News: Global related to Chalmers University of TechnologyWed, 22 Feb 2017 11:41:09 +0100“Entrepreneurship-is-anti-heroic”.aspx Gartner: “Entrepreneurship is anti-heroic”<p><b>​He describes entrepreneurship as anti-heroic, thinks failure is essential and refers to the American Dream of success - if you just work hard enough - as naive. Professor Bill Gartner will soon visit Chalmers TME, and promises to both provoke and entertain.</b></p><div>​His passion for the subject is unmistakable. When William B Gartner – or Bill as he is often called – talks about entrepreneurship he speaks fast, vividly and with many references the sports world.<br /></div> <div> </div> <div>– Entrepreneurship is just like sports – most people don´t win. But we don´t want to talk about that, because it´s boring, he says.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Being one of the true pioneers in the field, Bill Gartner started exploring entrepreneurship research in the 1970´s. With his 1988 article, 'Who is an Entrepreneur?' Is the Wrong Question, he contributed to a shift in the field, from studying the individual traits of the entrepreneur to regarding entrepreneurship as a behavioural process.<br /></div> <div> </div> <div><h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"><span>Behavior drives identity<span></span></span></h2></div> <div> </div> <div>Gartners firm belief is that behavior drives identity, and he dismisses the idea of entrepreneurs having common traits that unite them.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span>– <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>I really believe that we become what we do, in terms of identity. I mean, how can you have the identity of a tennis player, without playing tennis? Mozart came from a family of musicians. And why has Sweden produced so many good tennis players: because everybody play tennis!</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>If you hold on to a view of special entrepreneurship characteristics, it leaves out a lot of people who might play the game in an interesting way, Gartner points out.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><div><span>– <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>But that doesn´t mean that everybody should become an entrepreneur, or act entrepreneurial. Everybody can learn the basics of the game, but some will be really crappy at it!</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center">&quot;The notion on the American Dream – that trying hard always leads to success – is stupid&quot;</h3></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Gartner stresses the importance of looking at entrepreneurship from a contextual perspective. We should focus on the process, how and why people start companies, and not on the individual, he argues. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>According to Gartner, there is an unfortunate tendency to mystify entrepreneurship.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span>– <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>We want to make the process magical, and tell the story of the successful individual. But that´s just naive. Entrepreneurship is anti-heroic. It´s hard work, and vast amounts of it is boring. Also, it´s not an individual act. Entrepreneurship is always relational, it always involves other people, he says.<br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2"> Criticizes the Trump slogan</h2> <div>Gartner believes that the general image of the entrepreneur as a hero is problematic in many ways. He refers to what he calls “the dark side of the American dream”: the belief that all Americans can be successful in anything, regardless of social class. <br /><br /></div> <div><span>– <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>The notion on the American Dream – that trying hard always leads to success – is stupid. To say that everybody has the same set of access to everything - that´s just wrong. People can´t be whatever they want. This is where it becomes evil, because when you are told everything is available to you, it´s simply not true, and it distorts what is actually possible. What you can do is limited by things like your social network, your education and your capabilities, he says, and takes the opportunity to throw a swipe at the Trump campaign slogan.</div> <div> </div> <div><span>– <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>“Making America Great Again” is nostalgia for just a few individuals who had the possibility of opportunities in the past.  It ignores nearly everyone else. America has forgotten that what made America great was the social ability to move forward. Social capital and education make a big difference, he says.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div>Unlike many of his American research colleagues in the field, Bill Gartner has a more qualitative approach in his research on entrepreneurial behavior. He argues that the language of entrepreneurship research had been usurped by the economists.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><span>– <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>People do things that aren´t rational, they do things for their own reasons. We need to be more realistic and humanistic, and have a larger, broader framework for paying attention to how people are, he says.</div> <div> </div> <div><div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3" style="text-align:center">&quot;To learn, and to be a good entrepreneur, you have to do a lot of crappy things. In entrepreneurship most people don´t win&quot;</h3> <div> </div></div> <div> </div> <div>In entrepreneurship, failure is common. It is also necessary, and very hard to avoid, Gartner points out. </div> <div> </div> <div><span>– <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>You are going to make a lot of mistakes. To learn, and to be a good entrepreneur, you have to do a lot of crappy things. In entrepreneurship most people don´t win, he says, and uses a metaphor from the sports word to illustrate his point:</div> <div> </div> <div><span>– <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>Look at soccer. The likelihood of a professional soccer player getting the ball in the net is ten percent. That means nine failures out of ten! Sports is about failure, there is one winner and a bunch of loosers. It´s the same with entrepreneurship.</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>What can we expect from your seminar at Chalmers?</strong></div> <div> </div> <div><span>– I don´t know yet. I like to talk about whatever people in the room want to talk about. So, I won’t know what that will be until whomever is in the room asks questions and offers comments.  I promise we will have a good time, it will be really interactive and interesting!</span></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <br /> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Bill Gartner on…</h4> <div> </div> <div><strong>…what characterizes Swedish entrepreneurship research </strong></div> <div> “Its variation – and depth. Sweden has one of the longest entrepreneurship research traditions in Europe. You have many pioneers in the field, a strong behavioural group and great researchers within critical entrepreneurship studies”. </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>…his best advice to researchers in the entrepreneurship field</strong></div> <div> </div> <div>“Pursue your passion, and pay attention to other people”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>…why he sometimes uses narrative methods (e.g. films, plays and novels) to study and describe entrepreneurship</strong></div> <div> </div> <div>” It´s about the nature of learning. We learn a lot through stories. People tend to be either content or process driven – and stories have both”</div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>…the mystification of entrepreneurship</strong></div> <div> </div> <div>“People mystify entrepreneurship without realizing how much time it takes to create something. We simply don´t want to talk about the Mondays and the day to day processes, because it´s boring”. </div> <div> </div> <div> <br /><br /><strong>Text: Ulrika Ernström</strong><br /><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">FACTS, RESEARCH AND MORE INFORMATION</h4> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>About Bill Gartner</strong></div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">William B. Gartner</a> holds a joint appointment at California Lutheran University as Professor of Entrepreneurship and at Copenhagen Business School as Professor of Entrepreneurship and the Art of Innovation. He is also Visiting Professor of Entrepreneurship at Linnéuniversitetet.  Gartner is the 2005 winner of the Swedish Entrepreneurship Foundation International Award for outstanding contributions to entrepreneurship and small business research.  His recent book: <em>Entrepreneurship as Organizing: Selected Papers of William B. Gartner (2016)</em> is published by Edward Elgar.  His current scholarship focuses on: <em>“what entrepreneurs do:” the social construction of the future, and the hermeneutics of: value creation and appropriation, possibility and failure</em>.<br /><br /><strong>The seminar with Bill Gartner</strong><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>On February 24, 13-15, William B. Gartner will hold a seminar at Chalmers (at the TME Innovation and Entrepreneurship Research Seminar) with the title:  &quot;What do entrepreneurs do?  A dialogue on the nature of entrepreneurial behavior, practice and process&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/departments/tme/calendar/Pages/Bill-Gartner-Seminar.aspx">More information about the seminar</a></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <div><strong>About the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Research Seminar</strong></div> <div> </div> <div>The Innovation and Entrepreneurship Research Seminar runs every semester at Chalmers, Department of Technology Management and Economics (TME), Division Entrepreneurship and Strategy. The seminars are open to everyone and you do not need to sign up in advance. After the seminars, that usually lasts 1-1,5 hours, there is time for discussions. <br /><a href="/en/departments/tme/InnovationEntrepreneurshipResearchSeminar/Pages/default.aspx">More information on the <span><span>Innovation and Entrepreneurship Research Seminar<span></span></span>:</span></a><span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>Here are some of the previous speakers <span>at the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Research Seminar<span></span></span>:</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Robert Demir</a>, Stockholm Business School</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Helene Ahl</a>, Jönköpings universitet</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Sebastian Spaeth</a>, Chair of Management &amp; Digital Markets at University of Hamburg</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Dimo Dimov</a>, University of Bath</div>Mon, 20 Feb 2017 00:10:00 +0100 elusive surface spins on superconducting quantum devices<p><b>​Findings, recently published in the renowned journal Physical Review Letters, shed new light on the origin of magnetic noise in quantum circuits. &quot;We adress a long standing problem of the source of environment noise in superconducting quantum devices, like squids, q-bits and so on&quot;, says Andrey Danilov, Senior Researcher at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory at MC2, and one of the authors.</b></p><div>​The advancement of quantum computing now faces a tremendous challenge in improving the reproducibility and robustness of quantum circuits. One of the biggest problems in this field is the presence of noise intrinsic to all these devices, which origin has puzzled scientists for many decades.</div> <div> </div> <div>In the paper &quot;<a href="">Direct Identification of Dilute Surface Spins on Al2 O3: Origin of Flux Noise in Quantum Circuits</a>&quot; the researchers show that the same signatures of atomic Hydrogen that astronomers use to study the birth of distant stars reveal themselves in very small quantities in these tiny and ultracold quantum circuits.</div> <div> </div> <div>The identification of the elusive yet detrimental spins mentioned, shed new light on the origin of flux noise in quantum circuits, showing great promise for its mitigation. Remarkably, the highly reactive physisorbed atomic hydrogen, a by-product of water dissociation, was found to be stable in very small densities on the surface of these devices, closely matching the ubiquitous density of previously unknown paramagnetic species inferred to be responsible for flux noise in ultrasensitive SQUID magnetometers.</div> <div>The presented technique can also be applied to study oxide surface chemistry important for many other fields such as catalysis and gas sensing.</div> <div>&quot;This is a result of more than two years of work by an international team, with three authors from the Quantum Device Physics lab, and the other four authors formerly affiliated with QDP/Chalmers&quot;, says Andrey Danilov. </div> <div> </div> <div>The involved Chalmers researchers are Andrey Danilov, Astghik Adamyan and Sergey Kubatkin. Collaborating researchers are also Sebastian de Graaf and Tobias Lindström, National Physical Laboratory, UK, Donats Erts, Institute of Chemical Physics, University of Latvia, and Alexander Tzalenchuk, Royal Holloway, University of London.</div> <div> </div> <div>The paper has been selected as one of the Physical Review Letters Editor's suggestions.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Read the paper &gt;&gt;&gt;</h5> <div><a href="">Direct Identification of Dilute Surface Spins on Al2 O3: Origin of Flux Noise in Quantum Circuits</a></div>Thu, 16 Feb 2017 11:00:00 +0100 journalist, geodesist and a physicist named Chalmers honorary doctors of 2017<p><b>​Kaianders Sempler, who has been publishing popular science articles with illustrations since the late 1970’s, most notably in the weekly newspaper Ny Teknik (“New technology”), is elected to honorary doctor at Chalmers University of Technology in 2017. He shares this honorary award with geodesist Kristine M. Larson and physicist Steve Girvin, both from the US.</b></p><h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">​Kaianders Sempler</h3> <div>Kaianders Sempler is a science journalist, illustrator and public debater, who has been affiliated with the newspaper Ny Teknik since 1978. In this capacity he has regularly been publishing articles and chronicles about interesting technological novelties and science history events. He explains both new discoveries and known phenomena in his inimitably pedagogical and popular science style, as well as he writes fascinating stories on historical events where science and technology made a decisive (but to many readers unknown) role. </div> <div>Kaianders Sempler is elected to honorary doctor in Chalmers for his outstanding achievements as science journalist and public educator in natural sciences, engineering and technology. Through his textual and visual work, he is a forerunner in contemporary science communication both in research and education.</div> <div>Kaianders Sempler is a Chalmers graduate in architecture. He has had an active collaboration with several Chalmers researchers by way of publishing their submitted articles and essays, most often with much appreciated reviewing and own additions, as well as by writing about subjects suggested by Chalmers researchers. Kaianders Semplers broad knowledge and expertise about science journalism is an invaluable asset for education of researchers in popular science communication.  </div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Kristine M Larson</h3> <div>Kristine M. Larson, professor at the University of Colorado, is a world-leading researcher in the application of signals from Global Navigation Satellite Systems, e.g. GPS, in geoscience research. Her work covers a wide spectrum of geophysical phenomena and geoscientific questions – from measuring motions of the Earth’s crust and volcanic activity, to measuring sea level in a geocentric coordinate system.</div> <div>Kristine M. Larson is appointed an honorary doctorate for her groundbreaking research on using GPS signals to measure soil moisture, snow depth, vegetation, and sea level.  Her work contributes to improved hydrological studies, weather forecasting, climate models, and sea level rise estimates; research areas of highest relevance for a sustainable development on global scale.</div> <div>During 2010–2011 Kristine M. Larson was a jubilee professor at Chalmers where she worked on the development of techniques to measure sea level with GNSS-signals. The collaboration between Kristine M. Larson and researchers at Chalmers is ongoing and the question of how accurate sea level can be measured becomes even more important now when the new twin telescopes at the Onsala Space Observatory start to observe.</div> <div> </div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Steven Girvin</h3> <div>Steve Girvin is Professor of Physics &amp; Applied Physics and Deputy Provost for Research at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, USA. He is a prominent researcher in the field of condensed matter physics, and has given important contributions to the understanding of the fractional quantum Hall effect, single electron devices and quantum information. He is a member of the National Academy of Sciences, as well as a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.</div> <div>In parallel with his assignment as Deputy Provost, he is leading a very successful theory group working on quantum information. The group has among other achievements worked out concepts for novel quantum bits and laid the foundations for the quickly growing field of circuit quantum electrodynamics.</div> <div>Steve Girvin spent one year as a post-doc at Chalmers during the 1980s and then established contacts with Swedish researchers, leading to a number of fruitful collaborations. He has frequent contacts with the department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience at Chalmers on the topic of quantum computers. In addition to collaborative research projects, he has also had advisory functions in numerous organisation committees, and has also been a speaker at many local workshops and conferences, the latest being the Chalmers' Initiative Seminar on Quantum Technology in December 2016.</div>Wed, 15 Feb 2017 09:00:00 +0100 put Chalmers on the world map for semiconductors<p><b>​Thorvald Andersson was one of the people who helped to put Chalmers on the world map for semiconductors in the 1980s. He has now been retired for a few years, but has not yet cut all ties with MC2. “It’s been successful – and above all fun,” says Andersson, reflecting on the past.</b></p>He was born outside Karlstad in 1946. After completing a technical upper-secondary school programme in Örebro, he went on to study Mathematics at Uppsala University.<br />“After that I came to Chalmers and the University of Gothenburg and studied Physics and Mathematics. I had good teachers and found it so interesting that I carried on down that path,” explains Andersson with a smile.<br /><br /><strong>Offered a doctoral studentship</strong><br />In the early 1970s he was offered a doctoral studentship in the former Physics Department led by Professor Gösta Brogren, and he publicly defended his doctoral thesis there in 1976. Andersson then found time for a year at teacher training college before Chalmers called him back. Professor Brogren asked whether Andersson wanted to take over and develop the MBE activities at Chalmers and build up the MBE Group. MBE stands for Molecular Beam Epitaxy and is a method of making advanced layered structures at atomic level.<br />“I barely knew what it was, but I decided to accept. With the help of Gösta we first bought an MBE system in 1977. The funding didn’t come from Chalmers, but instead mostly from individuals in Stockholm and Lund. They had been to conferences and/or had completed their doctorates at places such as Cornell, so they understood the development. At Chalmers it was surprisingly quite conservative,” says Andersson.<br />“An additional MBE system was purchased in 1990, this one with more backing from Chalmers. Eventually students started to complete their doctorates. It was a fun time with so many exciting things going on,” recalls Andersson. <br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/thorvald_andersson_665x330d.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><strong>Being emptied</strong><br />We meet on the fourth floor of the MC2 building. Andersson has a small work corner among removals boxes and clutter near to the laboratory. The premises are now being emptied.<br />“Before I retired I had my office one floor up; Professor Johan Liu then moved in there. We used the room we’re sitting in now as a coffee and meeting room for the MBE Group,” says Andersson.<br />He explains further:<br />“It all started in the Physics Department, but when the physics building was due to be rebuilt, we decided to move to these empty premises. I got everyone on board with the idea that it was better to move than to stay and enclose the machines inside the physics building. Organisationally, the MBE Group then became part of the Division for Microelectronics (MEL) at MC2, but that was mainly a formality. We have always been an offshoot who have looked after ourselves.”<br /><br /><strong>Learnt more in the USA</strong><br />As soon as he had returned to Chalmers in 1977, Andersson travelled to the USA to learn more about MBE technology. There, he went on several study visits to various laboratories at MIT, Bell Labs, IBM, Wright Patterson AFB and Varian. After returning home, it was time to open the wallet. The first machine cost 180,000 dollars to buy at that time.<br />“Gösta Brogren forced me to go to the central administrative office at Chalmers and make the payment on the same day that the dollar dipped below five Swedish kronor. The payment was successful despite a technical glitch,” recalls Andersson.<br />When the time came to buy an additional machine in 1990, the price had soared to nearly SEK 10 million. It was jointly financed by the banks’ newly established research fund and Swedish Central Government, which provided grants for heavy equipment.<br />“Following my contacts with the above labs, I realised that modern, advanced equipment would be very expensive to purchase. Many people were initially critical, but today equipment costing ten times as much is purchased unhesitatingly. It has been an exciting development.”<br /><br /><strong>The world’s first commercial machine</strong><br />At MC2 the machines are known as “MBE I” and “MBE II”, but their official names are “Varian MBE-360” and “Varian GEN II Modular”. Varian is the name of the manufacturer, which was based in Palo Alto, California. It remains comparable with “Mercedes class” even today.<br />“'MBE I' was the world’s first commercial machine bought by a university, and it was the fourth machine of its kind in the world. The first was purchased by Varian’s own research lab, the second by WPAFB in Ohio, the third went to Germany (for use by the postal services), the fourth to Chalmers, the fifth to Cornell and the sixth to Santa Barbara.”<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/thorvald_andersson_665x330b.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><strong>Unique in Sweden</strong><br />The MBE Group was unique in Sweden when it was founded in 1977, and it continued its activities until the end of 2015. Thorvald Andersson led the group until he retired in 2013.<br />“The first few years consisted purely of research, which aimed to lead to applications for component groups, but component research was never a big hit in Sweden. It’s impossible to follow the Asian, Japanese ventures, because there is a market there in a completely different way. The USA has the needs of the defence industry and you can obtain money there to supply it with materials; in Asia you have the consumer market. We have none of those things here, and Europe barely does either,” he explains.<br />Nevertheless, for a time his group was at the forefront of material research into semiconductor materials (quantum structures) and they advanced the research in this field.<br />“We were working on the technology from such an early stage and were regarded as some kind of pioneers in Europe at first. For a time I was a speaker at several important conferences in the USA, Asia and Europe.” <br /><br /><strong>Wanted a small group</strong><br />Andersson had the ambition of constantly keeping the group relatively small, with 5–10 members.<br />“I didn’t want there to be too many of us because that creates other problems. It’s said that a group of more than six people develops what you could call ‘social’ problems. If fewer than five people make up the group, it’s very easy for everyone to get close to each other, and it’s therefore easier to solve any problems. If there are more than six members, there’s always a bit of friction and unfriendliness – it’s what I’ve heard many people say. That’s why I never wanted there to be too many of us, so that it would get unwieldy. The technical side of things was difficult enough so I didn’t want any other problems. But I think it went well and was very interesting.”<br /><br /><strong>Like the pages of a book</strong><br />Using both MBE machines it was possible to produce layered structures with a thickness ranging from one up to about twenty atomic layers. The key is therefore to manufacture specifically thin layers with an extremely high degree of control. Layer upon layer upon layer.<br />“You can compare it to a book in which the pages represent the thin layers. When the layers get thinner than a few nanometres, their properties differ from the norm for the host material. MBE is therefore a technology dedicated to making atom-thin layers with quantum properties. Thicker layers require different technologies.” <br /><strong>What are the layers used for?</strong><br />“We used them to study various quantum properties in physics. Gallium arsenide and gallium nitride can be used for LEDs, such as white LEDs. Other areas of use include high-frequency components in mobile phones, high-frequency transistors that previously ran at megahertz speeds but now run at gigahertz speeds and frequencies a thousand times higher. LEDs and transistors are the largest commercial areas of application today.” <br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/thorvald_andersson_665x330c.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><strong>Stellar career path</strong><br />Thorvald Andersson has had an academic career that went from strength to strength. He became an Associate Professor in 1983 and was promoted to the position of Professor of Physics in 2001. His CV is an impressive, 10-page list of his achievements; prizes and accolades, Visiting Researcher posts, citations, and names of doctoral students.<br /><strong>What do you value the most?</strong><br />“In the 1980s I had two articles that were very highly cited, and researchers at Bell Labs commented that through those articles I had put Chalmers on the world’s semiconductor map. That was nice. I wrote the articles together with a Russian researcher who was here at that time. The 1980s were perhaps the heyday. Within a short period, some of my articles were referenced more than 100 times, which was quite unusual in those days,” says Andersson.<br />The group members were the first in the world to produce the results presented in both articles, which were about quantum wells. <br />“We were also among the first to understand quantum dots. And we worked on antimonides very early on. In this we were on a par with the largest laboratories. Naturally we can’t compare ourselves to the world’s major laboratories; they had completely different resources – not just for expansion but also for analysing materials, and we never had that,” says Andersson. <br />He is critical of how government funding was distributed between the higher education institutions.<br />“The funding was often divided between Chalmers, Lund, Stockholm and Linköping. This led to dilution, which were the rules of play that we had to live with, but I never thought that it was particularly good. We might start something, but could never really finish it as it took too long, and in the meantime the major international laboratories that tackled it made much more rapid progress. We saw many such situations very early on here,” says Andersson.<br /><br /><strong>A Visiting Researcher in many countries</strong><br />As a Visiting Researcher, Andersson worked in departments in large parts of the world for a total of nearly two and a half years: in the USA, Japan, China, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Singapore, Poland, Germany, Greece, France, the UK... <br />“I’ve been in all those countries as a Visiting Researcher for short or long periods of time – visits ranging from a few days to up to a year. It has been extremely exciting.”<br />He has also received several accolades for his work. In 1999 he was awarded a prize for best business concept in the Venture Cup (a competition for the entrepreneurs of tomorrow), in 2009 he received SEK 100,000 from Teknikbrostiftelsen (a foundation promoting contact between academia, industry and the local community), and as recently as in 2011 he came third in Lärosätenas Idétävling Väst (a competition within higher education institutions for utilisation of ideas). Among others.  <br />“I have also worked on other types of semiconductor materials. Towards the end of my career I worked on molecular semiconductors. They constitute an area for the future that is big in Linköping and Stockholm, for example.”<br />In conjunction with his nearly one-year period as a Visiting Researcher in Japan in the mid-1990s, Andersson started working on gallium nitrides, which were a novelty at that time.<br />“NTT outside Tokyo, where I was, is one of the largest laboratories in the world.” <br />Over the years Andersson has supervised more than 30 doctoral students and licentiate students. In the 1980s and 1990s there was a great deal of interest among students, but it has subsequently waned here as in most Western countries. <br />“Today it is probably difficult to attract students to this area. Just like in the rest of society, young people like to follow what is covered in the media and perhaps see the flashiest topics, and less of what may be interesting in the long term.”<br /><br /><strong>Took part in establishing MC2</strong><br />Thorvald Andersson was very highly involved in establishing MC2. Initial discussions began already back in the 1970s. A formal steering group was set up in 1990, with Andersson among its members. He has been involved throughout. <br />“I was the person to come up with the initial idea of building a new laboratory in 1977, which much later became the cleanroom and MC2. I had seen major laboratories, mainly in the USA, and understood what was happening. But at Chalmers initial discussions were only about equipping a room, moving a room, adding a room and suchlike. The opinions from Physics were solely negative. So I suggested to Gösta Brogren that it was imperative to seriously consider daring to construct much larger purpose-built premises, and to combine the Physics part of the Electrical Engineering Department and the Electrical part of the Physics Department. Gösta seized the opportunity and tackled it; at first, he was doubtful, but he soon changed his mind,” says Andersson smiling.<br /><br /><strong>Started predecessor</strong><br />He also helped start the Centrum för halvledare och mikroelektronik (a centre for semiconductors and microelectronics), which was also a predecessor of MC2. Its past chairs included Professors Torkel Wallmark and Olof Engström.<br />“But as soon as something becomes formal, many people get involved and it can be difficult to identify the actual mutual interest. And that’s when I often lose my commitment and shift my focus to something else instead. It’s not a straight line but a very winding path. Everyone has to agree. I’m more informal in my way of working,” says Andersson.<br />However you look at it, you can see that the MBE technology and the machines, the idea of constructing the new premises and a “centre” acted as a catalyst for establishing MC2. <br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/thorvald_andersson_665x330.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><strong>Continuing in the cleanroom</strong><br />The MBE activities are now continuing in the Nanofabrication Laboratory – the cleanroom – which already contains two equivalent systems. The old machines are being phased out and dismantled; a few components that can still be used are being saved.<br />“In principle, you could clean them thoroughly and sell them. But I expect that there are so many of these for sale around the world that it would probably be difficult to find a buyer,” says Andersson.<br /><strong>How do you feel about things now?</strong><br />“I’m not a sentimental person. The machines are basically just stainless steel. People have often developed a personal relationship with old equipment, but the nature of development today is such that what was once hot will eventually become old. Two to three new research fields will emerge in the space of 10 years. The only possible fear is that it is taking too long to get new research fields into the laboratory.<br /><strong>You don’t feel that it is knowledge that risks being lost?</strong><br />“Yes, of course, but that’s all part of the game,” he says. <br /><br /><strong>Kept in contact</strong> <br />Thorvald Andersson has been a Professor Emeritus since 2013. He has not lost contact with MC2 entirely, although he has not retained any teaching duties. <br />“I visit occasionally and meet old colleagues. We have quite a lot to discuss, sometimes for several hours.”<br />He spends most of his time with his wife, Ingegerd, who is a retired psychologist, the families of their three children including their eight grandchildren, their sailing boat and their holiday cottage in Bergslagen.<br />“It’s all go, all of the time. I also read a lot when I’m at home. At the moment I’m reading three books in parallel, including Herman Lindqvist’s De vilda Vasarna (a violent history of the Vasa family). I’m also reading a book about de Gaulle and one about the Kremlin. Before that I read Äntligen diktatur, (Finally dictatorship), which is about Thailand. I sometimes read novels, no crime novels, but mostly books that are linked to reality.<br /><br /><strong>Writing down his memories</strong><br />Andersson has also started documenting his experiences, precisely as a way of harnessing the knowledge that he has acquired over the years. He doesn’t yet know what the new project will result in, or even whether it will ever be completed. It might end up being a combined history and autobiography.<br />“It’s not exactly going to be finished tomorrow – I’ve only completed a few pages so far. When I actually sit down and write, I keep going off on small tangents that you can meander down endlessly. There’s no plan; I’m just writing, seeing where it leads to and whether it can be used. I hope to have something finished in the course of 2017. It’s all quite exciting,” concludes Andersson.<br /><br />Text and photo: Michael NyståsTue, 14 Feb 2017 10:00:00 +0100 efforts to reveal the darkest secret in the Universe<p><b>​How do stars and galaxies move and how did the Universe form? The answer could be found in the dark matter – unknown particles that represent more than 80 percent of the total matter in the Universe. During March, experts from all over the world will gather in Munich, Germany, to work out strategies to detect dark matter for the first time. The coordinator of the workshop is Riccardo Catena, Assistant Professor at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.</b></p><div>​<span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/90x75px/Riccardo_Catena_IMG_0222_90x120.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span> – We need to join efforts to solve one of the biggest mysteries in the Universe. Now there are experiments that could tell us what dark matter actually is and we need to cooperate across traditional scientific boundaries in order to create a framework to interpret the data. Unveiling the nature of dark matter is one of the most pressing research questions in science today, says Riccardo Catena, theoretical astroparticle physicist at the Division of Subatomic and Plasma Physics.</div> <div> </div> <div>One of the large ongoing experiments, Xenon1T, is located in the underground experimental facility Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso in Italy. The results from this first ton-scale detector will be presented in the next months. </div> <div>In order to get the most out of the data, around 70 researchers from different fields will meet for a four-week long workshop. This is the first time that theorists and experimentalists within astro-, particle and nuclear physics join efforts to solve one of the biggest mysteries in the Universe.</div> <div><span> – <span style="display:inline-block"></span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span> Dark matter is a hypothetical particle that has escaped detection so far. If we can detect it and understand its nature, we can provide a coherent explanation to a number of otherwise mysterious phenomena in the Universe. For example, stars and galaxies move with velocities too high to be explained in terms of visible matter only, says Riccardo Catena.</div> <div> </div> <div>In addition, a new particle could pave the way for totally new possibilities.  </div> <div> <span>– <span style="display:inline-block"></span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span> It’s hard to predict the far-reaching impact of a new particle. When for example Thomson (1897) discovered that the electron was a subatomic particle he didn’t think it could be of much use. Today all kinds of modern technology are based upon the properties of electrons. </div> <div> </div> <div>To arrange the interdisciplinary workshop, Riccardo Catena has been granted EUR 78 000 from the Munich Institute for Astro- and Particle Physics (MIAPP). In the organizing team, Chalmers will also be represented by co-organizer Christian Forssén, Professor at the Subatomic and Plasma Physics Division at the Department of Physics. Professor Jan Conrad from Stockholm University also takes part in the coordination of the event. In total there will be six participants from Sweden. </div> <div> </div> <div><span>Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren,<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></div> <div> </div> <div><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read more about the workshop in Munich 6-31 March 2017. </a></div> <div><span></span> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">For more information, please contact: </h5> <div><a href="">Riccardo Catena</a>, Assistant Professor, <span>Department of Physics<span style="display:inline-block">,</span></span> Chalmers: +46 76 890 19 76, <br /><span><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/Christian-Forssen.aspx"><span>Christian Forssén</span>,</a> Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers: +46 31 31772 32 61,<span></span></span><br /></div>Tue, 14 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Twin Telescopes: ready for the world<p><b>​Two new radio telescopes have been built at Onsala Space Observatory on Sweden’s west coast, and on 18 May 2017 they will be inaugurated. The Onsala Twin Telescopes are part of an international network of radio telescopes that use astronomical techniques - and distant black holes - to make high-precision measurements of the Earth and how it moves.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial">The Onsala Twin Telescopes are two identical dish antennas, each 13.2 metres in diameter. They are part of an international initiative involving 20 countries, aimed at increasing our knowledge about the Earth and its movements.</span><div><br /><span style="background-color:initial"></span><div>The telescopes detect radio waves from brilliant but distant galaxies that act like fixed stars in the sky. By continually measuring the positions on the sky of bright radio galaxies, the telescopes in the network can determine their own location in space.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>John Conway is professor in observational radio astronomy at Chalmers and director of Onsala Space Observatory.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>”The sources that the telescopes measure are distant galaxies, each of which has at its centre a supermassive black hole whose surroundings shine brightly when the black hole consumes material. This is applied astronomy at its best” he says.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/ott_lundqvist_2327_72dpi_340x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The Onsala Twin Telescopes are part of a growing international network of similar telescopes. As part of the global project VGOS (VLBI Global Observing System), they have company all over the world. Measurements of this kind have been carried out over the last few decades, and Onsala’s 20-metre telescope has participated in these. But with a dedicated network of telescopes, observations can now be carried out 24 hours a day, all year round, and will be able to able to make measurements ten times as precise as is possible today.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>”With the new network we will be able to measure distances between telescopes to millimetre precision, and almost in real time”, says Rüdiger Haas, professor of space geodesy at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Onsala’s history of geodetic measurements is a long one. In 1968, the observatory’s iconic 25-metre radio telescope became the first in Europe to take part in geodetic VLBI (very long baseline interferometry). The observatory’s 20-metre telescope, inaugurated in 1976, boasts geodetic measurements over a longer period than any other telescope in the world.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The new telescopes and their network meet global needs, as expressed in a resolution which was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations in February 2015. The resolution, A Global Geodetic Reference Frame for Sustainable Development, recognised for the first time the importance of coordinating geodetic measurements on a global scale. The resolution strengthened exisiting work in the UN initiative Global Geospatial Information Management (UN-GGIM) and with the Global Geodetic Reference Frame (GGRF).</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Centrum/Onsala%20rymdobservatorium/340x/ott_lundqvist_2207_72dpi_340x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />“Future research on sustainable development and on the Earth as a system will require more reliable, long-term, high-precision measurements. The Onsala Twin Telescopes are a natural continuation of our already long history of such measurements in Onsala”, says Gunnar Elgered, professor of electrical measurements and head of the Department of Earth and Space Science at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Similar telescopes are already in place in the United States, in Hawaii and Maryland, in Wettzell in Germany, in Yebes in Spain, on Santa Maria in the Azores, and on the Arctic Svalbard islands. New telescopes are planned for other locations, among them South Africa and Finland. Operations for the complete network of 16 or more stations are expected to start in 2020.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>A reference system with this level of precision is also needed for many applications in Earth Sciences. It will become possible, for example, to measure sea level relative to the centre of the Earth, in order to test models for climate change. Data from the network will also be able to contribute to many other exciting areas of science, for example the movement of Earth’s tectonic plates, the Earth’s changing rotation and axial tilt.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The construction and installation of the Onsala Twin Telescopes has been funded by a generous grant from the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><div><div><span style="font-weight:700">Contacts:</span></div> <div> </div> <div>Robert Cumming, communicator, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers, tel: +46 31-772 5500 or +46 70 493 3114,</div> <div> </div></div> <div>Rüdiger Haas, professor of space geodesy, Chalmers, tel: +46 31 772 55 30,</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Gunnar Elgered, professor of electrical measurements and head of the Department of Earth and Space Science, Chalmers, tel: + 46 31 772 1610 or +46 <span style="background-color:initial">31 772 5565,</span></div></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em><strong>Images:</strong></em></div> <div>High-resolution images are available at <a href="">​</a></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>1 (top): The Onsala Twin Telescopes will measure the Earth’s movements using distant galaxies. This photo shows the two antennas at with Onsala Space Observatory’s 25-metre telescope, built in 1963, behind them. (Credit: Onsala Space Observatory/R. Hammargren).</em></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial"><br /></strong></div> <div><i>2. Onsala Twin Telescopes will become operational during 2017. &quot;First light&quot; for the northern telescope (right) was achieved in early February 2017. (Credit: Onsala Space Observatory/Anna-Lena Lundqvist)</i><em><span></span><br /></em></div> <div><br /></div> <div><i style="background-color:initial">3. Changing the Onsala skyline: the new Twin Telescopes and the 25-metre telescope. (Credit: Onsala Space Observatory/Anna-Lena Lundqvist)</i><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong style="background-color:initial">More about the Onsala Twin Telescopes</strong><br /></div> <div> </div> <div>The Onsala Twin Telescopes are two dish antennas, 13.2 metres in diameter, located 75 metres apart close to the 25-metre telescope at Onsala Space Observatory, in the province of Halland, 45 km south of Gothenburg on Sweden’s west coast. The telescopes have a ring-focus design, the main reflector complemented by a 1.55-metre subreflector. They are designed to be able to observe together in many different modes. Able to move at up to 12 degrees per second in azimuth and 6 per second in elevation, they can slew extremely fast between observations and measure thousands of radio sources every day. The parabolic dishes, accurate to 0.3 mm RMS precision, allow measurements at frequencies up to 40 GHz (wavelength 0.75 cm or more).</div> <div><br /></div> <div>Each telescope has its own receiver system with feeds and receivers for radio waves of a common frequency range 3-14 GHz (wavelength 2-10 cm) and two linear polarisations. The northern telescope has a feed with a quadridge design, with four ridges, covering 3–18 GHz (1.7-10 cm) and similar in design to the feed horn Onsala Space Observatory has developed for the international Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project. The southern telescope is equipped with an Eleven feed, a design developed by Chalmers physicist Per-Simon Kildal (1951-2016), which covers 2–14 GHz (2-15 cm). Like the site’s other instruments, the Twin Telescopes have access to Onsala Space Observatory’s hydrogen maser atomic clock. The telescopes are controlled with the help of digital systems capable of speeds up to 128 gigabit per second, located in the control room next to the 20-metre telescope.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The telescopes will be inaugurated on 18 May 2017 by the County Governor of Halland, Lena Sommestad. Details of the inauguration will be provided later.</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Links</strong></div> <div> </div> <div>23rd Working Meeting of the European VLBI Group for Geodesy and Astrometry (EVGA)</div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div>NASA’s article about the telescopes’ sister station in Hawaii, USA:</div> <div></div> <div> </div> <div>NASA’s animated video about the history of space geodesy and how quasars help scientists measure the Earth:</div> <div></div> <div><br /></div></div>Fri, 10 Feb 2017 13:00:00 +0100 cells on the agenda for Swedish Electromobility Centre<p><b>​The interest in fuel cell technology is growing worldwide. Swedish Electromobility Centre and Energiforsk now gets financing to continue their global technology watch of fuel cells. At the same time, fuel cells becomes a thematic research area for the Centre, which thereby broadens its network.</b></p><div class="page-content"> <span class="TextFieldDisplay-ascx"></span> <div><div>The interest in fuel cell technology for vehicle propulsion is growing globally, in the automotive industry as well as for manufacturers of components and systems. That hydrogen and fuel cells can be used for backup power, e.g. for mobile base stations and for providing buildings with heat and electricity is also being more widely recognized.</div> <div> </div> <div>The Swedish Energy Agency now renews the funding of the technology watch of fuel cells for another two and a half years. The technology watch has been carried out by Swedish Electromobility Centre (formerly Swedish Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Center, SHC) and the energy research institute Energiforsk since 2013, and has run for about twenty years in total. In addition to the global watch and analysis, the project will carry out R&amp;D studies and disseminate information on research and development.</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Benefit for academia and industry</h3> <div><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/sv/institutioner/s2/nyheter/PublishingImages/Bränsleceller%20på%20agendan%20för%20Swedish%20Electromobility%20Centre/Bertil%20Wahlund_225px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Bertil Wahlund from Energiforsk coordinates the technology watch part in the project, as in previous years. The mission is to deliver an objective, relevant and realistic picture of research and development in the whole fuel cell field, to the benefit of both industry and research community. Bertil highlights the development of the Swedish companies Powercell and Sandvik as one interesting area to follow, and gives several other examples:</div> <div> </div> <div>“Looking at transport, it will be exciting to see how the automotive industry ventures develop, with Toyota at the forefront, as well as following the demo projects for heavy vehicles and trucks. System integration is another important issue, and technology issues such as cost and lifetime are always interesting.”</div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">New participants  - broader network</h3> <div>Swedish Electromobility Centre’s thematic areas bring academia and industry together in specific research fields, through knowledge intensive meetings, seminars and research projects. Fuel cells now becomes a fifth thematic area for the Centre, which thus includes all technologies for energy supply of electric motors. Göran Lindbergh, professor in electrochemistry at KTH Royal Institute of Technology will lead the thematic group.</div> <div> </div> <div>The new theme not only involves the Centre’s partners in academia and industry, but also other organizations that are active in the area of fuel cells. Thus a broader group of participants are welcomed into Swedish Electromobility Centre’s network.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Fuel cells becoming a thematic area means that several new researchers will be connected to Swedish Electromobility Centre”, says director Elna Holmberg. “To broaden the base for collaboration is important for knowledge transfer, and one of our goals”.</div> <div> </div> <div><em>Text: Emilia Lundgren</em></div> <div> </div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Fuel cells for vehicles</h4> <div>A fuel cell is an energy converter which transforms hydrogen chemical energy into electricity. The waste product is water, and heat is also formed during the process. Fuel cell technology is one of several options for future fossil-free vehicles. Advocates of the technology emphasize that fuel cell vehicles have advantages where battery vehicles have disadvantages, as the range is much longer than for most of today’s battery-powered vehicle and “filling up” a fuel cell vehicle takes about as much time as filling the tank with gasoline.</div> <div> </div> <div><em><a href="">Swedish Electromobility Centre</a> is a national Centre of Excellence for hybrid and electric vehicle technology and charging infrastructure. The Centre unifies Sweden's competence and serve as a base for interaction between academia, industry and society. Chalmers University of Technology is host of the Centre.</em></div> <div><em>Partners: AB Volvo, Volvo Car Corporation, Scania CV AB, Autoliv Development AB, Chalmers University of Technology, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Lund University, Uppsala University, Linköping University. </em></div> <div> </div></div> </div>Wed, 08 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0100 MSEK for developing target seeking biological pharmaceuticals<p><b>​The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF) invests 75 million SEK in an industrial research centre managed by Chalmers Professor Fredrik Höök. The project focuses on encapsulating biological pharmaceuticals into nanoscale carriers in order to reach the body’s cells and treat severe diseases.</b></p>​<span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Fredrik_Hook_300x350px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="height:290px;width:250px;margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>&quot;A promising candidate for treating today’s incurable diseases is to reprogram the cells. However, since the reprogramming must take place inside the cell the pharmaceutical must penetrate the cell membrane. Designing and encapsulating biological molecules in nanocarriers so that they are capable of this is very challenging. That’s why it’s important with a broad-scale collaboration between the academia and the industry, says Fredrik Höök, Professor in biological physics at the Department of Physics at Chalmers and academic leader for Formulaex. <br /><br />The industrial research centre will focus on so called nucleotide-based therapeutics and in the consortium Chalmers collaborates with the lead industrial partner Astra Zeneca as well as Camurus, Vironova, Gothenburg Sensor Devices and the academic partners Karolinska Institute and University of Gothenburg. <br /><br />The centre will study fundamental requirements for pharmaceuticals made from biological molecules like DNA and RNA – the code that is the foundation for how cells work. Present research on the improvement of pharmaceuticals’ transportation into a cell is based on fabricating nanoparticles which mimic naturally occurring processes in the human body. Cells can, for instance, communicate by exchange of nanocarriers.<br /><br />“I am looking forward to the new dimension this project will add to our ongoing research, which has potential value far outside this team of academic and industrial partners. The assembled excellence of the industry and the academia can hopefully generate a great benefit for society. We also hope that our region will become even more attractive within Life science”, says Fredrik Höök. <br /><br />Within the Chalmers’ team there are two more members: Professor Marcus Wilhelmsson at the Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering and Associate Professor Elin Esbjörner at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering. <br /><br />The project “Functional delivery of nucleotide based therapeutics” will run for six to eight years and give a better understanding of the process of cellular uptake and endosomal escape of nucleotide based therapeutics. The work includes development of advanced analytical methods, biomolecular design, cell studies and development of nanocarriers and delivery of new genetic bases therapeutics.  <br /><br />Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren,<br /><br /><strong>Contact: </strong><br />Fredrik Höök, Academic leader, Professor at the Department of Physics, Chalmers, 0708-95 12 39,<br /><br /><strong>More information: </strong><br /><br /><a href=""><img src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" alt="" />Read the press release from The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Researc</a>h (in Swedish) <br /><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-Chalmers-innovation-paves-the-way-for-the-next-generation-of-pharmaceuticals.aspx"><img src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" alt="" />Read more about the research of Fredrik Höök. </a><br /><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/A-Chalmers-innovation-paves-the-way-for-the-next-generation-of-pharmaceuticals.aspx"></a><br /><span><span>Note: 75 MSEK equals approximately 7.9 MEUR (9 February 2017)<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span><br />Wed, 08 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0100 university ​– where is it heading?<p><b>​One year ago, Olle Häggström wrote the book Here Be Dragons, on technology development, existential risks and the future of humanity. What does he think about the future of the university, then?</b></p><p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MV/Nyheter/OHb350x305.jpg" alt="Campus Johanneberg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" style="margin:5px" />​– For me, the university is intellectual encounters between people. And I hope that the university for at least a few more decades is a physical meeting place, the quality is not the same when meeting via Skype. But the digitalization does not worry me as much as another, ongoing development of the university. We hear the word researcher hotel and it is not hard to see that things are going in that direction, it depends on the research grants if you get a job or not, and then the departments will soon no longer have a coherent idea anymore or any direction of their own.</p> <p>We are talking less and less about the research issues, and more and more about funding. When asking ”How is it going?” the answer will more likely be ”Well, I am applying for this grant” instead of ”I have found an interesting connection to another problem”. It has become an unspoken premise that success is measured in funding, not in research results. And if you comment on this in a conversation, everybody agrees that it is the research itself that matters – but soon the discussion is back to funding again.</p> <p>This is part of a longer tendency in the academia. In the UK, it has become really destructive with extremely demanding evaluations aimed at a narrow utilization perspective. We are moving in the same direction in Sweden but it has not yet become quite as bad. But in the government’s latest research bill the basic research is completely forgotten. Focus on bibliometrics has become very strong, especially the research councils drive researchers to publish all the time, which breeds a quantity thinking that is not good for the research.</p> <p>Instead, I would like to see the nurturing of an environment that stimulates slow reflection and academic height. Job security and undisturbed time for reflection are needed to be able to work with difficult, long-term problems. In politics and in public debate it is unfortunately not the strongest arguments that win but the catchiest one-liners, like innovation and economic growth in the short term. This is not because we have become dumber, but we are under more pressure. ”Gothenburg Centre for Advanced Studies in Science and Technology” and similar centres at other universities were created to uphold basic research, and it is a good initiative, but far too small!</p> <p>It is not that I think that ”everything was better before”, the universities have been both elitist and hierarchical, and it is very positive that they opened up so that it is not the private wealth that determines whether you can continue studying. We also have great advantage of the technological development that computerization means, with an easy information gathering and closer contact with researchers in other continents. Mathematics is one of the areas where researchers often have their collaboration partners far away. And we can certainly benefit from better video conference techniques, although as I said I do not think it can replace the personal meeting.</p> <p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MV/Nyheter/OH1.jpg" alt="Olle Häggström" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" style="margin:5px" />Something that I really value in my role as a professor is that I have a position that allows me to express myself without personal risk, even in controversial issues. Which I occasionally do. Who will speak up if not we at the university do it? The risk is that we will have a quieter culture, as people do not want to risk their grants. I think we need to pull ourselves together, stand with our backs straight, and tell the politicians that we are a university! I do not know if they will listen… but we still have to try. If enough of us protest maybe we can make a difference, the future is not inscribed in stone.<br /><br /><strong>Text and photos</strong>: Setta Aspström</p>Tue, 07 Feb 2017 10:05:00 +0100 President Trump&#39;s executive order is deeply worrying<p><b>​On 27 January US President Donald Trump issued an executive order that had immediate effect on citizens of seven predominantly muslim countries. Chalmers University of Technology is deeply worried about the effect this order will have on the free movement of people and free exchange of knowledge.</b></p>​The order, temporarily preventing entrance into the US of persons from seven Muslim-majority countries, has a direct and devastating effect on free movement and, consequently, on international academic collaboration and exchange.<br /><br />One of Chalmers <span>University of Technology<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>’s own staff members, a PhD student, was among the first to be affected. He boarded a plane with all the documentation required for an extended stay at an American university. Upon his arrival in the US, the situation had changed. Not only was he denied entry, but he was treated like a criminal and in the end, 20 hours later, put on a plane back to Sweden.<br /><br />Other Chalmers <span>University of Technology <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>researchers have opted not to submit papers to conferences in the US since there is no guarantee that they will be admitted into the country even if their paper is accepted.<br /><br />As a university and an employer, Chalmers <span>University of Technology <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>would like to express sincere sympathy with those who have been affected. Chalmers <span>University of Technology <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>also supports the statements made by the Association of Swedish Higher Education (SUHF) and international associations such as the European Universities Association (EUA) and the International Association of Universities (IAU). (See links below)<br /><br /><strong>Stefan Bengtsson</strong><br />President, Chalmers University of Technology<br /><br /><br /><strong>Read also:</strong><br />Statement from Sveriges universitets- och högskoleförbund, SUHF: <a href="">SUHF om USA:s inreseförbud</a> (in Swedish)<br /><br />Statement from European University Association, EUA: <a href="">European universities call for immediate rethinking of Trump’s executive order</a><br /><br />Statement from International Association of Universities, IAU: <a href="">IAU calls for the withdrawal of the order banning citizens of 7 countries from entering the US</a><br /><br />Fri, 03 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0100 optimization model solves GKN production planning<p><b>​A mathematical optimization model called SOLV is entering several departments at GKN Aerospace in Trollhättan. It provides increased control, utilization and productivity, and the starting point is a doctoral thesis at the Department of Mathematical Sciences.</b></p><p>​<img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Michael Patriksson, Karin Thörnblad, Ann-Brith Strömberg" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MV/Nyheter/MPKTABS300x.jpg" style="margin:5px" />It all began with an idea from Torgny Almgren, Adjunct Professor at Mathematical Sciences. With one week left to deadline he contacted Michael Patriksson and Ann-Brith Strömberg and suggested that they should apply for an industrial doctoral student project grant from the Swedish Research Council, with the goal of scheduling multitask machines within reasonable time using mathematical modelling. He also had a suggestion of a possible person if the project would be granted: Karin Thörnblad, an engineer at the logistics function at GKN. Said and done, the application was written in record time, Karin was asked, and when the application was granted they went ahead.</p> <p>The result was the PhD thesis <a href="">Mathematical Optimization in Flexible Job Shop Scheduling: Modelling, Analysis, and Case Studies</a>. In the thesis an iterative scheduling algorithm is launched, solving a time indexed optimization model with shorter time steps at each iteration, and where a new schedule may take at most 15 minutes to be produced. The most common goal of scheduling in academia is to “minimize makespan”, i.e., the time schedule from start to finish should be as short as possible. That does not work so well in a reality where the production is dynamic and continuous, in the way that new products are arriving all the time, so Karin’s goal function is instead a weighted sum of all the jobs’ finishing times and delays. In this way the overall goal to produce all the products in the right time is promoted.</p> <p>The model was however not implemented in the production cell where Karin had made her case study. There would have to be design changes in the control system, and when it was decided that only one type of product would be produced in the cell in the future, the utility was considered to be not as great anymore. Instead, some months after the thesis defense the head of the heat treatment department contacted Karin. The prognosis for the department’s workload showed that they would have difficulties meeting their future production demand, despite the purchase of a new furnace. Maybe they could make better use of the furnaces?</p> <p><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="Heat treatment furnace at GKN" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MV/Nyheter/SOLV350x305.jpg" style="margin:5px" />Karin started with a pilot study. All sorts of products come to the heat treatment, both from the other departments and from external customers. It was a more complex case than the multitask cell, so she needed to develop her mathematical optimization model, which got the name SOLV (Schema Optimalt Lagt i Värmebehandlingen, or schedule optimally placed in the heat treatment). It did not only need to produce the desired results, but to do so within reasonable time. The first tests looked promising, whence the steering group decided to implement SOLV, and two IT engineers reinforced the project team in order to help automate the system. The hardest nut to crack was to find good sequences, as some operations demand a bake-out of the furnaces at high temperature during a long time. If the temperature of a brazing operation needs to go up, a bake-out is needed, otherwise not.</p> <p>On November 3, 2015 the new scheduling model began to run at full speed. All operators have been trained, and a new schedule for the coming 24 hours is produced every morning before 9 o’clock. It takes between 3 and 15 minutes, depending on how many brazing operations (which may demand a bake-out) that are listed. During the first six months that SOLV was used the utilization of the furnaces increased by 7% on weekdays and 25% on Sundays, while queuing times and delays were reduced. But the effect is really much greater than that: is has enabled a product shift from short-term jobs to more complex and lengthy jobs. The effect can also be expressed as that the saved time for bake-outs and vacuum tests is 2300 hours, the capacity increase is 2700 hours, and the energy saving is 250 MWH, based on one year.</p> <p>Next, it was the CMM (Coordinate Measuring Machine) centre of GKN who needed help. Their machines measure surfaces, evenness, length and thickness on products with the help of measurement probes. This was an easier problem from a mathematical point of view, but still more difficult to implement since it was not possible to obtain as much data for the computations. After having adapted the model for a few months the CMM centre could start for real at the turn of the year. And Karin continues: in March she begins a pilot study at the department of thermal spraying, where they mask, blast and spray a coat of heated or melted powder on product surfaces. For each product there is at least three moments and these take different time for different products. The introduction will take place during the autumn and the model has continued to be called SOLV, as it has now become an established concept. </p> <p>– Common for all these three departments is that they are common resources – they serve the whole company and they also take external jobs. The planning situation is therefore rather messy. But I think we can benefit from the model and the algorithm on all bottleneck resources. It is also clear that success depends on many different things: the implemented algorithm is really good, but that would not have been sufficient. Now, managers and master planners were positive and understood what the work entailed, IT resources were available, good input data were secured, and there was a persistence in fixing flaws. That I was at the company both before and after the implementation and was able to speak the right language also played its part.</p> <p><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Schedule produced by SOLV" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MV/Nyheter/SOLVschema300x.png" style="margin:5px" />Eventually Karin hopes to be able to “productify SOLV” by cooperating with the IT department of GKN. Currently, each department needs a special mathematical model that is hard-coded for their particular planning case. If the optimization model instead is divided into several parts where some parts are common and some are department-specific, a programme can be created which for some parts is generic (for example input data interface) and for some parts specific, even if some manual work always will be required. Increased reliability, safer databases and faster interfaces are also on the wish list.  </p> <p>– You can also do more with the algorithm itself, if you have time to delve into the mathematics. Basically it is common plain integer linear optimization with an iterative solution procedure, the new about it is how you use it in practice and the integration of the model in an iterative solution procedure. Unfortunately, few people make use of mathematical optimization, instead genetic algorithms are spread – a kind of random process – just because it is easy to start such calculations. But these simplified methods often solve the wrong problem, and you have no idea how close or far from the optimal solution that you really get, Michael Patriksson concludes.<br /><br /><strong>Text</strong>: Setta Aspström<br /><strong>Photos</strong>: Michael Patriksson, Karin Thörnblad and Ann-Brith Strömberg, Setta Aspström<br />Heat treatment furnace at GKN, Jukka Lamminuoto<br />Schedule produced by SOLV, Karin Thörnblad</p>Tue, 31 Jan 2017 14:50:00 +0100 is in charge of the radio waves in Europe?<p><b>​Mobile internet has become the backbone of our society, yet the regulatory framework of the radio spectrum has remained quite unexamined. Chalmers PhD student Maria Massaro has taken an international approach to the question, and shows how the EU exerts its influence on radio spectrum regulation at all levels – nationally, regionally and internationally.</b></p><div>​She chose her research area because it was unknown for her, and has spent the past years focusing on the policy and regulatory aspects of radio spectrum. Now Maria Massaro, PhD student at Chalmers Department of Technology Management and Economics, Division of Science, Technology and Society, has published her Licentiate Thesis: <em>Radio Spectrum Regulation in the European Union - A three-level context.</em></div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">You examine the role the EU plays in radio spectrum regulation at international, regional and national level. Why is this so interesting - and important to shed light on?</h5> <div> </div> <div>&quot;When I heard about this area for the first time I could not really capture the importance of this “radio spectrum” for mobile operators, and why it was regulated. Therefore, I decided to dig deeper into the topic on radio spectrum regulation during my PhD&quot;.</div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;Mobile internet has become the backbone of our society. If radio spectrum was not regulated, it would not be possible to use mobile internet. The importance of regulating the radio spectrum has been increasingly acknowledged, in conjunction with the widespread use of mobile internet devices such as smartphones and tablets, but also machine-to-machine communications - The Internet of Things&quot;.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Is there a lack of knowledge in this area today?</h5> <div> </div> <div>&quot;Technical issues of radio spectrum use have constantly been addressed by engineering researchers, but the regulatory framework for radio spectrum has remained mostly unobserved. Only recently, radio spectrum regulation has revealed its potential as an interesting and challenging research area. In particular, the widespread use of mobile data has uncovered the need to revise existing regulation. It is common knowledge that mobile internet has become an essential component of our lives. Well, mobile internet is one among several public and commercial services reliant upon radio spectrum. In this context, the novelty of my research work stands on focusing on regulatory issues of radio spectrum - which have passed unnoticed so far - in a unique institutional setting, that of the European Union&quot;.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">How would you describe your main conclusions? </h5> <div> </div> <div>&quot;Radio spectrum is considered a national resource, and national authorities define the rules for the use of the radio spectrum in their national territories. Nevertheless, when it comes to EU member states, the responsibility of regulating the radio spectrum is, to some extent, shared between national and EU authorities. My licentiate thesis illustrates the role the EU plays in radio spectrum regulation, looking at international, regional and national rules. It shows how the EU does exert its influence on radio spectrum regulation at all levels, although regulating the radio spectrum is a national responsibility&quot;.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">What do you hope your research will lead to? </h5> <div> </div> <div>&quot;Firstly, I hope my research work will encourage more systematic research on radio spectrum regulation, in particular with respect to the potential positive or negative consequences of allocating responsibilities between national and EU authorities. Secondly, I hope that policy makers and regulators will recognize the crucial contribution that research can have for designing successful regulatory interventions&quot;.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">How do you want to proceed with your research?</h5> <div> </div> <div>&quot;My plan for the next phase is to examine into more depth the distribution of responsibilities between national and EU authorities. A fundamental EU public policy priority is to create the so-called EU single market, which would require to transfer more power to EU authorities. Pursuing such policy objective requires to overcome the opposition of EU member states, which tend to safeguard their national prerogatives in many policy areas. My aim is to understand more about this power game in radio spectrum regulation and assess potential benefits and drawbacks of centralising or decentralizing responsibilities between EU and national authorities&quot;.<br /><br /><strong>Text: Ulrika Ernström</strong></div> <div><div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4"><span>FACTS, RESEARCH AND MORE INFORMATION</span></h4> <div><span><span><div>More about <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/maria-massaro.aspx">Maria Massaro</a></div></span></span></div> <div><span><span>Read Marias </span></span><span>Licentiate Thesis: <a href="">Radio Spectrum Regulation in the European Union - A three-level context.</a></span></div> <div><span><span></span></span> </div></div> <strong> </strong><div><strong>ABOUT THE RADIO SPECTRUM:</strong></div> <div>The <a href="">radio spectrum</a> is a range of electromagnetic frequencies, also called radio waves, widely used in modern technology - particularly for mobile telecommunications. To prevent interference between different uses, the provision of radio-based services is regulated on different levels: nationally, regionally and internationally.</div>Tue, 31 Jan 2017 00:30:00 +0100 vaccine safety<p><b>​When a vaccine is given, there’s always a risk of side-effects since it induces an immune response. The BIO-department is involved in the largest vaccine project ever, with the aim to develop new tools for monitoring vaccine safety.</b></p>​Vaccines are general; the same vaccine is given to everyone. But people are individuals, and some may react to the vaccine with unwanted side-effects.<br /><br />With new cutting-edge tools it might be possible to predict side-effects before they actually occur, thus giving the chance of rapid treatment. The technique could also, further down the line, give clues to make vaccine side-effects more rare and vaccines safer.<br /><br />Researchers from Chalmers Department of Biology and Biological Engineering is working together with a total of 18 partners from different academic disciplines in the EU-project BioVacSafe (Biomarkers for enhanced vaccines immunosafety). Among the partners are Imperial College London, Max Planck Institute and Gothenburg University as well as world leading pharmaceutical companies.<br /><br />The overall goal is to develop tools to speed up and improve the monitoring systems of vaccine safety, both before and after release to the market.<br />– We want to monitor patients to find side-effects before the patients have noticed them themselves, says Sakda Khoomrung, project leader at the division of Systems and Synthetic Biology.<br />– The project started in 2012 and has gone very well. There’s potential to continue as we see good results of our work.<br /><br />The Systems Biology-researchers, headed by Professor Jens Nielsen, is contributing to the BioVacSafe-project as responsible for two parts. One is to design and implement a web-based platform that will integrate different types of data, such as transcriptomics, metabolomics and clinical data. Sakda Khoomrung is working with the other part; to analyze metabolic response to the vaccines.<br /><br />Serum samples have been collected from 60 patients in total. A third, 20 patients, was given the influenza vaccine Fluad, 20 was given the Yellow fever vaccine Stamaril, and 20 was given placebo. The researchers analyzed blood taken from each patient on three occasions before the vaccine (or placebo) was administrated, and a total of eight times afterwards.<br /><br />The patients stayed in the hospital for a full week during the study, giving the researchers complete control over their food intake and activities. This is important since metabolomics shows the body’s response to both food and other habits, such as exercise, smoking or drinking. The group was then monitored for three additional weeks after going home.<br /><img width="240" height="300" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/SysBio/sakda_240.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="height:192px;width:150px;margin:5px" />– In our preliminary results, we found that there is a metabolic response to an individual vaccine, and that this changes over time, Sakda Khoomrung says.<br />– Primary metabolites such as lipids and amino acids – metabolites that are involved in your basic life functions and change when you move, exercise or get sick – are particularly sensitive to changes that occur during immune responses. These metabolites could potentially be used as metabolite biomarkers, helping to improve our understanding of vaccine safety, or identifying the metabolic responses to indicate side-effects. I personally believe this is an important piece of information that will greatly help for the development of the next generation of human vaccine.<br /><br />The BioVacSafe project has received funding until the end of February 2018. Sakda Khoomrung is confident the research will continue, but maybe in another form.<br />– It could be split up in different projects. We have shown interesting results, worth taking forward.<br /><br />Note: To read more about the BioVacSafe project, please <a href="">visit the project’s website</a>.<br /><br />In the top photo, from left: Researchers Intawat Nookaew, Partho Sen, Jens Nielsen and Sakda Khoomrung.<br /><br />Text: Mia Malmstedt<br />Photos: Martina Butorac<br />Mon, 30 Jan 2017 17:00:00 +0100 the best car antenna<p><b>​The global car fleet is rapidly becoming increasingly connected – which puts high demands on stable, robust communication. This will mainly be ensured by the antennas of tomorrow.</b></p>​ <br />If you are at home watching a film and the TV picture suddenly freezes, it’s probably not a disaster. But in the future, if you are driving towards a junction, in which a cloud-based automated driving application optimally guides you and other vehicles through the junction at full speed – well, in that situation communication must always work,” says Mikael Nilsson at Volvo Cars.<br /><br />Of course, it will be a while before this becomes a reality, but other new communication applications are already being developed that demand a very high level of reliability.<br /><br />Volvo’s Road Friction Information is one example. The idea is that cars ahead share information about road conditions to nearby vehicles through the cloud, for example about icy or slippery conditions, which is intended to make the surrounding cars to take precautions in time. In such circumstances, a stable link can mean the difference between life and death. The same applies to E-call, the service for automatic electronic emergency calls from cars to emergency call centres that will become standard in all new cars in Europe by 2018.<br /><br /><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/en/centres/chaseon/PublishingImages/News/ChaseOn-Volvo-citat2_270px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />What happens if a car flips over and the antenna on the roof breaks?<br />“Within Chase we have examined various concepts for how to best position antennas on cars,” says Nilsson.<br /><br />The aim has also been to develop the antennas of tomorrow.<br />“You can build better receivers, switch to better cables between the antenna and the receiver, but that is much more expensive than building better antennas. They will be the most crucial element that affects the performance of the communications system.”<br /><br />Within ChaseOn, Volvo aims at developing an antenna concept that supports new 5G technology. It requires higher frequencies, which in turn demands more of the antenna’s performance and position.<br /><br />“We also plan to develop antennas that are compatible with cars made of materials such as carbon fibre and plastic, which lack a ground plane.”<br /><br />For Volvo Cars, the Chase collaboration has also had what Mikael Nilsson describes as “softer values”.<br />“It is important for us to be part of research hubs, to be visible in these contexts, for instance at conferences around the world at which Chalmers’ researchers participate. It gives us a good reputation and spark enquiries about new projects and collaborations. This exchange between Volvo and universities is perhaps the most important of all.”<br /><br /><img src="/en/centres/chaseon/PublishingImages/News/Chaseon-Volvo-MikaelNilsson_750px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><em>Mikael Nilsson, Technical Expert Wireless Communication at Volvo Cars</em><br /><br /><br />Text: Lars Nicklason<br />Photo: Henrik Sandsjö<br /><br /><br /><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/en/centres/chaseon/PublishingImages/ChaseOn_Logo_220x120px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><strong>Antenna systems research centre ChaseOn</strong><br />ChaseOn is a continuation of the very successful Chase centre. The success is mainly due to the Chase’s ability to adapt to new needs and corresponding research challenges and opportunities, while at the same time maintaining a durable vision and long-term strategies.<br /><a href="/chaseon"></a><br />Fri, 27 Jan 2017 09:00:00 +0100 bone conduction hearing aid passed long term endurance test<p><b>​For how long time can an implant function inside the body without losing performance? That is one of many questions researchers want to have answers to when new implants are developed, before they eventually can be approved for general use in healthcare.</b></p>​Patients who are suffering from conductive or mixed hearing loss can gain normal hearing with a new implant that replaces the middle ear. Over 200 000 people worldwide have this type of hearing aids that uses the skull bone to transmit sound vibrations to the inner ear via so-called bone conduction.<br /><br />The Bone Conduction Implant (BCI) is a new type of hearing aid with several improved features developed by <span>researchers at Chalmers´ department of signals and systems, in collaboration with </span><span><span>Senior Physician <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span><span>Måns Eeg-Olofsson and his team at the ENT department, Sahlgrenska University Hospital.</span> The first patient received the BCI implant in December 2012 in Gothenburg, and it is today worn by 16 patients in a clinical study.<br /><br /><strong>Milestone celebrated </strong><br />Recently, a milestone was reached on the way to the goal of launching the BCI to the market in the future. The bone conduction implant has been kept “listening” to radio in an age-acceleration test chamber that accelerates the exposure time with a factor of approximately six times. <br /><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/s2/Nyheter%20och%20kalendarium/Ny%20unik%20benförankrad%20hörapparat%20klarade%20långtidstest/Bo_Håkansson_320px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br />“The performance of the implant has been verified and monitored corresponding to ten years of normal usage time for patients who are using the hearing aid for eight hours on a daily basis”, says Professor Bo Håkansson, originator of the bone conduction hearing aids and a pioneer in the field with 40 years´ research experience.<br /><br />The long term endurance test shows that the life span of the implant is longer than the desired minimum time for implants in the human body, often considered to be ten years.<br /><br /><br /><br /><br />“Once a month, for twenty months, we have monitored the implant performance at different frequencies”, says PhD-student Karl-Johan Fredén Jansson, who is responsible for these validations, which also is an important part of his coming doctoral thesis. “We are pleased to note that we during this time haven’t seen any impairment in the implant function.”<br /><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/s2/Nyheter%20och%20kalendarium/Ny%20unik%20benförankrad%20hörapparat%20klarade%20långtidstest/Karl-Johan-Freden-Jansson_320px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><strong><br />Simulating conditions in the human body</strong><br />The test chamber was constructed about two years ago by the student Helga Jóna Harðardóttir, who started the project during her master thesis project at Chalmers.<br /><br />To simulate the real conditions in the human body, the temperature in the test chamber is kept at 37 degrees Celsius. The Swedish national radio P1 has proved to be the best radio channel to use in the test, since the broadcasts resemble a good mix of the sounds you are exposed to during an ordinary day at work, comprising both spoken words and other sounds.<br /><br />The researchers can whenever they want connect and listen how the sound would be perceived inside of the head of the patient using the implant, through a so called skull simulator.<br /><br /><strong>Valuable meetings with patients </strong><br />Evaluations are also done concerning how the patients in the study experience the life with their new hearing aid and they regularly come to Chalmers to do follow-up visits and hearing tests.<br /><br />”So far we have received good responses from the participants and haven’t had any serious complications”, says Professor Bo Håkansson. “To meet grateful patients, who feels a higher quality of life, gives us a very strong motivation to carry on with our work.”<br /><br /><strong>Heading for long term goal</strong><br />In the meantime the implant continues to “listen” to radio in the test chamber. The aim is to collect more data, which gives information about how the implant reacts if the hearing aid is used for more years and over eight hours on a daily basis.<br /><br />The long term goal is to get CE-mark in the EU and approval from the US Food and Drug Administration, FDA. Important information to qualify for these requirements, concerns for example safety issues towards the patient, technical function and hearing rehabilitation. These are essential steps on the way of launching the BCI as a new hearing aid for general use in healthcare, and to offer improved hearing rehabilitation for more people.<br /><br />Text: Yvonne Jonsson<br />Photo: Oscar Mattsson<br /><br /><br /><strong>This is how the Bone Conduction Implant (BCI) works</strong><br /><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/s2/Nyheter%20och%20kalendarium/Ny%20unik%20benförankrad%20hörapparat%20klarade%20långtidstest/BCI-implantat+processor_i_hand_320px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />The implant is slightly less than six centimeters long. By a surgical procedure, it is implanted in the skull bone under the skin at a position behind the ear. Sound is transmitted wirelessly from an externally worn sound processor to the implant by an induction link, comprising one transmitter coil in the sound processor and one receiver coil in the implant. The patient can easily attach or remove the sound processor from the head as it is magnetically attached over the implant. <br /><br />The audio signal is transmitted to a tiny quadratic loudspeaker anchored to the bone near the auditory canal. The speaker generates sound vibrations which reaches the sensory organs of the cochlea, and is further by the brain interpreted as sound.<br /><br /><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/s2/Nyheter%20och%20kalendarium/Ny%20unik%20benförankrad%20hörapparat%20klarade%20långtidstest/BCI_320px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" />In comparison with the convention Bone Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA), the wireless link keeps the skin intact because there is no titanium screw needed through the skin.  <br /><br />Thanks to a new type of transducer technique, the BCI transducer can be made small, but as powerful as a BAHA, and at the same time avoid complications related to a titanium screw through the skin.<br /><br />Illustration: Boid/Chalmers<br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><a href="/en/departments/s2/research/Signal-processing-and-Biomedical-engineering/Pages/Biomedical-signals-and-systems.aspx">&gt; Read more about research in biomedical signals and system</a><br /><br />Fri, 27 Jan 2017 00:00:00 +0100