For more than three decades anthropogenic climate change has
been recognized by global leaders and the scientific community as a threat to human
and more-than-human communities. As effects of our use of energy and resources
rising sea-levels and rising temperatures, intense heatwaves and extreme
precipitation events are destabilizing the conditions for human and non-human
life on the planet. Still, we haven’t managed to bend the emissions curve, and,
in fact, global carbon dioxide emissions are roughly 60 percent higher than
they were in 1990.
One reason for failure is the organized campaign by fossil
fuel interests and conservative foundations in the USA and beyond. This
campaign – which has been called a “Climate Change Denial Machine” or a
“Climate Change Countermovement” – has roots going back to the 1960’s and
1970’s but became more coherent and prominent in the early 1990s.
Within the CEFORCED-network, we are not only looking at the
fossil fuel-industry to try to understand why the supposedly environmental
progressive northern European countries has not managed to transition away from
fossil fuels. Our historical research show how climate change was used to
defend nuclear and the high energy society in the 1970’s but was then latter
removed as an object from national politics. Here, ecomodern discourse played a
key role to dismiss and obstruct calls for an energy transition in the early
1990’s and it was only in the late 00’s that literal climate change denial
started to feature in the Swedish public debate to any degree. Lately, however,
climate change has become a polarizing issue just as in the USA, with
influential far-right parties and a significant far-right digital media system,
spreading doubt about climate science.
Based upon publications from 2014, international conferences
organised in Norrköping, Sweden, both 2016 and 2018 CEFORCED came together in
2018. Since then we have published seven peer-reviewed articles, one book (and
two more just submitted), several popular science articles, organized yet another international conference (together with the
Zetkin-collective), and appeared frequently on national and international
media. Scholars within the project are regularly asked to comment on current
events and to hold public talks.
Welcome to follow us on Twitter: @ceforced
Martin Hultman, Associate Professor in Science, Technology
and Environmental studies, head the network.
Employed scholars at Chalmers are post-doc Kristoffer Ekberg
and PhD-candidate Kjell Vowles.
Other scholars who have been connected with the project
or been hired as guest scholars include:
Kirsti Jylhä is a postdoctoral researcher at the Institute
for Futures Studies, Stockholm, Sweden. Guest scholar at CEFORCE during spring
James Painter, Research Associate, Reuters Institute, and Senior
Teaching Associate, School of Geography, at the University of Oxford. Guest
scholar at CEFORCED spring 2019.
Bernhard Forchtner, Associate Professor at the School of Media Communication and Sociology, University of Leicester. He is also a member of the university’s Institute for Environmental Futures. Affiliated researcher at CEFORCED, autumn 2021.
Ekberg, Kristoffer, and Victor Pressfeldt. In press. ‘A Road
to Denial – Climate Change and Neoliberal Thought in Sweden, 1988–2000’.
Vowles, K & Hultman, M (2022) Dead White men vs. Greta
Thunberg: Nationalism, Misogyny, and Climate Change Denial in Swedish far-right
Digital Media, Australian Feminist Studies, 36:110, 414-431, DOI:10.1080/08164649.2022.2062669
Vowles, K. & Hultman, M. (2021) “Scare-quoting climate:
The rapid rise of climate denial in the Swedish far-right media ecosystem.
Nordic Journal of Media Studies Vol. 3 Nr. 1 pp. 79-95, DOI: 10.2478/njms-2021-0005
Krange, BP Kaltenborn, M Hultman (2021) “Don’t confuse me
with facts”—how right wing populism affects trust in agencies advocating
anthropogenic climate change as a reality” Humanities and Social Sciences
Communications Vol. 8 Nr. DOI: 110.1057/s41599021-00930-7
Ekberg, K & Hultman (2021) “A Question of Utter
Importance: The Early History of Climate Change and Energy Policy in Sweden,
1974–1983”. Environment and History DOI: 10.3197/096734021X16245313030028
Stoddard, Isak, Kevin Anderson, Stuart Capstick, Wim Carton,
Joanna Depledge, Keri Facer, Clair Gough, Frederic Hache, Claire Hoolohan,
Martin Hultman, Niclas Hällström, Sivan Kartha, Sonja Klinsky, Magdalena
Kuchler, Eva Lövbrand, Naghmeh Nasiritousi, Peter Newell, Glen P. Peters, Youba
Sokona, Andy Stirling, Matthew Stilwell, Clive Spash, Mariama Williams (2021)
“Three decades of climate mitigation: why haven’t we bent the emissions curve?”
Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Volume 46 pp. 653-689
(2020). El viaje de la derecha nacionalista al ecocidio.: El caso de los
Demócratas de Suecia (Sverigedemokraterna). Ecología política, (59),
Krange, O., Kaltenborn, B. P., & Hultman, M. (2019). Cool
dudes in Norway: climate change denial among conservative Norwegian men. Environmental Sociology, 5(1), 1-11
(2019). Flera generationer av klimatsvek. Socialmedicinsk tidskrift, 96(3),
Hultman, M. &
Kristoffer Ekberg (2021) ”Maskuliniteter och klimatpolitik” Emil Edenborg,
Sofie Tornhill & Cecilia Åse ed. Feministiska perspektiv på global
politik. Lund: Studentlitteratur
(2020) “Klimatkrisens demografi. Industrimoderna maskuliniteter ger upphov till
klimatförnekelse” ed. Jennifer Hobbins, Erna Danielsson och Angelika Sjöstedt Genus,
risk och kris. Lund: Studentlitteratur
Pulé, P., & Hultman, M. (2019). Industrial/breadwinner
masculinities: Understanding the complexities of climate change denial. In Climate
Hazards, Disasters, and Gender Ramifications (pp. 86-97). Routledge.
Hultman, M. (2019). Den inställda klimatomställningen. Politik och teknik 1980-talets Sverige. Socialmedicinsk
tidskrift, 96(3), 401-405.
Hultman, M., Björk, A., & Viinikka, T. (2019). The Far
Right and Climate Change Denial: Denouncing environmental challenges via
anti-establishment rhetoric, marketing of doubts, industrial/breadwinner
masculinities enactments and ethno-nationalism. In The Far Right and the
Environment (pp. 121-135). Routledge.