-Marie Tillman at Chalmers, wrote an internationally best-selling textbook on life cycle assessment: <em>The Hitch Hiker's Guide to LCA. </em><br /><br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/henrikke-baumann.aspx">Read more about Henrikke Baumann's research</a> <br /><a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/person/?cid=henrikke">Read more about Henrikke Baumann's writing and projects</a> <br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <p></p></div>Fri, 16 Mar 2018 12:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Well-attended-kickoff-for-new-center-in-quantum-technology.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Well-attended-kickoff-for-new-center-in-quantum-technology.aspxWell-attended kickoff for new center in quantum technology<p><b>​The starting signal for the Wallenberg Center for Quantum Technology (WACQT) has been fired. About 75 invited speakers and guests gathered for a kick-off on MC2 on 13 and 14 March. &quot;We have a very exciting ten-year journey ahead of us,&quot; says Per Delsing, head of the new center.</b></p><div>WACQT – formally launched on January 1 – is a total investment of almost SEK 1 billion. Most of the money come from Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, which contributes with 600 million. The rest comes from Chalmers University of Technology Foundation, and the cooperating universities in Lund, Linköping and the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH). The goal is to build a Swedish quantum computer in ten years and to build competence in quantum technology in Sweden.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330a.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Collaboration with business</h5> <div>The idea is also to start collaborations with industry in different areas. At the kickoff there were representatives from about ten companies like Astra Zeneca, Ericsson and IBM.</div> <div>&quot;We want to reach both smaller and larger companies, including those who do not currently work with quantum technology. Companies will have the opportunity to influence the focus of research based on their needs. Let's say that a company wants to develop a certain pharmaceutical and simulate that, then we can adopt our quantum computer so that it makes it more useful to simulate a certain type of drug. In this way, we can adapt to make it more interesting for companies to cooperate with us,&quot; says Per Delsing (picture above), who heads WACQT.</div> <div>In Chalmers offering to companies there are opportunities for industrial PhD:s, advanced courses in quantum technology and invitations to workshops. It will also be possible to acquire licenses and establish intellectual property agreements for the research results. Conversations with companies will begin in the spring.</div> <div>On 14 March, on the second day of the kickoff, there was also a special program point where companies were given the opportunity to present themselves and their wishes. In the entrance hall at Kemivägen 9 was a poster exhibition with several participating universities. There was also the opportunity to accompany guided lab tours.</div> <div><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330e.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Exciting trip </h5></div> <div>The goal of the center effort is to take Swedish research and industry to the front of the second quantum revolution. The center is organizationally placed under the new Quantum Technology Laboratory at MC2. Per Delsing, Professor of quantum device physics, is the head of the laboratory.</div> <div>&quot;We have a very exciting ten-year journey ahead of us,&quot; he said in his welcoming speech.</div> <div>But Delsing pointed out that the project is not just about building the desirable quantum computer:</div> <div>&quot;An important part of the research will be to find out what you can use a quantum computer for,&quot; he said.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Long line of lectures</h5> <div>The two days featured a wide range of presentations and presentations, both comprehensive and more detailed. Among the speakers were Guilherme B Xavier, Linköping University, Witlef Wieczorek, Chalmers, and Jonathan Burnett, Chalmers.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330b.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /><br />Göran Johansson (picture above) told about the new graduate school to be built up. He concluded that it will be an attractive and competitive school: </div> <div>&quot;Therefore, we need to get the best ideas to make it as attractive as possible to apply to us,&quot; said Göran Johansson.</div> <div>Such enticing factors may include newly developed courses and study trips.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330g.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /><br />Göran Wendin (picture above) spoke in depth about a forthcoming guest research program and various EU-level quantitative support measures, with a planned research flagship being a key part. This will be as large as the current Graphene Flagship and will start on January 1, 2019. </div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Benefit be before the EU</h5> <div>The fact that WACQT started a whole year before the EU's new flagship, Per Delsing sees as a great advantage in terms of all recruitment of top researchers which needs to be done.</div> <div>&quot;Of course, everyone wants to recruit the best, so we have many challenges ahead of us. The size of the project is another competitive advantage,&quot; he said.</div> <div><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330f.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Ongoing recruitment work </h5></div> <div>Recruitment is underway at the time of writing. Over ten years, 60 PhD students, 40 postdoctoral students, ten assistant professors and a number of visiting researchers are to be hired. In the winter, advertisements have been published in newspapers like Metro, Dagens Industri, Dagens Nyheter and Ny Teknik. Giulia Ferrini (picture above), who also gave a lecture, is the first newly appointed assistant professor in the project. Application deadline is 18 March.</div> <div>&quot;We are looking forward to many good candidates,&quot; said Per Delsing.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330c.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /><br />In addition, Professor Gunnar Björk (picture above), Royal Institute of Technology, and Professor Stefan Kröll (picture below), Lund University, who lead related projects at their respective universities, projects that they also presented. </div> <div><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_665x330d.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">New board was presented </h5></div> <div>During the kickoff days, the new board of WACQT was presented, with chairman Lena Gustafsson, former vice president of Chalmers, vice managing director at Vinnova and president at Umeå University, at the head. The other members of the board are Pontus de Laval, Saab AB, Sara Mazur, Ericsson, Tobias Ekholm, Institut Mittag-Leffler and KAW, Mats Viberg, vice president at Chalmers, Elisabeth Giacobino, École Normal Supérieure, and Charles Marcus, Copenhagen University. On 14 March, the board held its first meeting.</div> <div> </div> <div>Several people have been involved in the planning for the high-end, but the lion's share of the work has been performed by coordinator Susannah Carlsson, communications officer, and Professor Göran Wendin, with coordinator Debora Perlheden as practical support.</div> <div> </div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo: Susannah Carlsson och Michael Nystås</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Read more &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/New-center-for-quantum-technology-was-celebrated.aspx">New center for quantum technology was celebrated</a></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/news/Pages/Engineering-of-a-Swedish-quantum-computer-set-to-start.aspx">Engineering of a Swedish quantum computer set to start</a></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Read an interview with Giulia Ferrini &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong></div> <div><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Italian-researcher-strengthens-the-quantum-computer-project.aspx">Italian researcher strengthens the quantum computer project</a><br /><br /><a href="/en/departments/mc2/news/Pages/Italian-researcher-strengthens-the-quantum-computer-project.aspx"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/wacqt_kickoff_690x330g.jpg" alt="picture link to article" style="margin:5px" /><br /><br /></a></div>Thu, 15 Mar 2018 10:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/math/news/Pages/Bergman-Prize-to-Bo-Berndtsson.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/math/news/Pages/Bergman-Prize-to-Bo-Berndtsson.aspxBergman Prize to Bo Berndtsson<p><b>​Bo Berndtsson, Chalmers University and the University of Gothenburg, and Nessim Sibony, Université Paris-Sud Orsay, have been awarded the 2017 Stefan Bergman Prize from the Americal Mathematical Society.</b></p><p>​<img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Photo Bo Berndtsson" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MV/Nyheter/Bergman-2017-Berndtsson250x.jpg" style="margin:5px" />Bo Berndtsson and Nessim Sibony have been awarded the 2017 Stefan Bergman Prize for their many fundamental contributions to several complex variables, complex potential theory, and complex geometry. Bo Berndtsson was elected to the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 2003, he received the Edlund Prize of the Royal Academy of Science in 1987 and the Göran Gustafsson Prize in 1995. </p> <p>The research area complex analysis has been something of a Swedish specialty during the 1900s. Bo Berndtsson followed a trend in the field and went more and more towards geometry. Ten years ago he found a connection between complex analysis and convexity, and the seemingly simple concept of convexity has resulted in a rich theory with many deep and surprising results. <br /></p> <p><a href="/en/departments/math/news/Pages/Complex-analysis-and-convexity.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /><strong><font color="#5b97bf">Complex analysis and convexity, interview with Bo Berndtsson &gt;&gt;</font></strong></a></p> <p>The Stefan Bergman Prize is awarded every one or two years in the following areas: (1) the theory of the kernel function and its applications in real and complex analysis, and (2) function-theoretic methods in the theory of partial differential equations of elliptic type with attention to Bergman’s operator method. The prize honors the memory of Stefan Bergman, best known for his research in several complex variables, as well as for the Bergman projection and the Bergman kernel function. A native of Poland, he taught at Stanford University for many years and died in 1977 at the age of 82. <br /></p> <p><a href="http://www.ams.org/news?news_id=4150"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more at the AMS web page &gt;&gt;</a><br /><br />Photo: Edme Dominguez</p>Fri, 09 Mar 2018 08:30:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/The-Foundation-Award-presented-to-Lisbeth-Olsson.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/The-Foundation-Award-presented-to-Lisbeth-Olsson.aspxThe Foundation Award presented to Lisbeth Olsson<p><b>​This year&#39;s Foundation Award goes to Professor Lisbeth Olsson at the Department of Biology and Biotechnology. She is one of the most prominent researchers at Chalmers and she has shown great commitment in many areas.</b></p>​Lisbeth Olsson has in a short time established a large research group in industrial biotechnology and her collaborative research, often around innovative ideas whose potentials are not yet known, leading to knowledge building and new practices for her partners which has a great potential for impact.<br /><br />She also shows great commitment in all levels of education, from basic to research level, and to strong leadership in various parts of the Chalmers organization. Already when Lisbeth was recruited to Chalmers, she started discussions with several other Chalmers researchers on cross-border research collaborations. These collaborations have, among other things, led to the creation of the KAW-funded center Wallenberg Wood Science Center, the strategic research program Chalmers Energy Initiative and the Formas-funded cooperation project BioBuF, which engages groups from four institutions at Chalmers and RISE. Her efforts as Area of Advance leader for Energy have been characterized by an engagement for all activities and areas regardless of Chalmers institutional boundaries.<br /><br />The Award comprises a personal payment of SEK 25,000 (before taxes) and an activity grant of SEK 100,000.<br /><br />An important task of the Chalmers University of Technology Foundation is to stimulate the development of the University's activities. For many years the Foundation has contributed to quality and renewal through funding within selected areas. The Foundation Award was established to highlight, in particular, the crucial importance of Chalmers employees to the success of the University and to focus on examples that act as a source of inspiration. The Award is presented once each year and was presented for the first time in 2006.Fri, 09 Mar 2018 08:00:00 +0100https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Awarded-for-her-physics-research.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Awarded-for-her-physics-research.aspxAwarded for her physics research<p><b>​Marianne Liebi, Assistant Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers, has been awarded the L&#39;Oréal-Unesco For Women in Science Award. The prize is intended to pay attention to female researchers at the beginning of their career. She received the award from Helene Hellmark Knutsson, Minister of Higher Education and Research, in a ceremony in Stockholm, 7 March, 2018.</b></p><div>​&quot;The prize represents recognition of my work and trust in me that I am on a good way to become a more independent scientist.&quot;  </div> <div> </div> <div>Marianne Liebi uses powerful X-ray technology to study how, for example, the smallest building blocks in bone tissue, collagen fibrils organize. The goal is to develop a tempering, biomimetic material, where nature's own design principles are imitated and applied to develop artificial bone and cartilage.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What is your driving force?</strong></div> <div>&quot;Working on projects in a team with different experts, trying to understand the world around us a little bit better. The excitement during a beamtime running day and night if the experiment finally is successful can compensate for many hours of frustration.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What expectations you have for the coming year?</strong></div> <div>&quot;In the coming year the main task is to build my group and establish myself as a supervisor. My first PhD student will start in a few weeks, I am really looking forward to this.&quot; </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What do you hope that your research will lead to in the long run?</strong></div> <div>&quot;I hope that my research will help to bring new methods [such as SAXS tensor tomography, with which I mainly work] developed at large scale facilities and the application in university and industrial research closer together. For that it is important to have specialists also placed at the university which can bring the new development into education and can assist new users of the method to get started.&quot; </div> <div> </div> <div>Marianne Liebi has been awarded the prize for &quot;the constructive use of advanced imaging methods for biomaterials with the aim of understanding the connection between molecular and mechanical properties&quot;.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What do you wish for in the future? </strong></div> <div>&quot;I wish that there is no such price as the Women in Science award because the gender simply doesn't matter any more and there is instead a prize for young scientists in general.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More about Marianne and her research</h3> <div>Marianne Liebi is Assistant Professor in Materials Science at the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology, since August 2017. Before that, she worked as a scientist at the Swedish synchrotron (MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University), to which she remains affiliated. The focus of her research is in the development of advanced X-ray imaging techniques and their application towards on materials with hierarchical structures. With a background in food science, she started using large-scale facilities for the characterization of materials during her PhD. As a postdoc working at the Swiss synchrotron (Paul Scherrer Institute), she started working on method development in X-ray scattering and imaging. </div> <div><br />She earned her PhD in Food Science 2013 at Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zurich, Switzerland. </div> <div> </div> <div>Today's X-ray imaging methods used in research today go far beyond from what is possible in a conventional radiography or CT used in hospitals. Using the very bright X-ray beam, as produced by the Swedish national synchrotron radiation facility MAX IV in Lund, one can for example visualize how tiny fibers, thousand times finer than a human hair, are organized in biological or artificial materials. <br /><br />Marianne Liebi and her collaborators have developed a method that allows such studies in intact three-dimensional samples. Human bone for instance is made of such tiny fibers, so called collagen fibrils. One major feature of these fibers is that they are ordered and aligned differently depending on the part of the bone where they are found, thereby adapting determining the local mechanical stability. Together with different bone experts, Marianne Liebi applies this method to characterize bone in embryonic development or around implants that slowly degrade while new bone material is being formed. The method will be key in a project to develop a biomimetic material, which uses design principles from nature to create artificial bone and cartilage. 3D printing is used to introduce similar alignment of the artificial fibers as found for the collagen fibrils within bone in order to create a material with similar mechanical properties. <br /><br /><strong>Contact:</strong><br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Marianne-Liebi.aspx">Marianne Liebi</a></div>Wed, 07 Mar 2018 16:00:00 +0100