The need of the sustainable development has been a substantial motivation to recover valuable materials from spent batteries. The efforts are made to increase the material recovery rate by the development of efficient recycling technologies. To recycle spent batteries several techniques have been used. Among them the mechanical pre-treatment, pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy, bio-metallurgy and also combination of the mentioned has been applied.
The scope of the topic includes current recycling technologies and approaches for material recovery from spent batteries. Development of the collection systems and producer responsibility will be also a part of the discussions as well as the needs of the batteries separation and dismantling.
The recent developments on mechanical, hydrochemical and pyrochemical processes to recover and separate metals, electrolytes and salts recovery and other components reclamation will be presented in this session.
Since the first lithium-ion batteries (LiB), many efforts have been made on the development of new electrodes with high capacity, high energy density and good cycling ability at the expense of the search of new electrolytes for lithium-ion batteries. Today, the most used electrolytes in the LiB contain a mixture of alkylcarbonates and lithium salts in the presence of few additives. However, huge challenges concern also development of electrolytes for other battery technologies such as the sodium batteries, Li-S, metal-air, flow batteries or solid-state batteries.
This topic deals with recent advanced in the development of new electrolytes including synthesis of new solvents, new salts, use of ionic liquids or solid electrolytes, characterization of the physicochemical and electrochemical properties of electrolytes and electrode-electrolyte interphases. The safety aspect of electrolytes and the design of new electrolytes exhibiting high electrochemical stability are particularly of great interest in this topic.
The quest for new electrode materials for lithium-ion batteries (LiB) with high energy density and low cost has seen major advances in intercalation compounds like carbonaceous electrodes or alloying materials for negative electrodes and layered metal oxides, spinels, polyanion materials, and composite oxides for positive electrodes. However, a unique technology to store and provide electrochemical energy is not enough because there are many different applications with their own specifications. Therefore, it is mandatory to go beyond the LiBs. Thus, this topic is open for presentations on the most recent research on the new electrode materials for example for Li-S or metal-air batteries such as nanostructured composites, inorganic compounds, polymers, carbon materials, and their hybrids. New electrode materials with specific structures, morphologies, modified surfaces should have improved cycling stability, coulombic efficiency, and rate capacity at higher current density.
This topic is focused on the solid-state chemistry involved in the development of electrode materials and the opportunities for materials scientists for tailored design that can be extended to many different electrode materials.
Lithium-ion batteries can be optimized by playing on the chemistry (electrode materials, electrolyte, separator) or by modifying the battery design whatever the technology (Lithium-ion battery, metal-air batteries, Li-S or all solid-state batteries, etc.). This topic is more focused on the recent advances on battery design to improve its performance and security. The following subjects mostly but not exclusively will concern: increase of volumetric energy density, reduction of battery resistance leading to improved electrochemical performances, reduction of thermal energy generated during charge/discharge, or better battery design facilitating battery disassembling for reduction recycling costs, etc. Particular attention is paid in this topic to the development of tools and methodologies to improve battery design.
Applications (Stationary batteries, electrified transportation, smart grids)
There are many types of battery technologies depending on their applications. These batteries can be used for portable applications, electric mobility, stationary applications or smart grids. For instance, present lithium-ion batteries appear the most relevant batteries for the electric vehicle because they can deliver high energy density while other technologies such as sodium-ion, lead-acid or redox flow batteries may be more dedicated to stationary applications due to their lower cost, more mature technologies or abundant natural resources for production of battery components. In this session, the different applications of batteries including automotive electric transport or more exotic applications such as space, electric aircrafts, submarine and marine transportation, etc. will be presented. A particular interest will be paid on battery specifications to meet necessary requirements and how does research contribute to the development of specific technologies for specific applications.