The energy transition is a fundamental issue in climate change, how to manage the earth's finite resources and security of energy supply. Today, the energy system is completely dominated by fossil fuels, while new technologies such as wind- and solar energy experience rapid growth. In this area of research, we explore what a future energy system with low, zero or negative greenhouse gas emissions could look like. We also do research on energy security and the impact of different energy systems on the climate.
Modelling of power systems with a high degree of variable electricity production
The costs of wind- and solar power have fallen rapidly over the past decade, and more and more players see the possibility of the electricity system being predominantly renewable. An important question is how such a system can function on days when neither the sun shines nor the wind blows. Using a set of modelling tools for the power system at European and global level, the importance of transmission, energy storage and other variability management measures is analyzed. The research also explores questions regarding how other parts of the energy system, such as hydropower, bioenergy and hydrogen, interact with wind and solar.
Pathways to meet global climate targets
The emissions of greenhouse gases need to be reduced rapidly to meet stringent climate targets, such as those stated in the Paris Agreement. There are many potential future pathways that may be consistent with the global targets. Each pathway has different consequences for the future mix of different greenhouse gases, the transition of technological systems, consumptions patterns, and resource use. In this field of research, we use methods such as reduced complexity climate models, integrated assessment models, and prospective life cycle analysis to analyze these consequences. Our research questions are related to, for example, the climate impacts of different greenhouse gases, the timing of emissions reductions and implications for resource use in different future pathways.
One of the main considerations in energy policies and strategies is energy security. As energy systems are getting more complex and diverse, energy security requires a more nuanced approach and analysis from different perspectives. We define energy security as low vulnerability of vital energy systems and examine how different pathways shape the vital energy systems and their vulnerabilities. Our research uses a combination of qualitative comparative case studies, indicator-based evaluation frameworks, and scenario analysis to understand how energy security shapes energy choices and policies.
Christian Azar, Fredrik Hedenus, Jessica Jewell, Daniel Johansson, Lina Reichenberg
Reichenberg, L., Hedenus, F., Mattsson, N., Verendel, V.
Deep decarbonization and the supergrid–Prospects for electricity transmission between Europe and China Energy 239, 122335
Reichenberg, L., Hedenus, F., Odenberger, M., & Johnsson, F. (2018). The marginal system LCOE of variable renewables–Evaluating high penetration levels of wind and solar in Europe. Energy, 152, 914-924.
Hänsel M.C., Drupp M.A., Johansson D.J.A., et al, 2020, Climate economics support for the UN climate targets, Nature Climate Change 10 (8), 781-789
Johansson D.J.A., Azar C., Lehtveer M., Peters G.P., 2020, The role of negative carbon emissions in reaching the Paris climate targets: The impact of target formulation in integrated assessment models, Environmental Research Letters 15 (12), 124024