Stanford University, United States
Pearl Jam’s hit, “The Light Years,” declares “We were but stones, light made us stars.” Nanophotonic materials and methods promise to elucidate many unknown dynamic processes at the molecular and nanoscale, provided they can ‘shine’ in reactive environments. Here we present our research developing nanophotonic techniques for dynamic, in-situ imaging of photocatalysis, single cell processes, and in-vivo force transduction at the nanoscale. First, we present methods to visualize plasmon-induced chemical transformations with sub-2nm spatial resolution. Our goal is to help unravel the means by which plasmons mediate and control the local chemistry, and ultimately, use that knowledge to optimize photocatalyst performance. As a model reaction, we study the gas-phase photocatalytic dehydrogenation of Au-Pd systems, in which the Au acts as a plasmonic light absorber and Pd serves as the catalyst. Under controlled hydrogen pressures, temperatures, and illumination conditions, we study the study the kinetics of the desorption reaction triggered by the optical excitation of plasmons. We find that plasmons increase the overall rate more than ten-fold and open a new reaction pathway that is not observed without illumination. These results help elucidate the role of plasmons in light-driven phase transformations, en-route to design of site-selective and product-specific photocatalysts. Second, we combine Raman spectroscopy and deep learning to accurately classify bacteria by both species and antibiotic resistance in a single step. We design a convolutional neural network (CNN) for spectral data and train it to identify 30 of the most common bacterial strains from single-cell Raman spectra, achieving antibiotic treatment identification accuracies exceeding 99% and species identification accuracies similar to leading mass spectrometry identification techniques. Our combined Raman-CNN system represents a proof-of-concept for rapid, culture-free identification of bacteria and their antibiotic resistance. Finally, we introduce a new class of in vivo optical probes to monitor biological forces with high spatial and temporal resolution. Our design is based on upconverting nanoparticles that, when excited in the near-infrared, emit light of a different color and intensity in response to microNewton forces. The nanoparticles are sub-30nm in size, do not bleach or photoblink, and can enable deep tissue imaging with minimal tissue autofluorescence. We present the design, synthesis, and characterization of these nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo, focusing on the forces generated by the roundworm C. elegans as it feeds and digests its bacterial food. Chronic cytotoxicity assays are used to confirm biocompatibility. Our force measurements are coupled with electrical measurements of muscle contractions in both wild-type and mutant animals, providing insight into the interplay between mechanical, electrical, and chemical signaling in vivo.