News: Global related to Chalmers University of TechnologyWed, 05 Jul 2017 12:37:04 +0200 from Chalmers going to space<p><b>​Schottky diodes fabricated at the Nanofabrication Laboratory at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience – MC2 – are becoming important components of the second generation weather satellite space project MetOp, scheduled for launch in 2019. The diodes were delivered to Omnisys Instruments this last May.</b></p> <div> It is the successful outcome of a five-year journey pursued by Vladimir Drakinskiy and Peter Sobis, and the latest example of research utilisation from MC2. &quot;We are very proud of our achievement and already see the effects in upcoming projects with the European Space Agency (ESA)&quot;, says Vladimir Drakinskiy.</div> <div> </div> <div>The weather satellite project MetOp is one of the biggest projects at the European Space Agency (ESA). Apart from improving the observations of the first MetOp generation, and observing precipitation and cirrus clouds, it will also further improve weather forecasting and climate monitoring from space in Europe and worldwide. The project will yield benefits from 2022 onwards to further improve forecasting.</div> <br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/vlad_peter_170630_665x330.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span><em>Vladimir Drakinskiy and Peter Sobis are leading the MetOp-project. Photo: Anna-Lena Lundqvist</em><br /><span></span></span><br /> <div>Vladimir Drakinskiy is a research engineer at the Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory (TML), and responsible for the Schottky diode process line at MC2, Chalmers. In this project, he has collaborated with Peter Sobis, guest researcher at TML and R&amp;D Adviser at Omnisys Instruments, one of Sweden's leading space companies with close connections to Chalmers. In close collaboration with Omnisys, TML has increased the technical maturity of Chalmers Schottky diodes to meet requirements for space applications.</div> <div> </div> <div>&quot;We have created a well-functioning collaboration platform that can efficiently build on ideas and knowledge in a research environment like that at Chalmers, to develop and create competitive products in Swedish industry, including for the commercial space market,&quot; says Peter Sobis in a brief comment.</div> <div> </div> <div>We got the opportunity to ask Vladimir Drakinskiy a few questions about the project and the efforts of him and Peter Sobis.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Could you tell me a bit about the recent activities?</h5> <div>&quot;The recent activities have involved audits and reviews conducted by ESA and Airbus, which we also collaborate with in the project. This has included the Chalmers Schottky process line at the Nanofabrication Laboratory and the delivery of space qualified components to Omnisys Instruments in the frame of the MetOp SG program&quot;, says Vladimir.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">What's a Schottky diode?</h5> <div>&quot;A Schottky diode is a very fast two terminal electronic device consisting of a semiconductor to metal interface. The semiconductor in this case is a doped GaAs material with a Titanium-Platinum-Gold metal interface on top. The device can be used for generating and detecting microwave and terahertz radiation. In this case, to characterise various oxygen and water lines, a part of the terahertz frequency spectrum.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">What's the background to all this?</h5> <div>&quot;MetOp SG stands for second generation Metrology Operation and is a second-generation weather and climate research satellite program that was commissioned in 2014, and that will provide weather and atmospheric data to the European countries. Operator is the European Telecommunications Satellite Organization (EUTELSAT).&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Why is this so important?</h5> <div>&quot;MetOp SG is one of the biggest ESA programs and will be used not only for more precise weather forecasting but also for continuous long term atmospheric monitoring, which is crucial for better understanding of the underlying effects of global warming and long term prognosis of earth's climate.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Could you describe your own roles in the project?</h5> <div>&quot;Chalmers has developed a world class semiconductor process for terahertz Schottky diodes with unique qualities required for space applications. My role was to develop the fabrication technology to meet the formal requirements set by ESA and Airbus. Omnisys provided specifications, circuit demonstrators and carried out most of the reliability tests.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">Has it been a time-consuming project? For how long have you been working with it?</h5> <div>&quot;The project has been part of a larger ongoing effort of developing a state-of–the-art semiconductor process specialised for terahertz space applications at Chalmers. For MetOp, a prequalification phase was initiated by the same team almost five years ago which later lead to a contract for fabrication and delivery of flight components which is where we are now.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">I heard you celebrated with cake. How did this attention feel for you?</h5> <div>&quot;It has been a lot of hard work and it feels great to finally have succeeded. We are very proud of our achievement and already see the effects in upcoming projects with ESA&quot;, says Vladimir Drakinskiy.</div> <div> </div> <h5 class="chalmersElement-H5">What's happening now? What's the next step?</h5> <div>&quot;We have several projects running and will also soon initiate a new ESA project aiming for space qualification of our Schottky and HBV devices at even higher frequencies.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <div>Jan Stake is professor in terahertz electronics and head of the Terahertz Millimetre Wave Laboratory (TML) at MC2, where the project has been conducted. He is very pleased with the results:</div> <div>&quot;Delivering unique technology to one such project is of course a huge achievement of Chalmers. The project has been very challenging, different, but a great learning experience and raised the overall quality and ability related to process and manufacturing of terahertz electronics in the Nanofabrication Laboratory at Chalmers. Vladimir and Peter, clean room staff and everyone involved, have done a great work&quot;, he comments.<br /><br />Peter Modh is head of the Nanofabrication Laboratory:<br />&quot;The project shows that even in a lab that is not really certified, it is possible to get very advanced components that's strong enough to send out in space. It is a strength&quot;, he says.</div> <div> </div> <div>Text: Michael Nystås</div> <div>Photo: Anna-Lena Lundqvist </div> <div>Photo of satellite: ESA – Pierre Carril</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">METOP FACTS</h4> <div>MetOp is short for The Meteorological Operational satellite programme. It is a European undertaking providing weather data services to monitor the climate and improve weather forecasts. It represents the European contribution to a new co-operative venture with the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).</div> <div> </div> <div>MetOp is a series of three satellites, forming the space segment of Eumesat's Polar System (EPS). Launched on 19 October 2006, MetOp-A, the first satellite in the series, replaced one of two satellite services operated by NOAA and is Europe’s first polar-orbiting satellite dedicated to operational meteorology. </div> <div> </div> <div>MetOp-B, the second in the series, was launched on 17 September 2012 and operates in tandem with MetOp-A, increasing the wealth of data even further. The third and final satellite, MetOp-C will be launched in 2018. </div> <div> </div> <div>Launching a new satellite every 5–6 years guarantees a continuous delivery of high-quality data for medium- and long-term weather forecasting and climate monitoring until at least 2020. </div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Read more about the MetOp project</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="">Read more about Schottky diodes</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> <div> </div>Fri, 30 Jun 2017 10:00:00 +0200 Rahiminejad new Wenner-Gren Fellow<p><b>​Postdoc researcher Sofia Rahiminejad at the Electronics Materials and Systems Laboratory (EMSL) at MC2, has been awarded the prestigious Wenner-Gren Foundation&#39;s fellow scholarship for postdoctoral education. It gives her the opportunity to research abroad for three years, followed by two years research at home.</b></p>Sofia Rahiminejad gets her grant for a project with the headline &quot;The use of new metamaterials for high frequency space applications&quot;. She will spend two and a half years at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), at California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Pasadena, USA, and the remaining six months at Stanford University, California, USA.<br /><br />The grant is awarded for the years 2017-2020. The sum depends on family situation and which country the fellow is travelling to.<br /><br />Wenner-Gren's fellow scholarship is the foundation's most exclusive program. Of the 75 received applications in 2017, only five were granted, after interviews with 15 candidates. The aim is to give the top young researchers the opportunity to qualify for postdoctoral education abroad for three years and to subsequently conduct research activities in Sweden for two years after renewing application.<br /><br />Text and photo: Michael Nystås<br /><br /><strong>Read more about Wenner-Gren Foundations &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /><a href=""></a><br />Fri, 30 Jun 2017 06:00:00 +0200 spin in graphene can be switched off<p><b>​By combining graphene with another two-dimensional material, researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have created a prototype of a transistor-like device for future computers, based on what is known as spintronics. The discovery is published in the scientific journal Nature Communications.</b></p><div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/saroj_nature_prm_pic_1_665px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br />Spin as the information carrier can result in electronics that are significantly faster and more energy efficient. It can also lead to more versatile components capable of both data calculation and storage. </div> <div> </div> <div>Just over two years ago, the same research group at Chalmers University of Technology demonstrated that graphene, which is an excellent electrical conductor, also has unsurpassed spintronic properties.</div> <div> </div> <div>The super-thin carbon mesh proved capable of conveying electrons with coordinated spin over longer distances and preserving the spin for a longer time than any other known material at room temperature.</div> Although the distance is still on the scale of a few micrometres and the time is still measured in nanoseconds, this in principle opened the door to the possibility of using spin in microelectronic components. <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/saroj_prasad_dash_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" />“But, it is not enough to have a good motorway for the spin signal to travel on. You also need traffic lights so the signal can be controlled,” says Associate Professor Saroj Dash, leader of the research group.</div> <div>“Our new challenge became finding a material that can both convey and control the spin. It is hard, since both tasks normally require completely opposite material properties,” he explains.</div> <div> </div> <div>Like many other researchers in the hot field of graphene, the Chalmers researchers therefore chose to test a combination of graphene and another thin, so-called two-dimensional material, with contrasting spintronic properties. <br /></div> &quot;Our material of choice was molybdenum disulphide, MoS2, due to its low spin lifetime steaming from high spin-orbit coupling,&quot; states André Dankert, postdoc researcher in the group. <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/andre_dankert_2017_350x305.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />André Dankert (to the right) and Saroj Dash designed an experiment where a few layers of molybdenum disulphide were placed on top of a layer of graphene in a type of sandwich, referred to as a heterostructure. With this, they could identify in detail what happens to the spin signal when the electron current reaches the heterostructure:</div> <div> </div> <div>“Firstly, the magnitude of the spin signal and lifetime in graphene is reduced tenfold just through the close contact with molybdenum disulphide. But, we also show how one can control the signal and lifetime by applying electrical gate voltage across the heterostructure,” explains Saroj Dash.</div> <div>This is because the natural energy barrier that exists between the material layers, called the Schottky barrier, reduces when the electrical voltage is applied. With this, the electrons can quantum mechanically tunnel from the graphene into the molybdenum disulphide. This causes spin polarisation to disappear; the spin becomes randomly distributed.</div> <div> </div> <div>Opening or closing a “valve” in this manner by regulating a voltage is similar to how a transistor works in conventional electronics. Nonetheless, Saroj Dash is a little hesitant to call the device a spin transistor.</div> <div>“When researchers proposed on future spin transistors, they often imagined something based on semiconductor technology and so called coherent manipulation of electron spin. What we have done works in a completely different way, but performs a similar switching task,” he says.</div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/saroj_nature_prm_pic_2_665px.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br />“This is the first time that anyone has been able to demonstrate that the gate control of spin current and spin lifetime works at room temperature – which naturally increases the possibilities for different applications in the future,” says Saroj Dash. </div> <div> </div> <div>Although it is too early to predict what these would be, Dash points out that a component based on this principle might be extremely versatile because it contains magnetic memory elements, semiconductors and graphene, as well as having the capability of performing spintronic switching.</div> <div>“It points to a multifunctional component that can handle both data storage and processor work – in a single unit.”<br /><br />Text: Björn Forsman<br />Photo of Saroj Prasad Dash: Oscar Mattsson<br />Photo of André Dankert: Michael Nystås<br /></div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Facts: Molybdenum disulphide, MoS2</h4> <div>Molybdenum disulphide is a semiconducting substance that many have come in contact with, since it is the active ingredient in a certain type of lubricant sold at your local filling station.</div> <div>With its layered structure, molybdenum disulphide has similarities to graphite, which is made up of several layers of graphene that stick together. However, when it comes to spintronics the materials are each others' opposites. Molybdenum disulphide does not allow any polarised electron current to pass through whatsoever. The spin signal meets a sudden death since the electrons quickly return to their natural, random blend of up-spin and down-spin.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Facts: Spin and spintronics</h4> <div>Spin is a quantum mechanical property of electrons and other elementary particles. The spin is either directed up or directed down. The distribution is normally random.</div> <div>But, sometimes all or the majority of electrons in a material have their spin oriented in the same direction – up or down. This is how magnetism occurs.</div> <div>With the help of magnets, an electron current can be homogenised – i.e. polarised – so that all electrons have up-spin, for example. The current is then said to carry a spin signal.</div> <div>Coordinated spin is sensitive to disruptions and can be easily lost, but graphene has proven to be a conductor that allows a current to travel unusually long with its spin intact. Long enough to be able to use the spin as an information carrier in future logic components – spintronics.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Captions: </h4> <div><strong>Image 1 on top:</strong></div> <div>The experiment setup consists of a heterostructure of graphene and molybdenum disulphide spintronic device. By applying a gate voltage across the heterostructure, it is possible to control whether the current that passes will include any spin signal or not.<br /></div> <div> </div> <div><strong>Image 2:</strong></div> <div>Scanning electron microscope image of a fabricated molybdenum disulphide - graphene heterostructure spintronic device at Chalmers nanofabrication facility.</div> Thu, 29 Jun 2017 09:00:00 +0200 conference on low-temperature physics<p><b>On 9-16 August, researchers from all over the world gather at the Swedish Exhibition &amp; Congress Centre in Gothenburg for a major international conference on low temperature physics.</b></p>The &quot;28th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics&quot; gather 900 international top researchers together with the hottest Swedish colleagues in the area. &quot;Do not miss the Nobel Prize winner Michael Kosterlitz,&quot; says Per Delsing, chairman of the local organizing committee.<br /><br />He is Professor of Experimental Physics at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience - MC2 - at Chalmers. The upcoming conference is organized by MC2 in collaboration with the Department of Physics at the University of Gothenburg.<br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/LT28-banner_b.jpg" width="679" height="168" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br />The &quot;28th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics&quot; is the most important conference in low temperature physics. It is held every three years, alternating between Europe, Asia and America. The latest took place in Buenos Aires, the conference before that in Beijing. The target group is physicists who works at low temperatures.<br /><br />To Gothenburg, 900 participants from all over the world are expected, as well as 140 speakers.<br /><br /><strong>What should not be missed?</strong><br />&quot;Nobel laureate Michael Kosterlitz gives the first lecture on 9 August. We also award two prizes; The Simon Memorial Prize is awarded on 14 August and the Fritz London Memorial Prize on the 15th&quot;, says Per Delsing.<br /><br />Michael Kosterlitz, professor at British Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island, was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 2016 for his work on the physics of condensed matter. He will open the conference with a lecture entitled &quot;Topological Defects and Phase Transitions&quot;.<br /><br /><strong>Are there any happenings around the conference?</strong><br />&quot;Sunday, 13 August, is set aside for participants to see Gothenburg with surroundings.&quot;<br /><br /><strong>Will we hear some exciting research results?</strong><br />&quot;Absolutely, but what remains to be seen,&quot; concludes Per Delsing.<br /><br />Most members of the organizing committee for the conference are from MC2, but there are also members of the Department of Physics at the University of Gothenburg.<br /><br />Text: Michael Nystås<br />Photo: Peter Widing<br /><br /><strong>Read more about &quot;28th International Conference on Low Temperature Physics&quot; &gt;&gt;&gt;</strong><br /><a href=""></a><br />Wed, 28 Jun 2017 20:00:00 +0200 a robot controlled by the power of thought<p><b>​ Max Ortiz Catalan and Yiannis Karayiannidis, both working as researchers at the department of Electrical Engineering at Chalmers, want to develop robotic technology that can be used to increase the quality of life for people with motor disabilities. They are cooperating in an interdisciplinary project where biomedical engineering and robotics are combined.</b></p><strong>​<table class="chalmersTable-default" width="100%" cellspacing="0" style="font-size:1em"><tbody><tr class="chalmersTableHeaderRow-default"><th class="chalmersTableHeaderFirstCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="text-align:center"><span><strong><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/s2/Nyheter%20och%20kalendarium/Max_Ortiz_Catalan_170x200px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></strong></span></th> <th class="chalmersTableHeaderOddCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1">​<span><strong><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/s2/Nyheter%20och%20kalendarium/Yiannis_Karayiannidis_170x200px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatLeft" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><span style="display:inline-block"></span></strong></span></th> <th class="chalmersTableHeaderEvenCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1">​</th></tr> <tr class="chalmersTableOddRow-default"><th class="chalmersTableFirstCol-default" rowspan="1" colspan="1" style="text-align:right">   ​Max Ortiz Catalan</th> <td class="chalmersTableOddCol-default" style="text-align:left">​         Yiannis <span>Karayiannidis<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></td> <td class="chalmersTableEvenCol-default">​</td></tr></tbody></table>  <br />What is the aim of your project?</strong><br />The aim is to investigate how the machine’s artificial intelligence can facilitate the achievement of certain task initiated by a human, who has overall control while delegating unnecessary burden to the robot.<br />We are aiming at appropriately blending commands sent to the robot using human myoelectric signals with autonomous robot control driven by the sensors on the robot. A first example that we will consider is a simple robot that is controlled by the human but it can autonomously avoid obstacles.<br /><br /><strong>How is it possible to control a robot by using the power of thought?</strong><br />The “power of thought” results in myoelectric signals that reflect the human intention of motion. By measuring, processing, and decoding these signals, the human intention could be send as a control command to the robot.<br /><br /><strong>In which applications could this be used?</strong><br />There is a variety of relevant applications related to partial automation such as assistive devices like exoskeleton (an external, artificial skeleton that protects and helps the person to move) or powered wheelchairs where the control is shared between a motor impaired human user and the device.  <br /><br /><strong>What are the main challenges you are confronted to?</strong><br />The most important challenge is to make a system that the human user can accept both in terms of performance and ease of use. <br /><br /><strong>This project is a part of an initiative to encourage interdisciplinary research. What can your areas of research learn from each other?</strong><br />Observing how humans are doing things (e.g. through muscles’ activity) can help roboticists to design human-inspired control algorithms so that robots could become more friendly to humans. <br /><br />Read more about interdisciplinary seed projects in Electrical Engineering:<br /><a href="/en/departments/e2/news/Pages/Initiative-that-takes-research-across-boundaries.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" /> Initiative that takes research across boundaries</a><br /><br /><a href="/en/staff/Pages/max-jair-ortiz-catalan.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about Dr. Max Ortiz Catalan and his research</a><br /><br /><a href="/en/staff/Pages/yiannis.aspx"><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/ichtm.gif" alt="" />Read more about Dr. Yiannis Karayiannidis and his research</a><br />Wed, 28 Jun 2017 15:30:00 +0200 and terahertz waves could lead the way to future communication<p><b>​By utilizing terahertz waves in electronics, future data traffic can get a big boost forward. So far, the terahertz (THz) frequency has not been optimally applied to data transmission, but by using graphene, researchers at Chalmers University of Technology have come one step closer to a possible paradigm shift for the electronic industry.</b></p><div>Over 60 young researchers from all over the world will learn more about this and other topics as they gather in outside of Gothenburg, Sweden, to participate in this week's summer school Graphene Study, arranged by Graphene Flagship.</div> <div> </div> <div>It is the EU's largest ever research initiative, the Graphene Flagship, coordinated by Chalmers, who organises the school this week, 25-30 June 2017. This year it is held in Sweden with focus on electronic applications of the two-dimensional material with the extraordinary electrical, optical, mechanical and thermal properties that make it a more efficient choice than silicon in electronic applications. Andrei Vorobiev is a researcher at the Terahertz and Millimetre Wave Laboratory at the Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience - MC2 - as well as one of the many leading experts giving lectures at Graphene Study. He explains why graphene is suitable for developing devices operating in the THz range:</div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/andrei_vorobiev_MC2_S8A0112-2_220x180.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />“One of the graphene’s special features is that the electrons move much faster than in most semiconductors used today. Thanks to this we can access the high frequencies (100-1000 times higher than gigahertz) that constitutes the terahertz range. Data communication then has the potential of becoming up to ten times faster and can transmit much larger amounts of data than is currently possible”, says Andrei Vorobiev (to the right).</div> <div> </div> <div>Researchers at Chalmers are the first to have shown that graphene based transistor devices could receive and convert terahertz waves, a wavelength located between microwaves and infrared light, and the results were published in the journal IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques. One example of these devices is a 200-GHz subharmonic resistive mixer based on a CVD graphene transistor integrated on silicon that could be used in high-speed wireless communication links.</div> <div> </div> <div>Another example, taking advantage of graphene’s unique combination of flexibility and high carrier velocity, is a power detector based on a graphene transistor integrated on flexible polymer substrates. Interesting applications for such a power detector include wearable THz sensors for healthcare and flexible THz detector arrays for high resolution interferometric imaging to be used in biomedical and security imaging, remote process control, material inspection and profiling and packaging inspection.</div> <div> </div> <div>“Analysis show that flexible imaging detector arrays is an area where THz applications of graphene has a very high impact potential. One example of where this could be used is in the security scanning at airports. Because the graphene-based terahertz scanner is bendable you’ll get a much better resolution and can retrieve more information than if the scanner's surface is flat,” says Vorobiev.</div> <div> </div> <div>But despite the progress, much work remains before the final electronic products reach the market. Andrei Vorobiev and his colleagues are now working to replace the silicon base on which the graphene is mounted, which limits the performance of the graphene, with other two-dimensional materials which, on the contrary, can further enhance the effect. And Vorobiev hopes that he will be able to inspire the students participating in Graphene Study to reach new scientific breakthroughs.</div> <div> </div> <div>“In the last fifty years, all electronic development has followed Moore's law, which says that every year more and more functions will being applied on ever smaller surfaces. Now it seems that we have reached the physical limit of how small the electronic circuits can become and we need to find another principle for development. New materials can be one solution and research on graphene is showing positive results. Working with graphene-related research is about breaking new ground which involves many difficult challenges, but eventually our work can revolutionise the future of communication and that's what makes it so exciting,&quot; says Andrei Vorobiev.</div> <div> </div> <div><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/graphene-mixer-2_750px.jpg" width="676" height="507" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><em>The sandglass shaped 40 μm wide graphene field-effect transistor, seen in the middle of the image, could be a key component in future high-speed wireless communication links. </em><span style="font-family:&quot;helvetica neue&quot;,helvetica,arial,sans-serif;font-size:13px;letter-spacing:normal;text-align:left;text-indent:0px;text-transform:none;white-space:normal;word-spacing:0px;display:inline !important;float:none"><em>Illustration: Michael A. Andersson, Yaxin Zhang and Jan Stake/Chalmers University of Technology</em></span> </div> <div> </div> <div>Photo of discussing participants: Angelika Bernhofer</div> <div>Photo of Andrei Vorobiev: Anna-Lena Lundqvist</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">The scientific publications:</h4> <div>In the journal IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 65 (1), 165-172: <a href="">A 185–215-GHz Subharmonic Resistive Graphene FET Integrated Mixer on Silicon</a></div> <div>Authors: Michael A Andersson, Yaxin Zhang and Jan Stake, all from Chalmers University of Technology</div> <div>DOI: 10.1109/TMTT.2016.2615928</div> <div> </div> <div>In the journal IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters 27 (2), 168-170: <a href="">A W-band MMIC Resistive Mixer Based on Epitaxial Graphene FET</a></div> <div>Authors: Omid Habibpour, Zhongxia Simon He, Niklas Rorsman and Herbert Zirath, all from Chalmers University of Technology, and Wlodek Strupinski, Tymoteusz Ciuk and Pawel Ciepielewski from the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Poland</div> <div>DOI: 10.1109/LMWC.2016.2646998</div>Wed, 28 Jun 2017 10:00:00 +0200 Arpaia gets the chance to research abroad<p><b>​Postdoc researcher Riccardo Arpaia at the Quantum Device Physics Laboratory (QDP) at MC2, has been awarded an International Postdoc Grant from the Swedish Research Council of 3 150 000 SEK. He is now given the opportunity to research abroad for three years.</b></p>Riccardo Arpaia gets a grant for a project titled &quot;Evolution of nanoscale charge order in superconducting YBCO nanostructures&quot;. He will spend his time at the Physics Department of the Politecnico di Milano (Polytechnic University of Milan) in Italy. It is the largest technical university in Italy, with about 42,000 students. It offers undergraduate, graduate and higher education courses in engineering, architecture and design.<br /><br />The grant is awarded for the years 2017-2020.<br /><br />Apart from Riccardo Arpaia, a grant has been given to Anna Karlsson at the Department of Physics. The Swedish Research Council got a total of 248 applications in this call, of them only 41 recieved a yes.<br /><br />The aim of the International Postdoc Grant is to offer researchers, who recently completed their PhDs at a Swedish Higher Education Institution, the opportunity to extend their networks and improve their qualifications through work stays abroad with secure employment conditions.<br /><br />Text and photo: Michael Nystås<br /><br /><a href="">Read more about the decision</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<br />Wed, 28 Jun 2017 09:00:00 +0200 hardware design contest on Hawaii<p><b>​​William Hallberg and Sebastian Gustafsson, PhD students at the Microwave Electronics Laboratory (MEL) at MC2, won first prize in the hackathon that was held at the International Microwave Symposium Conference (IMS2017) on Hawaii the other week.</b></p>IMS is one of the world's largest conferences in microwave technology, bringing together 2,500 participants from 50 countries. A lot of travelers came from Chalmers. For six intensive days at the Hawaii Convention Center in Honolulu, 554 presentations were held, which was the highest number in the conference's 60-year history, and an exhibition of 450 companies represented, among other things. Workshops and different types of courses were other parts of the offer.<br /><br /><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/MC2/News/william_sebastian_youtube_dump_400px.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" alt="" style="margin:5px" />A hackathon is a programming contest where programmers are sitting and coding together for a limited time. The theme at the IMS conference was &quot;30-minute circuits&quot;, and was hardware focused on building a useful microwave circuit in just half an hour. Sebastian Gustafsson and William Hallberg ranked in the &quot;best isolation&quot; category, where they managed to get the first prize - partly to their own surprise:<br /><br />&quot;The award came as a bit of a surprise for us, since there were a lot of talented RF engineers competing side-by-side. Nevertheless, we are of course very happy for the award and the whole hackathon-experience is something we will remember for a long time&quot;, says Sebastian Gustafsson.<br /><br />William Hallberg comments the competition in an official clip on Youtube:<br />&quot;It was a very fun challenge to do this in such a short time.&quot;<br /><br />The International Microwave Symposium (IMS) is the annual conference and exhibition of the IEEE Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S). In 2018, the conference will take place in Philadelphia, USA, on 10-15 June.<br /><br />Text: Michael Nystås<br />Photo: Private<br /><br /><a href="">Read more about the conference IMS 2017</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<br /><br /><a href="">Read more about the hackathon</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<br /><br /><a href="">Watch a short movie from the hackathon on Youtube</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;<br />Tue, 27 Jun 2017 09:00:00 +0200 cell factories for the drugs of the future<p><b>​Pharmaceuticals based on proteins are promising candidates for the treatment of cancer and other severe diseases, but they can be hard to produce. In a new research project, Chalmers researchers will develop new genetically modified cells, so-called cell factories, which can produce the desired proteins.</b></p>​The market for pharmaceutical drugs based on human proteins, so called protein drugs, is continuously increasing.<br /><br />&quot;Protein drugs give a more targeted effect and less side effects than traditional drugs based on small molecules,&quot; explains Jens Nielsen, Professor of Systems Biology at Chalmers.<br /><br />The hope is that one will be able to treat a very wide range of diseases, for example different types of cancer, diabetes or multiple sclerosis. The proteins are produced by the so-called cell factories – cells that are genetically modified to produce and secrete the desired protein. The problem is that it is difficult at present to produce some of these proteins.<br /><br />&quot;Some proteins are straightforward to produce, but with others it does not work at all. And we do not really know why,&quot; says Jens Nielsen.<br /><br />Now, the Chalmers research groups of Jens Nielsen and Associate Professor Dina Petranovic, with researchers at KTH, have received a grant of SEK 34 million from the Foundation for Strategic Research to investigate protein production by a human cell line and by yeast cell factories, which the group has very much experience with.<br /><br />&quot;We want to understand why it doesn’t’ work sometimes, so that we can learn to modify the cell factories to produce more different types of protein,&quot; says Jens Nielsen.<br /><br />Cell factories based on human cell lines are not yet commercially available. Today, most of pharmaceutical proteins are produced primarily by hamster cell lines. Pharmaceutical proteins produced in non-human cell lines can be identical to human proteins, or have very small differences which in some patients, the difference may give rise to a response from the immune system.<br /><br />&quot;With cell factories based on human cells, we aim to get completely identical proteins which would not induce such reactions,&quot; says Jens Nielsen.<br /><br />The long-term vision is to be able to produce all the desired proteins with cell factories, so that the needed protein pharmaceuticals come more quickly onto the market.<br /><br />Read more:<br /><a href="/sv/institutioner/bio/nyheter/Sidor/Proteinforskning-Jens.aspx">Pharmaceutical products based on human proteins </a>(in Swedish)<br /><br />Text: Ingela Roos<br />Photo: Johan BodellThu, 22 Jun 2017 17:00:00 +0200 crucial for transitioning to a sustainable society<p><b>​How do we successfully transition to a sustainable society, as fast as the climate requires? It’s complex, and many categories need to take action – politicians, companies and researchers. They all met at the 8th International Sustainability Transitions conference at Chalmers in June 2017.</b></p>​​Nearly all the countries in the world have subscribed to the vision of a sustainable future. But how do we achieve it? What obstacles are in the way? What roles should various players have, and how do we make the transition go fast enough? <br /><br />At the 8th International Sustainability Transitions Conference, hosted by Chalmers, scientists, politicians, organisations, and industry representatives addressed these questions. Watch the video above to hear some prominent voices from the conference.<br /><br />Read more:<br /><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/energy/joint_initiatives/Pages/Chalmers-Initiative-in-Innovation-and-Sustainability-Transitions.aspx">Sustainability transitions research at Chalmers</a><br /><a href="">8th International Sustainability Transitions Conference</a><br /><br />Video: Torgil Störner and Ingela RoosThu, 22 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0200 of runaway electrons paves the way for fusion power<p><b>​Fusion power has the potential to provide clean and safe energy that is free from carbon dioxide emissions. However, imitating the solar energy process is a difficult task to achieve. Two young plasma physicists at Chalmers University of Technology have now taken us one step closer to a functional fusion reactor. Their model could lead to better methods for decelerating the runaway electrons, which could destroy a future reactor without warning.</b></p><div>​It takes high pressure and temperatures of about 150 million degrees to get atoms to combine. As if that was not enough, runaway electrons are wreaking havoc in the fusion reactors that are currently being developed. In the promising reactor type tokamak, unwanted electric fields could jeopardise the entire process. Electrons with extremely high energy can suddenly accelerate to speeds so high that they destroy the reactor wall. <br /> <br /></div> <div><span><img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/340x296px/LinneaOla340x296IMG_0991.jpg" class="chalmersPosition-FloatRight" width="272" height="237" alt="" style="margin:5px" /></span>It is these runaway electrons that doctoral students Linnea Hesslow and Ola Embréus have successfully identified and decelerated. Together with their advisor, Professor Tünde Fülöp at the Chalmers Department of Physics, they have been able to show that it is possible to effectively decelerate runaway electrons by injecting so-called heavy ions in the form of gas or pellets. For example, neon or argon can be used as “brakes”. <br /><br />When the electrons collide with the high charge in the nuclei of the ions, they encounter resistance and lose speed. The many collisions make the speed controllable and enable the fusion process to continue.  Using mathematical descriptions and plasma simulations, it is possible to predict the electrons' energy – and how it changes under different conditions. </div> <div> </div> <div>“When we can effectively decelerate runaway electrons, we are one step closer to a functional fusion reactor. Considering there are so few options for solving the world's growing energy needs in a sustainable way, fusion energy is incredibly exciting since it takes its fuel from ordinary seawater,” says Linnea Hesslow. </div> <div> </div> <div>She and her colleagues recently had their article published in the reputed journal Physical Review Letters. The results have also attracted a great deal of attention in the field of research. In a short period of time, 24-year-old Linnea Hesslow and 25-year-old Ola Embréus have given lectures at a number of international conferences, including the prestigious and long-standing <a href="">Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference in Annapolis</a>, Maryland, USA, where they were the only presenters from Europe. </div> <div> </div> <div>“The interest in this work is enormous. The knowledge is needed for future, large-scale experiments and provides hope when it comes to solving difficult problems. We expect the work to make a big impact going forward,” says Professor Tünde Fülöp. </div> <div> </div> <div>Despite the great progress made in fusion energy research over the past fifty years, there is still no commercial fusion power plant in existence. Right now, all eyes are on the international research collaboration related to <a href="">the ITER reactor in southern France.</a><br /><br /></div> <div>“Many believe it will work, but it's easier to travel to Mars than it is to achieve fusion. You could say that we are trying to harvest stars here on earth, and that can take time. It takes incredibly high temperatures, hotter than the center of the sun, for us to successfully achieve fusion here on earth. That's why I hope research is given the resources needed to solve the energy issue in time,” says Linnea Hesslow.<br /><br /></div> <div>Text and image: Mia Halleröd Palmgren, <a href=""></a></div> <div> <img src="/SiteCollectionImages/Institutioner/F/750x340/fusionsreaktor_image_EUROfusion750x340.jpg" alt="" style="margin:5px" /><br /><span>Although the vacuum chamber in the British fusion reactor JET has a wall made of solid metal, it can melt if it gets hit by a beam of runaway electrons. It is these runaway elementary particles that doctoral students Linnea Hesslow and Ola Embréus have successfully identified and decelerated.<br /></span><span>Image:  © Eurofusion<span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><span> <span style="display:inline-block"></span></span><br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">Facts: Fusion energy and runaway electrons <br /></h3> <div>Fusion energy occurs when light atomic nuclei are combined using high pressure and extremely high temperatures of about 150 million degrees Celsius. The energy is created the same way as in the sun, and the process can also be called hydrogen power. Fusion power is a much safer alternative than nuclear power, which is based on the splitting (fission) of heavy atoms. If something goes wrong in a fusion reactor, the entire process stops and it grows cold. Unlike with a nuclear accident, there is no risk of the surrounding environment being affected. The fuel in a fusion reactor weighs no more than a stamp, and the raw materials come from ordinary seawater. </div> <div>As yet, fusion reactors have not been able to produce more energy than they are supplied. There is also a problem with so-called runaway electrons. The most common method of preventing this damage is to inject heavy ions, such as argon or neon, which act like brakes due to their large charge. A new model developed by researchers at Chalmers describes how much the electrons are decelerated, paving the way to making these runaway electrons harmless.  <br /><br /></div> <div>Read the scientific article <a href="">“Effect of partially-screened nuclei on fast-electron dynamics&quot;</a>.<br /></div> <div>  <br /></div> <div>The article was written by Linnea Hesslow, Ola Embréus, Adam Stahl, Timothy DuBois, Sarah Newton and Tünde Fülöp of the Department of Physics at Chalmers University of Technology, and Gergely Papp of the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics in Garching, Germany. <br /></div> <h3 class="chalmersElement-H3">More information: <br /></h3> <div><span><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/hesslow.aspx"><strong><span><strong>Linnea Hesslow</strong></span></strong><span></span></a>,</span> PhD Student, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 70 519 41 67,</div> <div><strong><a href="/en/staff/Pages/embreus.aspx">Ola Embréus</a></strong>, PhD Student, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 73 052 80 70,</div> <div><strong><span><a href="/en/Staff/Pages/Tünde-Fülöp.aspx">Tünde Fülöp</a></span></strong>, Professor, Department of Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, +46 72 986 74 40,<br /><br /><a href=""><img class="ms-asset-icon ms-rtePosition-4" src="/_layouts/images/icgen.gif" alt="" />Read the press release and download high resolution images. </a><br /></div>Tue, 20 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0200 global issues are crucial to our relevance<p><b>​Chalmers has a strong profile in relation to the sustainability issues that Sweden and other wealthy countries are facing, but there is huge potential for development from a global perspective. The end of May marked the starting point for Chalmers-wide work towards the UN&#39;s global development goals, with a focus on the third world.</b></p>​<span><span><span><span class=" ms-rtestate-write ms-rtestate-write"><span style="display:inline-block"></span></span></span></span></span>Throughout the different organisations making up Chalmers, there are individuals working with sustainability research in developing countries or from a global perspective. In order to create a network and develop a common vision and plan for how Chalmers can become stronger in globally-oriented sustainability research, Chalmers Initiative for Innovation and Sustainability Transitions (CIIST) organised a collaborative workshop at the end of May. <br /><br />More than seventy people from different parts of Chalmers, University of Gothenburg, Sida, student organisations, companies and civil society gathered for the workshop. Organiser Helene Ahlborg, researcher in environmental systems analysis and active member of CIIST, is very pleased with the turnout. <br /><br />“The level of participation shows that these are issues that many are passionate about. We see the global issues as crucial to our relevance and attractiveness as a university, and we found that we have the skills needed to further develop Chalmers' work in this area,” says Helene Ahlborg.<br /><br />For her, it is obvious that Chalmers has a lot to gain from becoming stronger in global sustainability research.<br /><br />“The biggest challenges we face require us to take them on with a global perspective. We also have a lot to learn from being present in poorer parts of the world, since many new innovations, ideas and solutions of the future will emerge in these contexts.” <br /><br />But, it is also about becoming an attractive university in the eyes of students. Many committed students want to take part and solve the world's problems; in response Chalmers must be able to offer them the right education.<br /><br />Helene Ahlborg's next step will be to create working groups that build on the work from the workshop to formulate a strategic vision and action plan this autumn.<br /><br />“The ball will then keep rolling over the next year and we will follow up on suggestions and drive them forward in different ways. We want to take advantage of the energy that exists and all of the initiatives already taking place within different organisations and create a collective arena and benefit in relation to these,” she says.<br /><br />The workshop was funded by the Energy and Building Futures Areas of Advance, as well as the Department of Energy and Environment.<br /><br />Text: Ingela Roos<br />Tue, 13 Jun 2017 17:00:00 +0200 networking event for AoA Nano<p><b>​16 June is the last chance to enroll in the annual community building event with the Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Area of Advance (AoA). This year, all interested Chalmers researchers will gather at Strandbaden in Falkenberg on 21-23 August.</b></p><div>​We asked a few questions to Göran Johansson, co-director of the Area of Advance, Professor of Applied Quantum Physics and Head of the Applied Quantum Physics Laboratory at MC2.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">What is the AoA community building activity?</h4> <div>&quot;It's AoA Nano's biggest annual event, where all nano researchers at Chalmers gather and listen to first-class external lecturers and discuss research at one of the world's best cross-disciplinary nano-poster sessions,&quot; says Göran Johansson.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Who is the target group?</h4> <div>&quot;All nano researchers at Chalmers.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">How many times has it been arranged before?</h4> <div>&quot;Yearly since AoA Nano started, I think it's the fifth edition this year.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">How many participants are expected to come?</h4> <div>&quot;Between 100 and 150.&quot;</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">What will happen?</h4> <div>&quot;We will have invited speakers, poster session, team-building, scientific speed-dating or similar interdisciplinary activity.</div> <div> </div> <h4 class="chalmersElement-H4">Which are the highlights?</h4> <div>&quot;In addition to our invited speakers, the poster session is a definite highlight!&quot; concludes Göran Johansson.</div> <div> </div> <div>The detailed program will be finished and announced later this summer.</div> <div> </div> <div>Text and photo: Michael Nystås</div> <div> </div> <div><a href="/en/areas-of-advance/nano/society-industry/events/AoA2017/Pages/AoA2017.aspx">Read more about the networking event of the Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Area of Advance</a> &gt;&gt;&gt;</div> Mon, 12 Jun 2017 09:00:00 +0200 Swedish autonomous underwater vehicle for research<p><b>​On 8 June the agreement with Kongsberg AS for building an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) was signed. The AUV is an important resource in the national infrastructure MUST (Mobile Underwater System Tools) a joint project between the University of Gothenburg, Stockholm university and Chalmers and the first of its kind in Sweden.</b></p>​With the new underwater vehicle it will be possible to make detailed studies of the sea bottom on very large depths and to follow the climate thousands of years back in time.<br /><br />- The most interesting thing with the AUV for us is that it gives us the possibility to get in under the sea ice in the Arctic Ocean and around Antarctica to measure the thickness of the ice. Says Leif Eriksson from Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers’ representative in the steering committee for MUST.<br /><br />To make this kind of measurements has so far been very difficult. The results from the new underwater vehicle will be compared with the measurement results that Leif and his colleagues in the Division of Microwave and Optical Remote Sensing have from their satellite measurements of the sea ice. With this comparison they hope to be able to enhance the methods for estimation of the thickness of the sea ice and decrease the uncertainty about the total sea ice volume, how it is distributed geographically and how it varies over time.<br /><br />- It will be very exciting to see what information these measurements give. We look forward to having the new AUV built and up and running, says Leif.<br /><br />MUST is financed by grants from Knut and Allice Wallenberg Foundations and managed by a steering committee with representation from the University of Gothenburg, Stockholm University and Chalmers University of Technology.<br />n from the University of Gothenburg, Stockholm University and Chalmers University of Technology.<br /><br />For more information about the project please read <a href="" target="_blank" title="Link to Swedish press release at the University of Gothenburg">the pressrelease (in Swedish) from the University of Gothenburg</a>.<br /><br /><a href="/SiteCollectionDocuments/SEE/News/MUST_flyer_2014.pdf" target="_blank" title="Link to flyer about the MUST project">Flyer about the MUST project.</a><br /><br />Previous <a href="/sv/nyheter/Sidor/Svartillgangliga-havsomraden-kan-studeras.aspx" title="Link to precious Chalmers' news about MUST" target="_blank">Chalmers news about the MUST project (in Swedish)</a>.<br />Mon, 12 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0200 university presidents want to collaborate on PhD programme<p><b>The partner universities within Nordic Five tech – an alliance between the five leading Nordic technical universities – will help PhD students who want to do their programmes in more than one of the Nordic countries.</b></p>&quot;Together, the five technical universities in the Nordic Five Tech alliance have a great breadth and expertise in both research and education. Of course we should jointly take advantage of all this and the many new impulses that exchanges between our University provides, says Chalmers President Stefan Bengtsson.”<br /><br />More PhD students are to do their programmes across the five partner universities in the Nordic Five Tech alliance. That was the wish expressed by the presidents of the leading technical partner universities in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden when they met on 1 June at DTU.<br /><br />Here, they agreed on recommending a common guideline which all heads of PhD schools and supervisors are encouraged to follow. PhD students can, among other things, spend 6-12 months at another of the alliance’s universities and get a supervisor at both universities. The alliance has also established a common course database that everyone can use.<br /><br />“The PhD collaboration supports the alliance’s vision of building up an ‘extended campus’ where employees and students can benefit from the individual universities’ specialized competences, advanced infrastructures, and unique study programmes,” says Anders Overgaard Bjarklev, DTU President.<br /><br />Nordic Five Tech is already collaborating on offering five joint MSC programmes, on quality assuring the Nordic study programmes, and on research within selected Nordic fields of excellence, including the Arctic. In the coming year, the collaboration will be expanded to cover new fields. General supplementary education courses will be developed, among other things, and the collaboration on innovation and entrepreneurship will be given high priority.<br /><br />According to Times Higher Education, the five partner universities are among the world’s 55 leading ‘Technology Challengers’. They are excellent technical universities with a strategic focus on innovation and with strong industrial partnerships.<br /><br /><strong>Read more:</strong><br /><a href="/en/research/doctoral-programmes/Pages/joint-graduate-courses-.aspx">Joint graduate courses</a><br /><a href="">Nordic Five Tech PhD course database</a><br /><a href=""></a><br /><br /><strong>Text:</strong> Christina Tækker and Magnus Myrén<br /><br /><br /><strong>Nordic Five Tech  (N5T) </strong>is an exclusive, strategic alliance of the five leading technical universities in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden: Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Aalto University in Finland, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden.<br />See <a href="">Nordic Five Tech website</a><br />Mon, 12 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0200