News: Globalhttp://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterNews related to Chalmers University of TechnologyTue, 22 May 2018 12:59:35 +0200http://www.chalmers.se/sv/nyheterhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Innovation-award-goes-to-implant-innovator.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Innovation-award-goes-to-implant-innovator.aspxInnovation award goes to implant innovator<p><b>​By developing an innovative surface layer for implants, and bringing it all the way from the laboratory to the market, Per Kjellin has contributed to increased quality of life for tens of thousands of people. Now, he is awarded the 2018 Karin Markides Innovation of the Year Award.</b></p><div>​“It’s an honour! And fun to get attention,” says Per Kjellin, founder, owner and technology manager at Promimic.</div> <div> </div> <div>Almost 15 years ago, he was a PhD student in materials and surface chemistry at Chalmers and, together with his colleague Martin Andersson, developed methods for producing nanoparticles of silver and calcium carbonate. However, at a conference they heard a researcher talk about the mineral hydroxylapatite, that is found naturally in the form of nanoparticles in bone. If it were possible to manufacture such nanoparticles synthetically, there would, according to the researcher, be a large market in medical technology.</div> <div> </div> <div>With the idea of ​​a business opportunity in the back of their minds, they decided to try their production method on hydroxylapatite. They obtained good results, applied for patents, and founded the company Promimic, via the incubator Chalmers Innovation, now part of Chalmers Ventures.</div> <div> </div> <div>Materials that mimic the bone's natural structure are attractive as surface coatings on implants, as they get the implant to integrate both faster and stronger.</div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;And the most attractive thing with our concept is that it is so easy to apply industrially. Dip the implant in a solution, place it in an oven for five minutes – and the surface layer is ready,” explains Per Kjellin.</div> <div> </div> <div>While Martin Andersson stayed at Chalmers for an academic career, Per Kjellin soon started to work entirely for Promimic. With great determination, he has developed the innovation from idea to product, and built Promimic into a biomaterial company with international operations and sales. Since 2016, the surface layer has been on a commercial dental implant that has been used in tens of thousands of people in several countries.</div> <div> </div> <div>“The surface layer causes more bone to form around the implant in the beginning, which is an advantage during the critical integration phase. The greatest benefit is in patients with impaired bone formation,” says Per Kjellin.</div> <div> </div> <div>Today, Promimic has eight employees, half of whom have a PhD degree. The company now has three more patents and several new implant surfaces are under development. The next step is to enter the orthopaedic field. Here, Per Kjellin envisions that, among other things, their surface layers can be useful for fusing two vertebrae after surgical fixation in the spinal column.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">About the innovation award</h2> <div>The Karin Markides’ innovation award is awarded to a current or former student of Chalmers who has made a significant contribution to Chalmers’ innovation and utilisation in research and education, and contributed to long-term sustainable development. The prize is awarded in conjunction with Chalmers’ doctoral conferment ceremony, which this year takes place on 2 June.</div> <div> </div> <div>Text: Ingela Roos</div> <div> </div>Tue, 22 May 2018 14:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/First-ever-conference-on-Negative-CO2-Emissions.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/First-ever-conference-on-Negative-CO2-Emissions.aspxFirst ever conference on Negative CO2 Emissions<p><b>​To save the planet, it is not enough that we simply reduce the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere in future. We need to actually lower the current overall level, by removing the man-made carbon dioxide that we have already produced. The challenges and possibilities of doing this are the focus of the first international ‘Negative CO2 Emissions’ conference, May 22-24 at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.</b></p><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Profilbilder/Anders_Lyngfelt170x170.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />​<span style="background-color:initial">Chalmers Professor Anders Lyngfelt is one of the leaders behind the conference. Since 1998, his work has focused on developing methods for carbon dioxide capture, an endeavour which has seen him become one of the most respected and highly cited academics in his field. </span><div><br /></div> <div>– I'm worried about the climate. If we are to achieve the goals, we need big negative emissions and it is obvious to us that, apart from eliminating carbon dioxide, we need to clean up after us, says Anders Lyngfelt.</div> <div>The conference will feature oral and poster presentations from around 180 international experts in the field, including from USA, UK, Germany, China, Japan, and more. Attendees and speakers will be researchers, politicians and figures from industry. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Among the keynote speakers will be the so-called ‘father of climate change awareness’, James Hansen. A former director of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies, now Adjunct Professor at Columbia University, New York, James Hansen will open the conference with his talk ‘Negative CO2 emissions – why, when, and how much?’ </div> <div><br /></div> <div>Also of particular interest will be Tuesday’s session on ‘Bio Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) in Sweden and the rest of the Nordic countries’. BECCS has been suggested as a potentially major technology in the efforts to reduce overall CO2 levels, and the Nordic countries are well placed to make widespread use of this technology. Representatives from Chalmers, KTH, and other Swedish universities, as well as figures from industry and government will discuss the implications and role of BECCS in Swedish climate change policy. </div> <div>Chalmers researchers will also be joined by representatives from the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, the Norwegian environmental organisation Bellona, and the University of Copenhagen, to discuss the potential for BECCS technologies throughout the whole Nordic region. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>This session starts with an invited lecture by State Secretary for Climate Policy Eva Svedling, who will also open the conference together with the president and CEO of Chalmers, Stefan Bengtsson. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="http://negativeco2emissions2018.com/">More info and full programme can be found at the conference web site</a>. </div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">​</span><br /></div> Mon, 21 May 2018 08:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Advanced-biofuels-can-be-produced-extremely-efficiently.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/see/news/Pages/Advanced-biofuels-can-be-produced-extremely-efficiently.aspxAdvanced biofuels can be produced extremely efficiently, confirms industrial demonstration<p><b>​A chance to switch to renewable sources for heating, electricity and fuel, while also providing new opportunities for several industries to produce large numbers of renewable products. This is the verdict of researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, who now, after ten years of energy research into gasification of biomass, see an array of new technological achievements.&quot;The potential is huge! Using only the already existing Swedish energy plants, we could produce renewable fuels equivalent to 10 percent of the world&#39;s aviation fuel, if such a conversion were fully implemented,” says Henrik Thunman, Professor of Energy Technology at Chalmers.​</b></p><h5 class="chalmersElement-H5"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Popreport_cover.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Report detailing 200 man-years of research  </h5> <div>​We have summarized the work of the last ten years at Chalmers Power Central and GoBiGas in the report: &quot;GoBiGas demonstration – a vital step for a large-scale transition from fossil fuels to advanced biofuels and electrofuels&quot;. Researchers at the division of Energy Technology at the Department of Space, Earth and Environment at Chalmers have worked together with colleagues at the departments of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Technology Management and Economics, Biology and Biological Engineering, Mechanics and Maritime Sciences​ as well as a wide range of Swedish and international collaborative partners in industry and academia. <a href="http://www.chalmers.se/SiteCollectionDocuments/SEE/News/Popularreport_GoBiGas_results_highres.pdf" style="outline:none 0px"><span style="background-color:initial">Download the report: </span><span style="background-color:initial">GoBiGas demonstration – a vital step for a large-scale transition from fossil fuels  to advanced biofuels and electrofuels. </span></a>(21 Mb). <div><h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">​Pathway to a radical transition</h6></div> <div><div>How to implement a switch from fossil-fuels to renewables is a tricky issue for many industries. For heavy industries, such as oil refineries, or the paper and pulp industry, it is especially urgent to start moving, because investment cycles are so long. At the same time, it is important to get the investment right because you may be forced to replace boilers or facilities in advance, which means major financial costs. Thanks to long-term strategic efforts, researchers at Sweden´s Chalmers University of Technology have now paved the way for radical changes, which could be applied to new installations, as well as be implemented at thousands of existing plants around the globe.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The solution presented involves widespread gasification of biomass. This technology itself is not new. Roughly explained, what is happening is that at high temperatures, biomass is converted into a gas. This gas can then be refined into end-products which are currently manufactured from oil and natural gas. The Chalmers researchers have shown that one possible end-product is biogas that can replace natural gas in existing gas networks.</div> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">The problems with tar are solved​</h6> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/tar-problem-before-and-after.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Previously, the development of gasification technology has been hampered by major problems with tar being released from the biomass, which interferes with the process in several ways. Now, the researchers from Chalmers’ division of Energy Technology have shown that they can improve the quality of the biogas through chemical processes, and the tar can also be managed in completely new ways, see images to the right. This, in combination with a parallel development of heat-exchange materials, provides completely new possibilities for converting district heating boilers to biomass gasifiers. <a href="https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1D2sWiGkcFg">Watch an animation with more details about how the problems with tar has been solved​</a>. </div> <div><br /></div> <div>&quot;What makes this technology so attractive to several industries is that it will be possible to modify existing boilers, which can then supplement heat and power production with the production of fossil-free fuels and chemicals.&quot;, says Martin Seemann, Associate Professor in Energy Technology at Chalmers.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“We rebuilt our own research boiler in this way in 2007, and now we have more than 200 man-years of research to back us up,” says Professor Henrik Thunman. “Combined with industrial-scale lessons learned at the GoBiGas (Gothenburg Biomass Gasification) demonstration project, launched in 2014, it is now possible for us to say that the technology is ready for the world.” </div> <h6 class="chalmersElement-H6">Many applications</h6> <div>The plants which could be converted to gasification are power and district heating plants, paper and pulp mills, sawmills, oil refineries and petrochemical plants.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>“The technical solutions developed by the Chalmers researchers are therefore relevant across several industrial fields”, says Klara Helstad, Head of the Sustainable Industry Unit at the Swedish Energy Agency. “Chalmers´ competence and research infrastructure have played and crucial role for the demonstration of advanced biofuels within the GoBiGas-project.”</div> <div><br /></div> <div>The Swedish Energy Agency has funded energy research and infrastructure at Chalmers for many years. </div> <div>How much of this technological potential can be realised depends on the economic conditions of the coming years, and how that will affect the willingness of the industrial and energy sectors to convert. The availability of biomass is also a crucial factor. Biomass is a renewable resource, but only provided we do not deplete the conditions for its biological production. There is therefore a limit for total biomass output.</div></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Text: Christian Löwhagen, Johanna Wilde. </div> <div>Translation: Joshua Worth.</div> <div>Tar illustration: BOID. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="http://goteborgenergi.streamingbolaget.se/video/156153/link"><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/SEE/Nyheter/Process-video.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />Watch a film detailing the process in the GoBiGas Plant</a>. </div> <div><br /></div> <div><a href="http://www.mynewsdesk.com/uk/chalmers/pressreleases/advanced-biofuels-can-be-produced-extremely-efficiently-confirms-industrial-demonstration-2511833">Read more in the international press release. ​</a></div> <div>​<br /></div></div>Mon, 21 May 2018 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Big-Data-improves-analysis-of-materials.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/ims/news/Pages/Big-Data-improves-analysis-of-materials.aspxBig Data improves materials analysis<p><b>​By examining the structure of a metal or ceramic material at the atomic level, it is easier to understand and influence the properties of different materials. But what should you look for and where? In a new project, Professor Uta Klement combines analyses of Big Data with her expertise area of material characterization. Instead of looking for a needle in a haystack, the data is analysed to find the deviations which needs to be investigated in detail.</b></p>​<span style="background-color:initial"><a href="/en/staff/Pages/uta-klement.aspx" target="_blank">Professor Uta Klement</a> leads a research group called <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/ytmikro/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Surface and Microstructure Engineering</a>. She examines the properties of metals and different ceramic materials. These include nano materials, different types of coating, advanced steel or superalloys. By understanding the structure and construction of the materials, it is possible to achieve more sustainable production processes and products. Manufacturers can use less material and also use the material more efficiently and longer.</span><div><br /></div> <div><strong>One example is</strong> new thermal barrier coatings that allow for higher combustion temperatures in gas turbines such as in airplane engines, which would improve efficiency and result in lower emissions.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/IMS/Profilbilder/Uta%20Klement_170x220.png" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Uta Klement" style="margin:5px" />In a new project, which deals with improving the grindability of recycled steel, Uta Klement collaborates with a group of researchers and combines analyses of big data with material characterization. This is the first time they try this method. She tells us what benefits it brings.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– Our material analyses are often based on an assumption, not on a theory. However, in industry a lot of data is collected in material processing. By analysing these data we can get hints on what to look for in the microstructure. Our material science knowledge helps to interpret the data, and then we can perform accurate investigations instead of looking for the &quot;needle in the haystack&quot;.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>Knowing what you are looking for</strong> is particularly important in research that zooms in on a small piece of material using electron microscopy and other complementary techniques. Taking advantage of data can be a breakthrough and become a generic approach, says Uta Klement.</div> <div><br /></div> <div>– New and improved characterization technology and the ability to interpret the results enable us to increase our knowledge and produce new and better products with better features and better utilization of the resources. Indirectly this is important to all of us.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><strong>FACTS</strong></div> <div><span style="background-color:initial">Uta Klement is a professor of materials science with a focus on electron microscopy. She is Head of <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Division of Materials and Manufacture</a> at Chalmers <a href="/en/departments/ims/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Department of Industrial and Materials Science</a>, and also heads the research group <a href="/en/departments/ims/research/mm/ytmikro/Pages/default.aspx" target="_blank">Surface and Microstructure Engineering</a>. She is also in the board of <a href="http://www.chalmersventures.com/" target="_blank">Chalmers Ventures</a>.</span><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div>Read more about the project &quot;<a href="https://research.chalmers.se/en/project/?id=7859">Grindability of recycled steel: automotive crankshafts</a>&quot; in Chalmers research database [<em>in Swedish</em>]. The project is led by <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Peter-Krajnik.aspx" target="_blank">P​eter Krajnik</a>, assistant professor of manufacturing technology and also includes <a href="/en/staff/Pages/Philipp-Hoier-.aspx" target="_blank">Philipp Hoier</a> and <a href="/en/staff/Pages/amir-malakizadi.aspx" target="_blank">Amir Malakizadi</a>.</div> <div><br /></div> <div><br /></div> <div><em>Text and photo: Nina Silow</em></div> <div><br /></div> Fri, 18 May 2018 17:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Gothenburg-award-to-Ann-Sofie-Sandberg.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Gothenburg-award-to-Ann-Sofie-Sandberg.aspxGothenburg award to professor of food science<p><b>​The City of Gothenburg’s award of merit is given to people who have made significant efforts for the city. This year, the award goes to Professor Ann-Sofie Sandberg, who has devoted her time to building the area of food science at Chalmers.</b></p><p><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/Bio/Food/Ann-SofieSandberg_17_250.jpg" width="167" height="250" alt="" style="height:220px;width:149px;margin:5px" />​”It feels great! Other awards have focused on research. This one shows that my work have been of importance for the society. Additionally, it’s a good thing to draw attention to Chalmers and to our area”, says Ann-Sofie Sandberg.<br /><br />She received the news by letter to her home address, and it was somewhat surprising. But the award is of course well deserved. Ann-Sofie Sandberg has for many years spent time and effort building food science as a strong area at Chalmers, while contributing to the development of the food area in the city as well as the region. She has also seen a national development, leading to Sweden getting a food strategy and strengthening the subject’s status.<br /><br />“Gothenburg has become a strong node nationally for nutrition and food science, and it’s largely due to Chalmers’ initiatives&quot;, she says, and explains why the area is so important:<br />“Food is means of life. A sustainable society requires a sustainable human being and sustainable food production, and we face major challenges today. The food produced must also contribute to better health and well-being. Globally, obesity and malnutrition are as important health issues as undernutrition.”<br /><br />Today, Ann-Sofie Sandberg’s baby, the Division of Food and Nutrition Science, belongs to the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering and has expanded rapidly over the last few years. She herself has recently left the driver seat to a new head of division, Rikard Landberg.<br /><br />“Now we will work for increased visibility, nationally and internationally, and further raise our status&quot;, says Ann-Sofie Sandberg.<br /><br />This year's prize winners also includes Chalmers’ Physics Professor Per-Olof Nilsson and an additional ten people with different professions such as governor, composer, director and organizer. The motivations will be given at the award ceremony on June 4, where the awardees will also receive a badge and a Poseidon statue.<br /><br />Read a longer portrait of Ann-Sofie Sandberg <a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Utan-hållbar-människa-inget-hållbart-samhälle.aspx">here </a>(in Swedish only). <br /><br />More about Physics Professor Per-Olof Nilsson <a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Chalmers-Professor-awarded-by-the-City-of-Gothenburg.aspx">here</a>. <br /><br />Text: Mia Malmstedt<br />Photo: Johan Bodell<br /></p>Wed, 16 May 2018 10:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Prototype-for-wireless-charging-of-buses.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Prototype-for-wireless-charging-of-buses.aspxPrototype for wireless charging of buses<p><b>Is it possible to charge electric buses through open air, without physically connecting any electrical equipment to the vehicle? A prototype for wireless charging of city buses is constructed by researchers at Chalmers. The first round of tests is promising.</b></p><div>​<img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Yujing Liu" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Prototypen%20som%20laddar%20bussen%20trådlöst/Yujing_Liu_300x388px.jpg" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:259px" />In the laboratory at the division of Electric Power Engineering several prototypes for charging electrical vehicles are under construction and testing. <br /><br />In this project, the researchers focus primarily on charging of electric buses operated in cities as they traffic pre-determined routes with specified stops that offer good charging possibilities. Frequent charging allows for substantial reductions in battery size, which lowers the weight and cost of the bus. Alternatively, frequent charging can be used to reduce the depth of discharge, which prolongs the lifetime of the batteries.<br /><br />“The first round of tests on our 50 kW module has been completed in our laboratory and the results are promising so far”, says Yujing Liu, Professor at the department of Electrical Engineering. “The results show a transfer efficiency, from DC to DC, of about 95 percent at the desired power level, across an airgap of 20 centimetres, which is really good.” <br /><br /><strong>Charging the bus from the ground</strong><br />The wireless charging, or inductive power transfer (IPT) as the researchers call it, allows for contactless transfer of power across an air gap that extends from a charging unit in the ground, located at the bus stop, to a similar unit integrated in the vehicle frame of the electric bus. <br /><br />The charging unit in the ground contains a coil which creates a magnetic field. In turn, this magnetic field induces a voltage in a similar coil embedded in the unit placed beneath the vehicle and this induced voltage yields a current that charges the batteries in the electric bus. <br /><br /><span><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="Thomas Rylander" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Prototypen%20som%20laddar%20bussen%20trådlöst/Thomas_Rylander_300x388px.jpg" style="margin:5px;width:200px;height:259px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>“Essentially, this part of the system is a conventional transformer but, as opposed to a typical transformer, the primary and secondary coils are separated by a relatively large air gap. The gap yields a rather low magnetic coupling and this is compensated for by adding capacitors to the coils such that we get resonance circuits on both the primary and secondary side”, says Thomas Rylander, Professor at the department of Electrical Engineering.<br /><br />To charge the batteries in a bus would require about 200 kW, which will be made possible by connecting charging modules in parallel. <br /><br />The possibility to charge city buses at bus stops, so called opportunity charging, may reduce the size of the battery in the bus, perhaps by as much as 70 percent. About 30 seconds charging at every other bus stop will be enough to keep the batteries at a sufficient charging level – just about the time it takes for passengers to get on or off the bus.<br /><br />Thus, this charging method is different from the one used for the well-known <a href="https://www.electricitygoteborg.se/en" target="_blank">Electricity bus trafficking route 55 in Gothenburg</a>. Bus 55 is charged at the end stops using physical connectors on the roof.<br /><br /><strong>Higher efficiency and reduced battery size</strong><br />“The two major challenges that may limit the applications of inductive power transfer in electrical vehicles are the transfer efficiency and the size of the equipment”, says Yujing Liu. “However, the progress in fast-switching power electronics and high-frequency electromagnetic materials has led to new opportunities. We want to explore the benefits of using these kinds of new technology and high-quality materials for reducing losses and the size of the equipment.”<br /><br />Using high electric frequency, it is possible to reduce the magnetic energy and leakage field, which is important for applications in public places like city buses.<br /><br /><span><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Prototypen%20som%20laddar%20bussen%20trådlöst/powerelectronics_transformer_750px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /><br /><span><em>The pictures show the first prototype of power electronics (to the left) and the primary side transformer (to the right) used for inductive power transfer. <span style="display:inline-block"></span></em></span><br /><br />“This experimental prototype for inductive power transfer is to be considered state-of-the-art today. It will serve as a platform for several future research projects”, says Thomas Rylander. “The work is interdisciplinary, both experimental and theoretical. The seed project funding from the department of Electrical Engineering has initiated an entirely new and very exciting collaboration for us.”<br /><br /><strong>Facts about the project</strong><br />Objective: To develop a prototype for wireless charging of electric vehicles, considered state-of-the-art, which can serve as a platform for future research projects in the field<br />Long-term purpose: To contribute to sustainable, competitive and efficient traffic solutions<br />Participants: Thomas Rylander, Yujing Liu, Tomas McKelvey, Torbjörn Thiringer, Felix Mannerhagen, Daniel Pehrman, Johan Winges</div> <div>This seed project is based on the thesis &quot;Multi-Objective Optimization of Inductive Power Transfer Systems for EV Charging” by Roman Bosshard, 2015.​<br /><br /><em>Text: Yvonne Jonsson</em><br /><em><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span>Photo: Oscar Mattsson. Illustrations: Johan Winges/ Thomas Rylander, and Yujing Liu</em><br /><br /><strong>For more information, contact</strong><br /><span><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/yujing-liu.aspx">Yujing Liu</a>, Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers<br /><a href="mailto:%20yujing.liu@chalmers.se">yujing.liu@chalmers.se</a><a href="mailto:%20yujing.liu@chalmers.se"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></a></span><br /><br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/thomas-rylander.aspx">Thomas Rylander</a>, Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers<br /><a href="mailto:%20rylander@chalmers.se">rylander@chalmers.se</a><br /><br /></div>Wed, 16 May 2018 08:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Chalmers-Professor-awarded-by-the-City-of-Gothenburg.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Chalmers-Professor-awarded-by-the-City-of-Gothenburg.aspxProfessor of physics awarded by the City of Gothenburg<p><b>​Professor Per-Olof Nilsson at the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology is well-known for his skills in communicating science to the public in an accessible, creative and passionate way.</b></p>Through the years, he has inspired thousands and thousands of students of all ages. With his popular Physics toys, crowded science cafés and many other activities he has spread his enthusiasm for physics and natural sciences to the public. Now, he has been awarded a badge of merit by the City of Gothenburg. (Göteborgs stads förtjänsttecken).<p></p> <p></p> <img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/350x305/po-nilssonflytandekvave350x305.jpg" width="208" height="180" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block">&quot;</span>This really shows how important it is to communicate science to the public. Most of all I’m happy on behalf of Chalmers because public understanding of science is crucial in our society,” says Per-Olof “P-O” Nilsson.<p></p> <p></p> The motivation for the award from the City of Gothenburg will be announced in connection with the award ceremony on 4 June.<p></p> <p></p> The reconstruction work of the new locations for Per-Olof Nilsson’s Physics toys at the Gothenburg Physics Centre has recently begun.<p></p> <p></p> “I’m really looking forward to a new start and I hope that we can soon invite lots of young people to explore physics with us again”, says P-O Nilsson.<p></p> <p></p> Besides <a href="http://www.chalmers.se/en/Staff/Pages/per-olof-nilsson.aspx">Per-Olof Nilsson</a>, Chalmers Professor <a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Ann-Sofie-Sandberg.aspx">Ann-Sofie Sandberg </a>has also been awarded the badge of merit by the City of Gothenburg. <a href="/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Gothenburg-award-to-Ann-Sofie-Sandberg.aspx">Read an article about her.   </a><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"><span style="display:inline-block"><br /></span></span></span></span><p></p> <p><strong>Text</strong>: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se</a></p> <p><br /></p> <p></p> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More about Professor Per-Olof &quot;P-O&quot; Nilsson</h5> <div><span><span></span></span></div> <p></p> <p><span><span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span><a href="https://youtu.be/70zDeI1KtYE"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Watch</a><span> a short video clip when he demonstrates the “Finnish rocket.”</span><br /><br /><a href="https://vimeo.com/129641437"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Watch a news feature about P-O Nilsson when he was awarded the prize from “Längmanska Kulturfonden” in 2015. The film was recorded at the old location for the Physics toys. </a><br /><br /><a href="http://www.chalmers.se/en/centres/gpc/news/Pages/A-new-place-for-physics-play%21.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about the plans for ”Fysiklek” at Gothenburg Physics centre.</a><br /></p>Mon, 14 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Areas-of-Advance-Award-for-research-into-future-energy-services.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Areas-of-Advance-Award-for-research-into-future-energy-services.aspxAreas of Advance Award for research into future energy services<p><b>​Sustainability, digitalisation and service innovation in the energy sector are the ingredients of the collaborative project which is receiving the 2018 Areas of Advance Award. Chalmers researchers Árni Halldórsson, Holger Wallbaum, Ida Gremyr and Sofia Börjesson are receiving the award for their multidisciplinary collaboration.</b></p>​ <br />Digitalisation is contributing to far-reaching changes in almost all sectors of society, which means that we can do things in different ways and do completely new things. At the same time, we must address the question – how?<br /><br />Researchers from the departments of Technology Management and Economics, and Architecture and Civil Engineering are collaborating on the project “Energy Services: Processes for Innovation, Provision, and Use of Customer Feedback”. <br /><br />“The energy sector faces a challenge as on the one hand it needs to obtain a good return on its sales of renewable energy and from its capabilities and technology, while on the other also contributing to the customer’s energy efficiency. We are therefore looking at new ways of designing services which provide added value for customers, promoting the transition to sustainable energy consumption and guaranteeing steadyrevenue streams”, says project manager Halldórsson.<br /><br /><strong>Customers become key players</strong><br />Customers and end-users can become key players in the energy company’s ecosystem and contribute to continued energy efficiency. <br /><br />“New digital technology allows us to measure performance, using sensors for example, gather data and analyse phenomena more extensively than in the past. This gives us the opportunity to design new innovative services,” says Gremyr.<br /><br />Researchers working on the project have started assessing processes and needs throughout the chain from energy supplier, property owner/manager to customer, to learn key lessons which will form the basis of future energy services.<br /><br />“The idea is that the design of the services can contribute to a more sustainable society by influencing customer behaviour, for example. It is also interesting to analyse the conditions required for new types of services to become established,” Wallbaum says.<br /><br /><strong>A collaborative research approach</strong><br />The project is a pilot study which was made possible through seed funding provided by the Energy Area of Advance and the work is being undertaken in close collaboration with Göteborg Energi. <br /><br />“Here we have a great opportunity to get involved with Göteborg Energi and understand their perspective, the same goes for the customer and end-user side, and from there we try to conceptualise the service development. We don’t yet know where this will take us, there is no final template so we are navigating from our different perspectives,” Börjesson says.<br /><br />“What is clear is that this is a key issue. Everyone knows this work has to be done but just what is needed is complex. It affects different areas of expertise, systems, people, business models and technologies,” Gremyr says.<br /><br /><strong>Research spotlighted in professional education</strong><br />Future services will of course also create complexity for purchasing and procurement, something which Halldórsson has lectured on through Chalmers Professional Education. In other respects it can be seen that the service development area has not yet made much of an impact in the education provided at Chalmers.<br /><br />“There are many new subject areas which have emerged and which do not yet form part of Chalmers’ courses. But there are already educational components where these can be included, such as in degree projects, or quite simply by shining the spotlight on our research in our teaching,” says Börjesson.<br /><br /><strong>Applications in all industries</strong><br />The researchers are already aware of opportunities for continued collaboration after they have completed their pilot study. <br />“The project we are conducting on sustainability and digitalisation can be applied to other contexts. This then opens many doors – in a number of different industries,” Halldórsson says.<br /><br />They all agree that the Areas of Advance have an important role to play in promoting multidisciplinary collaboration at Chalmers. This in turn lays the foundations for an exchange of expertise and renewal.<br />“New contacts can also reduce the thresholds for collaboration in our infrastructures, where you might not always realise that you are in demand,” says Wallbaum.<br /><br />“And seed funding from the Area of Advance gives the slight nudge which makes collaboration happen,” Börjesson says.<br /><br /><br /><strong>Award winners </strong><br /><a href="/en/staff/Pages/sofia-borjesson.aspx" target="_blank">Sofia Börjesson</a>, Professor, Technology Management and Economics. She conducts research into the organisation and management of innovation in established organisations and into the prerequisites for innovation. <br /><br /><a href="/en/staff/Pages/ida-gremyr.aspx" target="_blank">Ida Gremyr</a>, Professor, Technology Management and Economics. She conducts research into quality management and service development, service innovation and processes for increased customer interaction.<br /><br /><a href="/sv/personal/Sidor/arni-halldorsson.aspx" target="_blank">Árni Halldórsson</a>, Professor, Technology Management and Economics. He conducts research into service supply chains, customer-supplier relationships and energy efficiency.<br /><br /><a href="/en/staff/Pages/holger-wallbaum.aspx">Holger Wallbaum</a>, Professor, Architecture and Civil Engineering. He conducts research on sustainability strategies for building stocks, energy-efficient renovation and smart infrastructures.<br /><br /><br /><br /><strong>The Areas of Advance Award</strong><br />Through the Areas of Advance Award, the leadership at Chalmers wants to reward people who have made significant contributions to interdisciplinary collaborations and who, in the spirit of the Areas of Advance, integrate research, education and utilisation. The award will be bestowed during the doctoral degree ceremony on 2 June 2018.<br /> <br /><em>Text: Malin Ulfvarson</em><br /><em>Photo: Johan Bodell</em>Wed, 09 May 2018 16:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Sweden's-top-facility-for-new-smart-industry-jobs-opens-its-doors.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/news/Pages/Sweden's-top-facility-for-new-smart-industry-jobs-opens-its-doors.aspxSweden&#39;s top facility for new smart industry jobs opens its doors<p><b>​On the 8th of May, the doors were opened to the Stena Industry Innovation Laboratory (SII-Lab) at Chalmers campus Lindholmen, Sweden – a 1000 square meter test-lab for digitalisation and future jobs in industry. Production researchers Johan Stahre and Åsa Fast-Berglund invite everyone to engage – young people, students, researchers and companies!</b></p>Sweden now has a unique environment to show how the smart factories of the future could look. The lab can be significant for the development of the digitalised industrial work of tomorrow, and for accelerating the digital transformation of industry and society.<br /><br />&quot;More and more companies are moving their manufacturing to Sweden, and the Stena Industry Innovation Lab now makes that even easier. The project sits well with what the government wants to achieve in strengthening the conditions for Swedish industry to develop, manufacture and compete in the world market,” says Mikael Damberg, Minister for Enterprise and Innovation, who opened the national test lab on the 8th May.<br /><br />With the help of funds from the Stena Foundation, an old library at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, has been transformed into a multifaceted laboratory – the Stena Industry Innovation Laboratory. Inside there is much of what is required for new industrial practices, or what is commonly called ‘Industry 4.0’.<br /><br />&quot;Digitalisation is changing industry quickly, but the job will not disappear. At the heart of the center there are still people – and with that, all the expectations we have of modern workplaces” says Professor Johan Stahre, who, together with Åsa Fast-Berglund, is responsible for Chalmers’ new focus on industrial digitalisation. <br /><br />In smart industrial production, technologies and tools are adapted to the employee. Builders, operators and production developers can utilize their creativity and perform their work better with the use of tools such as VR, 5G and collaborative robots.<br /><br />&quot;The digitalised workplace of the future has a lot in common with the world of digital gaming&quot; says Åsa Fast-Berglund, Associate Professor at Chalmers University of Technology.<br /><br />Companies both large and small, together with Chalmers researchers and students, are already implementing the ideas and technology of the future. At the unique, open environment of the SII-Lab, new innovations and business models will see the light of the day for the first time. In this environment, which is important for the training of future engineers and digitalisation experts, a large number of Master’s theses are ongoing.<br /><br />&quot;Swedish industry faces very big production challenges. We believe that many people can be inspired by this environment, thereby contributing to the digital transformation that needs to happen,&quot; says Madeleine Olsson Eriksson, chairman of the Sten A Olsson Foundation for Research and Culture, which has funded the greatly expanded business.<br /><br />For industry, the test-lab is long-awaited. Efficiency improvements in manufacturing are taking place today through innovations in digitalisation and automation, resulting in increased flexibility, improved quality, reduced costs, environmental and energy gains   all of which are relevant to being competitive, according to Alrik Danielson of SKF.<br /><br />“All of this can be done anywhere in the world. So this type of lab activity allows Sweden to get back to leadership in areas where we have lost it, and to maintain and further strengthen the areas where we are already leading. This is our chance as an industrial nation,&quot; says Alrik Danielson, CEO of SKF.<br /><br />Chalmers President Stefan Bengtsson is pleased by the Stena Foundation’s desire to make such a big investment in the important area of production.<br /><br />&quot;We work closely with Swedish industry to open up great opportunities for research, innovation and education. An important piece of the puzzle is for Chalmers to remain an internationally leading environment in the area of production. Now we can contribute even more strongly to increasing the speed of Swedish industry’s digitalisation, &quot;says Stefan Bengtsson, President and CEO of Chalmers.<br /><br /><strong>For more information contact:</strong><br /><br />Professor Johan Stahre<br />E-mail: johan.stahre@chalmers.se<br />Tel: 031-772 12 88<br /><br />Associate Professor Åsa Fast-Berglund<br />E-mail: asa.fasth@chalmers.se<br />Tel: 031-772 36 86Wed, 09 May 2018 12:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Researchers-prolonging-life-span-of-batteries-in-electric-cars.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Researchers-prolonging-life-span-of-batteries-in-electric-cars.aspxResearchers prolonging life-span of batteries in electric cars<p><b>​The life-span of lithium-ion batteries is a limiting factor for the electrified cars of today. Researchers from Chalmers now have succeeded in developing models to avoid premature aging of batteries, models which can also provide the car with higher performance in terms of shorter charging time, longer mileage and faster acceleration. The research has been rewarded the Volvo Cars Technology Award.</b></p>​An increasing number of car owners consider replacing their fossil-fueled cars with vehicles that are powered entirely or partly by electricity. However, the batteries used in electric vehicles are still comparatively expensive, and there is still a lack of knowledge concerning how the battery life-span can be kept as long as possible.<br /><br />”If you charge lithium-ion batteries correctly and use them in a smart way, you can avoid premature aging of the batteries,” says Torsten Wik, Professor and research group leader in automatic control at Chalmers. “It may sound simple but there are many factors to consider, and it is important to understand how battery life and function are affected.”<br /><br /><strong>More precise and adaptive calculations</strong><br />One of the difficulties is that it is not possible to measure the condition of the battery, it must be calculated. Also, the factors are constantly changing, depending on the temperature, current and cell voltage, as well as the age of the battery. This means that the algorithms must be adaptive in order to constantly adjust to the changing conditions.<br /><br />“The novelty is that the algorithms we have developed constantly depend on the behaviour of the individual battery cells, instead of having to assess the condition of the battery in advance,” says Torsten Wik. “This makes our calculations much more accurate. The capacity of the battery is thus being used more efficiently, and you can avoid putting a strain on the battery that causes it to age prematurely.”<br /><br />Tests show that the battery thus can deliver an additional 10 percent in peak power and that the actual maximum power can be estimated at an accuracy of 2 percent.<br /><br /><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/E2/Nyheter/Forskarna%20förlänger%20livet%20för%20elbilsbatterier/Drive-E-T5-Twin-Engine-Lithium-ion-battery_400px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px;width:400px;height:222px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><br /><em>Caption: Lithium-ion batteries are central components in electric cars and have major impact on performance and costs for the future development of electrified vehicles.</em><br /><br /><br /><strong>The automotive industry shows great interest</strong><br />Research has been ongoing since 2012 and is financed by the Swedish Energy Agency. Volvo Cars is participating as a partner, and Björn Fridholm, industrial doctoral student, has an active role in the project.<br /><br />“The battery is the most expensive component in an electric car,&quot; says Björn Fridholm. “If we can use the batteries more efficiently, it would be of great economic significance and a strategically important driving force for the continued development of electric vehicles. The cooperation with Chalmers has built up important knowledge, that we at Volvo Cars now are implementing in our products.”<br /><br />Recently, the researchers in the project have been awarded the Volvo Cars Technology Award in the category Research. The project has so far resulted in three patent applications.<br /><br />“It's great that the results of the research have come to use so quickly,” Torsten Wik says. “Now we proceed to refine our calculation models even more. In the next step, we will focus on what is physically happening in the battery cells. This will require a large extent of computational power in the vehicle, but in return it is likely to provide additional potential of cost reductions and improved performance.<br /><br /><span><em>Text: Yvonne Jonsson</em></span><br /><span><em>Photo: Volvo Cars</em></span><br /><br /><strong>Contact</strong><br /><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/torsten-wik.aspx">Torsten Wik</a>, Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Chalmers<br /><a href="mailto:%20torsten.wik@chalmers.se">torsten.wik@chalmers.se</a><br /><br />Fri, 04 May 2018 10:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Unveiling-the-nature-of-dark-matter.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Unveiling-the-nature-of-dark-matter.aspxUnveiling the nature of dark matter<p><b>​Dark matter is one of the great mysteries of the universe. It is highly abundant, yet nobody knows what it is. But now, scientific instruments have become sensitive enough that soon, researchers will be able to detect the leading dark matter candidate – that is, if it exists.</b></p><div><span><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Riccardo_Catena_IMG_0222270x170.jpg" width="256" height="162" alt="" style="margin:5px" /></span>For every star, galaxy and dust cloud we can see in space, there are five times more invisible, so-called dark matter.</div> <p></p> <div><div>&quot;We do not know what dark matter is, but without it we cannot explain how the universe evolved into what we see today. Dark matter is one of the pillars of modern cosmology”, says Riccardo Catena, researcher at the Division of Subatomic and Plasma Physics at Chalmers University of Technology.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Hints of invisible matter</h2></div> <p></p> <div>As early as the 1930s, the Swiss astrophysicist Fritz Zwicky noted that galaxies in nearby galaxy clusters moved faster than could be explained by the gravity of just visible matter. He therefore suggested the existence of invisible matter. But the idea did not get much attention.</div> <p></p> <div>However, when the American astronomer Vera Rubin studied the rotation of galaxies in the 1970s, she discovered the same thing – the velocities of the stars were too great to be explained by visible matter alone. Now, the science community began to take the idea of dark matter seriously.</div> <p></p> <div>Dark matter has also been shown to be indispensable to the formation of the structure of the universe.</div> <p></p> <div>“In the early universe, the gravitational force, which pulls matter together, and radiation, which draws matter apart, struggled against each other. In order for galaxies and galaxy clusters to form as quickly as they did, a dark component that is not affected by radiation is needed”, explains Catena.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">An unknown particle</h2> <p></p> <div>Most of the evidence indicates that dark matter consists of some type of particles – particles that neither absorb nor emit light, or other radiation, are stable for billions of years and move at a significantly lower speed than light.</div> <p></p> <div>No known particle matches these criteria. Therefore, scientists are looking for a new particle. The most popular hypothesis is that it is a particle about as heavy as an atomic nucleus and which interacts weakly with common matter, a so-called weakly-interacting massive particle, or WIMP.</div> <p></p> <div><div>If the hypothesis is correct, the earth passes through clouds of WIMPs all the time. Most of them pass unaffected right through the earth, but in theory, some of them should happen to hit the nucleus of an atom in a detector. If so, there is a chance to detect it.</div> <h2 class="chalmersElement-H2">Weak signals to interpret</h2></div> <p></p> <div>But the signals are extremely weak. One of the leading experiments, Xenon1T, is located in Italy under a mountain to shield its huge detector from disturbances such as cosmic rays.</div> <p></p> <div>&quot;The experiments are becoming increasingly sensitive. If WIMPs exist, we should find them within ten years”, says Catena.</div> <p></p> <div>He himself is a theorist and calculates what the signature signals from WIMPs would look like, in order for those running the experiments to know what to search for.</div> <p></p> <div>“I also design strategies for how to interpret the measurements, so that we can learn as much as possible about the WIMPs once they are found.”</div> <p></p> <div>In June he will arrange a conference for both experimentalists and theorists in dark matter research. Several prestigious speakers have already accepted invitations.</div> <p></p> <div>“The detection of WIMPs may come at any moment in the coming years. We must be prepared to interpret a discovery with optimal strategies, in order to learn as much about them as possible”, says Riccardo Catena.</div> <p></p> <div>Text: Ingela Roos, <a href="mailto:ingela.roos@chalmers.se">ingela.roos@chalmers.se</a></div> <p></p> <div> <a href="/en/departments/physics/calendar/Pages/Workshop-on-dark-matter.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />The workshop &quot;Preparing for dark matter particle discovery&quot; will be held at Chalmers from the 11th to the 15th June 2018.</a><br /><a href="/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Joint-efforts-to-reveal-the-darkest-secret.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read an earlier article: Joint efforts to reveal the darkest secret in the Universe </a><br /></div>Fri, 04 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/First-self-driving-bus-in-operation-at-Chalmers.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/areas-of-advance/Transport/news/Pages/First-self-driving-bus-in-operation-at-Chalmers.aspxFirst self-driving bus in operation at Chalmers<p><b>​For four weeks, anyone interested can take free rides with a minibus running between Chalmers main entrance and the university library at campus Johanneberg. Gothenburg&#39;s first self-driving bus is now operating at Chalmers University of Technology.</b></p><div>​The four weeks at Chalmers is the first test period in a project led by the research institute Rise. The self-driving bus runs on electricity, is silent and emission-free, qualities which may open for new types of urban development.</div> <div> </div> <div>“I am, of course, very pleased that the first self-driving bus in Gothenburg is being tested here at Chalmers,” says Alf-Erik Almstedt, professor at the Department of Mechanics and Maritime Sciences and strategic project leader of Chalmers part of the project.</div> <div> </div> <div>“We are really looking forward to seeing how the bus is received, and hope that both Chalmers employees, students and the public are keen to try a way of traveling that most people still haven’t experienced.”</div> <div> </div> <div>The aim of the test period is to study technology and user behaviour, in order to assess the potential of self-driving vehicles. The tests will provide a better understanding of the possibilities for future city development, with less use of private cars, more energy-efficient transports and shared vehicles.</div> <div> </div> <div>Having finished the first test period, the project will move across the river to Lindholmen this autumn, for another six months of test driving.</div> <div> </div> <div>Behind the venture lies a partnership of fifteen organizations and companies with interest in mobility and transport. The project is part of the Swedish government’s cooperation program “The Next Generation Travel and Transport” and is partly funded by Vinnova through Drive Sweden.</div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Your opinion is needed</h4> <div>An important part of the project is to get the public’s expectations and opinions on self-driving buses. Share your views and help the research by <a href="https://sv.surveymonkey.com/r/preS3Chalmers">participating in the survey (Swedish) &gt;&gt; </a></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>FACTS: Take a self-driving bus ride at Chalmers</strong></div> <div>The bus runs weekdays from 8:00 to 16:00 during the period 3 May - 1 June</div> <div>Route: Chalmersplatsen - Johanneberg Science Park - Chalmers Library</div> <div>The ride is free of charge, no ticket required</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>FACTS: About the bus</strong></div> <div>Model: Arma</div> <div>Bus manufacturer: Navya</div> <div>Max speed in Gothenburg: 20-25 km / h</div> <div>Number of passengers: 11 seated, 4 standing, one operator</div> <div>Weight: 2,400 kg</div> <div>Size: 475 cm long, 265 cm high, 211 cm wide</div> <div>Range: about 10 miles or 8 hour’s drive</div> <div>Can go forwards as well as backwards</div> <div>The bus runs on electricity and navigates using the satellite navigation system gps and a radar-like method, lidar, that uses laser pulses instead of microwave pulses</div> <div>The bus model currently operates in Detroit, Lyon, Sion and Las Vegas</div> <div> </div> <div><strong>FACTS: About the project</strong></div> <div>The project S3 – Shared Shuttle Service is part of the government’s co-operative program “The next generation’s travel and transport” and is mainly financed by Vinnova through Drive Sweden. The project is led by the research institute Rise. </div> <div>Partners: Autonomous Mobility, Chalmers University of Technology, Chalmersfastigheter, Ericsson, Förvaltnings AB Framtiden, Göteborgs Stads Parkering AB, Härryda kommun, Karlastaden Utveckling AB, Rise Research Insititutes of Sweden, Sunfleet, City Planning Authority and Urban Transport Administration City of Gothenburg, Volvo Cars, Västtrafik and Älvstranden Utveckling AB. </div> <div> </div>Thu, 03 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Flares-in-the-universe-can-now-be-studied-on-earth.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/physics/news/Pages/Flares-in-the-universe-can-now-be-studied-on-earth.aspxFlares in the universe can now be studied on earth<p><b>Solar flares, cosmic radiation, and the northern lights are well-known phenomena. But exactly how their enormous energy arises is not as well understood. Now, physicists at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have discovered a new way to study these spectacular space plasma phenomena in a laboratory environment. The results have been published in the renowned journal Nature Communications.</b></p><div><span><span><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/LongqingYi_170327_01_beskuren_270x.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span>“Scientists have been trying to bring these space phenomena down to earth for a decade. With our new method we can enter a new era, and investigate what was previously impossible to study. It will tell us more about how these events occur,” says Longqing Yi, researcher at the Department of Physics at Chalmers.<p></p> <p>The research concerns so-called ‘magnetic reconnection’ – the process which gives rise to these phenomena. Magnetic reconnection causes sudden conversion of energy stored in the magnetic field into heat and kinetic energy. This happens when two plasmas with anti-parallel magnetic fields are pushed together, and the magnetic field lines converge and reconnect. This interaction leads to violently accelerated plasma particles that can sometimes be seen with the naked eye – for example, during the northern lights.</p> <p>Magnetic reconnection in space can also influence us on earth. The creation of solar flares can interfere with communications satellites, and thus affect power grids, air traffic and telephony.</p> <p>In order to imitate and study these spectacular space plasma phenomena in the laboratory, you need a high-power laser, to create magnetic fields around a million times stronger than those found on the surface of the sun. In the new scientific article, Longqing Yi, along with Professor Tünde Fülöp from the Department of Physics, proposed an experiment in which magnetic reconnection can be studied in a new, more precise way. Through the use of 'grazing incidence' of ultra-short laser pulses, the effect can be achieved without overheating the plasma. The process can thus be studied very cleanly, without the laser directly affecting the internal energy of the plasma. The proposed experiment would therefore allow us to seek answers to some of the most fundamental questions in astrophysics.<span><span><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span></p> <p>“<span><span><span><img class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/Blandade%20dimensioner%20inne%20i%20artikel/Tunde270x.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /></span></span></span>We hope that this can inspire many research groups to use our results. This is a great opportunity to look for knowledge that could be useful in a number of areas. For example, we need to better understand solar flares, which can interfere with important communication systems. We also need to be able to control the instabilities caused by magnetic reconnection in fusion devices,” says Tünde Fülöp.</p> <p>The study on which the new results are based was financed by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation, through the framework of the project ‘Plasma-based Compact Ion Sources’, and the ERC project ‘<span>Running away and radiating<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>'.</p> <p>Text: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href="mailto:mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se">mia.hallerodpalmgren@chalmers.se</a></p></div> <div>Translation: Joshua Worth, <a href="mailto:joshua.worth@chalmers.se">joshua.worth@chalmers.se</a></div> <div>Portrait pictures: Peter Widing (Tünde Fülöp) and Mia Halleröd Palmgren (Longqing Yi) <span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/reconnection_LongqingYi750x340.jpg" height="340" width="750" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><strong>A new way of studying magnetic reconnection. </strong>The picture shows the experiment setup. The laser (the red triangle on the right) hits the micro-scale film (the grey slab), which splits the beam like a knife. Electrons accelerate on both sides of the ‘knife’ and produce strong currents, along with extremely strong, anti-parallel magnetic fields. Magnetic reconnection occurs beyond the end of the film (the blue frame). The magnetic field is illustrated with black arrows. The boomerang-like structures illustrate the electrons in the different stages of the simulation. The rainbow colours represent the electron transverse momenta.</div> <div>Illustration: Longqing Yi</div> <div> <div>The scientific article was published in the journal Nature Communications.</div> <div><a href="https://rdcu.be/MkzQ">'Relativistic magnetic reconnection driven by a laser interacting with a micro-scale plasma slab'</a></div></div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">More Information:</h5> <strong><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Tünde-Fülöp.aspx">Tünde Fülöp,</a></strong> <span>Professor, <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span>Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 72 986 74 40, <a href="mailto:tunde.fulop@chalmers.se">tunde.fulop@chalmers.se</a><div><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Longqing-Yi.aspx"><strong>Longqing Yi</strong></a>, Postdoctoral researcher,Department of Physics,Chalmers University of Technology,+46 31 772 68 82, <a href="mailto:longqing@chalmers.se">longqing@chalmers.se</a><br /><br /><a href="http://www.mynewsdesk.com/uk/chalmers/pressreleases/flares-in-the-universe-can-now-be-studied-on-earth-2488716"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release and download high-resolution images. </a><br /></div> Wed, 02 May 2018 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Eating-fish-could-prevent-Parkinsons-disease.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Eating-fish-could-prevent-Parkinsons-disease.aspxEating fish could prevent Parkinson’s disease<p><b>​A new study from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, shines more light on the link between consumption of fish and better long-term neurological health. Parvalbumin, a protein found in great quantities in several different fish species, has been shown to help prevent the formation of certain protein structures closely associated with Parkinson’s disease.</b></p>​Fish has long been considered a healthy food, linked to improved long-term cognitive health, but the reasons for this have been unclear. Omega-3 and -6, fatty acids commonly found in fish, are often assumed to be responsible, and are commonly marketed in this fashion. However, the scientific research regarding this topic has drawn mixed conclusions. Now, new research from Chalmers has shown that the protein parvalbumin, which is very common in many fish species, may be contributing to this effect.<br /><br />One of the hallmarks of Parkinson’s disease is amyloid formation of a particular human protein, called alpha-synuclein. Alpha-synuclein is even sometimes referred to as the ‘Parkinson’s protein’. <br />What the Chalmers researchers have now discovered, is that parvalbumin can form amyloid structures that bind together with the alpha-synuclein protein. Parvalbumin effectively ‘scavenges’ the alpha-synuclein proteins, using them for its own purposes, thus preventing them from forming their own potentially harmful amyloids later on. <br /><br />“Parvalbumin collects up the ‘Parkinson’s protein’ and actually prevents it from aggregating, simply by aggregating itself first,” explains Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede, Professor and Head of the Chemical Biology division at Chalmers, and lead author on the study. <br /><br />With the parvalbumin protein so highly abundant in certain fish species, increasing the amount of fish in our diet might be a simple way to fight off Parkinson’s disease. Herring, cod, carp, and redfish, including sockeye salmon and red snapper, have particularly high levels of parvalbumin, but it is common in many other fish species too. The levels of parvalbumin can also vary greatly throughout the year.<br /><br />“Fish is normally a lot more nutritious at the end of the summer, because of increased metabolic activity. Levels of parvalbumin are much higher in fish after they have had a lot of sun, so it could be worthwhile increasing consumption during autumn,” says Nathalie Scheers, Assistant Professor in the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, and researcher on the study. It was Nathalie who first had the inspiration to investigate parvalbumin more closely, after a previous study she did looking at biomarkers for fish consumption. <br /><br />Other neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, ALS and Huntington’s disease, are also caused by certain amyloid structures interfering in the brain. The team is therefore keen to research this topic further, to see if the discovery relating to Parkinson’s disease could have implications for other neurodegenerative disorders as well. Pernilla Wittung-Stafshede stresses the importance of finding ways to combat these neurological conditions in the future: <br /><br />“These diseases come with age, and people are living longer and longer. There’s going to be an explosion of these diseases in the future – and the scary part is that we currently have no cures. So we need to follow up on anything that looks promising.” <br /><br />A follow up study, looking at parvalbumin from another angle, is indeed planned for this autumn. Nathalie Scheers, together with Professor Ingrid Undeland, also of Chalmers, will investigate parvalbumin from herring, and its transport in human tissues. <br /><br />“It will be very interesting to study how parvalbumin distributes within human tissues in more depth. There could be some really exciting results.” <br /><br /><strong>More About: Fish and Better Neurological Health</strong><br />The link between higher consumption of fish and better long-term health for the brain has been long established. There is correlation between certain diets and decreased rates of Parkinson’s disease – as well as other neurodegenerative conditions. “Among those who follow a Mediterranean diet, with more fish, one sees lower rates of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s,” says Tony Werner, a PhD student in the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, and lead researcher on the study. This has also been observed in Japan, where seafood forms a central part of the diet. The team is careful to note that no definite links can be established at this point, however. <br /><br /><strong>More About: Amyloids and Aggregation</strong><br />Proteins are long chains of amino acids that fold into specific structures to carry out their function. But sometimes, proteins can fold incorrectly, and get tangled up with other proteins, a process known as aggregation.As these misfolded proteins aggregate together, they create long fibrous structures known as amyloids. Amyloids are not necessarily a bad thing, but can be responsible for various diseases. Some of them can interfere with neurons in the brain, killing those cells, and causing a variety of neurodegenerative conditions.<br /><br /><strong>More About: The Study</strong><br />The study was published in the journal Scientific Reports.<br /><a href="https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-23850-0">Abundant fish protein inhibits α-synuclein amyloid formation</a><br /><br />Text: Joshua Worth<br />Photo: Johan BodellMon, 23 Apr 2018 07:00:00 +0200https://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspxhttps://www.chalmers.se/en/departments/bio/news/Pages/Spikes-of-graphene-can-kill-bacteria-on-implants.aspxSpikes of graphene can kill bacteria on implants<p><b>​A tiny layer of graphene flakes becomes a deadly weapon and kills bacteria, stopping infections during procedures such as implant surgery. This is the findings of new research from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, recently published in the scientific journal Advanced Materials Interfaces.</b></p><p>​Operations for surgical implants, such as hip and knee replacements or dental implants, have increased in recent years. However, in such procedures, there is always a risk of bacterial infection. In the worst case scenario, this can cause the implant to not attach to the skeleton, meaning it must be removed.<br /><br />Bacteria travel around in fluids, such as blood, looking for a surface to cling on to. Once in place, they start to grow and propagate, forming a protective layer, known as a biofilm.<br /><br />A research team at Chalmers has now shown that a layer of vertical graphene flakes forms a protective surface that makes it impossible for bacteria to attach. Instead, bacteria are sliced apart by the sharp graphene flakes and killed. Coating implants with a layer of graphene flakes can therefore help protect the patient against infection, eliminate the need for antibiotic treatment, and reduce the risk of implant rejection. The osseointegration – the process by which the bone structure grow to attach the implant – is not disturbed. In fact, the graphene has been shown to benefit the bone cells.<br /><br />Chalmers is a leader in the area of graphene research, but the biological applications did not begin to materialise until a few years ago. The researchers saw conflicting results in earlier studies. Some showed that graphene damaged the bacteria, others that they were not affected.<br /><br />“We discovered that the key parameter is to orient the graphene vertically. If it is horizontal, the bacteria are not harmed,” says Ivan Mijakovic, Professor at the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering.<br /><br />The sharp flakes do not damage human cells. The reason is simple: one bacterium is one micrometer – one thousandth of a millimeter – in diameter, while a human cell is 25 micrometers. So, what constitutes a deadly knife attack for a bacterium, is therefore only a tiny scratch for a human cell.<br /><br />&quot;Graphene has high potential for health applications. But more research is needed before we can claim it is entirely safe. Among other things, we know that graphene does not degrade easily,” says Jie Sun, Associate Professor at the Department of Micro Technology and Nanoscience.<br /><br />Good bacteria are also killed by the graphene. But that’s not a problem, as the effect is localised and the balance of microflora in the body remains undisturbed.<br /><br />&quot;We want to prevent bacteria from creating an infection. Otherwise, you may need antibiotics, which could disrupt the balance of normal bacteria and also enhance the risk of antimicrobial resistance by pathogens,” says Santosh Pandit, postdoc at Biology and Biological Engineering.<br /><br />Vertical flakes of graphene are not a new invention, having existed for a few years. But the Chalmers research teams are the first to use the vertical graphene in this way. The next step for the research team will be to test the graphene flakes further, by coating implant surfaces and studying the effect on animal cells.<br /><br />Chalmers cooperated with <a href="http://www.wellspect.co.uk/">Wellspect Healthcare</a>, a company which makes catheters and other medical instruments, in this research. They will now continue with a second study. <br /><br />The projects are a part of the national strategic innovation programme SIO Grafen, supported by the Swedish government agencies Vinnova (Sweden’s innovation agency), the Swedish Energy Agency and the Swedish Research Council Formas. The research results are published in Advanced Materials Interfaces: &quot;<a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/admi.201701331">Vertically Aligned Graphene Coating is Bactericidal and Prevents the Formation of Bacterial Biofilms</a>&quot;<br /><br /><strong>The making of vertical graphene</strong><br />Graphene is made of carbon atoms. It is only a single atomic layer thick, and therefore the world's thinnest material. Graphene is made in flakes or films. It is 200 times stronger than steel and has very good conductivity thanks to its rapid electron mobility. Graphene is also extremely sensitive to molecules, which allows it to be used in sensors.<br /><br />Graphene can be made by CVD, or Chemical Vapor Deposition. The method is used to create a thin surface coating on a sample. The sample is placed in a vacuum chamber and heated to a high temperature at the same time as three gases – usually hydrogen, methane and argon – are released into the chamber. The high heat causes gas molecules to react with each other, and a thin layer of carbon atoms is created.<br />To produce vertical graphene forms, a process known as Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition, or PECVD, is used. Then, an electric field – a plasma – is applied over the sample, which causes the gas to be ionized near the surface. With the plasma, the layer of carbon grows vertically from the surface, instead of horizontally as with CVD.<br /></p> <div class="ms-rtestate-read ms-rte-wpbox"><div class="ms-rtestate-notify ms-rtestate-read 21aa3563-502e-4205-bcb8-3e04875a5b8d" id="div_21aa3563-502e-4205-bcb8-3e04875a5b8d" unselectable="on"></div> <div id="vid_21aa3563-502e-4205-bcb8-3e04875a5b8d" unselectable="on" style="display:none"></div></div> <p><br />Text: Mia Malmstedt<br />Photo and video: Johan Bodell<br />Illustration: Yen Strandqvist </p>Mon, 16 Apr 2018 09:00:00 +0200