Topological quantum materials have attracted significant attention in condensed matter physics and information technology because of their unique band structure with topologically protected electronic states. After the realization of graphene and topological insulators, recently, Weyl semimetals were discovered with topological electronic properties. In contrast to the Schrödinger equation used to describe the electronic behavior in conventional materials and the Dirac equation for graphene and surface states of topological insulators, in Weyl semimetals, they follow the Weyl principles, proposed by Herman Weyl in 1929.
In these Weyl semimetals, the conduction and valence bands cross at specific points in momentum space, known as Weyl nodes. These nodes are topologically secured with opposite chirality in bulk with linear band dispersions. The appealing revelation in a Weyl semimetal is the presence of nontrivial surface states that connect the projections of Weyl nodes on the surface, called Fermi-arc. It has been shown that such a Weyl semimetal candidate WTe2 hosts unique electronic transport phenomena such as chiral anomaly, unconventional quantum oscillations, colossal magnetoresistance, spin Hall effect, and quantum spin Hall states, which opens a new era for physics experiments.
In the present experiment, researchers at Chalmers detected an unconventional spin current in Weyl semimetal WTe2, which is parallel to the applied electric field. The generated spin polarization in WTe2 is found to be different from the already known
conventional spin-Hall and Rashba-Edelstein effects.
"Such a new spin-polarization component can be possible due to its broken crystal symmetry combined with large Berry curvature, spin-orbit interaction, and novel spin-texture of WTe2," explains Associate Professor Saroj Prasad Dash (to the left), who leads the research group at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory (QDP), the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology.
The spin polarization in WTe2 is electrically detected by using both direct and its inverse phenomenon, obeying Onsager reciprocity relation. A robust and practical method for electrical creation and detection of spin polarization is demonstrated and utilized for efficient spin injection and detection in a graphene channel up to room temperature.
"These findings open opportunities for utilizing topological Weyl materials as non-magnetic spin sources in all-electrical 2D spintronics", states Bing Zhao (to the right), researcher at QDP, and the first author of the paper.
"Moreover, the findings have great potential for utilizing topological semimetals in spintronic circuits and quantum technologies. The electrical creation and detection of spin polarization in topological Weyl semimetal can be useful for switching magnetization of ferromagnets for its use in the spin-orbit torque effect in spintronic memory and logic technologies. Furthermore, such layered topological semimetal can be combined with superconductors and ferromagnets to use in topological quantum technologies".
The devices were nanofabricated in the state-of-the-art cleanroom facility at MC2, and measured at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory. Theoretical calculations were performed in collaboration with Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Halle, Germany, and University of Science and Technology Beijing, China.
The Chalmers researchers acknowledge financial support from the European Union Graphene Flagship, Swedish Research Council, VINNOVA 2D Tech center, and AoA Materials and EI Nano program at Chalmers University of Technology.
Illustration: Bing Zhao et al
Photo of Saroj Prasad Dash: Oscar Mattsson
Photo of Bing Zhao: Private
For further information >>>
Saroj P. Dash, Associate Professor, Quantum Device Physics Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden, +46 31 772 5170, firstname.lastname@example.org
Read the full paper in Advanced Materials >>>
Unconventional Charge–Spin Conversion in Weyl‐Semimetal WTe2, Bing Zhao, Bogdan Karpiak, Dmitrii Khokhriakov, Annika Johansson, Anamul Md Hoque, Xiaoguang Xu, Yong Jiang, Ingrid Mertig, Saroj P. Dash; Advanced Materials, 2000818 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1002/adma.202000818