Project Leader: Kristofer Bengtsson (Research group: Flexible Automation)
RG: Systems Engineering & PLM (SE)
Stellan Gedell, PhD Student from year 4
Marcel Michaelis, PhD Student
RG: Flexible Automation (FA)
Kristofer Bengtsson, PhD Student
Oscar Ljungkrantz, PhD Student
Sajed Miramedi, PhD Student
Sathyamyla Kanthabhabhajeya, PhD Student
Patrik Magnusson, PhD Student
Mohammad Reza Shoaei, PhD Student
Carl Torstensson, PhD Student
Volvo Cars AB
Lennart Malmsköld, Industrial PhD Student
Stellan Gedell, Industrial PhD Student year 3
Ulf Högman, Industrial PhD Student
Fast design and generation of new products that meet new market demands are critical for many companies. A product platform with well-defined product architecture and a mechanism for fast configuration gives the potential for a company to drastically change the way it operates on the market and benefits from economies of scale. A new platform modeling strategy, combining customization with economy of scale, is proposed. The proposed strategy is based on a knowledge-based platform definition consisting of linked systems of configurable subsystems. The project will develop a configurable product and production system platform based on this approach. Such an integrated platform makes it possible to use product variant information to configure the integrated product and production system model and automatically generate unique lists of operations. In the configuration of the production system, the operation lists are adapted to available production resources. Control functions are generated to coordinate and supervise the production system. Much of this functionality can be automatically generated by formal methods and discrete optimization. Correct and optimal behavior can then be guaranteed according to the given product requirements and the related manufacturing operations.
The goal of this project was to develop strategies, methods and tools to support integrated product and production configuration. The project addressed the following research questions:
- RQ 2:1
How should the CC concept be extended to fully handle all aspects in an integrated design and manufacturing process?
- RQ 2:2
How can the SOA approach enable implementation of an integrated product and production system model based on the CC concept? Fig. 4.1 Geometrical robustness 22 Wingquist Laboratory VINN Excellence Centre Evaluation Report 2012-01-31
- RQ 2:3
How can a formalized product assembly architecture be used to support automatic generation of control logic?
- RQ 2:4
How can formalized assembly requirements be formulated and used in integrated platform design?
- RQ 2:5
How shall production systems be specified to enable automatic generation of reusable control functions?
- RQ 2:6
How can dynamic behavior during processing of parts be incorporated in decisions regarding production system configuration?
- RQ 2:7
How can externally controlled production processes be represented in the integrated platform?
- RQ 2:8
How shall multiple state problems be handled in integrated product and production system development?
The project has developed generic results that can be applied to a variety of products and production facilities. Assembly is proposed as an initial area of application. The project was carried out in close cooperation with our industrial partners and also involved people from these companies. Case studies were carried out on the basis of problems from the industrial partners.
Summary of results
This project is focused on co-development of products and interlinked production systems based on integrated product and production system platforms. A CC-based approach to model families of products and production system equipment and the interactions between product system interfaces and corresponding production system interfaces has been developed.
Other results are a new development platform approach supporting the complete development process from early technology development to final configuration of instantiated product variants, and a related process model for technology development.
An integrated product and production system architecture based on self-contained operations and operation sequences has also been developed in this project. The self-contained operations can be grouped and viewed from different angles, e.g. from a product or a resource perspective. These multiple views increase the interoperability between different engineering disciplines. The architecture is based on formal models, which are used to automatically generate control functions for coordination of flexible manufacturing systems.
The research questions RQ2:1 – 2:2 are mainly addressed in publications 1:6, 1:5, 1:8, 1:10, 1:10, 1:7, 1:14, 2:5-6, 2:9, 2:10-13, 2:14, 2:21-23, 2:28, 2:32, 2:33-34, 2:35. Research question RQ2:3 is addressed in 2:2, 2:3, 2:16, 2:31 and 2:37, and research question RQ2:4 has been partly addressed in 2:4 and 2:22. Research question RQ2:5 is addressed in 2:1, 2:17-2:20 and 2:38, and research question RQ2:6 is mainly addressed in 2:24, 2:26 and 2:36. Contributions to the answer of research question RQ2:7 are found in 1:9, 2:9, 2:22-23, 2:32, 2:35. Research question RQ2:8 is addressed in 2:7, 2:15, 2:25, 2:25 and 2:29-30.
1. Automatic generation of complete control programs at Volvo Cars
Image: A robot setup tool
A method that integrates production simulation tools and product development tools, enabling automatic generation of complete control functions, has been developed. This method minimizes errors by limiting manual manipulations, automates parts of the production preparation, and ensures that company standards are followed [2:38].
A setup tool has been developed for automatic generation of robot setup descriptions for Volvo Cars in cooperation with KUKA Robotics.
2. Development platform framework at Volvo Aero
Image: Platform Framework
An integrated product and production platform framework with generic technologies and configurable product and production concepts for effective and efficient product derivative realization has been proposed [2:5, 2:6, 2:11 and 2:34].
Following a strategic decision, the framework is presently being implemented at VAC.
3. Technology development process at Volvo Aero
Image: Development Process
Emerging from analogy and adaptations from a product development management processes, a process model for technology development at VAC has been proposed [2:12, 2:13 and 2:34].
Following a strategic decision the framework is presently being implemented at VAC.
Publication and Presentation Activity
2:1 Bengtsson, K., Lennartson, B., Yuan, C., 2009, “Aspect-Oriented Programming for Manufacturing Automation Control Systems”, Proc. of IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing - INCOM, Moscow, Russia.
2:2 Bengtsson, K., Lennartson, B., Yuan, C., 2009, “The Origin of Operations: Interactions Between the Product and the Manufacturing Automation Control System”, Proc. of IFAC Symposium on Information Control Problems in Manufacturing - INCOM, Moscow, Russia.
2:3 Bengtsson, K., Lennartson, B., Yuan, C., Falkman, P., Biller, S., 2009, “Operation-Oriented Specification for Integrated Control Logic Development”. Proc. of IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering, CASE 2009, Bangalore, India.
2:4 Bengtsson, K., Michaelis, M. T., Levandowski, C., Lennartson, B., Johannesson, H., 2010, “Towards Sequence Planning Based on Configurable Product and Manufacturing System Platforms”, Proc. 8th International Conference NordDesign 2010, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2:5 Corin Stig, D., Bergsjö, D., 2011, “Means for internal knowledge reuse in pre-development – The technology platform approach”, Proc. of International conference on engineering design, ICED11, Copenhagen, Denmark.
2:6 Corin Stig, D., Högman, U., Bergsjö, D., 2011, “Assessment of Readiness for Internal Technology Transfer – A Case Study”, Proc. of INCOSE, Denver, USA.
2:7 Fei, Z., Miremadi, S. , Åkesson, K. , Lennartson, B., 2011, “Symbolic State-Space Exploration and Guard Generation in Supervisory Control Theory”. Accepted for the series Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS), Springer-Verlag.
2:8 Gedell, S., Claesson, A., Johannesson H., 2011, “Integrated Product and Production Model – Issues of Completeness, Consistency and Compatibility”, Proc. of International conference on engineering design, ICED2011, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2011.
2:9 Gedell, S., Michaelis, M. T., Johannesson, H., 2011, “Integrated Model for Co-Development of Products and Production Systems – A Systems Theory Approach”, Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications, 19 (2), pp. 139-156.
2:10 Högman, U., Bengtsson, D., Stetz, S., Trygg, L., Johannesson, H., 2010,”Requirements on New Technology and the Technology Implementation Process”, Proc. of NordDesign 2010, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2:11 Högman, U., Bergsjö, D., Anemo, M., Persson, H., 2009,”Exploring the potential of applying a platform formulation at supplier level - The case of Volvo Aero Corporation”, Proc. of International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED’09, Stanford, CA, USA.
2:12 Högman, U., Johannesson, H., 2010, “Technology Development and Normative Process Models”, Proc. of the 11th International Design Conference Design 2010, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
2:13 Högman, U., Johannesson, H., 2011, “Technology development practices in industry”, Proc. of 18th International Conference on Engineering Design, ICED 2011, Copenhagen, Denmark.
2:14 Johannesson, H., Gedell, S., 2009, “Knowledge Based Configurable Product Platform Models”, Handbook of Research in Mass Customization and Personalization”, 1, Editors Frank T Piller & Mitchell M Tseng, World Scientific, pp. 357-375.
2:15 Kobetski, A., Fabian, M., 2009, “Time-Optimal Coordination of Flexible Manufacturing Systems Using Deterministic Finite Automata and Mixed Integer Linear Programming”, Journal of Discrete Event Dynamic Systems, 19 (3), pp. 287 – 315.
2:16 Lennartson, B., Bengtsson, K., Yuan, C., Andersson, K., Fabian, M., Falkman, P., Åkesson, K., 2010, “Sequence Planning for Integrated Product, Process and Automation Design”. IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, 7 (4) pp. 791-802.
2:17 Ljungkrantz, O., Åkesson, K., Fabian, M., 2010,”Practice of Industrial Control Logic Programming using Library Components”, Programmable Logic Controller, L.A. Guedes (Ed.), pp. 17-32.
2:18 Ljungkrantz, O., Åkesson, K., Fabian, M., Yuan, C., 2010,”A formal specification language for PLC-based control logic”, Proc.of 8th IEEE International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN 2010), Osaka, Japan.
2:19 Ljungkrantz, O., Åkesson, K., Fabian, M., Yuan, C., 2010,”Formal Specification and Verification of Industrial Control Logic Components”, IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, 7 (3) pp. 538-548.
2:20 Ljungkrantz, O., Åkesson, K., Yuan, C., Fabian, M., 2012,”Towards Industrial Formal Specification of Programmable Safety Systems”, Accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology.
2:21 Michaelis, M. T., Johannesson, H., 2011, “From Dedicated Platform-Based Co-Development of Products and Manufacturing Systems”, Proc. of the 4th International Conference on Changeable, Agile, Reconfigurable and Virtual Production (CARV2011), Montreal, Canada.
2:22 Michaelis, M. T., Johannesson, H., 2011, “Platform Approaches in Manufacturing - Considering Integration with Product Platforms”, Proc. of ASME DETC. Washington, D.C., USA.
2:23 Michaelis, M. T., Lindquist Wahl, A., Johannesson, H., 2010, “Integrating Product and Manufacturing System Platforms - Exploring a Configurable System Approach”, Proc. 11th International Design Conference DESIGN 2010, Dubrovnik, Croatia.
2:24 Miremadi, S., Lennartson, B., Åkesson, K., 2012, “A BDD-based Approach for Modeling Plant and Supervisor by Extended Finite Automata”, Accepted for publication in IEEE Transactions on Control Systems and Technology.
2:25 Miremadi, S., Lennartson, B., Åkesson, K., 2011, “BDD-based Modeling and Supervisory Synthesis on Extended Finite Automata”, Proc. of 7th IEEE Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE 2011), Trieste, Italy.
2:26 Miremadi, S., Åkesson, K., Lennartson, B., 2011, “Symbolic Computation of Reduced Guards in Supervisory Control”, IEEE Transactions on Automation Science and Engineering, 8 (4) pp. 754-765.
2:27 Miremadi, S., Åkesson, K., Lennartson, B., Fabian, M., 2010, “Supervisor Computation and Representation: A Case Study”, Proc. 10th International Workshop on Discrete Event Systems (WODES’10), Berlin, Germany.
2:28 Politze, D., Bathelt, J., Wegener, K., Bergsjö, D., 2011, “Integrated Modeling of Functions and Requirements in Product Design and Factory Planning”, Intelligent Automation and Systems Engineering, 103, pp. 217-230.
2:29 Shoaei, M. R., Lennartson, B., Miremadi, S., 2010, “Automatic Generation of Controllers for Collision-Free Flexible Manufacturing Systems”, Proc. 6th IEEE International Conference on Automation Science and Engineering (CASE 2010), Toronto, Canada.
2:30 Shoaei, M. R., Miremadi, S. Bengtsson, K., Lennartson, B., 2011, “Reduced-Order Synthesis of Operation Sequences”, Proc. of 16th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA 2011), Toulouse, France.
2:31 Bengtsson, K., 2010, “Operation Specification for Sequence Planning and Automation Design”, Licentiate Thesis, Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2:32 Gedell, S., 2011, “Efficient Means for Platform- Based Development – Emphasizing Integrated, Information- Rich System Models”, Doctoral Thesis, Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2:33 Högman, U., 2009, “Technology Development Process and Platform for Efficient Innovation - the Perspective of a Supplier in the Aerospace Industry”, Licentiate Thesis, Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2:34 Högman, U., 2011, “Processes and Platforms Aligned with Technology Development - The Perspective of a Supplier in the Aerospace Industry” Doctoral Thesis, Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2:35 Michaelis, M. T., 2011, “Co-Development of Products and Manufacturing Systems -Applying a Configurable Platform Approach”, Licentiate Thesis, Department of Product and Production Development, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2:36 Miremadi, S., 2010, “A Seamless Framework for Control Function Generation”. Licentiate Thesis, Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
2:37 Torstensson, C., Ohlson, E., 2009, “Development, implementation and testing of Sequence Planner, a concept for modeling of automation systems”. Master Thesis EX087/2009, Chalmers University.
2:38 Wahlberg, D., Yixian, Z., 2010, “Automatic generation of control code for robot function packages”, Master Thesis EX093/2010, Chalmers University.